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Paper No.

: P-7
SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT: GRASIM PERSPECTIVE
by
S.S. Pipara
Sr.Vice President (Tech.)
Grasim Industries Limited
Birlagram Nagda (M.P.), 456 331, INDIA
Fax no.: (07366) 244114, 246024, e-mail: sspipara@adityabirla.com

ABSTRACT
Grasims prime concern has been to integrate Safety, Health and Environment in all its
industrial activities through i) Motivational and Promotional activities, ii) Training,
Education & Awareness Activities, iii) Inspection, Audit and Testing, iv) Investigation &
Analysis, and v) System Perfection. These activities form strong pillars of SHE management
across all levels in the organization.
As a part of Aditya Birla Group Company, we have adopted World Class Manufacturing
(WCM) concept in the year 1997 for all activities related to industrial production.
In the context of industrial activity, the company strategy is to maintain Economic Progress
with Sustainable Development through i) Resource saving in production process and ii)
Adequate treatment of discharge/ emissions to render them harmless.
These require careful selection of both Production and Waste Treatment Technologies. In
Production Technology, one has to look for Cleaner Technologies and practice in-plant
controls for effecting recovery & recycling, so that resource utilization is maximized.
Consequent reduction in influent load increases effectiveness of effluent treatment and
renders final discharge / emissions harmless to the ecology. These concepts have been
implemented in letter and spirit.

Grasim firmly believes that it is possible to enjoy the benefit of modern technology &
industrialization without damage to the ecology & environment of this country.

KEY WORDS : SHE Safety Health & Environment, VSF Viscose Staple Fibre, WCM
World Class Manufacturing.

COMPANY PROFILE
Grasims Staple Fibre Division Nagda, a Unit of Aditya Birla Group, has pioneered the
manufacture of Viscose Staple Fibre in India in 1954 & today it is the largest producer of
Viscose Staple Fibre with unique Spun Dyed and Speciality Fibre manufacturing capabilities
in Asia.

SHE APPROACH
This paper deals with progressive SHE management policies and objectives, which are
universally applicable for all industries in general and chemical process industries in
particular.
While dealing with SHE approach and deployment, we would like to highlight what is being
practiced at Grasim.

Motivational and Promotional Activities

Training, Education and Awareness Activities

Inspection, Audit and Testing

Investigation and Analysis, and

System Perfection

As a part of Aditya Birla Group Company, we have adopted World Class Manufacturing
(WCM) concept in the year 1997 encompassing full-fledged set-up covering all dimensions
related to:

Waste (MUDA) Elimination

Work Environment (5S)

JIT / Supply Chain Management

Equipment Effectiveness / TPM

Customer Driven: Internal and External

Quality First: Six Sigma / SQM & Best Practices

Liaison, Team Force and Skill Development

Information, Systems / BPR, Technology and Cash Flows

Figure - 1
World Class Manufacturing Model

WCM Mission

Waste
Elimination

Information
Systems / BPR
Technology and
Cash Flow

Work
Environmen
t
(5S)

JIT / Supply
Chain
Management

Quality & Quantity


Cost
Delivery & Speed
Innovation &
Intellectual Capital
Productive & Pride

Liaison,
Team
Force and Skill
Development

Equipment
Effectiveness/
TPM

Customer
Driven: Internal
and External
Quality First:
SQM and Best
Practices

Zero Accident

Zero Pollution

Zero Losses

Zero Breakdown

Zero Defect

Zero Customer
Complaints

System Implementation and Perfection


The company is accredited for IS/ISO 9001: 2000, 14001, OHSAS- 18001 and SA-8000.
There are periodic internal and external audits carried out to comply above systems and to
derive advantages from the same. In fact, it is worth mentioning that all the systems have
been designed, developed and upgraded in-house and at any stage no help taken from outside
agencies/ consultants. The auditing teams have spoken high about the system designing and
their compliance.
Detail of System
IS/ISO-9002 (Quality Management System)
It has been switched over to IS/ISO 9001:2000 in April 2002.
Manufacture and Supply of Viscose Staple Fibre and Sodium Sulphate
IS/ISO-14001 (Environment Management System)
Manufacture and Supply of Viscose Staple Fibre and Sodium Sulphate

