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Distance Protection © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 1
Distance Protection © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 1
Distance Protection © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 1

Distance Protection

Distance Protection © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 1
Distance Protection © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 1

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

1

PROTECTION FUNCTIONS

PROTECTION FUNCTIONS

 

Function

Description

21+21N

Distance protection for phase and ground faults

50Sup

Overcurrent for distance monitoring

 

Load encroachment logic

 

Protection schemes for distance elements

 

Fuse failure detector

 

Close onto fault logic

 

Remote breaker open detector

 

Dead Line Detector

68/78

Power swing blocking and/or tripping (out of step tripping)

25

Synchronism check

79

3-pole/1-pole recloser

50BF

Breaker failure protection

check 79 3-pole/1-pole recloser 50BF Breaker failure protection © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 2
check 79 3-pole/1-pole recloser 50BF Breaker failure protection © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 2

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

2

PROTECTION FUNCTIONS Function Description 46 Open phase detector 49 Thermal image protection 50F Three phase
PROTECTION FUNCTIONS
Function
Description
46
Open phase detector
49
Thermal image protection
50F
Three phase instantaneous overcurrent elements (A,B,C)
50N
Three ground instantaneous overcurrent elements
50Q
Three negative sequence instantaneous elements
51F
Three phase time delay overcurrent elements (A,B,C)
51N
Three ground time delay overcurrent elements
51Q
Three negative sequence time delay overcurrent elements
67
Phase directional unit (A,B,C)
67N
Ground directional unit
67Q
Negative sequence directional unit
Protection schemes for 67N/67Q
unit 67Q Negative sequence directional unit Protection schemes for 67N/67Q © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.
unit 67Q Negative sequence directional unit Protection schemes for 67N/67Q © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

3

PROTECTION FUNCTIONS

PROTECTION FUNCTIONS

 

Function

Description

50STUB

Stub bus protection

59

Three phase overvoltage elements (A,B,C)

27

Three phase undervoltage elements (A,B,C)

59N

Two ground overvoltage elements

81M

Three overfrequency elements

81m

Three underfrequency elements

81D

Three rate of frequency change elements

 

Single/three pole tripping for 21+21N and 67N/67Q

 

Suitable for cables and overheadlines with series capacitor compensation

 

Mutual coupling compensation for parallel lines

compensation   Mutual coupling compensation for parallel lines © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 4
compensation   Mutual coupling compensation for parallel lines © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 4

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

4

ADITIONAL FUNCTIONS Description Breaker supervision Fault locator (compensates for load flow and mutual coupling)

ADITIONAL FUNCTIONS

Description

Breaker supervision

Fault locator (compensates for load flow and mutual coupling)

Trip masks for distance zones or for auxiliary units

Programmable logic (executed each 2 ms)

Oscillography with analog and digital signals

Records: events, fault reports and metering logs

Measurement

Control

Communications

User interface (alphanumeric display and keypad/programmable push bottons for operations or commands)

Integrated simulator

push bottons for operations or commands) Integrated simulator © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 5
push bottons for operations or commands) Integrated simulator © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 5

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

5

4
4
4 INPUTS / OUTPUTS x V + 5 x I ó 5 x V + 8

INPUTS / OUTPUTS

x V + 5 x I ó 5 x V + 8 x I (depending on the model)

1 alarm output (watchdog)

Digital inputs (all programmable):V + 8 x I (depending on the model) 1 alarm output (watchdog) in 2 U

in 2 U box1 alarm output (watchdog) Digital inputs (all programmable): in 3 U box in 4 U box

in 3 U box(watchdog) Digital inputs (all programmable): in 2 U box in 4 U box 10 22 34

in 4 U boxDigital inputs (all programmable): in 2 U box in 3 U box 10 22 34 in

10

22

34

in 6 U boxprogrammable): in 2 U box in 3 U box in 4 U box 10 22 34

37

Outputs (all programmable and strong: anyone can be used as trip / close output)in 2 U box in 3 U box in 4 U box 10 22 34 in

in 2 U box (4 can be fast for teleprotection)and strong: anyone can be used as trip / close output) in 3 U box (4

in 3 U box (4 can be fast for teleprotection)close output) in 2 U box (4 can be fast for teleprotection) in 4 U box

in 4 U box (4 can be fast for teleprotection)in 3 U box (4 can be fast for teleprotection) in 6 U box (4 can

in 6 U box (4 can be fast for teleprotection)in 4 U box (4 can be fast for teleprotection) 10 23 36 44 Connectors with

10

23

36

44

Connectors with ring lugsfor teleprotection) in 6 U box (4 can be fast for teleprotection) 10 23 36 44

6 U box (4 can be fast for teleprotection) 10 23 36 44 Connectors with ring
6 U box (4 can be fast for teleprotection) 10 23 36 44 Connectors with ring

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

6

DISTANCE PROTECTION 5 6 independent measuring elements for each zone distance zones (all reversible) Impedance
DISTANCE PROTECTION 5 6 independent measuring elements for each zone distance zones (all reversible) Impedance

DISTANCE PROTECTION

5

6 independent measuring elements for each zone

distance zones (all reversible)

Impedance reaches, resistive reaches and time delays independent for ground and phase unitselements for each zone distance zones (all reversible) Selectable characteristic independent for phase and ground

Selectable characteristic independent for phase and ground faults:and time delays independent for ground and phase units Mho (dynamic and variable) Quadrilateral Both combined

Mho (dynamic and variable)characteristic independent for phase and ground faults: Quadrilateral Both combined (AND / OR) Reaches (Z1) and

Quadrilateralfor phase and ground faults: Mho (dynamic and variable) Both combined (AND / OR) Reaches (Z1)

Both combined (AND / OR)and ground faults: Mho (dynamic and variable) Quadrilateral Reaches (Z1) and zero sequence compensation factors

Reaches (Z1) and zero sequence compensation factors (K0=Z0/Z1) independent for each zone in module and angle in module and angle

compensation factors (K0=Z0/Z1) independent for each zone in module and angle © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología
compensation factors (K0=Z0/Z1) independent for each zone in module and angle © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

7

MHO CHARACTERISTIC Advantages of polarizing with V1M: Variable characteristic (V1 action): Proper operation for zero

MHO CHARACTERISTIC

Advantages of polarizing with V1M:

Variable characteristic (V1 action):MHO CHARACTERISTIC Advantages of polarizing with V1M: Proper operation for zero voltage single phase and two-

Proper operation for zero voltage single phase and two- phase faults

Dynamic characteristic (memory action):for zero voltage single phase and two- phase faults Proper operation for zero voltage three phase

Proper operation for zero voltage three phase faults and for voltage inversions (series compensation)

zero voltage three phase faults and for voltage inversions (series compensation) © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología
zero voltage three phase faults and for voltage inversions (series compensation) © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

8

MHO CHARACTERISTIC I F2 I F1 -jXC ESL ZSL ZL ZSR F2 F1 V1 V2

MHO CHARACTERISTIC

I F2 I F1
I F2
I F1

-jXC

ESL

ZSL ZL ZSR F2 F1 V1 V2
ZSL
ZL
ZSR
F2
F1
V1
V2
X ◊◊I V1 F1 I F1 =Irelay R◊◊◊I ZSL◊◊I V1 F1
X ◊◊I
V1
F1
I F1 =Irelay
R◊◊◊I
ZSL◊◊I
V1
F1
X ◊◊◊I F2 (ZSR++++ ZL)◊◊I V2 F2 Irelay R◊◊I I F2 V1
X ◊◊◊I
F2
(ZSR++++ ZL)◊◊I
V2
F2
Irelay
R◊◊I
I F2
V1
V1 F1 X ◊◊◊I F2 (ZSR++++ ZL)◊◊I V2 F2 Irelay R◊◊I I F2 V1 © ZIV
V1 F1 X ◊◊◊I F2 (ZSR++++ ZL)◊◊I V2 F2 Irelay R◊◊I I F2 V1 © ZIV

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

9

MHO CHARACTERISTIC PHASE-GROUND FAULTS PHASE-PHASE FAULTS Fop = [ I + I 0 ◊ (

MHO CHARACTERISTIC

PHASE-GROUND FAULTS

PHASE-PHASE FAULTS

Fop=[I + I0(K0n 1)]Z1n V

Fop = I

Z1n V

Fpol = V 1M

Fpol = V 1M

90 º

[arg (Fop ) arg (Fpol )]

90º

Ieq1◊Z11 X ◊I F F’ IF ◊RF V Ieq1 R ◊I carga) V 1M
Ieq1◊Z11
X ◊I
F
F’
IF ◊RF
V
Ieq1
R ◊I
carga)
V 1M

ZSL(Ieq I

I ◊Z11 X ◊I F F’ ◊ RF IF 2 V I R ◊I V
I ◊Z11
X ◊I
F
F’
◊ RF
IF
2
V
I
R ◊I
V
1M
I
carga)

ZSL (I

F F’ ◊ RF IF 2 V I R ◊I V 1M I carga) ZSL ◊
F F’ ◊ RF IF 2 V I R ◊I V 1M I carga) ZSL ◊

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

10

QUADRILATERAL CHARACTERISTIC Reactance element ( load and non homogeneity compensation ) Zr 1 Resistive limiters

QUADRILATERAL CHARACTERISTIC

Reactance element (load and non homogeneity compensation)

Zr 1
Zr
1
element ( load and non homogeneity compensation ) Zr 1 Resistive limiters Directional unit © ZIV

Resistive limiters

Directional unit

and non homogeneity compensation ) Zr 1 Resistive limiters Directional unit © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología
and non homogeneity compensation ) Zr 1 Resistive limiters Directional unit © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

