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B. Com Part III (Hons.)

Exam 2016

13, Surya Sen Street,
Kolkata 700012
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Ayush Agarwal




13, Surya Sen Street,
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Kolkata - 700012

Sl. No.


Page No.


Meaning & Relevance of Occupational


Diseases in Modern Age


Ways by which Occupational Diseases

Spread out.
Intake of Food

Types of Occupational Diseases

9 - 13


14 - 16

Discussion of each diseases separately

Source of this disease

How to diagnose?
Preventive Measures

17 - 24


25 - 27





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Occupational diseases span a broad range of human illnesses, many of which
clinically and pathologically are not different from those of non-occupational
origins. They are contracted as a result of exposure to risk factors resulting, at
least partially, from work activities. The diagnosis of occupational diseases can
rarely be established on clinical grounds alone. It is essential to reveal the link
between occupation and disease because of the employers responsibility to
prevent occupational diseases and the compensation of ill workers. However, the
list of reportable occupational diseases, as well as the related compensation
systems, differs from country to country, making comparisons considerably
more difficult.
An occupational disease is a disease or disorder that is caused by the work or
working conditions. This means that the disease must have developed due to
exposures in the workplace. An occupational disease is any chronic Workrelated diseases have multiple causes, where factors in the work environment
may play a role, together with other risk factors, in the development of such
diseases i.e. ailment that occurs as a result of work or occupational activity.
An occupational disease is the consequence of exposure of varying duration to a
risk that exists during the course of an individuals job. It can be, for example,
daily absorption of small doses of dust or toxic vapours or repeated exposure to
physical agents such as noise or vibration. It is almost always impossible to
accurately determine the point at which the disease began, especially since
some occupational diseases do not become apparent until years after the first
exposure to the risk, and even sometimes long after the worker stopped
performing the task thought to be responsible.

