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)A Examples - APA REFERENCING: A Brief Guide - Libcuides at Victoria University

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Fuller, C. F. (201 1). Sociology, gender and educational


aspirations: Girls and their anbitions. Albany,-NY:'.....
Continuum lnternational.

"lt is self-identification..." (Fuller, 2011, pp. 34-35).


OR

Fuller (201 1, pp. 34-35) suggests that self identification...

Add page numbers for direct quotes.

For location use the U.S. state abbreviation.


This is also acceptable for Australian states
and territories. For all other countries' spell out
the name in full.

i
i
l

\nPl!:fu

Book: 2 Authors and Edition

lWeinberg, R. S., & Gould, D. (2011). Foundations of sport

:i
:i

... this is evident (Weinberg & Gould,201 1).

and exercise psychology (6th ed.). Champaign, lL:


Human Kinetics.

Gite both authors each time the reference occurs. i The edition number is included after the title of
the work (not necessary for first editions).
!
Book: 3,4 or 5 Authors

... in festival organisation (Allen, O'Toole, & Donnell, 201

Allen, J. E., O'Toole, W., & Donnell, J.-8. (2011). Festival


and special event managemenf (5th ed.). Milton, QLD:
John Wiley & Sons.

1)

:oR

I Allen, O'Toole, and Donnell (2011) have found ...


I
l;

Provide the names of all authors in the


reference list.

Gite all of the authors the first time the reference


occurs. In subsequent citations include only the
surname of the first author followed by et al. and
the year, e.g.

i ... events are a celebration (Allen et al.,

201

lf an author's first name is hyphenatedr retain


the hyphen and include d ful]stop after each
initial as in Jean-Baptiste Donnell above.

l).

;OR
i Allen et al. (201 1) have stated

Book: 6 or more Authors

...
1

Mussen et al. (1995) have found

...

OR
... for all learning (Mussen et al., 1995).

I Mussen, P., Rozenweig, M. R., Aronson, E., Elkind, D.,


Feshbach, S. T., & Geiwitz, P. J. (1995). Psychology:
An introduction (7th ed.). Albany, NY: Thompson
Delmar Learning.

Cite only the surname of the first author followed


provllle the names of atl authors in the
by et al. and the year, for the first and
subsequent citations,
i reference list up to and including seven authors.
:

l^.-**

i Book: 8 or more Authors

Leggat et al. (2009) have found


OR

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i Leggat, l. K., Hutchings, D., Poliness, S., Nemeth, T.,


i West, A., Ngo, A., . . . Mascilongo, J. (2009). How to

)A Examples - APA REFERENCING: A Brief Guide - Libcuides at Victoria University

... play a crucial role (Leggat et al., 2009).

maximise the use of libraries in educational


institutions. St Albans, VIC: Victoria University Press.

Gite only the surname of the first author followed

Book: No Author

Book: Editor(s)

... for future learning (Ashwin, 2006).


OR
As described in Ashwin (2006) ...

n.n*in, P. (Ed.). (2ooi). Changing higher education: The

l,
I

... health care is described (Lemone et al., 201

iI

1)

OR

Lemone et al. (201 1) describe health care...

With more than one editor use multiple author


format as above and use (Eds.).
Lemone, P., Burke, K. M., Dwyer, T., Leveft-Jones, T.,
Moxham, L., Reid-Searl, K., ... Raymond, D. (Eds.).
(201 1). Medical-surgical nursing: Crltica! thinkw i&*.,.
client care. (1 st Australian ed.). Frenchs Forest, NSW:
Pearson Australia.

i'-*."'***.i.""""...
'li Book:

with Author and

Editor

development of learning and teaching. London,


England: Routledge.

i "A large income is the best recipe for happiness I ever

Austen, J. (181412005). Mansfield Park (J. Wiltshire, Ed.).


Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

heard

of" (Austen, 1814/2005, p.195)

j lnclude the original publication date in the


i

citation.

-'*Tr*",

i"t""r"-;;il"*;;;';ff'*; i;.**r.);;;;^".."'t-.';
which d number of authors
i

have contributed

^_
OR

"Self-directed learning is..." (Boud, 2006, p. 23).

*r.Russell, B. (2003). The autobiography of Bertrand


Fusse// (Vols. 1-3). London, Engl4nd: Allen & Unwin.

Russell

| (2003, vol. 2, p. 23; vol. 3, pp. 17-36).


!

,""'*-;-;#;;;

Routledge.

ln the in-text reference name the author ofthe


chapter.
Book: with volume numbers 1 ... as this complex theory is dealt with in detail by

" d;;ffi;*;;;'

Boud, D. (2006). Aren't we all learner-centred now?: The


bittersweet flavour of success. ln P. Ashwin
(Ed.), Changing higher education: the development of
Iearning and teaching (pp. 19-32). London, England:

lf more than one volume is given, separate with a


semi-colon.

Book: Translator & Author

r',r"lxir.Jll.-rli,t

t1'.