11

REACTANCE ELEMENT SINGLE PHASE TO GROUND FAULT Va = Ieq ◊Z1LF + IFa ◊RF Ieq

REACTANCE ELEMENT

SINGLE PHASE TO GROUND FAULT

Va = Ieq ◊Z1LF + IFa ◊RF Ieq = Ia + I 0◊(K0 1) ESLC
Va = Ieq ◊Z1LF + IFa ◊RF
Ieq = Ia + I 0◊(K0 1)
ESLC
ESRC
Z1SL
Z1LF
Z1LF’
Z1SR
Ic
Ic’
ESLB
ESRB
Z1SL
Z1LF
Z1LF’
Z1SR
Ib
Ib’
ESLA
ESRA
Z1SL
Z1LF
Z1LF’
Z1SR
IFa
Ia
Ia’
RF
ZSN
ZN
ZN’
ZSN’
Vc
Vb
Va
Z1LF Z1LF’ Z1SR IFa Ia Ia’ RF ZSN ZN ZN’ ZSN’ Vc Vb Va © ZIV
Z1LF Z1LF’ Z1SR IFa Ia Ia’ RF ZSN ZN ZN’ ZSN’ Vc Vb Va © ZIV

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

12

REACTANCE ELEMENT PHASE-PHASE (TO GROUND) FAULT Vab = Ieq ◊ Z 1 LF + IFab

REACTANCE ELEMENT

PHASE-PHASE (TO GROUND) FAULT

Vab = Ieq Z1LF + IFab RF / 2

Ieq = Iab = Ia Ib

IFab = IFa IFb

ESLC ESRC Z1SL Z1LF Z1LF’ Z1SR Ic Ic’ ESLB ESRB Z1SL Z1LF Z1LF’ Z1SR IFb
ESLC
ESRC
Z1SL
Z1LF
Z1LF’
Z1SR
Ic
Ic’
ESLB
ESRB
Z1SL
Z1LF
Z1LF’
Z1SR
IFb
Ib
Ib’
RF/2
Rg
RF/2
ESLA
ESRA
IFa
Z1SL
Z1LF
Z1LF’
Z1SR
Ia
Ia’
Vc
Vb
Va
Rg RF/2 ESLA ESRA IFa Z1SL Z1LF Z1LF’ Z1SR Ia Ia’ Vc Vb Va © ZIV
Rg RF/2 ESLA ESRA IFa Z1SL Z1LF Z1LF’ Z1SR Ia Ia’ Vc Vb Va © ZIV

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

13

REACTANCE ELEMENT IF Zr = Z1LF + ◊ RF Ieq ERROR IF ◊ Fr X

REACTANCE ELEMENT

IF Zr = Z1LF + ◊ RF Ieq
IF
Zr = Z1LF +
◊ RF
Ieq

ERROR

IF ◊ Fr X Z1F RF Ieq F Z1LF Zr R
IF ◊
Fr
X Z1F
RF
Ieq
F
Z1LF
Zr
R

Vr = Ieq Z1LF + IF RF

Ieq F Z1LF Zr R Vr = Ieq ◊ Z 1 LF + IF ◊ RF
X ◊I Ieq ◊Z1F Fr IF RF F Ieq Z1LF Vr Ieq R ◊I
X ◊I
Ieq ◊Z1F
Fr
IF RF
F
Ieq Z1LF
Vr
Ieq
R ◊I
1 LF + IF ◊ RF X ◊I Ieq ◊Z1F Fr IF RF F Ieq Z1LF
1 LF + IF ◊ RF X ◊I Ieq ◊Z1F Fr IF RF F Ieq Z1LF

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

14

REACTANCE ELEMENT depends on LOAD FLOW HOMOGENEITY NO LOAD FLOW AND HOMOGENOUS SYSTEM 0 LOAD

REACTANCE ELEMENT

depends on

REACTANCE ELEMENT depends on LOAD FLOW HOMOGENEITY NO LOAD FLOW AND HOMOGENOUS SYSTEM 0 LOAD FLOW

LOAD FLOW HOMOGENEITY

NO LOAD FLOW AND HOMOGENOUS SYSTEM LOAD FLOW AND HOMOGENOUS SYSTEM

on LOAD FLOW HOMOGENEITY NO LOAD FLOW AND HOMOGENOUS SYSTEM 0 LOAD FLOW AND HOMOGENEOUS SYSTEM

0

LOAD FLOW AND HOMOGENEOUS SYSTEMLOAD FLOW HOMOGENEITY NO LOAD FLOW AND HOMOGENOUS SYSTEM 0 FORWARD LOAD FLOW REVERSE LOAD FLOW

FORWARD LOAD FLOWAND HOMOGENOUS SYSTEM 0 LOAD FLOW AND HOMOGENEOUS SYSTEM REVERSE LOAD FLOW < 0 > 0

REVERSE LOAD FLOWSYSTEM 0 LOAD FLOW AND HOMOGENEOUS SYSTEM FORWARD LOAD FLOW < 0 > 0 NO LOAD

AND HOMOGENEOUS SYSTEM FORWARD LOAD FLOW REVERSE LOAD FLOW < 0 > 0 NO LOAD FLOW

<0

>0

SYSTEM FORWARD LOAD FLOW REVERSE LOAD FLOW < 0 > 0 NO LOAD FLOW AND NON

NO LOAD FLOW AND NON HOMOGENOUS SYSTEM

α

= arg

(

+

Z1LF Z1SL

)

Z1L Z1SL Z1SR

+

+

SYSTEM α = arg ( + Z1LF Z1SL ) Z1L Z1SL Z1SR + + © ZIV
SYSTEM α = arg ( + Z1LF Z1SL ) Z1L Z1SL Z1SR + + © ZIV

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

15

REACTANCE ELEMENT LOAD FLOW AND HOMOGENOUS SYSTEM Fpol parallel to IF Single line to ground

REACTANCE ELEMENT

LOAD FLOW AND HOMOGENOUS SYSTEM

Fpol parallel to IF
Fpol parallel to IF

Single line to ground fault

Phase-phase fault (with or without ground)

to ground fault Phase-phase fault (with or without ground) Fpol = I 2 Fpol = I

Fpol = I 2

Fpol = I I pf

or without ground) Fpol = I 2 Fpol = I I pf Fpol = I I

Fpol = I I pf

Avoid Underreaching effect (α>0) X Z1F Fr IF ◊ RF Ieq F Zr Z1LF Fpol
Avoid Underreaching effect (α>0)
X Z1F
Fr
IF ◊
RF
Ieq
F
Zr
Z1LF
Fpol
Ieq
R
Avoid Overreaching effect (α<0) X Z1LF F IF ◊ RF Ieq Fr Z1F Zr Fpol
Avoid Overreaching effect (α<0)
X Z1LF
F
IF ◊
RF
Ieq
Fr
Z1F
Zr
Fpol
R
Ieq
effect (α<0) X Z1LF F IF ◊ RF Ieq Fr Z1F Zr Fpol R Ieq ©
effect (α<0) X Z1LF F IF ◊ RF Ieq Fr Z1F Zr Fpol R Ieq ©

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

16

REACTANCE ELEMENT NO LOAD FLOW AND NON HOMOGENOUS SYSTEM ( α = arg Fpol NON

REACTANCE ELEMENT

NO LOAD FLOW AND NON HOMOGENOUS SYSTEM

( α = arg Fpol NON parallel to IF (angle= α)
(
α
=
arg
Fpol NON parallel to IF (angle= α)

+

Z1LF Z1SL

Z1L Z1SL Z1SR

+

+

)

Z1LF X F IF ◊ RF Ieq Z1F Fr Zr Fpol Ieq R
Z1LF
X
F
IF ◊
RF
Ieq
Z1F
Fr
Zr
Fpol
Ieq
R

Tilting angle is introduced

= arg

(

Z1L Z1SL

+

)

Z1L Z1SL Z1SR

+

+

Faults at 100%

arg ( Z1L Z1SL + ) Z1L Z1SL Z1SR + + Faults at 100% γ =

γ = α

arg ( Z1L Z1SL + ) Z1L Z1SL Z1SR + + Faults at 100% γ =
arg ( Z1L Z1SL + ) Z1L Z1SL Z1SR + + Faults at 100% γ =

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

17

REACTANCE ELEMENT PHASE-GROUND FAULTS PHASE-PHASE FAULTS Fop = I ◊ Z 1 n V Fop

REACTANCE ELEMENT

PHASE-GROUND FAULTS

PHASE-PHASE FAULTS

Fop = I

Z1n V

Fop = [I + I0(K0n 1)]Z1n V

Fpol = I 2

Fpol = I I pf

Fpol = I I pf

0

[arg(Fop) arg(Fpol) ] 180º

X ◊I C2 F’ Ieq1 ◊ Z11 Fop ◊ IF◊RF C1 F V Fpol I
X ◊I
C2
F’
Ieq1 ◊ Z11
Fop
IF◊RF
C1
F
V
Fpol
I
Ieq1
R ◊I
X ◊I C2 Fop F’ I ◊ Z11 C1 IF ◊RF / 2 F V
X ◊I
C2
Fop
F’
I ◊ Z11
C1
IF
◊RF / 2
F
V
Fpol
I
R ◊I
X ◊I C2 Fop F’ I ◊ Z11 C1 IF ◊RF / 2 F V Fpol
X ◊I C2 Fop F’ I ◊ Z11 C1 IF ◊RF / 2 F V Fpol

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

18

DIRECTIONAL UNIT Advantages of polarizing with V1M: Variable line (V1 action): Proper operation for zero