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Meaning of Occupational Disease Relevance in Modern Age.
The overall picture that emerges from all parts of the developing world is one
of increased health and safety risks in all occupations for which data are
Dramatic changes in the global labour force will occur as globalization and
population growth continue to affect the global economy. For example, the
labour force in Latin America and the Caribbean is one of the fastest growing in
the world, with 217 million workers in 2000; the number of workers is expected
to reach 270 million in 2010 (PAHO 2002). The burden of disease and injury
attributable to workplace risks in the formal and informal sectors is grave and
will continue to rise. Inadequate data and reporting systems make capturing the
effect of workplace risks problematic. Nonetheless, several recent efforts by
international bodies have shed some light on the staggering burden, although in
general attempts to derive evidence-based estimates are likely to
systematically and significantly underrepresent the extent of the problem.
The gravity of workplace risks is seen in the recent International Labour
Organization (ILO) estimate that among the world's 2.7 billion workers, at least
2 million deaths per year are attributable to occupational diseases and injuries.
The ILO estimates for fatalities are the tip of the iceberg because data for
estimating nonfatal illness and injury are not available for most of the globe.
The ILO also notes that about 4 percent of the GDP is lost because of workrelated diseases and injuries (Takala 2002).
A recent effort of the World Health Organization (WHO) has provided insight
into the global dimensions of several selected occupational health risks. WHO
included five occupational risk factors in its comparative risk assessment in a
unified framework of 26 major health risk factors contributing to the overall
global burden of disease and injury (Ezzati and others 2002, 2003; WHO
2002). The WHO comparative approach used a common statistical model that
allows a reader to compare the contribution (attributable fraction) of several
risk factors to a single outcomelung cancer, for example. Stringent
requirements for consistency in describing risk factors limited the number of
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occupational risk factors that could be included in the study. For all risk
factors, it was necessary to estimate an exposed population and exposure levels
for 224 age, sex, and country groups in the 14 WHO geographic regions of the
world. Where possible, data could be extrapolated to age, sex, and country
groups for which data were not available, based on similarities in demographic,
socioeconomic, or other relevant indicators. Because knowing the existing
burden of disease and injury globally was necessary, the only outcomes included
were those for which WHO had rates of disease or injury for all regions
calculated by International Classification of Disease (ICD) codes. Finally,
estimates of the risk factorburden relationships by age, sex, and WHO sub
region were generated. Risk measures (relative risks or mortality rates) for the
health outcomes resulting from exposure to the risk factors were determined
primarily from studies published in peer-reviewed journals. Adjustments were
made to account for differences in levels of exposure; exposure duration; and
age, sex, and sub region, as appropriate. The information about each risk factor
was entered into the WHO common model for comparative analysis. The
resulting burden was described as the attributable fraction of disease or
injury, using mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost, with one
DALY being equal to the loss of one healthy life yearthe common currency
measure that includes mortality and morbidity.
Because of the requirements for global data, only five occupational risk factors
could be described: risks for injuries, carcinogens, airborne particulates,
ergonomic risks for back pain, and noise. The exposed worker populations were
estimated using an approach based on the International Standard Industrial
Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC), an economic classification
system of the United Nations that organizes all economic activities by economic
sectors and relevant sub groupings (UN 2000). The ISIC system is used almost
universally by national and international statistical services to categorize
economic activity; therefore, it allows global comparisons. The ILO has
developed economically active population (EAP) estimates by applying economic
activity rates, by sex and by age group (older than age 15), to the population
estimates and projections of the United Nations (ILO 1996). The EAP provides
the most comprehensive global accounting of people who may be exposed to
occupational risks because it includes people in paid employment, the selfemployed, and people who work to produce goods and services for their own
household consumption, both in the formal and in the informal sectors (ILO
2002a). For the WHO comparative risk assessment, the EAP was further
divided into nine economic subsectors (where people work) and seven
occupational categories (what type of work people do), on the basis of countrylevel data for 31 countries (ILO 1995).
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The absence of data in much of the developing world limited the range of
occupational risk factors that WHO could measure, and the available data
excluded children under age 15 who work. The WHO comparative risk
assessment also excluded important occupational risks for reproductive
disorders, dermatitis, infectious disease, coronary heart disease, intentional
injuries, musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremities, and most cancers.
Psychosocial risk factors such as workplace stress could not be studied, nor
could pesticide, heavy metal, or solvent exposures. The potential consequences
of omitting just pesticides from the global burden analysis can be illustrated by
the situation in Central America (PAHO 2002). The isthmus is primarily an
agricultural and forested area of .5 million square kilometres, of which 40
percent is arable. Pesticide imports almost tripled from 15,000 metric tons in
1992 to 41,000 in 1998 and 35 percent of the pesticides were restricted in the
exporting countries. In 2000, the sub region imported some 1.5 kilograms of
pesticides per inhabitant per year, a quantity 2.5 times greater than the world
average estimated by WHO. Exposures in the formal and informal sectors
extend to the homes and families of the pesticide workers. Although this
situation is common in developing nations, the WHO comparative risk
assessment captured none of these exposures.
The ILO and WHO data provide the most current, yet still incomplete, picture
of the overall problem of occupational health risks. Nonetheless, with just the
few occupational risk factors studied in depth by WHO a picture emerges of
the significant effect of largely preventable conditions (Ezzati and others
2004). WHO found that occupational injuries result in about 312,000 deaths
per year for the world's 2.7 billion workers; this figure contrasts to the
approximately 6,000 deaths per year caused by occupational injuries for the
150 million workers in the United States. As in the industrial world, high injury
fatality rates in the developing world are clustered in certain sectors, including
agriculture, construction, and mining. Using this metric, occupational injuries
account for more than 10 million DALYs and 8 percent of unintentional injuries
The second occupational factor WHO analyzed was the effect of exposure to
workplace lung carcinogens (such as asbestos, diesel exhaust, and silica) and
leukemogens (such as benzene, ionizing radiation, and ethylene oxide). WHO
concluded that occupational exposures account for about 9 percent of all
cancers of the lung, trachea, and bronchus and about 2 percent of all
leukaemias. Overall, about 102,000 deaths were attributable to these two
occupational cancers and about 1 million DALYs.

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Estimates of the global burden of chronic lung disease demonstrate the

significant contribution of occupational exposures, which account for about 13
percent of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and about 11
percent of asthma. In total, WHO found the annual worldwide burden of workrelated COPD to be about 318,000 deaths per year and about 3.7 million DALYs.
The occupational risk contribution to the worldwide asthma burden was about
38,000 deaths and about 1.6 million DALYs, reflecting the fact that a great
deal of asthma occurs at younger ages and is not fatal. WHO found that 37
percent of all back pain worldwide is attributable to work, resulting in an
estimated 800,000 DALYs, a significant loss of time from work, and a high
economic loss. Worldwide, 16 percent of all hearing loss is attributable to
workplace exposures, resulting in 4.2 million DALYs.
WHO made a special risk analysis of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV infections
among health care workers caused by contaminated sharps, such as syringe
needles, scalpels, and broken glass (WHO 2002). This analysis illustrates the
general problem of high risks existing in the small worker population having
exposure. WHO found that, among the 35 million health workers worldwide,
there were 3 million percutaneous exposures to blood borne pathogens in 2000.
This finding is equivalent to between 0.1 and 4.7 sharps injuries per year per
health worker. WHO concluded that of all the hepatitis B and hepatitis C
present in health care workers, about 40 percent was caused by sharps injuries,
with wide regional variation. WHO also found that between 1 and 12 percent of
HIV infections in health care workers was caused by sharps injuries. The
comparative risk assessment by region and type of infection indicates where
special emphasis is needed. Clearly, solutions exist to these problems, as shown
by the countries that have engaged in serious prevention efforts. Proper needle
handling and waste management, substitutions for sharps, hepatitis B virus
(HBV) immunization, post exposure prophylaxis, training, and legislative
measures have been successful. Beyond the personal and workplace
consequences, the potentially devastating societal impact of loss of this critical
worker group can be anticipated if prevention measures are not ensured in
developing countries, where the proportion of health care workers in the
population is already small.