;;;;;*

(N. smith,

rrans.).

Montrear,

Canada: Random House.

Book: Organisation as

Author

| (Austratian Bureau of Statistics, 201


ti

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2011). 201 1 Census


dictionary (No. 2901.0). Canberra, ACT: Author.

1)

(Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2008)

I
! (Department oJ Health and Family Services tDHFSl,

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2008). Childhood education


and care (No. 4402.0). Canberra, ACT: Author.
Retrieved from http://wvwv.abs.gov.au

2OO7)

i lt you want to cite from the report more than


{once, in the first citation provide the full name of
f the organisation, as above. ln subsequent
I citations use the abbreviated organisational title.

Add the ABS Report's Catalogue Number after


the title. 'Author' is used in place of the
name if they are the same body.
I nublisher
;

"2"'"'

! Department of Health and Family Services. (2007). Youth


suicide in Austratia: The National Youth Suicide
Prevention Strategy. Canberra, ACT: AGPS.

ii' roHrs. zoozt

I
!
I

;
;j

Provide the full name of the organisation in the


reference list.

E-book - No DOI assigned

I (Rosen,2011)
OR
Rosen (201 1 ) regards...

Rosen, L . (2011). The culture of lslam: Changing aspects


of contemporary Muqlim life. Chicago, lL: University of
Chicago Press. Retrfu ved f rom http://www.eblib.com

lf a DOI is not availabler provide the home page


URL of the book publisher. No retrieval date is
required.

E-book - with DOI assigned

*-l'

g ...
-*

in all communities (Hill, 2001).

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Hill, C. E. (Ed.). (2001). The helping skills: The empirical


foundation. Washington, DC: American Psychological

)A Examples - APA REFERENCING: A Brief


Guide - LibGuides at Victoria University

ioR

I nirr 1zoor1 regards


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tf
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i

Bookr Anonymous author

*a

i'r

lWhen a work's author is designated as


lAnonymous inlcude the word 'Anonymous'
1 followed by a comma apd year.

lf a DOI is available include it at the end of the


citataon. The database name, URL or date of
retrieval are not required.
Anonymous. (2OOO). Maximum Security (3rd ed.).
lndianapolis, lN: Prentice Hall.

ln your reference list, include such titles in your


alphabetical listing as if 'Anonymous'were a
true name.

Book on a Kindle

Association. doi:10.1037/1 0412-000

...

(Gladwell,2008).

... in
il r all
ail outcomes
uuluu[re! \urduwvr, avvo,r.

(2008). Outliers:
utauweil. M.
tvt. (zuuo.r.
uuLilets, The
I IIe SLUty
story of
u, Juuug;s
success [Kindle
lnilrurts
ilGtaOwett,
OX versionl. Retrieved from Amazon.com

OR

It

For direct quotations of ontine material

i
I

i lnclude the type of e-book version you read e.g.

without lXinale DX version. ln lieu of publisher


i pagination, name the maior sections, chapter, f information, include the bookts DOI or where
the e-book from if there is no
i section, and paragraph number e.g.
il"O,i.0"*r,"aded
, One of the author's main points is that "people don't rise
1

!from nothing" (Gladwell,2008, Chapter 1, Section 2, para.5).


i

",*-,,,"",--^,
Book:
took: Multiple
Muttiple works same if "Marketing requires matching your customers needs,'
needs,'
".-"
author
i (McDonald & Payne, 1996, p. 13, 2006, pp. 16-17).

lon

i nn^at^^.,^
and Darrna
McDonald and
(1996,
Payne /looa

it
o^^a
i?
p.
16-17)
^^ le
^ 13, 2006, pp.

i "Marketing requires matching your customers


Book: Multiple works in the
same citation

state

li

i
I
:t

needs"

(Haddon, 1999; Larsen & Hanis. 1991)

Larsen, R. W., & Harris, T. (1991). New horizons in


personal theory and practlce. San Francisco, CA:
Josey-Bass.

...

'-T*-'

: (Aristotle, trans.

Book:
Glassical or Religious text

McDonald, M. D., & Payne, A. (20O6). Marketing plans for


service businesses: A complete guide (2nd ed.).
Oxford, England: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
Haddon, P. F. (1999). Mastering personal and
i nterpersonal skil/s. London, England: Thorogood.

Haddon (1999) and Larsen and Harris (1991) demonstrated

that

McDonald, M. D., & Payne, A. (1996). Marketing planning


for service s. Oxford, England : Butterworth - H einemann

lYou do not need to include an entry in the reference

191 1, p. 34-35)
OR
(Aristotle, 1934 version, p. 178)

list.

1 Cor. 13:1 (Revised Standard Version)

(Qu/an 5:3-4)
I

I
;

Where the parts of classic or religious texts are

numbered the same across all editions, use these


numbers rather than page numbers.

ililo.,y .J,"ll *r"l j",

you are referring to the


ideas or words of an author
who has been cited in
another author's work.

