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3.1 Preparation of samples

3.2 Selecting and fitting the appropriate pendulum

3.3 Fixing the test specimens

3.4 Performing the Test

3.5 Calculations

3.6 Reporting




4.1 Inspection


4.2 Levelling


4.3 Zero Adjustment


4.4 Pendulum Friction


4.5 Pointer Friction


4.6 Tearing Length


4.7 Samples




5.1 Purpose and Equipment


5.2 Test Specimen


5.3 Conditioning


5.4 Calibration


5.5 Method


5.6 Results




6.1 Spar Parts list.


6.2 Symbols used for Diagram


6.3 Face view of the Tearing, Tester


6.4 Side view of the Tearing Tester


The Elmendorf Tearing Tester is based on the APPITA method and conforms
with BRITISH, ISO, SCAN, TAPPI, M&S and other National and International
standards, and is supplied complete with 3 interchangeable pendulums, light,
medium and heavy covering the ranges up to 32000 Millinewtons (mN), sample
cutter, two Tommy bars and Allen key. However, if required the instrument can
be ordered with one, two or three pendulums, and in this event additional
pendulums can be supplied at a later date.
A special pendulum, increasing the capacity up to 64,000 mN for testing heavy
textiles can be supplied, and in such a case also a heavy duty sample cutter.



Light A
Medium B
Heavy C
Extra Heavy D



AII pendulums are scales 0-1000

It is most important that 4 samples be tested simultaneously, the results falling
within the range 200-800 scale units, although values based on readings taken
outside these limits may be reported.
It will therefore be seen, that preliminary tests be carried out in order to select
the most suitable pendulum.
NOTE: The 'D' pendulums are slightly thicker than the A, B and C
pendulums and as a result the pointer may rub against the scale. A small
adjustment to move the pendulum backwards may be necessary. This is
simply done by loosening the pendulum mounting should then be
Before using the instrument it is necessary to check that the pointer
zeroes with no sample loaded.

To protect the instrument from damage in transit, it is packed dismantled, the
base stand unit, pendulums and cutter being packed separately.
Unpack the tester, placing the base stand unit on a suitable rigid bench or table.
1. After selecting a pendulum, it should be fitted raised in the upright position,
ensure that when fitting, it clears the pointer stop M and that the clearance
hole through the mounting shaft, fits over the spindle shaft 0. It will be seen
that on the face of the rear bearing assembly, protruding, is a dowel pin,
whilst in the mating face of the mounting shaft is a hole.
2. The dowel pin and the hole should be aligned before finally positioning the
mounting shaft, hard up against the face of the bearing assembly.

3. The friction pointer K can then be fitted to the mounting shaft, merely by
sliding the pointer hub over the shaft, until it locates itself centrally over the
groove around the periphery of the mounting shaft. The black plastic
retaining knob L can now be screwed onto the threaded end of the spindle

4. Level the instrument base by using the two levelling screws E and the spirit
level, ensuring that the first reference line 'B' on the pendulum, to the right of
the scale is aligned with the reference line on the datum block C, which is
affixed to the base of the tester (the levelling screw positioned on the
extreme left of the base facilitates the alignment of the two reference lines).

5. The instrument should now be secured to the bench by bolting down via the
countersunk hole.

6. Ensure that the jaws of the pendulum clamp are closed and raise the
pendulum to its initial operating position, so that it is supported in this

position by the pendulum release lever 'N', at this position the second datum
line 'B' on the pendulum should coincide with the reference line on the datum
block 'C' mounted on the base, and that the pointer stop 'M' is also aligned
with reference lines 'B' and 'C' (the pointer stop 'M' is adjustable).

7. Move the pointer 'K' until its tip is hard against the stop, the tip of the pointer
registering at 1000 on the scale (APPITA, SCAN & BRITISH METHODS).

8. Depress the pendulum release lever 'N' so that the pendulum swings, release the
lever which will then act as a brake, bringing the pendulum to rest. Observe that
the friction pointer 'K' registers zero on the scale, repeating this two or three times
to ensure that the zero reading is constant.

