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COMPUTER HARDWARE SERVICING NC II

IDENTIFYING PARTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEM


Classification:
Computer Hardware
Computer Software
I. COMPUTER HARDWARE
The mechanical, magnetic, electronic and electrical component
making up a computer system.
Anything that exists physically in the computer system
MAJOR PARTS INCLUDE:
Mainboard/Motherboard
Storage Devices and Storage Media
Power Supply
Memory Module (RAM)
Video Device or Video Card
LAN Device, LAN Card or Network Interface Card (NIC)
Audio Device or Audio Card
Peripherals (Monitor, Pointing Devices like Mouse, Keyboard,
Desktop Speakers, etc.)
Network Equipment and Materials (RG45, UTP Cable, HUB,
Router, Modem)
DEVICE SPECIFICATIONS
Commonly called as SPECS
Computer Components or Devices Specifications can be
determine using the specifications defined in device
package, or inspecting the component itself.
Specifications can also be determined using a computer
utility program. The advantage of this is that you need not
turn off your computer just to check the brand or model of
your device (ex. CPU)
Knowing device specifications can help you determine what
devices to upgrade, to buy or change if damaged, etc. while
maintaining compatibility to your current system
A. MOTHERBOARD
Also known as Mainboard, MOBO, MB, System Board, Main
Circuit Board, Logic Board
Where most important computer chips and other electronic
components that give function to a computer are located

Is a printed circuit board that connects the various parts such as


processor, memory banks, ports, expansion card sockets, storage
devices sockets, etc.

MAJOR PARTS OF THE MAINBOARD: SEE ILLUSTRATION


1. Processor Socket
2. Northbridge Chipset
3. Southbridge Chipset
4. Memory Module/RAM Banks
5. Integrated Devices
6. Storage/Drive Slots
7. I/O Ports
8. Video Card Slot (AGP/PCIE)
9. Expansion Card Slots (PCI/ISA)
10. BIOS Chip and CMOS Battery
11. Sensor Chip

COMMON MOTHERBOARD SPECIFICATIONS


Form Factor: AT, ATX, uATX (Micro ATX)
Features: depends on the number of integrated devices, ports
and slots the MOBO supports
Popular MB Brands: ACER, IBM, MSI, ASUS, ECS

1. PROCESSOR SOCKET
Determines the type of CPU to use
For example,
1. Socket 478 for Pentium 4, Celeron processors
2. Socket T (Socket 775/LGA 775) for Intel Pentium
4,
Pentium D, Core 2 Duo, Xeon 3000,
Core 2 Quad
3. Socket 754 for AMD Athlon, AMD Duron, AMD
Sempron

Intel Pentium III


Socket 370

Socket A (462) for AMD


Duron, Sempron

2. NORTHBRIDGE CHIPSET
This integrated chip (IC) directly controls communication
between CPU and Memory Modules. It also bridges the
communication dedicated for AGP or Graphics port to CPU and
also communicates with the southbridge.
Since this is the second busiest chip, you will find it often hidden
under the heat sink
It is usually built between/nearby CPU and RAM banks and is
under a heat sink.
3. SOUTHBRIDGE CHIPSET
This IC serves as the communication bridge between the
Northbridge with the peripherals and storage devices with
You will find this large IC far below the Northbridge and near the
PCI slots
4. MEMORY MODULE/RAM BANKS
Determines the type of Memory Module to use. Some mainboard
may contain more banks of different type and can utilize two or
more same modules at same time
Types:
1. SDR Banks (Single Data Rate) for older ATX mother
boards
2. DDR1 Banks (Double Data Rate) for MicroATX
motherboards
3. DDR2 Banks
4. DDR3 Banks
5. STORAGE SLOTS
Determines the type of Storages Devices compatible to the
system board. May have one or more of these types:
Types:
1. IDE Slot (commonly used for Hard Drive and CDROM)
2. SATA Slot (currently popular for latest Hard Drives)
3. SCSI Slot (for server computers, supports hot plugging*)
4. FDD Slot for Floppy Drive
*hot-plugging means your can safely remove the hard drive while being in
use or attached to a running system

6. INTEGRATED DEVICES
Most main boards nowadays have built in or integrated with
devices such as Video, Audio and LAN Controllers/Adapters

We commonly call these ports as:


1. Onboard Video Card/Onboard Graphics Controller
[Blue]
2. Onboard Audio Port
3. Onboard LAN socket

PARTS OF THE MOTHERBOARD

Mainboard
Power Supply

Senso
r Chip

Floppy Drive
Socket

CMOS/
BIOS
Chip

Primary and Secondary


IDE Sockets for
HDDs/CD Drives

CMOS
Batter
y

Powers
Switch
and
Header
Panel
Pins
CMO
S
Rese
t

RAM Slots/Banks
[SDR/SDRAM]
South
Bridge
Chipset

RAM Slots
[DDR1]

