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Dynamic modeling of a three-phase transformer

Gitte B. Nielsen
Department of Energy Technology
Electrical Energy Engineering
Aalborg University
Aalborg East, Denmark
Email: s10gilar@ponstud.aau.dk

Abstract
In this paper a dynamic three phase transformer model is
developed in Matlab Simulink. The model is based on the circuit
analysis of its magnetic core and windings. The method is
general and can be used for any type of multiphase multiwinding
transformer. It is assumed the the model is symmetrical and
consists of three single phase transformers. To ease the simulation
the model is transformed to the reference frame and back.
As a study case is used an actual 220/55 V transformer to derive
the parameters and simulate various stationary and dynamic
conditions.

This makes it possible to construct the transformer as three


single-phase transformers. It also makes it possible, with
a little knowledge of Simulink, to increase or decrease
the number of phases, thus making the model flexible in
multiphase connections as well. The model must be able to
simulate the steady state and transient conditions of a real
three-phase transformer.

I. I NTRODUCTION

The complete model of a single-phase, two winding


transformer, is easiest represented by a simple drawing Figure
1. The primary side is denoted with a subscript 1 and the
secondary with a subscript 2.

II. BASIC TRANSFORMER ANALYSIS

is an electric machine, which can convert


AC energy at a given voltage to a AC energy at another
voltage. Even though the transformer is widely used, in all
shapes and sizes, it is rarely modeled. A dynamic simulation
model, in Matlab Simulink, could be useful to predict the
behavior of a transformer under different conditions.
Because the three-phase transformer model is one of the
most common transformer models, it is chosen to construct
the simulation model as such. By modeling the three-phase
transformer as three single-phase transformers, the model will
be easier to expand to a variable number of phases. The
deviation of the simulation results is examined by comparing
an actual transformer with the model.
The mathematical equations for the transformer is set up in
matrix form. The mathematical equations is referred to the
reference frame, with the transformation matrix for the abc to
reference frame transformation. This is done, to reduce
simulation time.
The core loss is neglected in the model construction, as it
only gives a minor contribution to the final result. The model
is constructed, such that the resistances and inductances can
be implemented separately in an m-file.
As a case study the characteristic of an actual 220/55 volt
transformer are measured, calculated and implemented into
the model. The results of steady state and short circuit tests
are presented.

T ransformer

Figure 1. Magnetically coupled circuit model of a single-phase two winding


transformer

The inductive elements include mutual couplings among


all the windings, and self inductance. The self inductance
consist of the leakage inductance and magnetizing inductance
for the primary or secondary side respectively. R1 and R2 is
the resistances of the windings. The core loss is neglected
due to the minor effect it has on the system.
The mathematical voltage equation, in matrix form, for a
single-phase transformer, can then be expressed as seen in
equation 1. The parameters are denoted by the numbers of the
windings to which they belong. I.e. L11 is the self inductance
for winding 1, and L12 is the mutual inductance for winding
1 and 2.

A. Objectives
In a construction stage of a system containing a transformer,
it is convenient to have a transformer model, that can predict
performance under steady state and dynamic conditions. This
article deals with modeling of a three-phase transformer in
Matlab Simulink. The transformer is assumed symmetrical.

u=R i+
1

d
Li
dt

(1)

where


u=

R=

R1
0

u1
u2

0
R2


;i =

;L =

i1
i2
L11
L21


;
L12
L22


(2)

The mutual flux opposes the flux produced by the secondary


winding. This is illustrated by the negative sign added to the
equation for the secondary winding. These equations only
apply for a single-phase transformer in the abc reference
frame. To ease the derivation of the three-phase transformer
equations, symmetry is assumed. At Figure 2 is seen a
symmetrical transformer, constructed with a phase shift of
120o for each leg.

Figure 3. Vector diagram of the abc and reference frame

is the same as ua .
The abc system is transformed to the system using the
following transformation:
u = K uabc
Figure 2. Three-phase transformer with six windings

(4)

where
u

If three sinusoidal balanced voltages were applied to the


windings, the fluxes would also be sinusoidal and balanced.
As the three legs are connected with a 120o phase shift, the
net flux 0 , flowing in the middle leg, could be formulated
as Equation 3. In Equation 3 all the fluxes and the angles are
equal respectively.

uabc
and

=
=

u ]T

[ u
[ ua

1
2
K=
0
3
1

ub

3
2
1
2

uc ]

(5)
T

(6)

12
23

(7)

1
2

K is the transformation matrix. This transformation is also


referred to as Clarkes transformation.
The transformation is done on the first part of equation 1,
where the inductive, represented by the flux linkage, and the
resistive elements can be transformed separately. This is also
done for the primary and secondary side separately. As the
resistive matrix is a diagonal matrix r, where all the nonzero
elements are equal, it does not change when transformed.
Thus the resistance matrix for the reference frame is
equal to the resistance matrix for the abc reference frame.
The transformation of the inductance variables of equation 1
is given as follows, where p equals d/dt.