DIRECTIONAL UNIT

Advantages of polarizing with V1M:

Variable line (V1 action):DIRECTIONAL UNIT Advantages of polarizing with V1M: Proper operation for zero voltage single phase and two-

Proper operation for zero voltage single phase and two- phase faults

Dynamic line (memory action):for zero voltage single phase and two- phase faults Proper operation for zero voltage three phase

Proper operation for zero voltage three phase faults and for voltage inversions (series compensation)

voltage three phase faults and for voltage inversions (series compensation) © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.
voltage three phase faults and for voltage inversions (series compensation) © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

19

DIRECTIONAL UNIT I F2 ESL I -jXC F1 ZSL ZL ZSR F2 F1 X ◊◊I
DIRECTIONAL UNIT
I F2
ESL
I -jXC
F1
ZSL
ZL
ZSR
F2
F1
X ◊◊I
V1
V2
X ◊◊◊I
V1
F1
F2
(ZSR++++ ZL)◊◊I
V2
I F1 =Irelay
R◊◊◊I
ZSL◊◊I
V1
F1
F2
Irelay
R◊◊I
I F2
V1

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

20

DIRECTIONAL UNIT PHASE-GROUND FAULTS Fop = I PHASE-PHASE FAULTS Fop = I Fpol = V

DIRECTIONAL UNIT

PHASE-GROUND FAULTS

Fop= I

PHASE-PHASE FAULTS

Fop = I

Fpol=V 1M

Fpol = V 1M

(90º+

)

[arg(Fop) arg(Fpol)]

(90º

)

X ◊I F V I R ◊I ZSL◊(Ieq I carga) V 1M C3 I
X ◊I
F
V
I
R ◊I
ZSL◊(Ieq I
carga)
V 1M
C3
I
X ◊I F V I R ◊I V 1M ZSL ◊(I I carga) C3 I
X ◊I
F
V
I
R ◊I
V
1M
ZSL ◊(I
I
carga)
C3
I
V 1M C3 I X ◊I F V I R ◊I V 1M ZSL ◊(I I
V 1M C3 I X ◊I F V I R ◊I V 1M ZSL ◊(I I

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

21

RESISTIVE LIMITER PHASE-GROUND FAULTS PHASE-PHASE FAULTS Fop = I ◊ RGn V Fpol = I

RESISTIVE LIMITER

PHASE-GROUND FAULTS

PHASE-PHASE FAULTS

Fop = I RGn V

Fpol = I RGn

Fop= I RPn V

Fpol = I RPn

= bucle= n [arg(I ) arg(Ieqn)]

= n
= n

(90º+ )

[arg(Fop) arg(Fpol)]

X ◊I Ieq1 ◊ Z11 F’ C4 IF◊RF F V buc1 I ◊RG1 I 11
X ◊I
Ieq1 ◊ Z11
F’
C4
IF◊RF
F
V
buc1
I ◊RG1
I
11
Ieq1
R ◊I
X ◊I RF IF ◊ F’ C4 I ◊Z11 2 F V 11 I I
X ◊I
RF
IF
F’
C4
I
◊Z11
2
F
V
11
I
I
◊ RP1
R ◊I
X ◊I RF IF ◊ F’ C4 I ◊Z11 2 F V 11 I I ◊
X ◊I RF IF ◊ F’ C4 I ◊Z11 2 F V 11 I I ◊

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

22

QUADRILATERAL: PHASE-GROUND FAULTS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 23

QUADRILATERAL: PHASE-GROUND FAULTS

QUADRILATERAL: PHASE-GROUND FAULTS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 23
QUADRILATERAL: PHASE-GROUND FAULTS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 23
QUADRILATERAL: PHASE-GROUND FAULTS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 23

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

23

QUADRILATERAL: PHASE-PHASE FAULTS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 24

QUADRILATERAL: PHASE-PHASE FAULTS

QUADRILATERAL: PHASE-PHASE FAULTS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 24
QUADRILATERAL: PHASE-PHASE FAULTS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 24
QUADRILATERAL: PHASE-PHASE FAULTS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 24

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

24

PHASE SELECTOR Based on angle between Ia2 and Ia1 fault currents For faults with zero
PHASE SELECTOR Based on angle between Ia2 and Ia1 fault currents For faults with zero

PHASE SELECTOR

Based on angle between Ia2 and Ia1 fault currents

For faults with zero sequence infeed uses phase undervoltage unitsSELECTOR Based on angle between Ia2 and Ia1 fault currents Allows: Single pole tripping on single-phase-ground

with zero sequence infeed uses phase undervoltage units Allows: Single pole tripping on single-phase-ground faults

Allows:

Single pole tripping on single-phase-ground faultszero sequence infeed uses phase undervoltage units Allows: Blocking leading phase on phase-phase-ground faults For

Blocking leading phase on phase-phase-ground faultsAllows: Single pole tripping on single-phase-ground faults For phase-phase-ground faults the lagging phase-earth loop

For phase-phase-ground faults the lagging phase-earth loop can not be blocked: helps phase-phase loop in some kind of faults

loop can not be blocked: helps phase-phase loop in some kind of faults © ZIV Aplicaciones
loop can not be blocked: helps phase-phase loop in some kind of faults © ZIV Aplicaciones
loop can not be blocked: helps phase-phase loop in some kind of faults © ZIV Aplicaciones

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

25

PHASE SELECTOR PHASE-PHASE FAULT GROUND FAULT Ia 2 > 0.05 ◊ In Ia 2 Ia

PHASE SELECTOR

PHASE-PHASE FAULT

GROUND FAULT

Ia 2

> 0.05In

Ia 2 Ia 1
Ia 2
Ia 1

> 10%

Ia 0

> 0.05In

Ia 0 Ia 1
Ia 0
Ia 1

> 8%

= arg(Ia2) arg(Ia1_ f )

> 0.05 ◊ In Ia 0 Ia 1 > 8% = arg ( Ia2 ) arg
> 0.05 ◊ In Ia 0 Ia 1 > 8% = arg ( Ia2 ) arg
> 0.05 ◊ In Ia 0 Ia 1 > 8% = arg ( Ia2 ) arg
> 0.05 ◊ In Ia 0 Ia 1 > 8% = arg ( Ia2 ) arg

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

26

PHASE-PHASE-GROUND FAULTS ABG FAULT: AG unit overreaches BG unit underreaches AG BG FAULT: AG and

PHASE-PHASE-GROUND

FAULTS

ABG FAULT: AG unit overreaches BG unit underreaches
ABG FAULT:
AG unit overreaches
BG unit underreaches
AG BG FAULT: AG and BG units operate correctly
AG BG FAULT:
AG and BG units operate
correctly
Ia A Z1LF B Z1LF Ib RF RF Va Vb IFa IFb Rg IFT ZN
Ia
A Z1LF
B Z1LF
Ib
RF
RF
Va
Vb
IFa
IFb
Rg
IFT
ZN
Ia A Z1LF B Z1LF Ib RF RF Va Vb IFa IFb IFT ZN
Ia
A Z1LF
B Z1LF
Ib
RF
RF
Va
Vb
IFa
IFb
IFT
ZN
ZN Ia A Z1LF B Z1LF Ib RF RF Va Vb IFa IFb IFT ZN The

The AB unit can be complemented with the BG unit

RF Va Vb IFa IFb IFT ZN The AB unit can be complemented with the BG
RF Va Vb IFa IFb IFT ZN The AB unit can be complemented with the BG

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

27

FAULT DETECTOR Sequence currents increment detection ( ∆ I0, ∆ Ia1, ∆ Ia2) Sequence currents

FAULT DETECTOR

Sequence currents increment detection (∆ I0, ∆ Ia1, ∆ Ia2) I0, Ia1, Ia2)

Sequence currents levels exceeded (I0, Ia2)currents increment detection ( ∆ I0, ∆ Ia1, ∆ Ia2) Sealed-in by operation of distance units,

Sealed-in by operation of distance units, overcurrent units, close onto fault detector and stub bus protectionIa1, ∆ Ia2) Sequence currents levels exceeded (I0, Ia2) Supervises the tripping produced by distance units,

Supervises the tripping produced by distance units, overcurrent units, close onto fault detector, stub bus protection and remote breaker open detectorunits, close onto fault detector and stub bus protection Determines the fault inception time (allows the

Determines the fault inception time (allows the selection of prefault and postfault values: current and voltage)close onto fault detector, stub bus protection and remote breaker open detector © ZIV Aplicaciones y

(allows the selection of prefault and postfault values: current and voltage) © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología
(allows the selection of prefault and postfault values: current and voltage) © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

28

FAULT DETECTOR © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 29

FAULT DETECTOR

FAULT DETECTOR © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 29
FAULT DETECTOR © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 29
FAULT DETECTOR © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 29

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

29

LOAD ENCROACHMENT R: minimum Rload α : minimum PF X 2 222 1 111 R2

LOAD ENCROACHMENT

LOAD ENCROACHMENT R: minimum Rload α : minimum PF X 2 222 1 111 R2 R1

R: minimum RloadLOAD ENCROACHMENT α : minimum PF X 2 222 1 111 R2 R1 R © ZIV

α: minimum PF : minimum PF

X 2 222 1 111 R2 R1 R
X
2 222
1 111
R2
R1
R
ENCROACHMENT R: minimum Rload α : minimum PF X 2 222 1 111 R2 R1 R
ENCROACHMENT R: minimum Rload α : minimum PF X 2 222 1 111 R2 R1 R

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

30

FUSE FAILURE DETECTOR Activation when: Phase undervoltage units pick-up without activation of fault detector Input
FUSE FAILURE DETECTOR Activation when: Phase undervoltage units pick-up without activation of fault detector Input