."pt,n,,ilfffi o"no"nffi

iil;'",'"r"'"r*

(Tapscott as cited in El-Shamy, 2004, p.25).

f El-Shamy, S. (2004). How to design and deliver

'1

cA:witev.

OR

Tapscott (as cited in El-Shamy, 2004) argues ...

II Provide the full reference for the book


,,that you actually
!i

ir
i

Journal Article: Single

Author

training

for the new and emerging generations. San Francisco,

ir.,rt

read.
-'l

:::::::::::::::::::

.:

a:mtl

... contributes to overall physical health" (Brill, 201 1, pp. 39- i Brill, J. B. (201 1). Heal your heart with food: Eight loods
tnat prevent a second heart allack. Better
OR
N utritio n, 73 (2), 38- 42
Brill (201 1, pp. 39-40) suggests "Physical activity ..."

40).

Include page numbers for direct quotes.


'W
I

Journal Article: 2 authors

| ... many years (Allen & Black, 1995) but others disagree.
I

;oR

;Allen and Black (1995) have found

:]
l'

...

Cite both authors each time the reference occurs.

Journal Afticle: 3,4,or

*4*
:...

decreasing with increasing class size (Allen, Zuboff, &

//guides.library.vu.edu.au/content .php?pid=270421&sid

= 2230827[2 510U20L3

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Allen, M. C., & Black, R. (1995). The future of higher


education in
Australia. Journal of Higher Education, 15(2\, 16-25.

)A Examples - APA REFERENCING: A Brief cuide - Libcuides at Victoria University

;Black,2o11).

authors

Allen, M. C,,Zuboff, T., & Black, R. (2011). Educational


praxis in Australia: the state of play. Distance
Education, 1 6 (1), 26-34.

ioR
llten,

!
i

ZuOoff, and Black (201 1) have found ...

Provide the names of all authors in the


reference list.

Cite alt of the authors the first time the reference


f o""r,t". In subsequent citations include only the
I surname of the first author followed by et al. and
the year, e.g.
ii
.

I ... events are a celebration (Allen et al.,

lon

ntl"n

t
I

."'""';","'.
luf h6rs

"t

201 1).

tl
ti
j-'****,-

#;;

nnmnlamantod instruction.
inclrr r.ti^r
complemented

6Allen et al. (1993) have 1ound...

"-*

*-

"."---t:

Education,l4(31,15-17.

author followed : Provide the names of all authors in the


and subsequent I reference list.

citations.

t-,

i
i

trntten, u. C., crant, B. A., Zuboff, T., Roper, R. W., Ng, V.,
Leonard, P., & Black, R. (1993). lnstructional
designers in Australia: A brief history. Onllne
i

tr

'i

I--****
tt

I
I

loR

I Gite only the surname of the first


I by et al, and the year for the first

it!

al. (2011) have found...

Journal Article: 6 or more I ... aided by design


(An* et al., 1993) that has
d".is. (Allen
-"ni;;;'*il..

authors

1:
i;

Journal Article: 8 or more


authors

Stice et al. (2008) have lound

...

OR
... in which university libraries play a crucial role (Stice et al.,

f
;I

2008).

-.-.a.

.i!r,..

Stice, E., Marti, C., Spoor-Thompson, S. R., Presnell, K.,


Shaw, T. G., Trinh, V. O., . . . Roper, M. A. (2008).
The effect on educational achievement of university
tinrary design.Journal of Psychology and

Education,25(2).29-33.

Cite only the surname of the first author followed


by et al. and the year, for the first and
i lnclude the first six authors' namesr followed by
subsequent citations.
ittnt". dots, then add the last author's name.
Online Journal Article:

assigned

DOI

... found in the recruitment process for companies (Klimoski


& Palmer, 1993).

Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring
process in organizations. Consulting Psychology
Journal: Practice and Research,45(2), 10-36.

lon

Klimoski and Palmer (1993) have found

...

doi:1 0.1 037/1 06'l - 4087.45.2.1O

lf a DOI is available include it at the end of the

citation. The database namer URL and date of

retrieval are not

Online Journal Article: No


DOI assigned

Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence


and self - esteem m ed iate between perceved-e-ally..,....,1..+*
parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal
Applied Psychology, 2 (2), 3848. Retrieved from
http://ojs.lib.swin. edu.au/index.php/ejap

... for many (Sillick & Schutte, 2006)

OR

of

As Sillick and Schutte (2006) say ...

I
I

*j

required.

,r. oO, is not available, provide the home page


unl ortn" iournal publisher. The retrieval date
is not required.

Journal article: No Author

... as was the case for most students ("The Pain of Being a

lWhen a work has no identltfied author, cate inl|r'lxttne first few words of the reference entry
| (usually the title) and the year, Use double
you are referring to the title of
, euotation marks if
r an article, chapter or web page.
I

72(231 1), 27.