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Ways by Which Occupational Disease
Spread Out.
3.1 Contact:
Healthcare workers (HCWs) are occupationally exposed to a variety of
infectious diseases during the performance of their duties. The delivery of
healthcare services requires a broad range of workers, such as physicians,
nurses, technicians, clinical laboratory workers, first responders, building
maintenance, security and administrative personnel, social workers, food
service, housekeeping, and mortuary personnel. Moreover, these workers can be
found in a variety of workplace settings, including hospitals, nursing care
facilities, outpatient clinics (e.g., medical and dental offices, and occupational
health clinics), ambulatory care centres, and emergency response settings. The
diversity among HCWs and their workplaces makes occupational exposure to
infectious diseases especially challenging. For example, not all workers in the
same healthcare facility, not all individuals with the same job title, and not all
healthcare facilities will be at equal risk of occupational exposure to infectious
The primary routes of infectious disease transmission in US healthcare settings
are contact, droplet, and airborne. Contact transmission can be sub-divided into
direct and indirect contact. Direct contact transmission involves the transfer
of infectious agents to a susceptible individual through physical contact with an
infected individual (e.g., direct skin-to-skin contact). Indirect contact
transmission occurs when infectious agents are transferred to a susceptible
individual when the individual makes physical contact with contaminated items
and surfaces (e.g., door knobs, patient-care instruments or equipment, bed rails,
examination table). Two examples of contact transmissible infectious agents
include Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycinresistant enterococcus (VRE).
Droplets containing infectious agents are generated when an infected person
coughs, sneezes, or talks, or during certain medical procedures, such as
suctioning or endotracheal intubation. Transmission occurs when droplets
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generated in this way come into direct contact with the mucosal surfaces of the
eyes, nose, or mouth of a susceptible individual. Droplets are too large to be
airborne for long periods of time, and droplet transmission does not occur
through the air over long distances. Two examples of droplet transmissible
infectious agents are the influenza virus which causes the seasonal flu
and Bordetella pertussis which causes pertussis (i.e., whooping cough).

3.2 Respiration:
Airborne transmission occurs through very small particles or droplet nuclei that
contain infectious agents and can remain suspended in air for extended periods
of time. When they are inhaled by a susceptible individual, they enter the
respiratory tract and can cause infection. Since air currents can disperse these
particles or droplet nuclei over long distances, airborne transmission does not
require face-to-face contact with an infected individual. Airborne transmission
only occurs with infectious agents that are capable of surviving and retaining
infectivity for relatively long periods of time in airborne particles or droplet
nuclei. Only a limited number of diseases are transmissible via the airborne
route. Two examples of airborne transmissible agents include Mycobacterium
tuberculosis which causes tuberculosis (TB) and the rubella virus which causes
Several OSHA standards and directives are directly applicable to protecting
workers against transmission of infectious agents. These include OSHA's Blood
borne Pathogens standard (29 CFR 1910.1030) which provides protection of
workers from exposures to blood and body fluids that may contain blood borne
infectious agents; OSHA's Personal Protective Equipment standard (29 CFR
1910.132) and Respiratory Protection standard (29 CFR 1910.134) which provide
protection for workers when exposed to contact, droplet and airborne
transmissible infectious agents; and OSHA's TB compliance directive which
protects workers against exposure to TB through enforcement of existing
applicable OSHA standards and the General Duty Clause of the OSH Act.
Occupational diseases are often thought to be uniquely and specifically related
to factors in the work environment; examples of such diseases are the
pneumoconioses. However, in addition to other factors (usually related to
lifestyle), occupational exposures also contribute to the development or
worsening of common respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma and lung cancer.
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Information about the occurrence of occupational respiratory diseases and

