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HOMEWORK 9 SOLUTIONS - MATH 202

CHRIS LEBAILLY, CHRIS TONI, ALEX STATHIS

1. Section 11.5
1. Prove that if M is a cyclic R-module then T (M ) = S(M ), i.e., the tensor algebra
T (M ) is commutative.
Let m be a generator for M , and let m1 , . . . , mk , m01 , . . . , m0l M . It follows that
m1 mk = a1 m ak m = a1 a2 ak (m m) for some a1 , . . . , ak R,
so
(m1 mk ) (m01 m0l ) = (a1 . . . ak )(m m)(a01 . . . a0l )(m m)
= (a1 . . . ak )(a01 . . . a0l )(m m)
= (a01 . . . a0l )(m m)(a1 . . . ak )(m m)
= (m01 m0l ) (m1 mk ).
Therefore, single tensors commute, and thus all elements of T (M ) commute and
T (M ) = S(M ).
6. If A is any R-algebra in which a2 = 0 for all a A and : M A is
an V
R-module homomorphism, prove there is a unique R-algebra homomorphism
: (M ) A such that |M = .
k : M M A such that
k (m1 , . . . , mk ) = (m1 ) (mk ). This
Define
is clearly bilinear, and it is alternating since if mi = mi+1 , then (mi ) = (mi+1 )
and (mi )2 = 0, so (m1 ) (mk ) = 0. By the universal property, it extends to
Vk
a map k :
(M ) A which is unique
V with the property that k |M = . It
follows that an R-module morphism : (M ) A exists as the direct sum of k s
with the property that |M = . Furthermore is easily seen to be an R-algebra
Vk
homomorphism. Note that restricted to
M is determined by |M = . Since
is an R-algebra homomorphism is unique.
8. Let R be an integral domain and let F be its field of fractions.
V2
(a) Considering F as an R-module, prove that
F = 0.
a1 a2
Let b1 , b2 F . It follows that
a1 a2
1 b2
1 b1
1
1

= a1 a2 (

) = a1 a2 b1 b2 (

) = 0.
b1
b2
b1 b2 b2 b1
b1 b2 b1 b2
V2
So,
(F ) = 0.
(b) Let I be an R-submodule of F (for example, any ideal in R). Prove that
Vi
Vi
I is a torsion R-module for i 2 (i.e., for every x
I there is some
nonzero r R such that rx = 0).
Vk
It suffices to prove the result for simple tensors in
I since these genVk
erate the R-module
I and the set of torsion elements is an R-module
1

CHRIS LEBAILLY, CHRIS TONI, ALEX STATHIS

since R is an integral domain (Midterm # 1). Let ab11 ab22 abkk be a


Vk
k-tensor in
I and let r = a1 a2 b1 b2 . However,
a1 a2
ak
a1 a2
ak
r(
) = a1 a2 b1 b2 (
)
b1
b2
bk
b1
b2
bk
ak
= a1 a2 a1 a2
= 0,
bk
Vk
so every element of
I is torsion.
(c) Give an example of an integral domain R and an R-module I in F with
Vi
I 6= 0 for every i 0.
Consider C[x1 , x2 , . . .], the polynomial ring over C in a countably infinite number of variables. The ideal (x1 , x2 , . . .) of rank 1 has the desired
Vk
property that
I 6= 0 for any k N.
12.
(a) Prove that if f (x, y) is an alternating bilinear map on V (i.e., f (x, x) = 0
for all x V ) then f (x, y) = f (y, x) for all x, y V .
Let x, y V . f (x + y, x + y) = f (x, x) + f (x, y) + f (y, x) + f (y, y) = 0
since f is alternating, but f (x, x) = f (y, y) = 0, so f (x, y) = f (y, x).
(b) Suppose that 1 6= 1 in F . Prove that f (x, y) is an alternating bilinear
map on V (i.e., f (x, x) = 0 for all x V ) if and only if f (x, y) = f (y, x)
for all x, y V .
The forward direction is done by part (a). To see the reverse direction,
assume f (x, y) = f (y, x), then f (x, x) = f (x, x) and 2f (x, x) = 0.
Because F has characteristic not equal to 2, and F is a field, f (x, x) = 0
and f is therefore alternating.
(c) Suppose that 1 = 1 in F . Prove that every alternating bilinear map on V
is symmetric (i.e., f (x, y) = f (y, x) for all x, y V ). Prove that there is a
symmetric bilinear map on V that is not alternating.
By part (a), f (x, y) = f (y, x) = f (y, x), so every alternating form is
symmetric. To find a symmetric form that is not alternating, let (x1 , . . . , xn )
and (y1 , . . . , yn ) be elements of V after choosing a basis, and define f :
V V F such that f ((x1 , . . . , xn ), (y1 , . . . , yn )) = x1 y1 + + xn yn . It is
easy to verify that this is a symmetric bilinear form that is not alternating.
14. Prove that if M is an
V R-module direct factor of the R-module N then T (M )
(respectively,
S(M
)
and
(M )) is an R-subalgebra of T (N ) (respectively, S(M )
V
and (M )).
Let N = M P . Tensor products distribute across direct sums so we have
N N = (M P ) (M P ) = (M M ) (M P ) (P M ) (P P ). It is then
clear that M M N N . This generalizes easily for any k, i.e., k M k N , and
it is straightforward to show
V that T (M ) T (N ) as a subalgebra. The argument
is similar for S(M ) and (M ).
2. Written Problems
1. Show that if R is an integral domain and M is an R-module, then my definition
of rankR (M ) and the books definition agree, i.e., show that dimF (F M ) is equal
to the maximum number of R-linearly independent elements of M .