9. If the pointer does not register zero, adjust the pointer friction as indicated in
Section 3. When changing pendulums to test higher or lower strength materials
repeat this procedure.


3. 1 Preparation of samples.
For testing to M&S, please refer to their own approved procedure.
The sample is cut to size with the samples cutter supplied with the tester, for British,
APPITA & SCAN methods the sample size is 50 x 62mm, the actual tearing length
being 43mm (62mm less the initial incision of 19mm).
For TAPPI method the cutter produces a sample size of 50 x 63mm, the actual
tearing length being 43mm (63mm less the initial incision of 20mm).
The sample cutter supplied is fitted with a rule marked in millimetres. Fitted to the
support table of the cutter are two black plastic strips, the shorter of these,
immediately below the rule is for cutting the 62mm dimension (British, APPITA &
SCAN methods) or 63mm dimension (for TAPPI method), whilst the longer plastic
strip is for cutting the 50mm width (this is not a critical dimension).
The material to be cut is offered hard up against the longer plastic strip and the blade
moved downwards, resulting in a sample 50mm wide. This strip is then offered hard
up against the shorter plastic strip and the blade moved downwards, leaving a
sample of 50 x 62mm of 50 x 63mm dependent on method being used.
3.2 Selecting and fitting the appropriate pendulum
Select the appropriate pendulum and fit in accordance with the instructions given in
Section 1

3.3 Fixing the test specimens

With the pendulum in its initial operating position, select 4 test samples correctly
oriented and with the wire sides facing the initial incision knife, clamp the test
samples centrally in the jaws, so that the lower edge of each, rests on the bottom of
the jaws and the lateral edges of the test samples coincide. Slit the test samples with
the pivoted knife blade, allowing the knife to return to its rest position. As will be seen,
the pivoted knife is set to make an initial incision in the test samples of 19mm (British,
APPITA & SCAN methods), 20mm (TAPPI method), leaving the pendulum to tear
through the remaining 43mm length.
The blade of the knife can be sharpened and re-set when necessary, the adjustment
being carried out merely by slackening off the two blade securing screws, and
moving the blade out until the 19 or 20mm cut has been achieved (the length being
dependent on the method).
After clamping the test samples, ensure that the friction pointer 'K' is hard up against
the pointer stop 'S' or 'M' dependent on method (British, APPITA, SCAN or TAPPI).
3.4 Performing the Test
Depress the pendulum release lever 'N' smartly, keeping the lever depressed, catch
the pendulum gently as it swings back to its initial position.
Note the scale reading indicated by the pointer 'K' to the nearest 0.5 unit (5mN).
Return the pendulum and pointer to the initial position and remove the torn samples.
Repeat the procedure for the other test samples, orienting them wire side left and
right alternately.
The paths of the tears may deviate from the direction of the knife slit. If the deviation
exceeds 10mm on one or two of the 10 tests, these results should be rejected and
further tests carried out to bring the number of satisfactory tests up to 10. If in more
than two of the test samples the deviation exceeds 10mm, the result shall be
included and the fact should be noted in the report.

If instead of tearing in the normal way, the paper of any test sample peels apart so as
to expose a wide band of torn surface, (the effect known as 'skinning') the above
criteria shall be applied to the centre line of the torn band through the sheets.
If the tearing resistance of the material is such, that satisfactory results cannot be
obtained using a test sample made up of 4 sheets, tests may be carried out using a
single sheet, this fact should be clearly stated in the report.
3.5 Calculations
The tester is calibrated in mN:





a = Tearing resistance (Millinewtons) mN.
S = Mean scale reading in the direction tested
P = Pendulum factor, i.e. theoretically the number of sheets torn
simultaneously for which the pendulum scale has been calibrated to give a
direct tearing resistance reading in Millinewtons 8, 16, 32 or 64.
n = Number of sheets torn simultaneously (normally 4);
X = Tear index expressed in millinewton square metres per gram (Nm.m 2/g).
w = Substance in g/m squared determined in accordance with BS. 3432.