their contribution to morbidity and mortality in the general population is
provided by different sources of varying quality. Some European countries do
not register occupational diseases and in these countries, information about the
burden of such diseases is completely absent. In others, registration is limited
to cases where compensation is awarded, which have to fulfil specific
administrative or legal criteria as well as strict medical criteria; this leads to
biased information and underestimation of the real prevalence. Underreporting of occupational disease is most likely to occur in older patients who
are no longer at work but whose condition may well be due to their previous job.
In addition, there may be no incentive to report occupational diseases, and
insufficient awareness among physicians may also contribute.
In some countries, schemes have been developed for the voluntary reporting of
occupational respiratory diseases by respiratory and occupational physicians.
The best known of these schemes is the SWORD (Surveillance of Work Related
and Occupational Respiratory Disease) system initiated in the UK in 1989. While
such voluntary reporting schemes have drawbacks, they nevertheless enable us
to estimate the contribution of work to the occurrence of respiratory disease
and to identify priorities for prevention.
For diseases with multiple causes, such as asthma, COPD and lung cancer,
reliable information on the contribution of occupational exposures is provided
by well-designed epidemiological studies. One complication is that occupational
asthma is not directly measured (diagnosed) in general population studies, and
attributable risks have to be calculated using often quite crude information
about exposure and the phenotype of asthma. Based on such epidemiological
analyses, it has been shown that the population-attributable fraction of
occupational factors in mortality and morbidity from respiratory diseases is far
from negligible: for asthma and COPD, respectively, it varies between 215%
and 1520%, resulting in a considerable number of cases in the European Union
(EU), even if this is often difficult to substantiate and document in individual
subjects. A similarly high contribution is expected for lung cancer.
The inhalation of certain agents can cause acute injury to the respiratory tract
of varying severity. Occasional exposure to high levels of metal fumes or
organic dusts contaminated with microorganisms and endotoxins may lead to
metal fume fever and organic dust toxic syndrome, respectively. These
inhalation fevers are the clinical expressions of a relatively benign and
transient, though nonetheless unacceptable, condition of intense pulmonary
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inflammation. Such reactions occur commonly in agricultural work. Swedish and

Finnish surveys indicate that about one in 10 farmers has experienced an acute
febrile attack resulting from organic dust exposure. The possible long-term
effects among affected subjects are poorly understood.
More severe injury to the tracheobronchial tree and lung parenchyma may
result from the inhalation of toxic gases, vapours or complex mixtures of
compounds released from explosions, fires, leaks or spills from industrial
installations, transport accidents and military or terrorist operations. Such
inhalation incidents can have massive dimensions and affect entire communities.
Toxic tracheobronchitis or pneumonitis with pulmonary oedema can be fatal; in
survivors, these conditions may lead to long-term structural or functional
effects, including irritant induced asthma (reactive airways dysfunction
syndrome (RADS)). Fire-fighters and emergency personnel are at particularly
high risk, as are those working in confined areas.

3.3 Intake of Food:

An occupational disease can be, for example, daily absorption of small doses of
dust or toxic vapours or repeated exposure to physical agents such as noise or
vibration. It is almost always impossible to accurately determine the point at
which the disease began, especially since some occupational diseases do not
become apparent until years after the first exposure to the risk, and even
sometimes long after the worker stopped performing the task thought to be
For these reasons it is often very difficult to be specific about the date, place
and cause and effect relationship, and it is usually hard, or impossible, to
provide irrefutable proof that the disease is occupational in origin. Entitlement
to compensation must therefore, in a great many cases, be based on medical and
technical criteria of probability, and on administrative criteria of presumption.
We will see that these two concepts are fairly different and sometimes even
It should be said that some occupational diseases have an accidental origin and
are, legally speaking, treated as occupational accidents. This would apply for
example to some cases of acute poisoning caused by the bursting of a carboy or
working in a tank that had contained toxic substances and had not been properly
cleaned or ventilated. Here, there was an easily identifiable material event and
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it is only the consequences that can be hard to link to the cause, if the first
symptoms of the disease only appear after a few days.
Other occupational diseases may result from accidents that occurred at work,
for example:

Tetanus can be contracted after accidental dirty injury, due to the

jab of a nail on a construction site;
Osteo-arthritis often occurs in caisson workers who have had
decompression accidents.

The victim will receive compensation covering all costs. If the condition is not
covered under the system relating to occupational disease, it can be
recognised as a complication or sequella of an occupational accident. This is
the approach that has been adopted in the legislation (by dcret) for the
compensation of HIV infection contracted at the workplace.

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Types of Occupational Diseases.