For magazines, newsletters, and n"t,r"p"p"r", ?


give the year and the exact date ofthe
publacation (month or month and day), separated
by a comma.

The pain of being a caffeine freak. (2001 , October 6). New


Scientist,

Caffeine Freak," 2001).


OR
... as in the "The Pain of Being a Caffeine Freak" (2001)
which reveals ...

Just italicize the title if you are referring to the


of a periodical, book, brochure or a report,
see Book: No Author

ititle
1

L
irOnline Journal article: No
I page numbers

... in all outcomes (Williams, 2008).

ioR

i Williams (2008) remarks

|
...

For direct quotations of online material without


pagination, name the sections and paragraph
number e.g.

//guides.library.vu.edu.aulcontent.php?pid=270421&sid=2230827[2510112013 11:14:47 AM]

*,,,,rr", J. (2008). The

victims of crime. Sociology

Review, /Z(4), Retrieved from


http://magazines.philipallan.co.uk/Magazines/SociologyReview.aspx

)A Examples - APA REFERENCING: A Brief cuide - Libcuides at Victoria University


,,

' One of the author's main points is that "people don't rise
f from nothing" (Williams, 2008, Section 2, para. 5).
1

to
the ideas or words of an
author who has been cited
When you are referring

in another work.

t "...optimistic, indepenent yet good at collaboration', Cfapscott


as cited in El-Shamy, 2004, p.4S).
ri

OR

ti

Tapscott's diary (as cited in El-Shamy, 2004) states

El-Shamy, S. (2004). How to write a Psychology


rcpoft. Journal of Research in the Social
Sciences, 1 7(41, 44-52.

...

Provide the full reference for


the journal article that you actually
read.

. Provide names of both authors.


I

i Gordon, M.
OR
r
i

As Gordon (2011) says...

Add page numbers for direct quotes.

I
,,

lf an article appears on discontinuous pagest


give all page numbers, and separate the
numbers with a comma.

,",.,

(Norton, 2011)

A. (201 1, October 11). Whyteaching must be


rated. The Age. Retrieved
tromhttp://www.theage.com.au

li Norton,

I
I

I
I

L,.,,...........

The boat that changed it

Ase, pp. 18, 22.

",,.-, --.&"

Newspaper: from a Website

^u.rhe

(201 1, August 20).

"..

Newspaper: from a
database

Smith, B. (2011, June 24). Brain study con{irms stress of


lile in the cily. The Age , p.14. Retrieved from Factiva.

1)

Newspaper articler

author

(Smith, 201

without,11 ("Child

psychologist,"

201

0)

Child psychologist inspired by dreams of Freud. (2010,


August 16). The West Australian, p. 2.

...

loR

-.'.".,,,"',,,*,*...j-

As discussed in "Child psychologist" (2010)

i Use a shortened
!

...

title (or full title if it is short)

Use the first word of the title to place this


i

enclosed in double quotation marks.

reference in the alphabetical sequence of your


reference list.

Newspaper article: from

separately
section

paginated

1 Wilson, J. (2009, September 26). ln defence of the

I (Wilson, 2OOg)

superficial. The Age: 42, p.23.

tt

Note: 'A2' before the page number indicates a


separatety paginated section of the newspaper.

Press or Media Release

(csrRo, 2007)

CSIRO. (2007, March 20). Cyclone science shows


.
rainforest impacts and recovery [Press release].
Retrieved f rom http://www.csiro.aulnews/ps2wj.html

(Prime Minister of Australia, 2010)

.,

Prime Minister of Australia. (2010, July 7). Gillard


Government to boost resources to international border
pafrols [Press release]. Canberra, Australia: AGPS.

Material

rype tn-text

Example " _

lt

1
Web
I

Document:
raEe
.

Web

. (Gold,

No 1

n.d.)

"*tle;:

http://www.effectivemeetings.com/meetingbasics/

i Gold, M. (n.d.).What is holisitic medicine? Retrieved from

nttp,//**w.holisticmed.com/whatis.html

* *-i.;

Document: No

**l9|j

("tips on Taking Multi-Choice Tests," 2011) i tips on taking multi-choice tests. (2ol 1). Retrieved from

"^

http://www. socialpsychology.org/testtips.htm

Author

Web
i
iDepartment of Health and Family Services. (2OO7). Youth suicide in Austratia: The
Document: i (DePartment of Health and Family Services i
Nationat youth Suicide prevention Strategy. Retrieved from
Government
ntip,ll***.health.gov.au/internet/mentalh;lth/publishing.nsf/Content/national-suicideilDHFSl,2007)
|
_i
Department t"
prevention-strategy-1
I lr yor, want to cite from the report
//guides.library.vu.edu.au/content .php?pid=Z70421&sid

2230827[2510112013

1: 14:47 AM]

)A Examples - APA REFERENCING: A Brief Guide - Libcuides at Victoria University

Author

more than oncel in the first catation

j provide the full name of the


! organisation, as above- ln

subsequent citations use the

I
I

abbreviated organisational title e.g.

pHFS, 2oo7)

""..:L*
I

Web

Document:

(Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2008)

Austrafian Bureau of Statistics. (2008). Childhood education and care (No. 4402.0)
Canberra, ACT. Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au

ABS

Add the ABS Report's Gatalogue Number after the

The Australian Psychological Society. (2OOB). Understanding and managing anxiety.