SATA
Receptacle

CPU Cooler
Seat

Screw
Hole

Header
USB Pins
CPU
Socket

PCI-E
Slot

CPU Power
Supply Input
(12v Y/B)

Northbridge
Chipset beneath
heat sink

PCI Slot

PS/2 Ports
(Mouse/Keyboar
d)
Audio Jacks
Parallel/Printer
Port (LPT Port)
[Magenta]
Serial/Communicati
on Port (COM Port)
[Green, below LPT
Port]

USB
Port
(Rear)

LAN Port
(Onboard)

MicroATX: Front Panel (FP)


Pinouts
FP Header Pins:

Video/Display Port
(VGA Port)
[Blue, below LPT Port]

Safety Precautions: Avoid touching metallic parts or any components on the USB:
board with bare hands. Always handle boards on its sides and lay it on
antistatic bag.

FP Header

7. I/O PORTS
These are sockets commonly used for additional devices or
equipment to your computer
Types:
1. USB (for USB compatible devices)
2. GAME/MIDI [Yellow]
3. SERIAL PORT (Communication Port) [Green]
4. PARALLEL PORT (Printer Port) [magenta]
5. PS/2 PORTS (for mouse [green] and keyboard [violet])
8. EXPANSION SLOTS
These are slots for additional cards or system cards
Types:
1. AGP/PCIE (for Video Card) [orange/brown]
2. PCI (for NIC, modem, sound card, etc.) [white]
3. ISA (for Audio Ports, LAN , etc.) [black]
4. CNR (for network devices) [brown]
9. SENSOR CHIP
This chip detects or determines the temperature of the
mainboard and the CPU.
Due to this chip the in some motherboards can control the speed
of CPU fan when the CPU temperature varies
It can also determine CPU Fan speed (measured in RPM) and CPU
and system voltages
Sensor chip prevents system from damage from whichever
environment it is situated
10. BIOS CHIP AND CMOS BATTERY
This chip contains a program that determines if all components
attached to the system is functioning. System hardware settings
are stored in the RAM of this chip.
Without this chip your system cannot run because this
determines what devices are built in and attached to the
motherboard
Since settings are stored in RAM, CMOS battery sustains the
setting information saved in the chip.
CMOS battery also keeps the system clock running even when
the system is powered off

MAINBOARD SYSTEM DIAGRAM


The diagram below shows the connection chips and integrated circuits
in the motherboards and to the ports, sockets, jacks and slots through
data buses or thin strip of wires laid on the board.

B. PROCESSOR
Also known as CPU (Central Processing Unit)
interpret and implement software instructions, perform
calculations and comparisons, make logical decisions,
temporarily store information for use by another of the CPUs
processing units, keep track of the current step in the execution
of the program, and allow the CPU to communicate with the rest
of the computer.
COMMON PROCESSOR SPECIFICATIONS
Popular Brands: Intel, AMD
Family: Intel Pentium, Intel Core,
AMD Sempron, AMD Duron
Model: Intel Pentium (P4), PD, Core2 Duo
Speed: 600 MHz,1.8 GHz, 2.0 GHz
Instruction Set: x86 (32 bit), x64 (64 bit)*
*x86 are common desktop computers while the 64bit are those that are more powerful
and are dedicated for intensive applications (such as servers)

Intel Core
Intel Core2Duo
Unlike its predecessors, this Intel CPU is
now pin-less and contains two cores
(CPU) in one package

AMD Sempron
The equally popular
processor

C. MEMORY MODULE (RAM)


Device that provides Random-Access Memory (temporary data
storage) and can be read and written by the microprocessor or
other hardware devices
COMMON MEMORY MODULE SPECIFICATIONS
Popular Brands: Kingston, Corsair
Type: SIMM, DIMM (SDR, DDR1, DDR2, DDR 3)
Memory Size: 64 Mb, 256 Mb, 512, 1Gb
Speed: PC3200 (200 MHz)

SDRAM
Speed: PC133 (133 MHz), two
notches

DDR1
Speed: PC3200 (400 MHz),
single notch

DDR2
Speed: PC400 (500 MHz), 1 notch, thinner
than DDR1

D. STORAGE DEVICES
Under storage devices are HARD DRIVES (or hard disk drive,
fixed disk or HDD), FLOPPY DRIVE and CD DRIVE. These drives
hold a container for saving data or information.
Hard Drives are drives with permanent storage container
attached inside itself.
Unlike HDD, floppy drives and CD drives have external storage
container like floppy disks/diskette and CDs.
COMMON HARD DISK SPECIFICATIONS
Popular Brands: Maxtor, Seagate, Western Digital, Fujitsu
Model: Maxtor 2F040L0, ST4011SA,
SP0411N
Type: IDE, SATA, SCSI
Storage Capacity: 10 Gb, 40 Gb, 160 Gb
Other Features: supports S.M.A.R.T.

