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STARTING WITH THE NAME OF ALLAH,

THE MOST BENEFICIENT AND THE


MOST MERCIFUL

Presented by
SHARIQ SHAIKH
LECTURER
EED, NEDUET

Session Test

10 marks
8th week

Assignment

5 marks
6th week

5 marks
Group
Presentation 3rd to 8thweek

GANTT CHART ACCORDING TO EACH PHASE ALONG WITH THE COMPLETE


PROJECT PHASE IS MADE FOR SMOOTHLY MEETING THE TIMELINE OF PROJECT

Transmission system is necessary for:

1. Transferring the power from the bulk power sources to the main
transmission network.
2. For the main transmission network.
3. For system interconnection.
4. For transfer of power from main transmission network to the
distribution systems.
With the passage of electrical industry evolution, design constraints have
been overcome up to great extent. Therefore making it possible to overcome
the previous challenges.

As power flow is proportional to the square of voltage therefore research


had directed the focus in raising the voltage level and thus EHV systems
originated with some pros and cons.

By 1970s:
World was in favor of high voltage AC system with voltage level up to
220 KV and extra high voltages up to 760 KV.
By 1990s:
USSR, USA and Canada developed Ultra high voltage AC system with
voltage levels of 1000 KV, 1100 KV and 1200 KV.
First commercial HVDC was introduced in 1953 and with the development
of high power thyristor valve technology, it take place as an alternative to
the high voltage AC systems.
CHOICES
1.
2.
3.
4.

HVAC up to 220 KV.


EHV AC between 400 KV and 760 KV.
UHV AC above 760 KV.
HVDC up to 1600 KV.

Selection depends upon the technical and economical considerations.

Description

HV AC

EHV AC

UHV AC

Nominal KV

132

220

275

345

400

500

750

1000

1100

Higher op.
voltage

145

245

300

362

420

520

765

1050

1200

Reference values for the 3 phase AC lines


Year

1965

1969

1988

1990

1985

2000

Highest level
KV

735

756

1000

1100

1200

1600

Country

Canada

USA

USA

ITALY

USSR

USA

Increase in transmission voltages over the world 3 phase AC lines

Transmission system design have four important aspects:

1.
2.
3.
4.

Electrical design.
Mechanical Design.
Structural and civil Design.
Miscellaneous Design.

Also it includes;
Sub-station design.
Transmission line design.
Network planning.
Some of the main Electrical aspects
are:

DIFFERENT ELECTRICAL ASPECTS

Choice of transmission voltage.


Conductor configuration.
VAR compensation.
Corona loss & radio
interference.
Transient stability.
Abnormal operating conditions.
Insulation coordination.
Neutral grounding.
Sub-station grounding.
Earthing electrodes.
Harmonics and filters.
Lightning protection.
Power line communication.
Radio, TV, telephone
interference.
Audible noise. ETC


Where,
V1 = sending end voltage.
V2 = receiving end voltage.
= Power angle.
X = Line reactance.

Usually power angle is kept low to meet the


transient stability issue.

Line reactance X is sum


of inductive and
capacitive reactance.
Sometimes EHV lines
uses series compensation
equals to 50% of the
inductive reactance. Xc =
Xl / 2.
o

AC transmission is subjected to power swings during the contingency conditions


such as sudden changes in load, tripping of a fault line and fault on bus bars. All
these causes sudden swing in the load angle of the buses.

To improve the issue many measures can be adopted:


1. Rapid fault clearing.
2. Rapid functionality of auto re-closure.

PRINCIPLE OF EQUAL AREA


CRITERION

The kinetic energy added to rotor due to


fault occurrence must be removed after
the fault to restore synchronous speed.

Pe

Pm2

A2
A1

Pm1
max

This method also gives the maximum input power which can be applied while
stability is maintained.
If both the areas are not equal then accelerating momentum can never be
overcome.
The stability limit occurs when max is at the intersection of line Pm and the
power-angle for 900 < <1800.

APPLICATION TO SUDDEN INCREASE IN INPUT


Pe
POWER

Pm2
Pm1

max

APPLICATION TO SUDDEN INCREASE IN INPUT


Pe
POWER

Pm2

Pm1

max

Suitable for long distance transmission as with EHVAC cables length restricts between 40 to 100 Km.
It can carry 5 times more energy than AC (same
line).
Less losses.
Cost of maintenance is low although capital
investment is high.
More stable in transient conditions over HVAC
system.
Etc.

Total cost of transmission system includes cost of substation plus cost of


transmission lines. It also includes cost of land, building etc.
Below a certain length (380km) HVDC is over costly than that of the HVAC
system and therefore not a preferable choice.
Between (380 Km to 780 Km) there is no significant difference in the total
cost of the HVDC or HVAC system.
Beyond the length of (800Km), HVDC is more economical than HVAC. This is
because HVAC requires intermediate sub stations and series compensation
too.

Note:
It should be noted that the breakeven distance for HVDC and HVAC varies
project to project depending upon the local conditions and the distance of
equipment imported in particular.

Selection of AC or DC depends upon the technical and


economical studies for the particular project.

EHVAC is superior in forming mesh, voltage variation is easy via transformer.


Network can be easily tapped at various points.

HVDC is more economical at long distance transmission.

HVDC is more stable as compare to HVAC system.

EHVAC transmission is limited by the constraints of transient stability margin


and line reactance. There is no such issue on HVDC system.

In EHV voltage vary along the line due to reactive power absorption but in
HVDC there is no such issue.

EHV-AC at least require two three phase lines but HVDC deals only with one
bi-pole line for majority of applications.

HVDC is not economical due to the need of intermediate sub-stations usually


at distance of 300 Km..

HVDC can interconnect two systems operating at different frequencies and


serves as asynchronous tie. Frequency disturbance do not penetrates each
other and the stability improves.