Retrieved from http://www.psychology.org.aulpublications/tip_sheets/anxiety

Document:
Organisation
as Author

title.

iWebsite

j (Goldberg,

iBlog Post

, (Myers, 2007)

2ooo)

i
i

t Goldberg, l. (2000). Dr. Ivan's depression central . Retieved from


http://www. psycom.net/depression.central. html

Myers, P. Z. (2OO7, January 22).The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of


partitioning your mind Web log postl. Retrieved from
http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngulaPAOT
lOl fthe_unfortunate-prerequisities.php

1
1

A blog comment where the author uses an alias would be referenced as


follows:

(MiddleKid, 2007)

MiddleKid. (2007, January 221. Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of
partitioning your mind [Web log comment]. Retrieved from
http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngulal2O0T l0l lthe_unfortunate_prerequisities.php

Video Blog

*"7;"*'-',
; Hall, A. (2007, December 20). How to study at Oxford University [Video file]. Retrieved
fromhttp://www.voutube.com/watch?v=vxAUSSLxLis
'
i

(Hall, 2007)

Post
(YouTube)

r
,|

*t

'

*'

Podcast:

:-

Web

zuru)

(Moss & Derrg'


Selig,2010)
;1lrvross

Podcast: Radio (Rheinberger & Hogan,2011)


show

(Presenter), & Selig, S. (Presenter). (2010). Conversations with ALMA: Healthy


I Moss, S.
i
catinn and
anrt maintaining
mAintainino motivation
motivAtion tArrdio
norlcastl Fairlight,
Fairlioht. NSW: Australian Lifestyle
Li{estvle
eating
[Audio podcast].
Mediiine Association. Retrieved from http://www.iifestylemedicine.com.aulhealthprofessionals/podcast.htm

i
I
'
i
I

For an episode from a radio series, use the same format as for a chapter
in a book, but list the script writer and director in the author position and
the producer in the editor position.

:
.

Podcast: TV
show

Rheinberger, J. (ScriptWriter), & Hogan, A. (Director). (2011, October 25). Episode


26 [Podcast radio programme]. ln C. Thompson (Producer), Nerdzilla. Hobart, TAS:
ABC Local Radio. Retrieved from
http://www.abc. net.aullocal/audio I 20 1 1 I 1 0 /2a13346730.htm

Brown, W. (Script Writer), & Brodie, K. (Director). (2007, June 4). From Lake Baikal to the
halfway mark, Yekaterinburg [Podcast television programme]. ln P. George
(Producer), Peking to Parls. Sydney, NSW: ABC Television. Retrieved from
http://www.abc. net.aultu/pekingtoparis/podcast

(Brown & Brodie, 2007)

For an episode from a television series, use the same format as for a
chapter in a book, but list the script writer and director in the author
position and the producer in the editor position.

iGomputer
iSoftware

{ (Schoonlans,2008)
t

I
i

Schoonjans, F. (2OOB). MedCalc Statistical Software (Version 9.5.2.0) [Computer


softwarel. Palo Alto, CA: 3d2f.Com. Retrieved from http://3d2f.com/programs/13-638medcalc- statistical- soft ware -download.shtml

I
?

Reference list entries are not necessary for standard off-the-shelf


software, Provide entries for special-sed software. Add the veYsi{,fi
I number after the name of the software
I

$.t$
=ry.Tr Lecture Notes:
lOttli,t"

l(w"ucr)

In-T.:$t;#*flmp.lq
7

(Bruck, zoos)

fuigt:iiG=*-=:ffi-fta
Bruck, D. (2OOgt. APP|016: Foundations of Psychological Hesearch, week 6
notes.[PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://library.vu.edu.aulsearch/r?

//guldes.library.vu.edu.au/content.php?pid=Z70421&sid=2230827[2510112013tli14147

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)A Examples - APA REFERENCING: A Brief cuide - LibGuides at Victoria University

i
I
N

SrnnCH=app1016'

Lecture notes obtained from any Learning Management System such as

WelCf or Pebblepad are referenced as above adding the URL ofthe


lwebsite.
N

*-;l"iiliF;

(Sonn,2011)

-"*l

;'*;;,i;;;;;;;;;;^"*",;"","n r"i"*

handoutl. School of Social Sciences and Psychology, Victoria University, Melbourne,

Suwetwattanakul, C. (2010). Developing a knowledge sharing model for the


implementation of the learning organization in Thailand (Unpublished doctoral
dissertation). Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia.
(Maddigan,2010)

Maddigan, P. (2010). Women and career advancement: a case study in the Australian
Federal Police (Unpublished master's thesis). Victoria University, Melbourne,
Australia

i
I
:
r

Thesis:
Published

) (Binder, 2009)

;
(Barua,2010)

name.

governance in Arab and MENA countries. Vienna, Austria: University of Vienna.

lBarua, S. (2010). Drought assessrnenf and forecasting using a nonlinear aggregated


drought index (Doctoral dissertation, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia).

