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Article Dynamic Modeling of Three Phase Transformer

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Gitte B. Nielsen

Department of Energy Technology

Electrical Energy Engineering

Aalborg University

Aalborg East, Denmark

Email: s10gilar@ponstud.aau.dk

Abstract

In this paper a dynamic three phase transformer model is

developed in Matlab Simulink. The model is based on the circuit

analysis of its magnetic core and windings. The method is

general and can be used for any type of multiphase multiwinding

transformer. It is assumed the the model is symmetrical and

consists of three single phase transformers. To ease the simulation

the model is transformed to the reference frame and back.

As a study case is used an actual 220/55 V transformer to derive

the parameters and simulate various stationary and dynamic

conditions.

single-phase transformers. It also makes it possible, with

a little knowledge of Simulink, to increase or decrease

the number of phases, thus making the model flexible in

multiphase connections as well. The model must be able to

simulate the steady state and transient conditions of a real

three-phase transformer.

I. I NTRODUCTION

transformer, is easiest represented by a simple drawing Figure

1. The primary side is denoted with a subscript 1 and the

secondary with a subscript 2.

AC energy at a given voltage to a AC energy at another

voltage. Even though the transformer is widely used, in all

shapes and sizes, it is rarely modeled. A dynamic simulation

model, in Matlab Simulink, could be useful to predict the

behavior of a transformer under different conditions.

Because the three-phase transformer model is one of the

most common transformer models, it is chosen to construct

the simulation model as such. By modeling the three-phase

transformer as three single-phase transformers, the model will

be easier to expand to a variable number of phases. The

deviation of the simulation results is examined by comparing

an actual transformer with the model.

The mathematical equations for the transformer is set up in

matrix form. The mathematical equations is referred to the

reference frame, with the transformation matrix for the abc to

reference frame transformation. This is done, to reduce

simulation time.

The core loss is neglected in the model construction, as it

only gives a minor contribution to the final result. The model

is constructed, such that the resistances and inductances can

be implemented separately in an m-file.

As a case study the characteristic of an actual 220/55 volt

transformer are measured, calculated and implemented into

the model. The results of steady state and short circuit tests

are presented.

T ransformer

transformer

all the windings, and self inductance. The self inductance

consist of the leakage inductance and magnetizing inductance

for the primary or secondary side respectively. R1 and R2 is

the resistances of the windings. The core loss is neglected

due to the minor effect it has on the system.

The mathematical voltage equation, in matrix form, for a

single-phase transformer, can then be expressed as seen in

equation 1. The parameters are denoted by the numbers of the

windings to which they belong. I.e. L11 is the self inductance

for winding 1, and L12 is the mutual inductance for winding

1 and 2.

A. Objectives

In a construction stage of a system containing a transformer,

it is convenient to have a transformer model, that can predict

performance under steady state and dynamic conditions. This

article deals with modeling of a three-phase transformer in

Matlab Simulink. The transformer is assumed symmetrical.

u=R i+

1

d

Li

dt

(1)

where

u=

R=

R1

0

u1

u2

0

R2

;i =

;L =

i1

i2

L11

L21

;

L12

L22

(2)

winding. This is illustrated by the negative sign added to the

equation for the secondary winding. These equations only

apply for a single-phase transformer in the abc reference

frame. To ease the derivation of the three-phase transformer

equations, symmetry is assumed. At Figure 2 is seen a

symmetrical transformer, constructed with a phase shift of

120o for each leg.

is the same as ua .

The abc system is transformed to the system using the

following transformation:

u = K uabc

Figure 2. Three-phase transformer with six windings

(4)

where

u

windings, the fluxes would also be sinusoidal and balanced.

As the three legs are connected with a 120o phase shift, the

net flux 0 , flowing in the middle leg, could be formulated

as Equation 3. In Equation 3 all the fluxes and the angles are

equal respectively.

uabc

and

=

=

u ]T

[ u

[ ua

1

2

K=

0

3

1

ub

3

2

1

2

uc ]

(5)

T

(6)

12

23

(7)

1

2

referred to as Clarkes transformation.