Year
1994

1999

- Power Generation
OHSAS-18001 (Occupational Health & Safety Assessment System)
2001
Manufacture and Supply of Viscose Staple Fibre and Sodium Sulphate;
Energy Generation; Design, Development and Manufacturing of Plant
and Equipment for Man-made fibre
SA-8000 (Social Accountability)
Manufacture and Supply of Viscose Staple Fibre and Sodium Sulphate; 2004
Energy Generation; Design, Development and Manufacturing of Plant
and Equipment for Man-made fibre chemicals and Allied industry

SHE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM


Safety
Identification & rectification of unsafe conditions, strict compliance of Safety Work Permit
System besides training and retraining of employees and strict use of Personal Protective

Equipment (Safety Appliances) has helped in accident / incident prevention. This has resulted
in accidents reduction year after year. In short, there has been reduction in the no. of
accidents by 88% as compared to 1998.
Figure - 2

Nos

TOTAL NO. OF ACCIDENTS

700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

590
Base year 1998

211

1998

1999

88% % % %

117

78

93

69

2000

2001

2002

2003

Year

Employees active participation and sense of ownership have resulted in work place
reorganization, plant layout improvement, elimination of wasteful process / activities. This
has accelerated the process of SHE management and overall improvement in safe working
environment through reduction in operational hassles. This has also contributed in quantum
jump in productivity along with tearing down boundaries.

Figure 3
Training, Education and Awareness Activities
Base year 1998
222% % % %

3000

2549

2500
Nos.

2000

1554

1676

1999

2000

1500
1000

1364

1396

2001

2002

792

500
0
1998

2003

Year
Health
As a policy, we are exceeding the target set before us by statutory bodies for periodic health
check-up of all employees in the organization. Special care is being taken for employees
working in hazardous areas. Grasim Jana Kalyan Trust has got 123 beds Hospital with indoor
and outdoor facilities and medical check-up of all kinds including major operations. The
hospital facilities are also available for surrounding rural population. The 18 member
competent team of Doctors, Surgeons, Specialists are catering to the needs of all kinds of
patients round the clock. Facilities like ICU, Mobile Van and Visiting Specialists are taking
care of children and aged persons.
Health is Wealth and Service to Mankind is the best way of Worship This has been
motto of Grasim Jana Kalyan Trust. Under this, twice a week a team of Medical Officers
visits remote areas and renders free treatment for rural population. Serious cases are
immediately looked after and the patients are hospitalized for treatment.

Under Grasim Rural Community Development programme, Cataract eye operation, Polio
corrective surgery, ENT, Family planning and Tuberculosis camps are being regularly
organized at Indu Bhai Parekh Memorial Hospital of Grasim Jana Kalyan Trust, Birlagram
Nagda at free of cost for poor and needy people in and around the township.

Environment
Grasims prime concern has been to protect, preserve and improve the environment in and
around its industrial complexes. Grasim believes that it is possible to enjoy the benefits of
modern technology and industrialization without damage to the ecology and environment of
the country.
Our motto is to keep and maintain LAWN green in and around this industrial complex where
L stands for Land Pollution, A stands for Air Pollution, W stands for Water Pollution and N
stands for Noise Pollution.
Several innovative steps have been taken for recycling and utilizing waste water and for
improving the recovery of chemicals from effluent discharges and gaseous emissions. Treated
effluent from Staple Fibre plants has been successfully used for local irrigation. The Effluent
Treatment Plants are most modern and employing latest state of the art technology and
equipment design.

SHOP FLOOR SHE MANAGEMENT


Step 1
Awareness and Training
Shop Floor Employees being made aware on continuous basis through:

Visual display of SHE policies and setting goals & objectives

Programmes on legal and other statutory / regulatory requirements.

Identification of i) Aspects & Impacts, ii) Hazards & Risk Assessment.

Concepts of continual improvement on hazards prevention and environmental


performance

On-site and Classroom training on use of Safety Appliances and Fire Fighting
Equipment.

On-site Emergency Mock Drills at odd hours for emergency preparedness and
response.

Strict compliance of Work Permit System for different applications.

Identifying sources of Waste generation & Emission and control measures.

Economic Loss projection to draw focus.

Material Safety Data Sheets on hazardous substances

Root cause analysis of all incidents / accidents including near miss.

Step - 2
Monitoring of SHE activities and feedback to Shop Floor employees on:

Accident Analysis.