FUSE FAILURE DETECTOR

Activation when:

Phase undervoltage units pick-up without activation of fault detectorFUSE FAILURE DETECTOR Activation when: Input coming from MCB activates Inhibited when any pole is open

Input coming from MCB activatesunits pick-up without activation of fault detector Inhibited when any pole is open Can block distance

Inhibited when any pole is openactivation of fault detector Input coming from MCB activates Can block distance elements, weak infeed trip,

Can block distance elements, weak infeed trip, synchronism, dead line detector and voltage unitsfault detector Input coming from MCB activates Inhibited when any pole is open © ZIV Aplicaciones

elements, weak infeed trip, synchronism, dead line detector and voltage units © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología
elements, weak infeed trip, synchronism, dead line detector and voltage units © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

31

FUSE FAILURE DETECTOR 32 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

FUSE FAILURE DETECTOR

32
32

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

OPEN POLE DETECTOR Detects what pole of the breaker has opened Detection based on breaker
OPEN POLE DETECTOR Detects what pole of the breaker has opened Detection based on breaker

OPEN POLE DETECTOR

Detects what pole of the breaker has opened

Detection based on breaker contacts plus undercurrent detectorsPOLE DETECTOR Detects what pole of the breaker has opened Outputs used by phase selector, distance

Outputs used by phase selector, distance units, fault detector, power swing detector, fuse failure detector, ground and negative sequence overcurrent units, recloser, etc

failure detector, ground and negative sequence overcurrent units, recloser, etc © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.
failure detector, ground and negative sequence overcurrent units, recloser, etc © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.
failure detector, ground and negative sequence overcurrent units, recloser, etc © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

33

OPEN POLE DETECTOR © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 34

OPEN POLE DETECTOR

OPEN POLE DETECTOR © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 34
OPEN POLE DETECTOR © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 34
OPEN POLE DETECTOR © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 34

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

34

OPEN POLE DETECTOR © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 35

OPEN POLE DETECTOR

OPEN POLE DETECTOR © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 35
OPEN POLE DETECTOR © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 35
OPEN POLE DETECTOR © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 35

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

35

DISTANCE UNITS OPERATION SINGLE PHASE UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 36

DISTANCE UNITS OPERATION

SINGLE PHASE UNITS

DISTANCE UNITS OPERATION SINGLE PHASE UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 36
DISTANCE UNITS OPERATION SINGLE PHASE UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 36
DISTANCE UNITS OPERATION SINGLE PHASE UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 36

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

36

DISTANCE UNITS OPERATION PHASE-PHASE UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 37

DISTANCE UNITS OPERATION

PHASE-PHASE UNITS

DISTANCE UNITS OPERATION PHASE-PHASE UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 37
DISTANCE UNITS OPERATION PHASE-PHASE UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 37
DISTANCE UNITS OPERATION PHASE-PHASE UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 37

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

37

DEAD LINE DETECTOR Operated based on undervoltage and undercurrent units Only applicable when the VT

DEAD LINE DETECTOR

Operated based on undervoltage and undercurrent unitsDEAD LINE DETECTOR Only applicable when the VT is on the line side Allows detecting the

Only applicable when the VT is on the line sideOperated based on undervoltage and undercurrent units Allows detecting the breaker closing without the need from

Allows detecting the breaker closing without the need from external contactsunits Only applicable when the VT is on the line side Can be used to activate

Can be used to activate the close onto fault functionAllows detecting the breaker closing without the need from external contacts © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

from external contacts Can be used to activate the close onto fault function © ZIV Aplicaciones
from external contacts Can be used to activate the close onto fault function © ZIV Aplicaciones

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

38

CLOSE ONTO FAULT DETECTOR Activated with manual close or reclose commands: internal or external Phase
CLOSE ONTO FAULT DETECTOR Activated with manual close or reclose commands: internal or external Phase

CLOSE ONTO FAULT DETECTOR

Activated with manual close or reclose commands:

internal or external

Phase overcurrent units with second harmonic restraint (inrush stabilization)

units with second harmonic restraint ( inrush stabilization) Zone 1 extension: Always activated for close commands
units with second harmonic restraint ( inrush stabilization) Zone 1 extension: Always activated for close commands

Zone 1 extension:

harmonic restraint ( inrush stabilization) Zone 1 extension: Always activated for close commands Adjustable for reclose

Always activated for close commandsharmonic restraint ( inrush stabilization) Zone 1 extension: Adjustable for reclose commands © ZIV Aplicaciones y

Adjustable for reclose commands( inrush stabilization) Zone 1 extension: Always activated for close commands © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

extension: Always activated for close commands Adjustable for reclose commands © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.
extension: Always activated for close commands Adjustable for reclose commands © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

39

CLOSE ONTO FAULT DETECTOR 40 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

CLOSE ONTO FAULT DETECTOR

CLOSE ONTO FAULT DETECTOR 40 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.
CLOSE ONTO FAULT DETECTOR 40 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.
CLOSE ONTO FAULT DETECTOR 40 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

40

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

POWER SWING DETECTOR ZONE EXT ZONE MED X ZB ZONE INT ZL ZA T R

POWER SWING DETECTOR

ZONE EXT ZONE MED X ZB ZONE INT ZL ZA T
ZONE EXT
ZONE MED
X
ZB
ZONE INT
ZL
ZA
T

R

Fast trip

Stable

Unstable

oscillation

oscillation

Slow trip

INT ZL ZA T R Fast trip Stable Unstable oscillation oscillation Slow trip © ZIV Aplicaciones
INT ZL ZA T R Fast trip Stable Unstable oscillation oscillation Slow trip © ZIV Aplicaciones

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

41

POWER SWING DETECTOR Selectable zones to be blocked Unblocking of blocked distance zones when a

POWER SWING DETECTOR

POWER SWING DETECTOR Selectable zones to be blocked Unblocking of blocked distance zones when a fault

Selectable zones to be blocked

Unblocking of blocked distance zones when a fault is detected:POWER SWING DETECTOR Selectable zones to be blocked Ground or phase-phase fault detection (phase selector) Time

Ground or phase-phase fault detection (phase selector)of blocked distance zones when a fault is detected: Time the impedance remain inside the external

Time the impedance remain inside the external zoneGround or phase-phase fault detection (phase selector) Tripping for unstable swings: slow/fast trip © ZIV

selector) Time the impedance remain inside the external zone Tripping for unstable swings: slow/fast trip ©

Tripping for unstable swings: slow/fast trip

remain inside the external zone Tripping for unstable swings: slow/fast trip © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología
remain inside the external zone Tripping for unstable swings: slow/fast trip © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

42

POWER SWING DETECTOR © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 43

POWER SWING DETECTOR

POWER SWING DETECTOR © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 43
POWER SWING DETECTOR © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 43
POWER SWING DETECTOR © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 43

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

43

DISTANCE PROTECTION SCHEMES Basic Scheme: Stepped distance Schemes without communication channel: Zone 1 extension Remote

DISTANCE PROTECTION SCHEMES

Basic Scheme:DISTANCE PROTECTION SCHEMES Stepped distance Schemes without communication channel: Zone 1 extension Remote breaker open

Stepped distanceDISTANCE PROTECTION SCHEMES Basic Scheme: Schemes without communication channel: Zone 1 extension Remote breaker open

Schemes without communication channel:DISTANCE PROTECTION SCHEMES Basic Scheme: Stepped distance Zone 1 extension Remote breaker open detector © ZIV

Zone 1 extensionStepped distance Schemes without communication channel: Remote breaker open detector © ZIV Aplicaciones y

Remote breaker open detectorStepped distance Schemes without communication channel: Zone 1 extension © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

without communication channel: Zone 1 extension Remote breaker open detector © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.
without communication channel: Zone 1 extension Remote breaker open detector © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

44

DISTANCE PROTECTION SCHEMES Schemes with communication channel: Permissive underreach transfer trip ( PUTT ) Direct

DISTANCE PROTECTION SCHEMES

Schemes with communication channel:DISTANCE PROTECTION SCHEMES Permissive underreach transfer trip ( PUTT ) Direct transfer trip ( DTT )

Permissive underreach transfer trip (PUTT ) PUTT)

Direct transfer trip (DTT ) DTT)

Permissive overreach transfer trip (POTT ) POTT)

Directional comparison unblocking (DCUB ) DCUB)

Directional comparison blocking (DCB ) DCB)

User defined (programmable logic)unblocking ( DCUB ) Directional comparison blocking ( DCB ) Binary information transmission (virtual inputs/outputs) ©

Binary information transmission (virtual inputs/outputs)) Directional comparison blocking ( DCB ) User defined (programmable logic) © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

(programmable logic) Binary information transmission (virtual inputs/outputs) © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 45
(programmable logic) Binary information transmission (virtual inputs/outputs) © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 45

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

45

DISTANCE PROTECTION SCHEMES Complementary logics: Echo and weak infeed trip logic Transient blocking for current

DISTANCE PROTECTION SCHEMES

Complementary logics:DISTANCE PROTECTION SCHEMES Echo and weak infeed trip logic Transient blocking for current reversal (parallel lines)

Echo and weak infeed trip logicDISTANCE PROTECTION SCHEMES Complementary logics: Transient blocking for current reversal (parallel lines) © ZIV

Transient blocking for current reversal (parallel lines) (parallel lines)

infeed trip logic Transient blocking for current reversal (parallel lines) © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.
infeed trip logic Transient blocking for current reversal (parallel lines) © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