4.1 Asbestosis:
Asbestosis is caused by the breathing in and retention of asbestos fibres. It
usually occurs after high intensity and/or long-term exposure to asbestos and is
therefore regarded as an occupational lung disease. People with extensive
occupational exposure to the mining, manufacturing, handling, or removal of
asbestos are at risk of developing asbestosis.
It is a chronic inflammatory and scarring disease affecting the tissue of
the lungs. They may experience severe shortness of breath and are at an
increased risk for certain cancers, including lung cancer. Asbestosis specifically
refers to fibrosis within the lung tissue from asbestos, and not scarring around
the outside of the lungs.

4.2 Silicosis:
Silicosis is a form of occupational lung disease caused by inhalation
of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in the
form of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs. It is a type
of pneumoconiosis. Silicosis is characterized by shortness of breath, cough,
fever, and cyanosis (bluish skin). It may often be misdiagnosed as pulmonary
edema (fluid in the lungs), pneumonia, or tuberculosis.

4.3 Anthracosis (Black Lung):

Coal workers' pneumoconiosis, severe state, develops after the initial, milder
form of the disease known as anthracosis (anthrac coal, carbon). This is
often asymptomatic and is found to at least some extent in all urban
dwellers[1] due to air pollution. Prolonged exposure to large amounts of coal dust
can result in more serious forms of the disease, simple coal workers'
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pneumoconiosis and complicated coal workers' pneumoconiosis (or Progressive

massive fibrosis, or PMF). More commonly, workers exposed to coal dust
develop industrial bronchitis, clinically defined as chronic bronchitis associated
with workplace dust exposure. The incidence of industrial bronchitis varies with
age, job, exposure, and smoking. In non-smokers (who are less prone to develop
bronchitis than smokers), studies of coal miners have shown a 16% to 17%
incidence of industrial bronchitis.

4.4 Siderosis:
Siderosis is the deposition of iron in tissue.
When used without qualification, it usually refers to an environmental disease
of the lung.
Siderosis of the lung is generally assumed to be a benign condition, not
associated with respiratory symptoms. A review of the literature suggests that
this assumption may be incorrect, and that siderosis may lead both to
symptomatic and functional changes. It is known that iron ore miners have a
raised lung cancer mortality, but this has been attributed to smoking, or
exposure to tars or radon. Mortality studies among iron workers (haematite
miners, welders, iron foundry and steel workers) show, however, that an
association exists between working with iron and death, both from lung cancer
and other respiratory causes. A number of surveys have examined respiratory
function and symptoms among welders. These indicate that welding is associated
with obstructive airways disease. The effect of the welding fume on
respiratory function and symptoms can be as great as that of smoking. Iron has
also been shown to cause fibrosis in some cases.

4.5 Byssinosis:
Byssinosis, also called "brown lung disease" or "Monday fever", is
an occupational lung disease caused by exposure to cotton dust in inadequately
ventilated working environments. Byssinosis commonly occurs in workers who are
employed in yarn and fabric manufacture industries. It is now thought that the
cotton dust directly causes the disease and some believe that the causative
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agents are endotoxins that come from the cell walls of gram
negative bacteria that grow on the cotton.

4.6 Bagassosis:
Inhalation of sugarcane dust particles in an occupational setting can cause
various lung symptoms. The severity of symptoms varies depending on the
duration of the exposure. The lung symptoms result from the body's immune
system reacting to exposure to the sugarcane dust particles.

4.7 Tabacosis:
Tobacco poisoning describes the symptoms of the toxic effects of
consuming tobacco, which can potentially be deadly, though serious or fatal
overdoses are rare. Historically, most cases of tobacco poisoning have been the
result of use of nicotine as an insecticide. More recent cases of poisoning
typically appear to be in the form of Green Tobacco Sickness or due to
accidental ingestion of tobacco or tobacco products or ingestion of nicotinecontaining plants.
The estimated lower limit of a lethal dose of nicotine has been reported as
between 500 and 1000 mg. Children may become ill following ingestion of
one cigarette; ingestion of more than this may cause a child to become severely
ill. The nicotine in the e-liquid of an electronic cigarette can be hazardous to
infants and children. In some cases children have become poisoned by topical
medicinal creams which contain nicotine.
People who harvest or cultivate tobacco may experience Green Tobacco
Sickness (GTS), a type of nicotine poisoning caused by dermal exposure to wet
tobacco leaves. This occurs most commonly in young, inexperienced tobacco
harvesters who do not consume tobacco.

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5.1 ASBESTOSIS:5.1.1 Source of this Disease.

It is caused by the breathing in and retention of asbestos fibres. It usually
occurs after high intensity and/or long-term exposure to asbestos (particularly
in those individuals working on the production or end-use of products containing
asbestos) and is therefore regarded as an occupational lung disease. People with
extensive occupational exposure to the mining, manufacturing, handling, or
removal of asbestos are at risk of developing asbestosis.