Institutional
iRepository

I
I

Thesis:
Gommercial
database

it is part of the University's

eind"r, G. (2009). Corporate governance in Arab countries: Development of corporate


ii Binder,

Thesis:

Don't repeat the city of location if

Retrievedfromhttp://vuir.vu.edu.aui1598

(McGahuey, 2009)
dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses databases. (UMl No,
3051 52264)
1

.",";,.

"^*...-.-. ..,,

Thesis: from
the web

t (Bruckman, 1997)

Bruckman, A. (1997). MOOSE Crossing: Construction, community, and learning in a


networked viftual world for kids (DocIotal dissertation, Massachusetts lnstitute of
Technology). Retrieved from http://www-static.cc.gatech.edui-asb/thesis

Location of the university is not included for a U.S. thesis.

I
\

H=$ftil-tffif..
Acts & Bills

Ifi-.3...Yte ;EX
l--**---"
| ... according to s. 15.4 of the Antl.
Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld| ...

The lnteractive Gambling Bill 2001 (Cth)


prohibits...

Reference should cite the print source unless an electronie source.i,$


designated as the official version.

Acts &

Online

Bilfs:

... according to s. 15.4 otlhe


Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld\

Anti-

Reference

,:{,4't
I

Gonference
Proceeding

Anti-Discrimination Act 7997 (Old) s. 15.4 (Austl.). Retrieved from


http://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/Acts_SLs/Acts_S L_A.htm

(Kift & Nelson, 2005)


OR

//guides.library.vu.edu.au/content.php?pid=270427&sid=223082712510U20L3

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Kift, S., & Nelson, K. (2005). Beyond curriculum reform: Embedding the transition
experience. ln A. Brew & C. Asmar (Eds.), HEFDSA 2005 Conference: Higher
Education in a Changing World: Research and Development in Higher Education (pp'
225-235). Sydney, NSW: Higher Education Research and Development Society of
Austrilasia. Retrieved from

1:14:47 AMI

)A Examples - APA REFERENCING: A Brief Guide - Libcuides at Victoria University

Paper: Online

As Kift and Nelson (2005) claim

http ://conf erence. herdsa.org. au I 2005 I pdl I r eter eed/paper_294. pdf

Capitalise the names of conferences, symposia and meetings.

Gonference
Proceeding
Paper: Print

Prayag, L L., & Ramjee, R. (2009). The impact of Newcastle disease control on
smallholder poultry production in Mauritius. ln R. G. Alsers, P. B. Spadbrow, & M. P.
Young (Eds.), Village chickens, poverty alleviation and the sustainable control of
Newcastle disease: Proceedings of an international conference held in Dar es
Salaam, Tanzania, 5-7 October 2005 (pp. 132-134). Canbena, ACT: Australian
Centre for lnternational Agricultural Research.

(Prayag & Ramjee, 2009)

lf there are more than two editors a comma is placed before

the

ampersand.

9,i.rffillffi

lifij:::::.-'''
:a#i:Il:i:....:,..

:'

::'4

:: ;::::::

Email

lnterview
interview conducted on

This example is about referencing information from an interview that you have
condrcted. lf you use published interviews conducted by other people cite them as a
'Sound Recording'or a Video Recording'. See the 'Multi-Media Materials' page in this
guide for examples. See the 'Archival Materials' section below for examples of citing
interviews held in an Archive or Respository.

October 11, 2011,


Professor Peter Dawkins
stated that...
OR
The Vice Chancellor's
statement was confirmed
during an interview (P.
Dawkins, personal
communication, October 1 1,
2O11).
""7

ln a letter dated October f You


17,2011, Ben Cork stated

do not need to include an entry in the reference

list.

l that ...
OR
Ben Cork expressed sincere
regret in his letter (personal
communication, October 1 7,
-......**._..",.'*"-_.-

!_
1

"

",

Telephone call

oRi

Chancellor's i
statement was confirmed i
during a phone interview I
(S. Richards,
i
communication, October 11, I

The Vice

personal

tii

tl
t

ftts+.

.;;;;;;;;;;;
Letterfroma

.l

or
institutional
iArchive or

ti

l(Frank
(rranx, rges)

:Gollection of
i tetters from an

Frank, L. K. (1935, February 4). [Lefterto Robert M. Ogden]. Rockefeller Archive Centre (GEB series
1.3, Box 371, Folder 3877), Tarrytown, NY.

OR

As Frank (1935) says

...