46

STEPPED DISTANCE Independent timers for phase and ground faults Timers do not drop out for

STEPPED DISTANCE

Independent timers for phase and ground faultsSTEPPED DISTANCE Timers do not drop out for evolving faults Blocking signals coming from: Power swing

Timers do not drop out for evolving faultsDISTANCE Independent timers for phase and ground faults Blocking signals coming from: Power swing detector Fuse

Blocking signals coming from:and ground faults Timers do not drop out for evolving faults Power swing detector Fuse failure

Power swing detectordrop out for evolving faults Blocking signals coming from: Fuse failure detector Series compensated lines logic

Fuse failure detectorfaults Blocking signals coming from: Power swing detector Series compensated lines logic © ZIV Aplicaciones y

Series compensated lines logicfaults Blocking signals coming from: Power swing detector Fuse failure detector © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

from: Power swing detector Fuse failure detector Series compensated lines logic © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología
from: Power swing detector Fuse failure detector Series compensated lines logic © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

47

STEPPED DISTANCE 48 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

STEPPED DISTANCE

STEPPED DISTANCE 48 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.
STEPPED DISTANCE 48 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.
STEPPED DISTANCE 48 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

48

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

ZONE 1 EXTENSION Zone 1 extended to overreaching zone (zone 2 or 3) Requires fast

ZONE 1 EXTENSION

ZONE 1 EXTENSION Zone 1 extended to overreaching zone (zone 2 or 3) Requires fast reclosing

Zone 1 extended to overreaching zone (zone 2 or 3)

Requires fast reclosing to restore the supply as fast as possibleEXTENSION Zone 1 extended to overreaching zone (zone 2 or 3) Inhibited when the breaker opens;

Inhibited when the breaker opens; enabled again when the breaker remains closed for a settable time Avoids zone 1 extension when reclosing

remains closed for a settable time Avoids zone 1 extension when reclosing © ZIV Aplicaciones y
remains closed for a settable time Avoids zone 1 extension when reclosing © ZIV Aplicaciones y
remains closed for a settable time Avoids zone 1 extension when reclosing © ZIV Aplicaciones y

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

49

ZONE 1 EXTENSION © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 50

ZONE 1 EXTENSION

ZONE 1 EXTENSION © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 50
ZONE 1 EXTENSION © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 50
ZONE 1 EXTENSION © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 50

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

50

PUTT Carrier sending by zone 1 (underreaching) Settable carrier time Can be complemented by weak

PUTT

Carrier sending by zone 1 (underreaching)PUTT Settable carrier time Can be complemented by weak infeed logic (trip) Optional carrier sending by

Settable carrier timePUTT Carrier sending by zone 1 (underreaching) Can be complemented by weak infeed logic (trip) Optional

Can be complemented by weak infeed logic (trip)sending by zone 1 (underreaching) Settable carrier time Optional carrier sending by open breaker Blocking signals

Optional carrier sending by open breakercarrier time Can be complemented by weak infeed logic (trip) Blocking signals coming from: Power swing

Blocking signals coming from:infeed logic (trip) Optional carrier sending by open breaker Power swing detector Digital input © ZIV

Power swing detectorcarrier sending by open breaker Blocking signals coming from: Digital input © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

Digital inputsending by open breaker Blocking signals coming from: Power swing detector © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

open breaker Blocking signals coming from: Power swing detector Digital input © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología
open breaker Blocking signals coming from: Power swing detector Digital input © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

51

PUTT © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 52

PUTT

PUTT © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 52
PUTT © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 52
PUTT © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 52

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

52

DTT Similar to PUTT but with direct trip by carrier reception Settable carrier time Settable
DTT Similar to PUTT but with direct trip by carrier reception Settable carrier time Settable

DTT

Similar to PUTT but with direct trip by carrier reception

Settable carrier timeDTT Similar to PUTT but with direct trip by carrier reception Settable security time to avoid

Settable security time to avoid erroneous operations due to noise in the communication channelwith direct trip by carrier reception Settable carrier time Optional carrier sending by open breaker Blocking

Optional carrier sending by open breakeroperations due to noise in the communication channel Blocking signals coming from: Power swing detector (only

Blocking signals coming from:channel Optional carrier sending by open breaker Power swing detector (only blocks carrier sending) Digital

Power swing detector (only blocks carrier sending)carrier sending by open breaker Blocking signals coming from: Digital input © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

Digital inputsignals coming from: Power swing detector (only blocks carrier sending) © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.

coming from: Power swing detector (only blocks carrier sending) Digital input © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología
coming from: Power swing detector (only blocks carrier sending) Digital input © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

53

DTT © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 54

DTT

DTT © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 54
DTT © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 54
DTT © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 54

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

54

POTT Carrier sending by overreaching zone Settable carrier time Can be complemented by weak infeed
POTT Carrier sending by overreaching zone Settable carrier time Can be complemented by weak infeed

POTT

Carrier sending by overreaching zone

Settable carrier timePOTT Carrier sending by overreaching zone Can be complemented by weak infeed (echo or echo+trip) and

Can be complemented by weak infeed (echo or echo+trip) and current reversal logicsCarrier sending by overreaching zone Settable carrier time Optional carrier sending by open breaker Blocking signals

Optional carrier sending by open breakerweak infeed (echo or echo+trip) and current reversal logics Blocking signals coming from: Power swing detector

Blocking signals coming from:reversal logics Optional carrier sending by open breaker Power swing detector Digital input © ZIV Aplicaciones

Power swing detectorcarrier sending by open breaker Blocking signals coming from: Digital input © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

Digital inputsending by open breaker Blocking signals coming from: Power swing detector © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

open breaker Blocking signals coming from: Power swing detector Digital input © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología
open breaker Blocking signals coming from: Power swing detector Digital input © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

55

POTT © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 56

POTT

POTT © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 56
POTT © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 56
POTT © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 56

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

56

DCUB Similar to POTT but allows instantaneous tripping for a time window (150 ms) even
DCUB Similar to POTT but allows instantaneous tripping for a time window (150 ms) even

DCUB

Similar to POTT but allows instantaneous tripping for a time window (150 ms) even if the carrier is lost

Requires frequency-shifted PLC equipmentfor a time window (150 ms) even if the carrier is lost Settable carrier time Can

Settable carrier timethe carrier is lost Requires frequency-shifted PLC equipment Can be complemented by weak infeed (echo or

Can be complemented by weak infeed (echo or echo+trip) and current reversal logicsfrequency-shifted PLC equipment Settable carrier time Optional carrier sending by open breaker Blocking signals

Optional carrier sending by open breakerweak infeed (echo or echo+trip) and current reversal logics Blocking signals coming from: Power swing detector

Blocking signals coming from:reversal logics Optional carrier sending by open breaker Power swing detector Digital input © ZIV Aplicaciones

Power swing detectorDigital input

Digital inputPower swing detector

breaker Blocking signals coming from: Power swing detector Digital input © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.
breaker Blocking signals coming from: Power swing detector Digital input © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

57

DCUB © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 58

DCUB

DCUB © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 58
DCUB © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 58
DCUB © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 58

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

58

DCB Carrier sending by reverse zone (zone 4 or zone 5) or non- directional overcurrent

DCB

Carrier sending by reverse zone (zone 4 or zone 5) or non- directional overcurrent units (fast carrier sending)

or non- directional overcurrent units (fast carrier sending) Settable time delay for overreaching zone operation Implicit

Settable time delay for overreaching zone operationor non- directional overcurrent units (fast carrier sending) Implicit current reversal logic Carrier stop input /

Implicit current reversal logicsending) Settable time delay for overreaching zone operation Carrier stop input / output Blocking signals (inhibite

Carrier stop input / outputoverreaching zone operation Implicit current reversal logic Blocking signals (inhibite tripping and generate carrier)

Blocking signals (inhibite tripping and generate carrier) coming from:Implicit current reversal logic Carrier stop input / output Power swing detector Digital input © ZIV

Power swing detectorsignals (inhibite tripping and generate carrier) coming from: Digital input © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.

Digital input(inhibite tripping and generate carrier) coming from: Power swing detector © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.

tripping and generate carrier) coming from: Power swing detector Digital input © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología
tripping and generate carrier) coming from: Power swing detector Digital input © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

59

DCB © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 60

DCB

DCB © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 60
DCB © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 60
DCB © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 60

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

60

WEAK INFEED LOGIC Selectable logic output: NON, ECHO or ECHO+TRIP Settable security time to avoid
WEAK INFEED LOGIC Selectable logic output: NON, ECHO or ECHO+TRIP Settable security time to avoid

WEAK INFEED LOGIC

Selectable logic output: NON, ECHO or ECHO+TRIP

Settable security time to avoid erroneous echo sendings due to noise in the communication channelINFEED LOGIC Selectable logic output: NON, ECHO or ECHO+TRIP Implicit current reversal logic Settable voltage threshold

Implicit current reversal logicecho sendings due to noise in the communication channel Settable voltage threshold for weak infeed trip

Settable voltage threshold for weak infeed tripin the communication channel Implicit current reversal logic Phase selector based on undervoltage units Optional weak

Phase selector based on undervoltage unitslogic Settable voltage threshold for weak infeed trip Optional weak infeed trip blocking by fuse failure

Optional weak infeed trip blocking by fuse failure detectorthreshold for weak infeed trip Phase selector based on undervoltage units © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

undervoltage units Optional weak infeed trip blocking by fuse failure detector © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología
undervoltage units Optional weak infeed trip blocking by fuse failure detector © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