HOMEWORK 9 SOLUTIONS - MATH 202

Let n be the maximum number of R-linearly independent elements of M , and let


such elements be m1 , m2 , . . . , mn . Accordingly, if r1 m1 + r2 m2 + + rn mn = 0,
then ri = 0 for all i. Now consider the collection 1 m1 , 1 m2 , . . . , 1 mn , and
assume
0 = r1 (1 m1 ) + r2 (1 m2 ) + + rn (1 mn )
= 1 r1 m1 + 1 r2 m2 + + 1 rn mn
= 1 (r1 m1 + r2 m2 + rn mn ).
By a previous exercise, this occurs only when r(r1 + +rn mn ) = 0 for some nonzero
r R. However the mi are linearly independent over R and R is an integral domain,
so this implies that ri = 0 for all i. Ergo, 1 m1 , 1 m2 , . . . , 1 mn are linearly
independent, and dimF (F M ) n.
Let dimF (F M ) = l and assume b11 m1 , b12 m2 , . . . , b1l ml is a basis for
F M as an F -vector space. Since F is a field, we can scale each element of the
basis by any nonzero element of F and still have a basis. Scale the element b1i mi
by bi for 1 i l. The new basis is then 1 m1 , 1 m2 , . . . , 1 mn . Since this is a
basis, it is linearly independent. Assume that m1 , . . . , ml are R-linearly dependent
in M . Then r1 m1 + + rl ml = 0 for some r1 , . . . , rl R not all zero, and
0=10
= 1 (r1 m1 + + rl ml )
= (1 r1 m1 ) + + (1 rl ml )
= r1 (1 m1 ) + + rl (1 ml )
which is a contradiction, as 1 m1 , 1 m2 , . . . , 1 mn is a basis for F M .
Therefore, m1 , . . . , ml are linearly independent, and n l = dimF (F M ) n.
So n = l which proves the definitions are equivalent.
3. Section 12.1
1. Let M be a module over the integral domain R.
(a) Suppose x is a nonzero torsion element in M . Show that x and 0 are linearly dependent. Conclude that the rank of Mtor is 0, so that in particular
any torsion R-module has rank 0.
Since x is torsion, there exists some nonzero r R such that rx = 0.
Let r0 R be nonzero. rx + r0 0 = 0, so x and 0 are linearly dependent.
(b) Show that the rank of M is the same as the rank of the (torsion free)
quotient M/Mtor .
Let F be the field of fractions for R. We show that F M and F M/Mtor
are isomorphic as F -vector spaces, and conclude that the rank of M is
equal to that of M/Mtor . Define f : F R M F R M/Mtor such that
for ab F and m M . It is easy to verify that
f ( ab m) = f ( ab (m)
f is linear and surjective. To check injectivity, recall that every element
of F R M can be written as 1r m for some nonzero r R. Then
f ( 1r m) = 1r m.
Recall that from a previous homework problem that
this is zero only if m
is torsion in M/Mtor . If there exists a nonzero s R
such that sm
= 0 in M/Mtor , then sm Mtor which means s0 (sm) = 0 for
some nonzero s0 R. This implies that m Mtor since R is an integral

CHRIS LEBAILLY, CHRIS TONI, ALEX STATHIS

domain. Accordingly 1r m = 0 in F R M , so f is injective and therefore


an isomorphism of vector spaces. As such, the dimensions are equal, and
so are the ranks.
3. Let R be an integral domain and A and B be R-modules of ranks m and n
respectively. Prove that the rank of A B is m + n.
Let F be the field of fractions of R, and consider F (A B) as an F -vector
space. By vector space theory,
F (A B) = (F A) (F B),
from which it follows that
dimF (F (A B)) = dimF (F A) + dimF (F B).
The rank of A B is therefore m + n.
4. Let R be an integral domain, let M be an R-module, and let N be a submodule
of M . Suppose M has a rank of n, N has a rank r, and the quotient M/N has
rank s. Prove that n = r + s.
It is simple to verify that the following is a short exact sequence of R-modules
with the canonical injection and projection mappings:
0 N M M/N 0.
Let F be the field of fractions of R. Since F is a flat R-module,
0 F N F M F M/N 0
is short exact, and since it is a short exact sequence of F -vector spaces, it splits.
Therefore, F M = (F N ) (F M/N ). It follows that n = r + s after taking
the dimension of both sides, and distributing across the direct sum.
13. If M is a finitely generated module over the P.I.D. R, describe the structure of
M/Mtor .
By problem 1, part (b), M/Mtor is a module of the same rank as M , but with no
torsion elements. By the fundamental theorem, M/Mtor is a free module of rank n
where n is the rank of M , i.e. M/Mtor
= Rn .
15. Prove that if R is a Noetherian ring then Rn is a Noetherian R-module.
This proof proceeds by induction on n.
The case where n = 1 is trivial, as the definitions of a Noetherian ring and a
Noetherian R-module coincide when viewing R as an R-module.
For n > 1, assume that e1 , e2 , . . . , en is a basis for Rn and let N Rn be a
submodule. Let L = Re1 , the cyclic R-submodule generated by e1 , and consider
of N in Rn /L is finitely generated.
Rn /L
= Rn1 . By induction, the image N
. Also
Let n1 , . . . , nm N be elements such that their image in Rn /L generates N
by induction, N L L is finitely generated as a submodule, so let l1 , . . . , lp be
generators for N L. If n N , then n
= r1 n
1 + + rm n
m for ri R. Subtracting
r1 n1 + + rm nm from n yields an element of N L which can be written as a
linear combination of l1 , . . . , lp . Therefore, every element of N can be written as a
linear combination of n1 , . . . , nm , l1 , . . . , lp , and N is finitely generated. It follows
that Rn is Noetherian as an R-module.
Dept. of Mathematics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064