-":_ (Zacharius,

Letter from an
I accessible private

:collection

government

il:lgstitorv

201 1\
1).

ri

1953)

tr

Zacharius. G. P. (1953, August 15). [Letter to William Rickel (W. Rickel, Trans.)]. Copy in possession of
Hendrika Vande Kemp.

:
t!
7

{ (Allport, G. W., 1930-1967,


$ Rttport to E. G. Wilstein,
I

""'4""'""''"'"^

lAllport, G. W. (1930-1967). Correspondence. Gordon W. Allport Papers (HUG

UniversitV Archives, Cambridge, MA.

//guides.library.vu.edu.au/content.php?pid=270421&sid=2230827[2510112013 11i14i47 AM]

41

18.10). Harvard

)A Examples - APA REFERENCING: A Brief Guide - LibGuides at Victoria University

Archive or

March 20, 1939)

Repository
(Allport, G. W., 1930-'1967,
E. G. Wilstein to Allport,
December 26, 1937)

Unpublished

papers, notes or
lectures from an

Archive,

Repository

I
I

or

I Berliner,
Berlinr A. (1959). Notesfor a lecture on reminiscences of Wundt and Leipzig. Anna Berliner Memoirs
1o (Box M50). Archives of the History of American Psychology, University of Akron, Akron, OH.

(Berliner, 1959) ...


OR
As discussed in Berliner
(1ese) ...

personal
collection

i
:

;Archival source
;for which the

6;t*^",

auhor or date is
known but not

stated on the

r*;;

[Allport, A.?]. [ca. 1934. Marion Taylor today - by the biographer. Unpublished manuscript, Marion
Taylor Papers" Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe College, Cambridge, MA.

Use square brackets I I to indicate information that does not appear on the
document. Use a question mark if there is uncertainty regarding names or datesr and
use circa abbreviated to ca. to indicate estimated dates.

document
*

lr"rri.r.r ruateriaiJi
with a corporate

author

lsubcommittee on rrrr""t"r

in
1949)

Hyqiene Personnel
School Programs,
$

i Subcommittee on Mental Hygiene Personnel in School Programs. (1949, November5-6).Meeting of


Subcommittee on Mental Hygiene Personnel in School Programs. David Shakow Papers (M1360)
f
Archives of the History of American Psychology, University of Akron, Akron, OH.
t

I
I

lnterview

Smith, M. B. (1989, August 12). lnterview by C. A. Kiesler [ape recording]. President's Oral History
Proiect, American Psychological Association. APA Archives, Washington, DC.

! lsmitn, toao;

recorded and
available in an

Archive or
Repos-tory

I
\
--"\,

Transcription of a

Sparkman, C. F. (1973). An oral history with Dr. Colley F. Sparkmanlnterviewer: Orley B. Caudill.
Mississippi Oral History Program (Vol. 289), University oJ Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg.

(Sparkman, 1973)

recorded

interview, where
the recording is
not accessible
r
r

Do not include the U.S. state name in the location

if it is part of the university name.

Newspaper article ) ("Psychoanalysis institute," I


Psychoanalysis institute to open in the new year. (1948, September 18). [Clipping from an unidentified
in an Archive,
i f S+6y
,
Dayton, OH newspaperl. Copy in possession of the author.
Repository or
I
i

peL:ol?l

first word of the title to place this reference in the alphabetical sequence of
your reference list.

I Use ttre

collection

Use a shortened

title I

;(-;;#u;ii-it-i"---i short) enclosed in

'

i double quotation

marks.

::....---*

Historical
| .^
iSci-Rrt Publishers. (1935). Scl-Art Publications [Brochure]. Cambridge, MA: Author. C. J. Roback
publication such 1(Sci-Art Publishers, 1935) i
P"p"r" (HUGFP 104.50, Box 2, Folder "Miscellaneous Psychology Materials"). Harvard University
as a brochure
Archives, Cambridge, MA.
I
'or pamphlet
t
i.._._.................

"*ru;;";;;-*,)
i';;,;,;;;;;;;;; ...._j*...
1

....

netd in an Archive,
Repository or

personal
; collection

#*tl,.f .-T,rd=irr,Y#il

I
)
',

,Efir;.-::f.*t

-E+f-**l*

Video Recording

(Russell, 1995)

;;,,""'";;

(Zubrycki,1991)

Streaming Video
1

DVD

Kroeber, A. L. (1 91 1 , Septembe0. lshi, full lace [Photograph]. Ethnographic Photographs of California


lndian and Sonora lndian Subjects byAlfred L. Kroeber, 1901-1930 (4690, Container "Yahi,"
Catalogue 15-5402). Phoebe Hearst Museum of Anthropology, Berkeley, CA.

(Moore, 2003)

t.

Russetl, G. (Writer, Co-Producer& Narrator), & Wiseman, P. (Co-Producer). (1995).Tackling bullies: An


Australian perspectlve [Video recording]. Melbourne, VIC: Video Classroom.