61

WEAK INFEED LOGIC © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 62

WEAK INFEED LOGIC

WEAK INFEED LOGIC © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 62
WEAK INFEED LOGIC © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 62
WEAK INFEED LOGIC © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 62

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

62

CURRENT REVERSAL LOGIC Can be applied in any permissive overreaching scheme Blocking signal for overreaching

CURRENT REVERSAL LOGIC

CURRENT REVERSAL LOGIC Can be applied in any permissive overreaching scheme Blocking signal for overreaching zone

Can be applied in any permissive overreaching scheme

Blocking signal for overreaching zone is activated by reverse zone (zone 4 or zone 5) pick-upLOGIC Can be applied in any permissive overreaching scheme Settable blocking time delay © ZIV Aplicaciones

zone is activated by reverse zone (zone 4 or zone 5) pick-up Settable blocking time delay

Settable blocking time delay

by reverse zone (zone 4 or zone 5) pick-up Settable blocking time delay © ZIV Aplicaciones
by reverse zone (zone 4 or zone 5) pick-up Settable blocking time delay © ZIV Aplicaciones

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

63

CURRENT REVERSAL LOGIC 64 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

CURRENT REVERSAL LOGIC

CURRENT REVERSAL LOGIC 64 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.
CURRENT REVERSAL LOGIC 64 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.
CURRENT REVERSAL LOGIC 64 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

64

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

REMOTE BREAKER OPEN DETECTOR Allows zone 2 instantaneous tripping once the remote breaker is detected

REMOTE BREAKER OPEN DETECTOR

Allows zone 2 instantaneous tripping once the remote breaker is detected as open (three-phase):

once the remote breaker is detected as open (three-phase): Loss of load (undercurrent detectors) Capacitive current

Loss of load (undercurrent detectors)once the remote breaker is detected as open (three-phase): Capacitive current detection (long lines) ( 90º

Capacitive current detection (long lines)as open (three-phase): Loss of load (undercurrent detectors) ( 90º ) [ arg ( I )

(90º

)

[arg(I )

arg(V )]

(90º+ )

(long lines) ( 90º ) [ arg ( I ) arg ( V ) ] (
(long lines) ( 90º ) [ arg ( I ) arg ( V ) ] (

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

65

REMOTE BREAKER OPEN DETECTOR © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 66

REMOTE BREAKER OPEN DETECTOR

REMOTE BREAKER OPEN DETECTOR © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 66
REMOTE BREAKER OPEN DETECTOR © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 66
REMOTE BREAKER OPEN DETECTOR © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 66

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

66

OVERCURRENT UNITS Phase, ground and negative sequence / instantaneous and time delayed Selectable torque control:

OVERCURRENT UNITS

Phase, ground and negative sequence / instantaneous and time delayed

Selectable torque control: non-directional / forward / reverseand negative sequence / instantaneous and time delayed Selectable directional unit (torque control type) Torque

Selectable directional unit (torque control type)torque control: non-directional / forward / reverse Torque control disable input Time delay reset input Blocking

Torque control disable input/ reverse Selectable directional unit (torque control type) Time delay reset input Blocking signals coming from:

Time delay reset inputunit (torque control type) Torque control disable input Blocking signals coming from: Digital input Open pole

Blocking signals coming from:type) Torque control disable input Time delay reset input Digital input Open pole detectors (ground and

input Time delay reset input Blocking signals coming from: Digital input Open pole detectors (ground and

Digital input

Open pole detectors (ground and negative sequence units)reset input Blocking signals coming from: Digital input Series compensated lines logic © ZIV Aplicaciones y

Open pole detectors (ground and negative sequence units) Series compensated lines logic © ZIV Aplicaciones y

Series compensated lines logic

detectors (ground and negative sequence units) Series compensated lines logic © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.
detectors (ground and negative sequence units) Series compensated lines logic © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

67

PHASE INSTANTANEOUS OVERCURRENT UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 68

PHASE INSTANTANEOUS OVERCURRENT UNITS

PHASE INSTANTANEOUS OVERCURRENT UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 68
PHASE INSTANTANEOUS OVERCURRENT UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 68
PHASE INSTANTANEOUS OVERCURRENT UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 68

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

68

GROUND INSTANTANEOUS OVERCURRENT UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 69

GROUND INSTANTANEOUS OVERCURRENT UNITS

GROUND INSTANTANEOUS OVERCURRENT UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 69
GROUND INSTANTANEOUS OVERCURRENT UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 69
GROUND INSTANTANEOUS OVERCURRENT UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 69

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

69

NEGATIVE SEQUENCE INSTANTANEOUS OVERCURRENT UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 70

NEGATIVE SEQUENCE INSTANTANEOUS OVERCURRENT UNITS

NEGATIVE SEQUENCE INSTANTANEOUS OVERCURRENT UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 70
NEGATIVE SEQUENCE INSTANTANEOUS OVERCURRENT UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 70
NEGATIVE SEQUENCE INSTANTANEOUS OVERCURRENT UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 70

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

70

PHASE TIME-DELAYED OVERCURRENT UNITS 71 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

PHASE TIME-DELAYED OVERCURRENT UNITS

PHASE TIME-DELAYED OVERCURRENT UNITS 71 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.
PHASE TIME-DELAYED OVERCURRENT UNITS 71 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.
PHASE TIME-DELAYED OVERCURRENT UNITS 71 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

71

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

GROUND TIME-DELAYED OVERCURRENT UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 72

GROUND TIME-DELAYED OVERCURRENT UNITS

GROUND TIME-DELAYED OVERCURRENT UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 72
GROUND TIME-DELAYED OVERCURRENT UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 72
GROUND TIME-DELAYED OVERCURRENT UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 72

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

72

NEGATIVE SEQUENCE TIME-DELAYED OVERCURRENT UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 73

NEGATIVE SEQUENCE TIME-DELAYED OVERCURRENT UNITS

NEGATIVE SEQUENCE TIME-DELAYED OVERCURRENT UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 73
NEGATIVE SEQUENCE TIME-DELAYED OVERCURRENT UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 73
NEGATIVE SEQUENCE TIME-DELAYED OVERCURRENT UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 73

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

73

DIRECTIONAL UNITS Phase directional units: Polarized by quadrature memory phase-phase voltage Ground directional units:

DIRECTIONAL UNITS

Phase directional units:

Polarized by quadrature memory phase-phase voltageDIRECTIONAL UNITS Phase directional units: Ground directional units: Polarized by zero-sequence voltage Polarized by

Ground directional units:units: Polarized by quadrature memory phase-phase voltage Polarized by zero-sequence voltage Polarized by current

Polarized by zero-sequence voltagememory phase-phase voltage Ground directional units: Polarized by current coming from an earth clamp Negative

Polarized by current coming from an earth clampGround directional units: Polarized by zero-sequence voltage Negative sequence directional units: Polarized by negative

Negative sequence directional units:voltage Polarized by current coming from an earth clamp Polarized by negative sequence voltage Distance zone

Polarized by negative sequence voltagefrom an earth clamp Negative sequence directional units: Distance zone 2 can act as directional unit

Distance zone 2 can act as directional unit for o/cdirectional units: Polarized by negative sequence voltage Two setting options available in case of loss of

Two setting options available in case of loss of polarization (can be applied to fuse failure ): blocking/permission can be applied to fuse failure): blocking/permission

of loss of polarization ( can be applied to fuse failure ): blocking/permission © ZIV Aplicaciones
of loss of polarization ( can be applied to fuse failure ): blocking/permission © ZIV Aplicaciones

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

74

DIRECTIONAL UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 75

DIRECTIONAL UNITS

DIRECTIONAL UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 75
DIRECTIONAL UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 75
DIRECTIONAL UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 75
DIRECTIONAL UNITS © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 75

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

75

DIRECTIONAL UNITS Polarization voltage compensator factor for ground and negative sequence directional units: F POL

DIRECTIONAL UNITS

Polarization voltage compensator factor for ground and negative sequence directional units:

factor for ground and negative sequence directional units: F POL 67 N = ( V 0

F POL67

N =

(

V

0

+

I K

0

ANG

_ 67

N

)

_

 

COMP

_ 67

N

F POL67

Q =

(

 

V

2

+

I K

2

ANG

_ 67

Q

)

   

_

 

COMP

_ 67

Q

Applications:

Increase polarization voltage: makes it higher than minimum level for polarization (strong zero/negative sequence sources)    _   COMP _ 67 Q Applications: Invert polarization voltage: compensates inversions in

Invert polarization voltage: compensates inversions in series compensated linesthan minimum level for polarization (strong zero/negative sequence sources) © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

Invert polarization voltage: compensates inversions in series compensated lines © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.
Invert polarization voltage: compensates inversions in series compensated lines © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

76

Forward fault DIRECTIONAL UNITS V 0 = ZA 0 ◊ ( I 0) Reverse fault

Forward fault

DIRECTIONAL UNITS

V 0 = ZA0 ( I 0)

Reverse fault

V 0 = (ZL0 + ZB0) I 0

IF IF I0 I0 ZA0 p x ZL0 (1-p) x ZL0 ZB0 ZA0 ZL0 ZB0
IF
IF
I0
I0
ZA0
p x ZL0
(1-p) x ZL0
ZB0
ZA0
ZL0
ZB0
V0
V0
-V0
I0 ◊K
ANG_67N
COMP_67N
I0
Forward
Reverse
ZA0 ZL0 ZB0 V0 V0 -V0 I0 ◊K ANG_67N COMP_67N I0 Forward Reverse © ZIV Aplicaciones
ZA0 ZL0 ZB0 V0 V0 -V0 I0 ◊K ANG_67N COMP_67N I0 Forward Reverse © ZIV Aplicaciones