5.1.2 How to Diagnose?

Diagnosing asbestos-related health problems can take some time. The
diagnostic process will begin with a medical history and physical exam. Your
doctor will ask you about other medical problems you have as well as any history
of asbestos exposure. Depending on the findings of the exam and history, your
doctor may order tests including the following:

X-rays of the chest and/or abdomen

Lung function tests

CT scans


5.1.3 Effects
There are different forms of asbestos. Although all forms are considered
hazardous, different types of asbestos fibers may be associated with different
health risks. For example, the results of several studies suggest that amphibole
forms (which have longer, more durable fibers) may be more harmful than
chrysotile forms (which have curly fibers), particularly for mesothelioma risk,
because they tend to stay in the lungs longer. Asbestos cancer and other health
problems take many years to develop. Most cases of lung cancer or asbestosis in
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asbestos workers occur 15 or more years after initial exposure to asbestos. For
mesothelioma, the lag time is even longer. The time between initial asbestos
exposure and mesothelioma commonly has been 30 years or more.

5.1.4 Preventive measures

The best way Asbestosis can be prevented is by limiting exposure to asbestos.
Various countries Governments have made laws requiring industries involved
with asbestos utilization to provide adequate safety measures to their

5.2 SILICOSIS:5.2.1 Source of this disease

Sandblasting for surface preparation.

Crushing and drilling rock and concrete.

Masonry and concrete work (e.g., building and road construction and

Mining/tunnelling; demolition work.

Cement and asphalt pavement manufacturing.

5.2.2 How to Diagnose?

There are three key elements to the diagnosis of silicosis. First, the patient
history should reveal exposure to sufficient silica dust to cause this illness.
Second, chest imaging (usually chest x-ray) that reveals findings consistent
with silicosis. Third, there are no underlying illnesses that are more likely to be
causing the abnormalities. Physical examination is usually unremarkable unless
there is complicated disease. Also, the examination findings are not specific for
silicosis. Pulmonary function testing may reveal airflow limitation, restrictive
defects, reduced diffusion capacity, mixed defects, or may be normal
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(especially without complicated disease). Most cases of silicosis do not require

tissue biopsy for diagnosis, but this may be necessary in some cases, primarily
to exclude other conditions.

5.2.3 Effects

Lung cancer Silica has been classified as a human lung carcinogen.

Bronchitis/Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder.

Tuberculosis Silicosis makes an individual more susceptible to TB.

Scleroderma a disease affecting skin, blood vessels, joints and skeletal


Possible renal disease.

5.2.4 Preventive measures

Use all available engineering controls such as blasting cabinets and local
exhaust ventilation. Avoid using compressed air for cleaning surfaces.

Use water sprays, wet methods for cutting, chipping, drilling, sawing,
grinding, etc.

Substitute non-crystalline silica blasting material.

Use respirators approved for protection against silica; if sandblasting,

use abrasive blasting respirators.

Do not eat, drink or smoke near crystalline silica dust.

Wash hands and face before eating, drinking or smoking away from
exposure area.

5.3 TOBACOSIS:Page | 19

5.3.1 Source of this disease

Excessive exposure to tobacco products especially in tobacco factories such as
cigarette factories.

5.3.2 How to diagnose?

Proper testing of Lungs can identify whether a person is suffering from
Tobacosis. It weakens the inner muscles of the lungs which can be known easily
by some lung tests.

5.3.3 Effects
The degree of this disease if increases above a certain level may even cause
lung cancer which can be fatal.

5.3.4 Preventive Measures

Use of proper gas masks in the tobacco industry

Avoid letting the labours overtime in tobacco industries

Regular Check up of the labours.

5.4 ANTHRACOSIS(Also called Coal

Workers Pneumoconiosis):5.4.1 Source of this disease.
Coal dust is not as fibrogenic as is silica dust.[6] Coal dust that enters the lungs
can neither be destroyed nor removed by the body. The particles are engulfed
by resident alveolar or interstitial macrophages and remain in the lungs,
residing in the connective tissue or pulmonary lymph nodes.

5.4.2 How to Diagnose?

There are three basic criteria for the diagnosis of CWP:

Chest radiography consistent with CWP

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An exposure history to coal dust (typically underground coal mining) of

sufficient amount and latency

Exclusion of alternative diagnoses (mimics of CWP)

Symptoms and pulmonary function testing relate to the degree of respiratory

impairment, but are not part of the diagnostic criteria. As noted above, the
chest X-ray appearance for CWP can be virtually indistinguishable from
silicosis. Chest CT, particularly high-resolution scanning (HRCT), are more
sensitive than plain X-ray for detecting the small round opacities.