To obtain tear strength in g.f divide value in mN by 9.81, dividing tear index in mN.
m3/g by 9.81 will give tear index in gf.m2/g as in Tappi and ASTM methods.

3.6 Reporting
The test report shall make references to the relevant standard, British, ISO, SCAN,
APPITA, TAPPI etc., and include the following:

Date and place of testing.


Description and identification of material tested.


Direction of the test.


The number of replicate tests carried out if this differs from the requirements
stated under test procedure 3.


The mean tearing resistance in mN or the tear factor or three significant

figures (the 95% confidence limits may also be given if required).


Method used i.e., single tear, and manufacturer and model number



Number of samples torn simultaneously, if this is other than 4.


Whether the tear deviated from the correct patch or extensive 'skinning'


Any other deviations from this method.


Substance of the paper or any other factor which may assist the interpretation
of the results, may also be recorded.


The procedure below shall be followed for each of the pendulum combinations used.
4. 1 Inspection
Check the following items and make any necessary adjustments.
1. PENDULUM. Check that the pendulum spindle 'O' is not bent.
2. CLAMPS. Check that the distance between the clamps is 2.8 + 0.3mm and that
when the pendulum is in its initial position the clamps are in alignment. If not,
unscrew the locking rings on the pendulum by using the Tommy bar and then
adjusting the rings as necessary.
3. KNIFE. Check that the knife fitting is secure, and that the cutting edge is sharp
and undamaged. The blade should be situated midway and at right angles to the
tops of the clamps.
4. POINTER. Ensure that the pointer is undamaged and rigidly attached to the
pointer hub, and that the Tufnol lining of the hub is clean, dry and free from dust
and foreign matter.
4.2 Levelling
With the pendulum clamp closed, adjust the level of the instrument so that the
pendulum hangs vertically and that the index marks on the pendulum 'B1' and base
datum block 'C' coincide.
With the pendulum release lever depressed, displace the pendulum slightly and after
it comes to rest check that the index marks still coincide (see Section 1).

4.3 Zero Adjustment

After levelling the tester, operate several times with clamps empty and closed to
ascertain whether the pointer registers zero. If zero is not registered check friction
setting and position of the adjustable pointer stop.
4.4 Pendulum Friction
Make a reference mark on the pointer stop 'M' 25mm to the right of the edge of the
pendulum release lever 'N'. Raise the pendulum to its initial position and set the
pointer so that it does not meet the pointer stop when the instrument is operated.
On releasing the pendulum, and holding the pendulum release lever down, the
pendulum should make at least 35 complete swings before the edge of the sector,
which engages with the catch, no longer passes to the left of the reference mark on
the pointer stop, otherwise clean, oil or adjust the bearings.
4.5 Pointer Friction
With the pendulum in its initial position and the pointer at zero on the scale, release
the pendulum by depressing the release lever and estimate the distance that the
pointer has been deflected past the zero mark. The distance should be within the
limits specified below.
For instruments calibrated 0-1000 to give a direct reading of tearing resistance in mN
for 32 sheets, tested simultaneously: 5 to 10mN.
For instruments calibrated 0-1000 to give a direct reading of tearing resistance in mN
for 16 sheets, tested simultaneously: 10 to 20mN.
For instruments calibrated 0-1000 to give a direct reading of tearing resistance in mN
for 8 sheets, tested simultaneously: 20 to 40mN.
If the pointer friction is not within the specified limits, clean the Tufnol liner of the
pointer hub with cleaning spirit using a clean dry linen cloth, DO NOT use oil.