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

77

DIRECTIONAL UNITS Negative sequence voltage inversion if, with line side CT : X C >

DIRECTIONAL UNITS

Negative sequence voltage inversion if, with line side CT: X C > X S L 2 : XC>XSL2

Vpolarization Compensation

CT : X C > X S L 2 Vpolarization Compensation K COMP _ 67 Q

K

COMP _ 67

Q >>>>

XC

FORWARD FAULT

I2
I2

I 2 ◊◊( jXC)

I

2◊◊◊◊

K

COMP

_ 67

Q

I 2◊◊jXSL2

I2 IF jXSL2 jmXL2 j(1-m)XL2 jXSR2 -jXC V2
I2
IF
jXSL2
jmXL2
j(1-m)XL2
jXSR2
-jXC
V2

V 2 ==== I 2 ◊◊( jXSL 2

jXC )

jmXL2 j(1-m)XL2 jXSR2 -jXC V2 V 2 ==== I 2 ◊◊ ( jXSL 2 jXC )
jmXL2 j(1-m)XL2 jXSR2 -jXC V2 V 2 ==== I 2 ◊◊ ( jXSL 2 jXC )

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

78

DIRECTIONAL UNITS ¡Attention with reverse faults!: do not overcompensate Vpolarization K COMP _ 67 Q

DIRECTIONAL UNITS

DIRECTIONAL UNITS ¡Attention with reverse faults!: do not overcompensate Vpolarization K COMP _ 67 Q

¡Attention with reverse faults!: do not overcompensate Vpolarization

K COMP _ 67

Q <<<<

XL

2

++++

XSR

2

REVERSE FAULT

IF I2 jXSL2 jXL2 jXSR2 -jXC V2
IF
I2
jXSL2
jXL2
jXSR2
-jXC
V2

V2 ==== I2◊◊( jXL2 ++++ jXSR2)

2 = = = = I 2 ◊◊ ( jXL 2 + + + + jXSR

I2

I

2◊◊◊◊

K

COMP

_ 67

Q

I 2 ◊◊ ( jXL 2 + + + + jXSR 2) I2 I 2 ◊◊◊◊
I 2 ◊◊ ( jXL 2 + + + + jXSR 2) I2 I 2 ◊◊◊◊

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

79

O/C PROTECTION SCHEMES For ground or negative sequence directional O/C (67N/67Q) Permissive underreach transfer trip
O/C PROTECTION SCHEMES For ground or negative sequence directional O/C (67N/67Q) Permissive underreach transfer trip

O/C PROTECTION SCHEMES

For ground or negative sequence directional O/C (67N/67Q)

Permissive underreach transfer trip (PUTT)For ground or negative sequence directional O/C (67N/67Q) Direct transfer trip (DTT) Permissive overreach transfer

Direct transfer trip (DTT)O/C (67N/67Q) Permissive underreach transfer trip (PUTT) Permissive overreach transfer trip (POTT) Directional

Permissive overreach transfer trip (POTT)underreach transfer trip (PUTT) Direct transfer trip (DTT) Directional comparison unblocking (DCUB) Directional

Directional comparison unblocking (DCUB)trip (DTT) Permissive overreach transfer trip (POTT) Directional comparison blocking (DCB) User defined

Directional comparison blocking (DCB)trip (POTT) Directional comparison unblocking (DCUB) User defined (programmable logic) Echo and week infeed

User defined (programmable logic)unblocking (DCUB) Directional comparison blocking (DCB) Echo and week infeed tripping Transient blocking for current

Echo and week infeed trippingcomparison blocking (DCB) User defined (programmable logic) Transient blocking for current reversal © ZIV Aplicaciones

Transient blocking for current reversalblocking (DCB) User defined (programmable logic) Echo and week infeed tripping © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

logic) Echo and week infeed tripping Transient blocking for current reversal © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología
logic) Echo and week infeed tripping Transient blocking for current reversal © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

80

OPEN PHASE DETECTOR Only operates with series faults (broken conductor) Independent from load current (I2/I1

OPEN PHASE DETECTOR

Only operates with series faults (broken conductor)

Independent from load current (I2/I1 ratio)

series faults (broken conductor) Independent from load current (I2/I1 ratio) © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.
series faults (broken conductor) Independent from load current (I2/I1 ratio) © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.
series faults (broken conductor) Independent from load current (I2/I1 ratio) © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

81

SYNCHROCHECK UNIT Includes logic to check voltages on both sides of the breaker. Setting options

SYNCHROCHECK UNIT

Includes logic to check voltages on both sides of the breaker. Setting options that allow reclose or manual close:

Dead line/live busbreaker. Setting options that allow reclose or manual close: Live line/dead bus Dead line/dead bus In

Live line/dead busthat allow reclose or manual close: Dead line/live bus Dead line/dead bus In case of live

Dead line/dead busor manual close: Dead line/live bus Live line/dead bus In case of live line/live bus three

In case of live line/live bus three conditions can be checked:Dead line/live bus Live line/dead bus Dead line/dead bus Voltage magnitudes difference Voltage angles difference

Voltage magnitudes differencecase of live line/live bus three conditions can be checked: Voltage angles difference Frequency difference Compensation

Voltage angles differenceconditions can be checked: Voltage magnitudes difference Frequency difference Compensation for the breaker closing

Frequency differenceVoltage magnitudes difference Voltage angles difference Compensation for the breaker closing time Synchronism for

Compensation for the breaker closing timeSynchronism for two breakers

Synchronism for two breakersCompensation for the breaker closing time

Compensation for the breaker closing time Synchronism for two breakers © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.
Compensation for the breaker closing time Synchronism for two breakers © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

82

SYNCHROCHECK UNIT 83 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

SYNCHROCHECK UNIT

SYNCHROCHECK UNIT 83 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.
SYNCHROCHECK UNIT 83 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.
SYNCHROCHECK UNIT 83 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

83

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

BREAKER FAILURE Current detection levels and timers are independent for single and three phase trips

BREAKER FAILURE

Current detection levels and timers are independent for single and three phase tripsBREAKER FAILURE Breaker failure pick ups initiated by single pole trips include phase segregated current detectors

Breaker failure pick ups initiated by single pole trips include phase segregated current detectors and timersand timers are independent for single and three phase trips Non overcurrent breaker failure detection (

Non overcurrent breaker failure detection (trips from overvoltage, frequency, Buchholz etc ) trips from overvoltage, frequency, Buchholz etc)

Retrip command (single/three phase)( trips from overvoltage, frequency, Buchholz etc ) Initiation by external protection trip: single/three pole

Initiation by external protection trip: single/three poleBuchholz etc ) Retrip command (single/three phase) Breaker arc detection Supervision of two breakers © ZIV

Breaker arc detectionInitiation by external protection trip: single/three pole Supervision of two breakers © ZIV Aplicaciones y

Supervision of two breakersInitiation by external protection trip: single/three pole Breaker arc detection © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.

trip: single/three pole Breaker arc detection Supervision of two breakers © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.
trip: single/three pole Breaker arc detection Supervision of two breakers © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S.

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

84

BREAKER FAILURE © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 85

BREAKER FAILURE

BREAKER FAILURE © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 85
BREAKER FAILURE © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 85
BREAKER FAILURE © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 85

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

85

TRIP LOGIC Can trip single pole for a single phase to ground fault with: Any

TRIP LOGIC

Can trip single pole for a single phase to ground fault with:

Any distance zonetrip single pole for a single phase to ground fault with: Accelarated overreaching zone Instantaneous ground

Accelarated overreaching zonefor a single phase to ground fault with: Any distance zone Instantaneous ground or negative sequence

Instantaneous ground or negative sequence unit 1fault with: Any distance zone Accelarated overreaching zone Accelarated overreaching overcurrent units Includes the

Accelarated overreaching overcurrent unitszone Instantaneous ground or negative sequence unit 1 Includes the following inputs: Programmable trip Trip

sequence unit 1 Accelarated overreaching overcurrent units Includes the following inputs: Programmable trip Trip

Includes the following inputs:

Programmable tripovercurrent units Includes the following inputs: Trip Blocking Pole n (n=A, B, C) trip blocking Three

Trip Blockingunits Includes the following inputs: Programmable trip Pole n (n=A, B, C) trip blocking Three pole

Pole n (n=A, B, C) trip blockingthe following inputs: Programmable trip Trip Blocking Three pole trip preparation blocking © ZIV Aplicaciones y

Three pole trip preparation blockinginputs: Programmable trip Trip Blocking Pole n (n=A, B, C) trip blocking © ZIV Aplicaciones y

Blocking Pole n (n=A, B, C) trip blocking Three pole trip preparation blocking © ZIV Aplicaciones
Blocking Pole n (n=A, B, C) trip blocking Three pole trip preparation blocking © ZIV Aplicaciones

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

86

RECLOSER Single/three pole reclose 4 reclosing modes: 1p, 3p, 1p/3p and dependent Up to three

RECLOSER

Single/three pole recloseRECLOSER 4 reclosing modes: 1p, 3p, 1p/3p and dependent Up to three reclose cycles Can operate

4 reclosing modes: 1p, 3p, 1p/3p and dependentRECLOSER Single/three pole reclose Up to three reclose cycles Can operate with external protections Internal or

Up to three reclose cyclespole reclose 4 reclosing modes: 1p, 3p, 1p/3p and dependent Can operate with external protections Internal

Can operate with external protections1p, 3p, 1p/3p and dependent Up to three reclose cycles Internal or external synchronism check Programmable