Both the mentioned problems are quite less in HVDC than EHVAC for the same
distance and power transfer.

There is no skin effect in HVDC system and therefore complete utilization of


the conductor size can be made.

Charging current is absent in HVDC systems.

Phase to phase, phase to ground clearance and tower size is less in HVDC
transmission system for the same voltage level EHVAC system. Also installation
is simpler and cheaper due to absence of central window.

HVDC make use of less usually 2 conductors.

HVDC system can utilize the earth return effectively.

There is no need for intermediate VAR compensation in HVDC like in EHVAC.

In HVDC, system can be operated from bipolar mode to unipolar mode if one
of the pole is subjected to the permanent fault.

HVDC control can be modify to: (a) frequency control of AC networks. (b)
Damping control for improved stability of AC networks.
Fault level in HVDC intermediate system remains unchanged at both ends as
both are operating independently. In EHVAC system, linkage of two AC systems
causes the level to increase.

Control of converter valves permit rapid power change and direction of power
flow thus transient stability improves.

Length of cable can be increased in HVDC which get limited due to charging
current aspect in the EHVAC system.

In HVDC line can be operated with the constant current regulation or constant
voltage regulation. Losses in HVDC are less due to absence of excess amount of
charging current.

In AC transmission system the PF adjusts the load angle automatically as the power
flow from the power surplus point tot the deficit point. Sometimes phase shifting
transformers are also installed in order to control the line flow. However, the
control is still sluggish and difficult due to involvement of many devices dynamics.
Control of power on HVDC system is fast, accurate, bidirectional and has a wide
range of magnitude limits.

Current flow depends on voltage difference V1 V2 i.e. the voltage of sending and
the receiving end respectively.

=
Where,
= ( )
Both the voltages can be altered by changing the angle of the thyristor valves at
respective ends. As value of R is less therefore, small change in voltage
difference brings large change in Idc and consequently the power.

TYPICAL AC/DC TRANSMISSION LINE


STRUCTURE FOR 2000 MW

The fault power for the three phase fault is called the short
circuit level at a particular fault point.
In HVAC system, addition of new transmission lines and tie lines usually increases the
short circuit level. This is because the addition of new parallel lines causes the
reduced equivalent reactance. Therefore, SC level raises at both ends.
In HVDC systems, the fault level remains unchanged. This is because the fault current
gets restricted by the thyristor valves firing.
So with the use of Tie Lines, SC level in AC system rises causing the consequent cause
of the sub-station equipment to get raised. Therefore, additional cost will be required
to be injected to the system.

One of the design constraint in the EHVAC and HVDC system is that the corona
loss and the interference with radio transmission should be with in the
specified limits.
Corona is the visible, audible, partial electric discharge at the surface of the
high voltage conductors.
The critical value of the voltage depends upon the humidity, pressure,
temperature, pollution level in the air and the condition of the conductors
surface.

Corona voltages are different for positive and negative voltages, negative
being more severe. The charges in DC must flow to the ground or the other
conductor because of opposite polarity. Therefore, it is characterized by the
voltage level not the voltage gradient.
The corona behavior of HVDC mono-polar is different from that of the Bi-polar
HVDC. Corona effect rise in HVAC is significant than that of the HVDC.
In AC, the ionized particles move away from the conductor in half cycle being
similarly charged then in the next half cycle move towards the conductor
while in DC there movement is unidirectional.

One of the design constraint in the EHVAC and HVDC system is that audible
noise from the HVAC or HVDC should be with in the specified limits.
A.N is basically due to the following reasons:
1. Corona.
2. Humming of Transformers.
3. Cooling systems and other auxiliaries.

AN is caused by the
vibrations produced in the
air due to change in air
pressure.

Usually, the values are measured in dB and values are regulated by the
standards. The A.N is in the range of VLF to 15 KHz.

For design purpose, testing facility is used and on the basis of opinions
following results have been produced:
No complaints
A few complaints
Many complaints

(Below 52.5 dB)


(52.5 dB 59 dB)
(Above 59 dB)

Audible noise from the transmission line depends on the following factors:
1. Factors affecting corona.
2. No of sub-conductors.
3. Lateral distance between the line and point of measurement.

Transmission lines of EHVAC and HVDC should be design such that they cause
vary less RI and TI. Usually it should be less that 40 dB and 1mV/m at 1 MHz.

Radio and television interference occur in the range of broad cast


frequencies:
RI : 0.5 MHz 1.6 MHz
TI : 54 MHz 216 MHz
RI is more important in deciding the ROW.
in HVDC the triggering frequency of the thyristor creates high frequency
harmonics around 0.1 MHz to 10 MHz. and can be reduces by:

Selection proper site for sub-station.


By providing electromagnetic screening to the valve hall.
Installing grounding wires on switch yard at proper locations.
Proper selection of insulators and hardware to prevent partial discharges.

High cost of apparatus such as AC to DC rectifiers and DC to AC


inverters.
HVDC is quite much costly than that of HVAC in perspective of CB.
DC voltage can not be altered with that much ease as in HVAC using
Transformer.
Complexity and dependence of high technology.
Several abnormal operating conditions and consequent failures.
Thyristor valves control is quite complex.
HVDC substation require high cost.
HVDC convertor require high cooling requirement.
HVDC require high number of harmonic filtering.
It is not suitable for multi-point or multi-terminal network.
Etc.

Advancement in the DC technology is in the following domains:

1. Increase in the rating of the thyristor cell that makes up the


valve.
2. Modular construction of the thyristor valves.
3. Twelve pulse (and higher) operation of controllers.
4. Use of forced commutation.
5. Application of digital electronics and fiber optics in the control of
converters.

Load voltage
Gate trigger pulse