The friction can then be reset by increasing or decreasing the tension by adjustment
with the Allen key supplied, after slackening off the knurled lock nut 'F' and rotating
the socket screw in the friction spring housing 'D', after which the knurled lock nut
should be tightened. After checking or adjusting the pointer friction, zero adjustment
should be checked.
4.6 Tearing Length
Check that the tearing length is 43mm 0.5mm. If this is not correct, adjust the
position of the initial incision cutter blade.
4.7 Samples
Check the samples from time to time ensuring that the blades are sharp and that it
cuts cleanly.
4.8 Use of Calibration Weights (if supplied)
The calibration weights are used to determine that your machine is set up correctly.
To use, do the following:
Screw the calibration weight into the calibration hole 'G' (ensure that the correct
weight is used - each pendulum type has a different weight).
Raise the pendulum into the upright position, ensuring that it clears the pendulum
release lever 'N', and locks into the upright position.
Set the pointer to zero.
Press the pendulum release lever and let it swing until it comes to rest. Read off the
pointer value on the scale, which should be the same value as that written on the
calibration weight.
If the values do not correspond, refer to sections 4.1 - 4.7 and adjust as necessary.


5. 1 Purpose and Equipment

To assess the tear strength of woven fabrics.



SDL 008 with the Medium 'B' type pendulum


Metal ruler.

5.2 Test Specimen

Five test specimens should be prepared from the fabric according to direction in
which they will be tested.
Avoid fabric within 50mm of selvedges and ensure that no two specimens contain the
same set of warp and weft yarns.
The specimen size is 80mm x 58mm. The specimen should be frayed down to
achieve the 58mm dimension. Use a metal ruler for accuracy.
Trim along one of the frayed edges. This trimmed edge can then be inserted into the
For Weft Tear Strength
The 58mm dimension is in the warp direction and the 80mm dimension is in the weft
direction. Hence the tear is across the weft threads.
For Warp Tear Strength
The 58mm dimension is in the weft direction and the 80mm dimension is in the warp
direction. Hence the tear is across the warp threads.

Avoid fabric within 50mm of selvedges and ensure that no two specimens contain the
same set of warp and weft yarns.
5.3 Conditioning
Condition the test specimens for a minimum of four hours at 65% 2% Relative
Humidity and at a temperature of 20C 2C Carry out the tests in this atmosphere.
5.4 Calibration
The machine must be calibrated in the following manner prior to testing the
1. Ensure the machine is level.
2. The pointer must swing freely to zero with minimal resistance.
3. Ensure the knife makes a cut 15mm long by checking on a sample piece of fabric.
5.5 Method
1. Clamp a test specimen in the jaws so that the 80mm side of the specimen with
the trimmed edge is parallel to the base and the 58mm side of the specimen is at
right angles to the base.
2. Make a 15mm cut in the specimen.

3. Set the pointer to the starting position.

4. Depress the pendulum stop thus releasing the pendulum. Allow the pendulum to
swing a full cycle before releasing the stop.

5. Read off the record the position of the pointer on the scale.

6. Repeat steps 1 to 5 inclusive for the four remaining specimens in this manner.

5.6 Results
For Machines Graduated from 0 to 1000
Take the average of the five results, multiply it by 16 and divide this figure by 9.81 to
convert the result to grammes, Report this figure and the direction (warp or weft) in
which the test was made.
For Machines Graduated from 0 to 100
Take the average of the five results and multiply this figure by 16 to give the average
result in grammes. Report this figure and the direction (warp or weft) in which the test
was made.


6.1 Spare Parts list
RHP 6000

Friction Pointer with jub. K
Friction Pointer spring D
Knife Blade for initial incision. H
Knife return sprinq 'J'
Pendulum release lever. 'N'
Pointer Stop. 'M'
Pendulum support spindle. 'O'
Ball Bearings (2)

N.B. When ordering spare parts please indicate the model and serial number of
6.2 Symbols used for Diagram

Reference lines on pendulum

Datum block
Friction pointer housing and spring
Levelling screws
Knurled lock nut
Calibration Weight Hole
Knife Blade
Knife operating lever
Knife return spring
Friction pointer
Plastic retaining knobs
Friction pointer stop
Pendulum release lever
Spindle shaft
Pendulum positioning locking rings
Pendulum clamp
Fixed clamp

6.3 Face view of the Tearing Tester

6.4 Side view of the Tearing Tester


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