2
2
) + c sin( +
)
(3)
3
3
This leads to 0 equal 0. The middle leg can therefore be
neglected. The three legs can then be seen as symmetrical
equal regarding flux, inductance and resistance, primary and
secondary side respectively. Thus the three-phase transformer
can be set up as three single-phase transformers. The threephase transformer equations can therefore be written according
to Equation 1.
0 = a sin() + b sin(

III. R EFERENCE FRAME TRANSFORMATION


To ease the simulation the transformer equations are
referred to the reference frame. A vector diagram of abc
and reference frames can be seen on Figure 3, where u

u = Kp[K
2

abc ] = Kp[K

abc ] + K K

pabc

(8)

p times the inverse transformation matrix equals zero, as


seen on equation 9, where is the angular velocity.

2
1
K p=p
3

2
3
12
12

3
2
23

2
3
2
3
2
3

= 0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

(9)

This makes the first term in equation 8 equal to zero. As


the first term equals zero, the inductance matrix, for the
reference frame, equals the inductance matrix for the abc
reference frame. As the transformation is to the reference
frame, the zero system is neglected. The equations for the
three-phase transformer referred to the reference frame is
given in equation 10 to 13.

Figure 5. Subsystem for primary winding 1

d
(L11 i1 L12 i2 )
[V] (10)
dt
d
u1 = R1 i1 +
(L11 i1 L12 i2 )
[V] (11)
dt
d
u2 = R2 i2 +
(L21 i1 L22 i2 )
[V] (12)
dt
d
(L21 i1 L22 i2 )
[V] (13)
u2 = R2 i2 +
dt
These equations will be used in the transformer model.
u1

= R1 i1 +

Figure 6. Subsystem for secondary winding 2

V. T RANSFORMER PARAMETERS
An actual transformer, named test transformer, was tested
with an open circuit and a short circuit test. The test results
was used to retrieve the test transformers parameters, by
calculation of the equivalent circuit. In Figure 7 is seen a
picture of the test transformer.

IV. S IMULINK MODEL


The Simulink model, Figure 4, of the three-phase transformer, consist of three main blocks. Two transformation
blocks and a transformer block. The first transformation
block transforms the source voltage from the abc to the
reference frame. The second transformation block transform
the secondary voltage back to the abc reference frame. The
transformer block contains the model of the equations 10 to
13.

Figure 7. Picture of test transformer


Figure 4. Simulink model of the three-phase transformer

The test transformer is a 220/55 V transformer of unknown


origin and, except for the rms voltage and current, unknown
data. The transformer is connected in a wye-wye, as this
connection gave the wanted voltage relation of 220/55 V.
Open circuit and short circuit tests were performed on
the secondary side, and the primary sides results were
measured. As the simulation model is constructed as three
single-phase transformers, the average values of the results
were calculated. The average values were used to calculate
the transformer parameters with the help of the equivalent
circuit. The equivalent circuit can be seen on Figure 8 where

The transformer block contains four subsystems. A subsystem for each voltage equation. The voltage equations are
basically constructed the same way, and it is therefore chosen
only to show the blocks for phase s primary and secondary
windings.
The secondary side do not recieve its voltage from a
source, as the primary side. Therefore the secondary sides
voltage is constructed, following Ohms law. By multiplying
the current with rload, the voltage is created. rload is the
ohmic load applied to the secondary side.

the superscript denotes, that the parameters are referred to


the primary side. The mutual and self inductances are found
with the help of the leakage and magnetizing impedances.
The resistances, in series with the leakage impedances,
represents the resistances in the windings.

Figure 9. Steady state voltage at 20 ohm load

Figure 9 clearly shows a steady state condition. The voltage


measured from the model has a peak value of 76.7 V. This is
a difference of 2%, which is satisfying.
The secondary current for all three phases is seen on Figure
10.

Figure 8. Transformer equivalent circuit

The retrieved parameters is set up in Table I, for a


frequency of 50 Hz.