5.4.3 Effects
Coal dust provides a sufficient stimulus for the macrophage to release various
products, including enzymes, cytokines, oxygen radicals, and fibroblast growth
factors, which are important in the inflammation and fibrosis of CWP.
Aggregations of carbon-laden macrophages can be visualised under a microscope
as granular, black areas. In serious cases, the lung may grossly appear black.
These aggregations can cause inflammation and fibrosis, as well as the
formation of nodular lesions within the lungs. The centres of dense lesions may
become necrotic due to ischemia, leading to large cavities within the lung.

5.4.4 Preventive Measures

The only way to prevent anthracosis disease is to avoid long-term exposure to
coal dust and wearing gas mask all the time when you are in contact of Coal dust.

5.5 SIDEROSIS:5.5.1 Source of this disease

Iron oxide present in welding material, foundries, iron ore mining. It can also be
caused by powdered hematite, sometimes used by Egyptians to protect tombs.

5.5.2 How to Diagnose?

Siderosis/Welder's Lung can easily be diagnosed with the help of radiographic

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X-rays: Chest x-rays will show extremely minute nodules seen mostly in
the middle-third part of the lungs or the lower lungs. These nodules
disappear after exposure to the offending metal is removed.

CT scan: A CT scan of the chest will show minute nodules with

extremely fine branching lines distributed diffusely in the lung.

5.5.3 Effects
It causes scarring of lung tissue (beginning around
terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts and extending into the alveolar walls)
resulting from the inhalation of iron oxide. It may also effect the blood and can
cause Superficial siderosis.
Siderosis, in itself is not serious. It may, however, help your doctor determine
how much exposure you have had to particles and fumes on the job that can
cause other serious diseases. For example, silicosis is a disease that can lead to
disability and, sometimes, respiratory failure. People who work with the iron and
iron oxide dust that that causes siderosis also tend to work with the silica and
silicate dust that causes silicosis

5.5.4 Preventive Measures

The main way to prevent development of Siderosis is to eliminate exposure to
iron oxide fumes. In case of professional welders or miners, they need to make
sure to take appropriate safety measures when they start working like wearing
a facemask. Apart from this the following steps can be taken:

Adequate ventilation of the workplace

The employer should make sure that all workers get regular checkups
with the physician so as to detect any lung damage early and slow down

the progression of the disease process

In case if an individual is a smoker, then he or she needs to avoid smoking
in the workplace and even better quit smoking altogether.

5.6 BYSSINOSIS:Page | 22

5.6.1 Sources of this disease

It is now thought that the cotton dust directly causes the disease and some
believe that the causative agents are endotoxins that come from the cell walls
of gram negative bacteria that grow on the cotton. Although bacterial
endotoxin is a likely cause, the absence of similar symptoms in workers in other
industries exposed to endotoxins makes this uncertain.

5.6.2 How to Diagnose?

To diagnose byssinosis, the physician takes a comprehensive medical history and
the questions may relate to any exposure and the length of exposure. A
thorough physical examination is also conducted with special emphasis on the
lungs. Other screenings to conform the diagnosis include a chest x-ray, CT of
the chest, and PFTs.

5.6.3 Effects
Byssinosis can ultimately result in narrowing of the airways, lung scarring and
death from infection or respiratory failure.

5.6.4 Preventive Measures

Wear a mask while working or near dust.
If a person is a smoker, quitting can also reduce your risk of byssinosis

5.7 BAGASSOSIS:5.7.1 Sources of this disease

Bagassosis is caused by a substance called bagasse which is produced when juice
is taken out from sugarcane. This substance is used for making paper. It is
believed that a fungus is possibly involved in development of Bagassosis.

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5.7.2 How to Diagnose?

A chest x-ray is enough for a confirmatory diagnosis of Bagassosis as it will
show mottling of lungs or may show a shadow.

5.7.3 Effects
1. Breathlessness,
2. Cough
3. Haemoptysis,
4. Slight fever
5. Acute diffuse bronchiolitis may also occur.

5.7.4 Preventive Measures

The following are precautionary measures that can be taken to avoid the spread
of bagassosis:

Dust control-prevention /suppression of dust such as wet process,

enclosed apparatus, exhaust ventilation etc. should be used.

Personal protection- masks/ respirators.
Medical control- initial medical examination & periodical checkups of

Bagasse control- keep moisture content above 20% and spray bagasse
with 2% propionic acid.