PATA OR IDE HDD INTERFACE

SATA HDD INTERFACE


Very few data pins, thus SATA cable is
very narrow

SCSI HDD INTERFACE


The data interface looks like that of the other
end of the printer cable (connected to the
printer, not to the parallel port)
May not need cable (like IDE/SATA cable) to
be connected to MOBO but be plugged
directly in the board interface like that of a
Removable Card.

COMMON CD DRIVE SPECIFICATIONS


Popular Brands: LG, Sony, Samsung
Drive Type: CD ROM, CD RW, DVD ROM, DVD RW, Combo Drive
Socket Type: IDE, SATA, USB
Read/Write Speed: 4x, 30x, 52x

FLOPPY DISK
This storage media can be read and written
through a FLOPPY DRIVE. Storage Capacity
of Diskette is about 1.5 Mb. That is equivalent
to about 800 pages word/text document
without graphics,

COMPACT DISK (CD ROM/DVD)


This storage media can be read or written through a
equipped CD DRIVE (CD ROM/CD RW Drive).
Storage Capacity of CDs are usually 700 Mb, while DVD
could store as much as 4000 Mb or even more.

E. VIDEO DEVICE
Commonly known as Video Card, Graphics Card or Removable
Display Adapter
Enhances the graphic or display experience usually suitable for
gaming or for graphic hungry application like video editing or 3D
animation
Usually has its own memory/RAM, unlike onboard which had to
eat an amount of RAM from the system to gain performance
May have I/O ports for TV, S-Video and DVI other than just the
VGA Port [Blue]
This is installed in AGP or PCIE socket
COMMON VIDEO CARD SPECIFICATIONS
Popular Brands:
Model:
Socket Type:
Ram Size:

AGP VIDEO CARD


Also known as AGP-type graphics card
or graphics adapter/controller.

NVIDIA, ATI
GeForce MX5500, Radeon
AGP, PCIE
128 Mb, 256 Mb

PCI-E VIDEO CARD


Also known as PCI-E-type graphics
card or graphics adapter/controller.
The E in PCI stands for Express.

F. AUDIO CARD
Audio Card is an external card with enhanced audio features and
may have several sockets
Standard Sockets: 1. Output sound signals (speaker: green), 2.
receives input from stereo components (line-in: blue) or 3.
receives input from mic (microphone: pink)
Usually a multimedia speakers will provide this card in the
package
Installed in PCI or ISA slot
COMMON AUDIO CARD SPECIFICATIONS
Popular Brand: Creative
No. of Ports: 3, 4, 6
Speaker Types: 3.1, 2.1, 4.1, 5.1, or 7.1 multimedia speakers
with surround
Midi Port: Available/Not Available

AUDIO CARD
This sound card contains 5 audio sockets, each
with special audio functions. It also include MIDI
port which now is not integrated in the mainboard.

G. LAN DEVICE
Also known as LAN Card or Network Interface Card (NIC) and is
installed commonly in PCI slot
This networking device allows the computer to be connected to a
other remote computers in a local area network
Mainboard with no built in LAN port needs this removable card to
be able to connect to a network
COMMON LAN CARD SPECIFICATIONS
Brand/Model:
Speed:

LAN CARD
Also known as NIC or Network Interface
Card. This enables mainboard that does
not have a LAN to get connected to a
network.

Edimax, D-Link
100/10 Mbps

W-LAN CARD
Wireless LAN Card
This LAN Card has an antenna. You can install this
to get rid of using LAN cables. But you will need an
Access Point device so youll be connected to the
network.

H. POWER SUPPLY UNIT

Supplies electricity to motherboard, CPU, monitor and drivers


COMMON POWER SUPPLY SPECIFICATION
Power Rating: 350 W, 250 W, 450W, 500 W, 600W ,
650W

POWER SUPPLY UNIT


This unit has 24-pin mainboard
supply and 4-pin CPU supply. Also
includes SATA device power
adaptor.

I. PERIPHERALS
These are input and output (I/O) devices that give user the ability
to interact with the computer
These include:
1. keyboard
2. pointing devices (mouse, track ball) and m
3. monitor
J. MISCELLANEOUS
Devices to enhance the usage and extend the capabilities of the
computer
Include:
1. speakers amplify analog sound produced from an audio
device
2. printers
3. cameras, scanners, fax are imaging devices
4. phones
5. input from other devices, etc.