T. (Producer & Director), & Chi, J. (Writer). (19911. Bran nue dae: A musical journey [Video].
Retrieved f rom http://www.kanopystreamin g.com

Zubrycki,

i Moore, M. (Writer & Diredto0.

//guides.library.vu.edu.au/content.php?pid=270421&sid=223082712510U2013

l1il4t47 AMI

(2003). Bowling for Columbine. [DVD]. Melbourne, VIC: Umbrella Entertaiment

)A Examples - APA REFERENCING: A Brief Guide - Libcuides at Victoria University

.
' Radio

Show

(Browning,

2006)

,''
I

TV Show from

iseries
ltl
i SourrO

tr

(Masters,

{i

2006)

, Masters, C. (Presenter & Write0, & Johnson, P. (Director). (2006, March 27). Big fish, little fish [Television series
episodel. lnT.c.Alford(ExecutiveProducer), FourCorners.Sydney,NSW: ABCTelevlsion.

1975)

(St. Laurance

Chamber

Music Track
Album

from

llicrafarn
Microform

lmage:
f

,
t,'

c. C. (Speaker). (1975).

an Australian environmental hisfory [Cassette recording]. Perrh, WA:

Choir lCDl. Sydney, NSW: Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Sydney.

Yunupingu, G. G. (Performe|. (201 1). Gopuru. On Rrakala [CD]. Winnellie, NT: Skinnyfish.

(Doctoral
tI trronnh
a /lonAl
.an<pdtran.e< hl
trensfer of lr4inino
elderly {Doctofal
training in the elderlv
(1986), (:^dnili/a
of Fdtnatinn'
education: transfer
French, IL. A.
Cognitive consequences

I /trran^h
lqAA\
(French,1986)

dissertatlon, University of lllinois) lMicroform]. Ann Arbor, Ml: University Microfilms lnternational

',

J:'lt]19-:'photograph

(Duveneck,1a72)
1872)
| (Duveneck,

(Duveneck,

(caire,

1872)

exairpte

t Duveneck, F. (Arrist). (1872\. Whistling boy [Painting]. Cincinnati, OH: Cincinnati Art Museum.
jDuuen""k, F. (Artis0. (872).Whisttingboyllmageof paintingl. Cincinnati, OH: Cincinnati Art Museum. Retrieved

1880)

ji

jI

1
!1
l

from http:i/www artstor'org

Caire, N.J. (Photographer). (1880). Western entranceto Melbourne lnternational Exhibition lGlass slidel.
/A^^^^-i^^^^
(Accession no. uoo^n\
VIC: State Library of Victoria
H3860). it^lh^,,'^^
Metbourne, \/l^.Q+d+^lihr^.r,^+\/i^r^ria

i$

Map

2000 U.S
| {t-"*it County Geographic I Lewis County Geographic lnformation Services (Cartogrpaher). (2002). Population density,
C"nrus [Demographic map]. Retrieved from
I lnormation Services, 2oo2) I
http://www.co.lewis.wa.

Towards

u.Oi" Services. Murdoch University.

I St. L"urrno" Chamber choir (Performers), & McEwan, N. (Director). (2oo5l.commemoration, rituat and

(Yunupingu, 2011)

for
a

Bolton,

^'t
'i',an

--'

Recording
- t (Bolton,

',

Gompany
=i;il"nil'+=1*=
Report:

(Sumitomo Mitsui Banking


N
I Corporation, 2001)

.Annual

lprint

it
:

Company

Annual Report:

us/publicworks/maps/Demographics/census -pop-dens-2000'pdf

ilfry

lf a report has an identifying numberr include it in brackets, as follows:

Productivity Commission. (2002). Review of automotive assistance (lnquiry Report No. 25). Canberra,
ACT: Author.

; (BHP Billiton,

201 1)

BHP Billiton. (2O11). BHP Billiton Exploration and Development Report for the year ended 30 June
207 1. Retrieved from http://www.bhpbilliton.com/home/investors/reports/Pages/default.aspx

ionline
(Datastream, 201

1)

I Datastream. (2011). S&PASX2OO daily index data 2OOg-2010. Retrieved from Datastream

il,!.-1.ffiixT;ax.t: l
Wynne, B. M. (2003). LI.S. Patent No. 6,6o6,963. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

The

title of the patent is not included.

(European Patent No. EP 2178546 (A1), 2010)

Standard:
Retrieved from a
Database
Standard: Print

-T

(Producer), Message Stlck [Radio


i erowning, D. (Presente0. (2006, June 9). Black soccer heroes. ln J.-P. Ortolan
programmel. Guest speaker Dr. John Maynard. Sydney, NSW: ABC Radio.
I

Standards Australia. (2O08\. Personat flotatian devices - Genera! requirements (AS 4758.1-2003)
Retrieved from Australian Standards Online.

(Standards Australia,

Standards Australia. (1994). Information processing - text and office systems - office document
architecture (ODA) and interchange format: part 1O: formal specifications (AS 3951 .10:1994).
i..
Homebush, NSW:

Author.

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