The transformation is done on the first part of equation 1,

where the inductive, represented by the flux linkage, and the

resistive elements can be transformed separately. This is also

done for the primary and secondary side separately. As the

resistive matrix is a diagonal matrix r, where all the nonzero

elements are equal, it does not change when transformed.

Thus the resistance matrix for the reference frame is

equal to the resistance matrix for the abc reference frame.

The transformation of the inductance variables of equation 1

is given as follows, where p equals d/dt.

2

2

) + c sin( +

)

(3)

3

3

This leads to 0 equal 0. The middle leg can therefore be

neglected. The three legs can then be seen as symmetrical

equal regarding flux, inductance and resistance, primary and

secondary side respectively. Thus the three-phase transformer

can be set up as three single-phase transformers. The threephase transformer equations can therefore be written according

to Equation 1.

0 = a sin() + b sin(

To ease the simulation the transformer equations are

referred to the reference frame. A vector diagram of abc

and reference frames can be seen on Figure 3, where u

u = Kp[K

2

abc ] = Kp[K

abc ] + K K

pabc

(8)

seen on equation 9, where is the angular velocity.

2

1

K p=p

3

2

3

12

12

3

2

23

2

3

2

3

2

3

= 0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

(9)

the first term equals zero, the inductance matrix, for the

reference frame, equals the inductance matrix for the abc

reference frame. As the transformation is to the reference

frame, the zero system is neglected. The equations for the

three-phase transformer referred to the reference frame is

given in equation 10 to 13.

d

(L11 i1 L12 i2 )

[V] (10)

dt

d

u1 = R1 i1 +

(L11 i1 L12 i2 )

[V] (11)

dt

d

u2 = R2 i2 +

(L21 i1 L22 i2 )

[V] (12)

dt

d

(L21 i1 L22 i2 )

[V] (13)

u2 = R2 i2 +

dt

These equations will be used in the transformer model.

u1

= R1 i1 +

V. T RANSFORMER PARAMETERS

An actual transformer, named test transformer, was tested

with an open circuit and a short circuit test. The test results

was used to retrieve the test transformers parameters, by

calculation of the equivalent circuit. In Figure 7 is seen a

picture of the test transformer.

The Simulink model, Figure 4, of the three-phase transformer, consist of three main blocks. Two transformation

blocks and a transformer block. The first transformation

block transforms the source voltage from the abc to the

reference frame. The second transformation block transform

the secondary voltage back to the abc reference frame. The

transformer block contains the model of the equations 10 to

13.

Figure 4. Simulink model of the three-phase transformer

origin and, except for the rms voltage and current, unknown

data. The transformer is connected in a wye-wye, as this

connection gave the wanted voltage relation of 220/55 V.

Open circuit and short circuit tests were performed on

the secondary side, and the primary sides results were

measured. As the simulation model is constructed as three

single-phase transformers, the average values of the results

were calculated. The average values were used to calculate

the transformer parameters with the help of the equivalent

circuit. The equivalent circuit can be seen on Figure 8 where

The transformer block contains four subsystems. A subsystem for each voltage equation. The voltage equations are

basically constructed the same way, and it is therefore chosen

only to show the blocks for phase s primary and secondary

windings.

The secondary side do not recieve its voltage from a

source, as the primary side. Therefore the secondary sides

voltage is constructed, following Ohms law. By multiplying

the current with rload, the voltage is created. rload is the

ohmic load applied to the secondary side.

the primary side. The mutual and self inductances are found

with the help of the leakage and magnetizing impedances.

The resistances, in series with the leakage impedances,

represents the resistances in the windings.

measured from the model has a peak value of 76.7 V. This is

a difference of 2%, which is satisfying.

The secondary current for all three phases is seen on Figure

10.

frequency of 50 Hz.