K. NETWORK DEVICES, EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS


Devices used in networking
Includes
1. NIC or LAN Card
2. RJ 45
3. UTP Cable
4. HUB
5. router
6. modem is a device that converts analog signal to digital to
be used by your computer. Commonly in connecting to an
internet (digital data) using a telephone line (that carries
analog data)

RJ-45
These plugs are used in interfacing
computers through LAN cards. Cabling
have different configuration.

HUB/SWITCH
Enables 2 or more computers to be
connected to a network.
The white cables are UTP cables which
have RG-45 at both ends.

WIRELESS ROUTER
Router connects your network (LAN) to external
resources like another network (LAN) of
computers or to a larger network (WAN) like
internet.

II. COMPUTER SOFTWARE

Written programs or procedures or rules and associated


documentation pertaining to the operation of a computer system and
that are stored in read/write memory

Anything that does not exist physically in the computer system


SOFTWARE EXAMPLES

Operating System

Programs and Applications


Data or Information
Device Drivers

OPERATING SYSTEM (OS)

software that controls the execution of computer programs and


may provide various services
Microsoft Windows XP
Apple Macintosh (Mac) OS X
UNIX Linux Debian, Fedora
Symbian OS (for mobile phones)
APPLICATION SOFTWARE

Also known as program

A software gives a computer instructions that provide the user


with tools to accomplish a task

Usually comes with an installer or setup file


Word Processors/Calculators
Multimedia Editors
Media Players
Games
Many others
DEVICE DRIVERS

These are files used by the operating system for the devices
attached to the computer to function properly. Drivers ensure that your
system recognizes the new device attached to it.

Some may come with an installer


Audio Driver this will enabled the analog audio output from
the sound card. Without this, your system may not produce sound even
if you have speakers attached to it.

Printer Driver this will enabled the use of printer. Without this,
you will not be able to print at all.

DATA AND INFORMATION

Created by the programs or applications through the use of the


user. They may be files or settings created, modified or saved by the
user.

Something that takes up space in the storage.


If the user is using a Word Processor program/application like MS Word,
the data or information will be the word files created by the user.
TYPES OF COMPUTERS
TYPES BASED ON THEIR
FUNCTION OR USE

Desktop Computers
Server Computer
Mobile (Used for Laptops and PDA*/Palmtop)

END
COMPUTER SYSTEM SERVICING
80% HARDWARE and 20% SOFTWARE
FOUR COMPONENTS OF SERVICING:
(CORE COMPETENCIES)

Installation
Configuration
Diagnosing and Troubleshooting

Maintenance
INSTALLATION

Setting up the computer system in both hardware and software


ready for use

Hardware Side: Assembling computer components like


motherboard, cards, drives, etc. in system cabinet

Software Side: Installing an operating system, installing


applications, installing printer driver, etc.
CONFIGURATION

Adjusting computer system settings and configuration at both


hardware and software to a particular purpose or output

Hardware Side: Changing mainboard jumper settings, changing


HDD jumper settings, setting up LAN cabling type

Software Side: Partitioning HDD into two equal parts, create a


multiboot system formatting HDD with NTFS, setting up Desktop,
setting up LAN connection,
DIAGNOSING AND TROUBLESHOOTING

Determine or distinguish the nature of a problem in both


software and hardware through a diagnostic analysis (troubleshooting)

Hardware Side: Computer automatically turns off maybe due to


low power rating PS or a failing CPU

Software Side: Operating System cannot boot or start maybe


due to corrupt system files

MAINTENANCE

It is an activity involves of correcting or repairing (Corrective


Maintenance)

and planning or periodically maintaining/checking (Preventive


Maintenance) both hardware and software side of a computer system
MAINTENANCE

Hardware Side:
CM: reseat memory if the system cannot start,
PM: disassembly of system for cleaning every first Monday of
the month
Software Side: run disk defragmentation every after two
weeks, scan system with an antivirus

CHS COVERAGE

Computer System
Networking

END
HARDWARE SETTINGS

Motherboard Jumper Settings


HDD Jumper Settings

CMOS SETUP CONFIGURATION

Parts of the CMOS Setup

Enabling and Disabling I/O and Devices


BOOTING SEQUENCE

Bootable Disks

Setting Boot Sequence


MANAGING DIRECTORIES
DOS ENVIRONMENT

Create Folder (MD)


Browsing through Folders/Directories (CD)
Delete Folder (DEL)
Copy Files

MANAGING DIRECTORIES
GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE
(OS Desktop Environment)

Create Folder
Browsing through Folders/Directories
Delete Folder
Copy Files

ADVANCED COMMANDS

FORMAT

FDISK

PING

EDIT

IPCONFIG
INSTALLING OS

Installing Windows 98