Internal or external synchronism checkthree reclose cycles Can operate with external protections Programmable recloser initiation masks Can control two

Programmable recloser initiation masksexternal protections Internal or external synchronism check Can control two breakers Independent timers for single and

Can control two breakerssynchronism check Programmable recloser initiation masks Independent timers for single and three pole recloses © ZIV

Independent timers for single and three pole reclosescheck Programmable recloser initiation masks Can control two breakers © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

Can control two breakers Independent timers for single and three pole recloses © ZIV Aplicaciones y
Can control two breakers Independent timers for single and three pole recloses © ZIV Aplicaciones y

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

87

RECLOSER 88 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

RECLOSER

RECLOSER 88 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.
RECLOSER 88 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.
RECLOSER 88 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

88

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

SUPERVISION Breaker supervision: Excessive number of trips Maintenance (accumulated kA 2 ) Supervision of trip

SUPERVISION

Breaker supervision:SUPERVISION Excessive number of trips Maintenance (accumulated kA 2 ) Supervision of trip and/or close circuits

Excessive number of tripsSUPERVISION Breaker supervision: Maintenance (accumulated kA 2 ) Supervision of trip and/or close circuits (up to

Maintenance (accumulated kA 2 ) 2 )

Supervision of trip and/or close circuits (up to 6)number of trips Maintenance (accumulated kA 2 ) Pole discrepancy detector © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

Pole discrepancy detector(accumulated kA 2 ) Supervision of trip and/or close circuits (up to 6) © ZIV Aplicaciones

) Supervision of trip and/or close circuits (up to 6) Pole discrepancy detector © ZIV Aplicaciones
) Supervision of trip and/or close circuits (up to 6) Pole discrepancy detector © ZIV Aplicaciones

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

89

BREAKER AND A HALF FUNCTIONALITY B1 I1 52-1 52-2 I2 L1 ILÍNE=I1+I2 VSINC1 IA1 IB1

BREAKER AND A HALF FUNCTIONALITY

B1 I1 52-1 52-2 I2
B1
I1
52-1
52-2
I2

L1

ILÍNE=I1+I2

VSINC1

VSINC1
FUNCTIONALITY B1 I1 52-1 52-2 I2 L1 ILÍNE=I1+I2 VSINC1 IA1 IB1 IC1 IA2 IB2 IC2 VA

IA1 IB1 IC1

IA2 IB2 IC2

VA VB VC

52-2 I2 L1 ILÍNE=I1+I2 VSINC1 IA1 IB1 IC1 IA2 IB2 IC2 VA VB VC VSINC2 B2

VSINC2

B2
B2

L2

52-2 I2 L1 ILÍNE=I1+I2 VSINC1 IA1 IB1 IC1 IA2 IB2 IC2 VA VB VC VSINC2 B2
52-2 I2 L1 ILÍNE=I1+I2 VSINC1 IA1 IB1 IC1 IA2 IB2 IC2 VA VB VC VSINC2 B2

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

90

BREAKER AND A HALF FUNCTIONALITY Programmable directional unit Stub bus protection more secure for CT
BREAKER AND A HALF FUNCTIONALITY Programmable directional unit Stub bus protection more secure for CT

BREAKER AND A HALF FUNCTIONALITY

Programmable directional unit

Stub bus protection more secure for CT saturationAND A HALF FUNCTIONALITY Programmable directional unit breaker failure units synchrocheck units coordinated

breaker failure unitsunit Stub bus protection more secure for CT saturation synchrocheck units coordinated reclosers Supervision

synchrocheck unitsmore secure for CT saturation breaker failure units coordinated reclosers Supervision (accumulated kA N )

coordinated reclosersfor CT saturation breaker failure units synchrocheck units Supervision (accumulated kA N ) for 2 breakers

Supervision (accumulated kA N ) for 2 breakers N ) for 2 breakers

2

2

2

coordinated reclosers Supervision (accumulated kA N ) for 2 breakers 2 2 2 © ZIV Aplicaciones
coordinated reclosers Supervision (accumulated kA N ) for 2 breakers 2 2 2 © ZIV Aplicaciones

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

91

NEW DIRECTIONAL UNIT Directional unit more stable for CT saturation during external faults (created with

NEW DIRECTIONAL UNIT

Directional unit more stable for CT saturation during external faults (created with the programmable logic)

I-1

I-2

CT-1 I-LINE ZL CT-2 STRONG SOURCE
CT-1
I-LINE
ZL
CT-2
STRONG SOURCE

WITHOUT CT-1 SATURATION

I-2 I-1 I-LINE
I-2
I-1
I-LINE

WITH CT-1 SATURATION

I-2

I-1

I-LINE

I-2 I-1 I-LINE WITH CT-1 SATURATION I-2 I-1 I-LINE WEAK SOURCE NEW DIRECTIONAL UNIT

WEAK SOURCE

NEW DIRECTIONAL UNIT

-90º<arg(I-1)-arg(I-2)<90º

I-LINE WEAK SOURCE NEW DIRECTIONAL UNIT -90º<arg(I-1)-arg(I-2)<90º © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 92
I-LINE WEAK SOURCE NEW DIRECTIONAL UNIT -90º<arg(I-1)-arg(I-2)<90º © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A. 92

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

92

STUB BUS PROTECTION Overcurrent unit only in operation when the line isolator opens Retraint by

STUB BUS PROTECTION

Overcurrent unit only in operation when the line isolator opens

unit only in operation when the line isolator opens Retraint by through –fault current WITHOUT CT

Retraint by through –fault current

WITHOUT CT SATURATION: ILINE=0

I-1

I-2

TI-1 TI-2
TI-1
TI-2

L1

89-L1

WITH CT SATURATION: ILINE0

I LÍNEA

IMIN

ZONA DE OPERACIÓN

ZONA DE OPERACIÓN α

α

I LINE ≠ 0 I LÍNEA IMIN ZONA DE OPERACIÓN α ZONA DE NO OPERACIÓN I

ZONA DE NO OPERACIÓN

I 1+ I

2

2

0 I LÍNEA IMIN ZONA DE OPERACIÓN α ZONA DE NO OPERACIÓN I 1 + I
0 I LÍNEA IMIN ZONA DE OPERACIÓN α ZONA DE NO OPERACIÓN I 1 + I

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

93

B1 I1 L1 52-1 52-2 I2 52-3 L2 B2 BREAKER FAILURE 52-1 failure B1 Open

B1

I1 L1 52-1 52-2 I2 52-3 L2
I1
L1
52-1
52-2
I2
52-3
L2

B2

BREAKER FAILURE

52-1 failure B1 Open and intertripB1 I1 L1 52-1 52-2 I2 52-3 L2 B2 BREAKER FAILURE Detection with I1 52-2 failure

L2 B2 BREAKER FAILURE 52-1 failure B1 Open and intertrip Detection with I1 52-2 failure 52-3

Detection with I1L2 B2 BREAKER FAILURE 52-1 failure B1 Open and intertrip 52-2 failure 52-3 open and intertrip

52-2 failure 52-3 open and intertrip Detection with I2L2 B2 BREAKER FAILURE 52-1 failure B1 Open and intertrip Detection with I1 © ZIV Aplicaciones

Detection with I1 52-2 failure 52-3 open and intertrip Detection with I2 © ZIV Aplicaciones y
Detection with I1 52-2 failure 52-3 open and intertrip Detection with I2 © ZIV Aplicaciones y
Detection with I1 52-2 failure 52-3 open and intertrip Detection with I2 © ZIV Aplicaciones y
Detection with I1 52-2 failure 52-3 open and intertrip Detection with I2 © ZIV Aplicaciones y

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

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SYNCHROCHECK UNIT Breaker and a half D o u b l e b u s

SYNCHROCHECK UNIT

Breaker and a half

Double busbar

L1

B1 89-1 52-B1 VSINC1 VA VB VC 52-0 VSINC2 Position 89-2 52-B2 89-2 B2
B1
89-1
52-B1
VSINC1
VA VB VC
52-0
VSINC2
Position 89-2
52-B2
89-2
B2

B1

B2 89-B2 VSINC1 52 VA VB VC IN-1
B2
89-B2
VSINC1
52
VA VB VC
IN-1

89-B1

VSINC2

B2 B1 B2 89-B2 VSINC1 52 VA VB VC IN-1 89-B1 VSINC2 IN-2 Position 89-B1 Position
IN-2 Position 89-B1 Position 89-B2
IN-2
Position 89-B1
Position 89-B2

L2

VSINC1 52 VA VB VC IN-1 89-B1 VSINC2 IN-2 Position 89-B1 Position 89-B2 L2 © ZIV
VSINC1 52 VA VB VC IN-1 89-B1 VSINC2 IN-2 Position 89-B1 Position 89-B2 L2 © ZIV

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

95

B1 I1 52-1 52-2 I2 52-3 B2 RECLOSER Possibility for sequencial reclosing to avoid closing
B1 I1 52-1 52-2 I2 52-3
B1
I1
52-1
52-2
I2
52-3

B2

RECLOSER

Possibility for sequencial reclosing to avoid closing onto fault both breakers

reclosing to avoid closing onto fault both breakers L1   Selection of the master and slave

L1

 
Selection of the master and slave reclosers

Selection of the master and slave reclosers

Permission / blocking of the slave recloser when the master one is blocked

Permission / blocking of the slave recloser when the master one is blocked

Blocking of the recloser associated to a manually open breaker

Blocking of the recloser associated to a manually open breaker

L2

Blocking of the recloser associated to a manually open breaker L2 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología
Blocking of the recloser associated to a manually open breaker L2 © ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología

© ZIV Aplicaciones y Tecnología S. A.

96