Table I
T RANSFORMER PARAMETERS FOR 220/55 V
Parameter
Ua
Ub
Uc
L11
L22
L12
L21
R1
R2

Value
220
220
220
3.92
0.24
0.98
0.98
2.06
0.12

Unit
V
V
V
H
H
H
H

Figure 10. Steady state current at 20 ohm load

Figure 10 clearly shows a steady state condition. The


current, measured from the model, has a peak value of 3.83
A. This is a difference of 6%. As the simulation peak current
correspond to the simulation peak voltage, when calculating
with Ohms law, the result must be seen as satisfying.

VI. V ERIFICATION OF THE TRANSFORMER


The transformer model is tested for steady state and
transient conditions. A symmetrical three phase voltage
source is applied to the primary side producing symmetrical
currents on the secondary side. For the steady state conditions,
the source voltage is set to 220 V rms. 220 V rms was also
the source voltage for the test transformer. The load is set to
20 ohm for both model and test transformer. For the transient
conditions the transformer model is tested for a short circuit.
The load is, in the case of the short circuit test, set to 10
ohm.

The models voltage and current is compared to an oscilloscope measurement of the test transformers voltage and
current. Both for phase a. The graphs is pictured on Figure
11 and Figure 12 for voltage and current respectively.

A. Steady state test


The first test is a test for the transformer in steady state.
The same test performed on the test transformer resulted in
a 78 V peak and 3.6 A peak. The secondary voltage for all
three phases is seen on Figure 9.
Figure 11. Comparison of simulated and measured voltage at 20 ohm load

chosen such as it did not harm the test transformer. In Figure


14 is seen a comparison of the simulated and measured short
circuit current, for the secondary phase a only.

Figure 12. Comparison of simulated and measured current at 20 ohm load

As mentioned previously, the simulated voltage is a little


lower, than the measured. The current is also larger than
the current retrieved from the test model. Besides from the
deviation in the peak amplitudes, it must be concluded, that
the voltage graphs follow each other very well. The same
applies for the current graphs. Thus it must be concluded,
that the model works satisfactory when running in steady state.

Figure 14. Comparison of simulated and measured short circuit current

As seen from Figure 14 it was a bit difficult to get the time


for the short circuit to be exactly the same in the simulation
as in the test. This must be the reason for the deviation in
first falling half wave of the short circuit current. It is seen,
how the steady state condition for both the simulation and
measurement is running stable until interrupted. The model
then experiences a small current drop, around the time 39.8
milliseconds, due to the short circuit. This is not the case
for the test transformers measured current, which seems to
drop to the negative peak value of the stable short circuit
current. The drop in the short circuit current, at the first half
wave, is lower than seen in Figure 13. This is probably due
to the lower source voltage. When the instability of the drops
is settled, the measured and simulated current follows each
other with a stable peak value of 19.3 amp. This peak current
can be calculated as correct. Therefore it must be concluded,
that the model is able to simulate short circuit situations
applied when running stable. I.e. the simulation model is able
to simulate dynamic conditions.

B. Short circuit test


The next test is a short circuit test. On Figure 13 is seen a
simulated model of a short circuit current from the secondary
side. The short circuit is simulated by setting the load, rload
to 0.

VII. C ONCLUSION

Figure 13. Secondary short circuit current at 20 ohm load

A three-phase Simulink transformer model has been


developed based on circuit analysis of the magnetic core. Its
main advantage is the flexibility in modelling. The model has
produced very satisfactory results in the simulation of steady
state and transient conditions.

The model is able to handle a short circuit incident. After


10 milliseconds, the current has settled in a steady state
condition. The short circuit peak current is measured on
the graph to be 206 A. This peak current is the same as
found by performing a short circuit calculation. Where it is
assumed, that the secondary short circuit current, referred to
the primary side, equals the primary short circuit current.

R EFERENCES
Paul C. Krause; Oleg Wasynczuk and Scott D. Sudhoff, Analysis of
electric machinery and drive systems; 2nd edition, ISBN: 0-471-14326-X

A difficulty arose when trying to short circuit from a


steady state condition with a load. The short circuit knife,
available for the experiment, was not able to short circuit
from a situation with load. Thus it was only possible to short
circuit the test transformer when in a no-load condition. It
was decided to simulate a short circuit incident, with the
model running in steady sate at a load of 10 ohm.
The rms voltage, used for the simulation, is 20.66 volts, which
is the same as the rms source voltage. The voltage value was

Marian P. Kazmierkowski and Henryk Tunia, Automatic Control of


Converter-Fed drives (studies in electronic engineering ), ISBN: 0-44498660-X
P. C. Sen, Principles of Electric Machines and Power Electronics;
2nd edition, ISBN: 0-471-02295-0