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All the occupational diseases are mainly that occurs as a result of work or
occupational activity. Government should take reasonable steps to make
mandatory for the Companies to stop occupational diseases. Though its not
possible to completely eradicate all these diseases completely as of now but
still it should be the entrepreneurs who should take the prevention of these
disease as their moral and social responsibility and try to make the workplace as
safe as possible as there is no way money can be over a mans life.
To conclude the project I must say that educating the workers about how to be
safe and also providing for proper treatment to the infected is very important
from the company owners point of view. Though it is really a challenging task
and might need lots of resources but the resources are well spent if they can
actually save someones life.
Occupational diseases are hazardous and keeping proper checks in the
workplace is very important, especially if it is a manufacturing or a mining
industries. Most of the occupational diseases are related to lungs which cannot
be replaced. So its important to protect the lungs. Workers should be imparted
knowledge about the safety measures as a single persons life could be linked
with various others. So saving one person from getting into the clutches of
these diseases are worth the money spent on the preventive measures.

Long-time limiting illnesses or limiting health conditions are very common among
employees at workplaces For example; they include people recovering from
cancer, people with allergies, people with musculoskeletal disorders, people
suffering from mental disorders etc. Normally their work life ability is
evaluated by medical personnel, but they need special attention in any workplace
risk assessment. These diseases cause economic costs for employers and
employees and their burden of disease can be expressed also in DALY units.
Depression is becoming a leading contributor to the burden of disease
worldwide and it is often at least partly related to work. People often feel
today's work meaningless and without any real purpose. Depression seems to
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affect women more often than men. The conclusion of an earlier WHO study
was that the highest occupational attributable fractions were attributable to
low back pain, hearing loss, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),
asthma, unintentional injuries and lung cancer [20].

Risk prevention and management activities in companies and in society should

be directed more towards long term limiting illnesses and diseases, which would
reduce considerably disability adjusted life years. For example the prevention
of lung cancer and other cancers is important. Approximately one third of
cancers are considered preventable (WHO, 2009). As many as 90% of cancers
are likely to have an external etiological factor, which means that the
prevention possibilities may be even higher. This 90% takes into account the
environment in its widest sense, including such factors as diet, lack of physical
exercise, obesity, smoking, alcohol use etc. It has been estimated that 70% of
mesotheliomas (asbestos), 20% of sinonasal cancer (wood dust, formaldehyde,
etc.), 12% of lung cancers (various dusts and chemicals) and 5% of laryngeal
cancers (asbestos etc.) could be avoided, if the causative occupational exposure
were eliminated.

Strategies for controlling occupational exposures to carcinogens have been set

out in the EU Carcinogen Directive as well as in national legislation (e.g. UK,
Finland). It has been argued that priority should be given to controlling those
agents that contribute most to the burden of cancer and other serious
diseases. High individual risk has also been addressed, particularly in the
context where a group of workers is exposed to high concentrations of
hazardous substances. Many diseases of public health importance develop slowly
and therefore the risks are not taken seriously sufficiently early. A
precautionary approach is needed to reduce exposure and risks to occupational
carcinogens especially, where the risk is not clearly recognizable by employers
or employees.

Economic costs from accidents fall mainly on the society and individual workers
in most countries. Long term limiting illnesses are responsible for a major
economic burden to individuals, companies and society. The calculation of
economic costs of accidents and occupational diseases can serve well in
awareness raising in companies and as such this may increase their motivation to
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improve safety and working conditions. In addition, the principle of linking the
accident rate in a particular company to its insurance costs could also focus the
attention and motivate companies to make improvements in occupational safety
and health.

Psychosocial issues such as work-related stress, violence and harassment have

become more important from the point of workers partly due to change of
working life in Europe. They have also been considered as important new and
emerging risks although they are not new as such. This issue emphasizes the
importance of good management in companies.

A better understanding of the way in which enterprises tackle all aspects of

health and safety is particularly important according to the European Survey of
Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks (ESENER) study.

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I am thankful to Calcutta university and then to Umeschandra college, The
Principal T. Haque and our H.O.D & professor P.R.Das for their advice, with
their guidance and supervision I have been able to complete this project.
The project had enlightened me with the various health hazards that our work
force are facing at their work ambiance and the proper handling of situation of
such health hazards. I came to know about various preventive techniques and
proper diagnosis that are required regarding the diseases that are deal with in
this project.
My sincere thanks to my college and the University for providing me with such
a project which provided me with such important topic that affects the day to
day working of the industries. I would also like to thank my parents and friends
for their valuable support in accomplishing this project.


Ayush Agarwal
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Magazine & Journals/ Newspaper:
Indian Journal of Medical Research(IJMR)
The American Journal of Medicine
The Disease Management Association of America
British Medical Bulletin
Disease spread report analysis
Journal of Occupational Diseases
U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare
Occupational Diseases A Guide to their Recognition
National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH).


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