Table I

T RANSFORMER PARAMETERS FOR 220/55 V

Parameter

Ua

Ub

Uc

L11

L22

L12

L21

R1

R2

Value

220

220

220

3.92

0.24

0.98

0.98

2.06

0.12

Unit

V

V

V

H

H

H

H

current, measured from the model, has a peak value of 3.83

A. This is a difference of 6%. As the simulation peak current

correspond to the simulation peak voltage, when calculating

with Ohms law, the result must be seen as satisfying.

The transformer model is tested for steady state and

transient conditions. A symmetrical three phase voltage

source is applied to the primary side producing symmetrical

currents on the secondary side. For the steady state conditions,

the source voltage is set to 220 V rms. 220 V rms was also

the source voltage for the test transformer. The load is set to

20 ohm for both model and test transformer. For the transient

conditions the transformer model is tested for a short circuit.

The load is, in the case of the short circuit test, set to 10

ohm.

The models voltage and current is compared to an oscilloscope measurement of the test transformers voltage and

current. Both for phase a. The graphs is pictured on Figure

11 and Figure 12 for voltage and current respectively.

The first test is a test for the transformer in steady state.

The same test performed on the test transformer resulted in

a 78 V peak and 3.6 A peak. The secondary voltage for all

three phases is seen on Figure 9.

Figure 11. Comparison of simulated and measured voltage at 20 ohm load

14 is seen a comparison of the simulated and measured short

circuit current, for the secondary phase a only.

lower, than the measured. The current is also larger than

the current retrieved from the test model. Besides from the

deviation in the peak amplitudes, it must be concluded, that

the voltage graphs follow each other very well. The same

applies for the current graphs. Thus it must be concluded,

that the model works satisfactory when running in steady state.

for the short circuit to be exactly the same in the simulation

as in the test. This must be the reason for the deviation in

first falling half wave of the short circuit current. It is seen,

how the steady state condition for both the simulation and

measurement is running stable until interrupted. The model

then experiences a small current drop, around the time 39.8

milliseconds, due to the short circuit. This is not the case

for the test transformers measured current, which seems to

drop to the negative peak value of the stable short circuit

current. The drop in the short circuit current, at the first half

wave, is lower than seen in Figure 13. This is probably due

to the lower source voltage. When the instability of the drops

is settled, the measured and simulated current follows each

other with a stable peak value of 19.3 amp. This peak current

can be calculated as correct. Therefore it must be concluded,

that the model is able to simulate short circuit situations

applied when running stable. I.e. the simulation model is able

to simulate dynamic conditions.

The next test is a short circuit test. On Figure 13 is seen a

simulated model of a short circuit current from the secondary

side. The short circuit is simulated by setting the load, rload

to 0.

VII. C ONCLUSION

developed based on circuit analysis of the magnetic core. Its

main advantage is the flexibility in modelling. The model has

produced very satisfactory results in the simulation of steady

state and transient conditions.

10 milliseconds, the current has settled in a steady state

condition. The short circuit peak current is measured on

the graph to be 206 A. This peak current is the same as

found by performing a short circuit calculation. Where it is

assumed, that the secondary short circuit current, referred to

the primary side, equals the primary short circuit current.

R EFERENCES

Paul C. Krause; Oleg Wasynczuk and Scott D. Sudhoff, Analysis of

electric machinery and drive systems; 2nd edition, ISBN: 0-471-14326-X

steady state condition with a load. The short circuit knife,

available for the experiment, was not able to short circuit

from a situation with load. Thus it was only possible to short

circuit the test transformer when in a no-load condition. It

was decided to simulate a short circuit incident, with the

model running in steady sate at a load of 10 ohm.

The rms voltage, used for the simulation, is 20.66 volts, which

is the same as the rms source voltage. The voltage value was

Converter-Fed drives (studies in electronic engineering ), ISBN: 0-44498660-X

P. C. Sen, Principles of Electric Machines and Power Electronics;

2nd edition, ISBN: 0-471-02295-0

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