Safety Inspection, Internal and External Audits.

Ensuring Safety Measures prior to commencement of jobs.

Monitoring Wastes / Emissions on daily basis.

Sharing of Monetary impact along with risk / hazard evaluation.

Step - 3
Motivating shop floor employees
To improve SHE Work Culture through:

Committee meetings, Suggestion Scheme, Competitions and in-house publications.

Awards and Recognition / Appreciation.

Celebration of National & Industrial Safety Day, Fire Service Week and World
Environment Day

Management of Waste Reduction / Elimination - a way of work life.

Recovery in Concentrated forms to enable possibilities of Reuse /Recycling

ADOPTION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES


a. Adoption of Zinc-free Process Technology
Implementation of Zinc-free Process Technology for manufacturing of Viscose Staple
Fibre has eliminated Zinc as a major polluting element. The subsequent problems arising
out of the same in Waste Water Treatment, Hazardous Waste Management and Handling
also. Now, our ETP Sludge is no longer a Hazardous Waste.

Zincfree Process Technology was developed by Birla Research Institute, Nagda and
successfully implemented at Staple Fibre Division, Nagda for the First Time in the
World. Till date, this has been patented 15 countries including India, USA, Belgium,
Australia, UK, France, Sweden etc
Monitory impact of Raw Material input reduction is Rs. 19.06 Crores at actual
production level for the year 2003 04 (refer Table 1)

b. Development of Solvent Spinning Technology


Grasim has been sponsoring the R&D work in Birla Research Institute of Applied
Sciences (BRI) at Nagda in the field of Rayon Grade Pulp and Viscose Fibre of
Cellulosic origin.

Man-Made Cellulosic Staple Fibre have been produced the world over, by the
conventional "Viscose" Process, right since the beginning of this century. Of late,
however, considerable R&D work is going on for producing the same by direct
dissolution of cellulose in a Solvent. This Solvent can be washed off from the spun fibre
and recycled back for dissolution. Thus the process becomes a "closed process" with
minimum possible waste generation and emission.

The direct production of Cellulosic Fibre, using Solvent Spinning Technology has some
commercial advantages over the Viscose route. There is much less chemical usage, fewer
process steps, no by-product formation. Eco-friendly. It is also simpler.

c. Utilization of Waste
Incineration of Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) Sludge
With the plant scale successful implementation of Zinc-Free Process Technology, the
ETP Sludge has become non-hazardous in nature. We have developed suitable
technology for drying dewatered sludge taken out from Belt Presses. With this, the entire
sludge is being incinerated in existing coal fired Boilers.
Hence, ETP Sludge is fully utilized and disposal problem is completely eliminated. In
economic terms, saving equivalent of about 8 T/ day of Coal achieved.

Bio-Gas Generation from Dairy Effluent


We have installed an Anaerobic Filter Treatment Plant to treat BOD/COD rich streams of
Dairy Effluent for generation of Bio-gas. This is successfully being operated and 80-90%
reduction in BOD/COD achieved.

Utilization of Fly Ash for Bricks / Cement Manufacturing


We are continuously striving to minimize disposal of fly ash on land. We have intensified
our efforts to utilize ash to Pozzolana cement manufacturers as well as to brick
manufacturers. Presently most of the coal ash generated is being used for bricks and
cement manufacturing. (refer Table 2)

ACHIEVEMENTS IN POLLUTION ABATEMENT AND CONTROL


Influent Load:

Progressive Reduction in influent load due to reduction in specific consumption of


Chemicals and Power in Production process through use of cleaner technologies and
Innovations. More than 50% reduction in water consumption w.r.t. 1998 through in-plant
recycling and use of treated effluent water for certain process applications.

Effluent Load:

Progressive Reduction in Effluent Load due to continuous modernization of Effluent


Treatment facilities. 100% survival and growth of fishes in 100% treated effluent speaks
volumes about the treated effluent quality being discharged from the industry.

RESOURCE CONSERVATION
Water Conservation
Over the years, various innovative measures have been taken for conservation of water.
Broadly, various water conservation measures can be categorized as under:

Increased throughput from equipment at the same water consumption level

Equipment design changes

Figure 4
275

300
250

Water Conservation

200

200
125

150
M3/T Fibre

100

80

60

50

41

42

49

0
1980-81 1982-83 1992-93

1999-00 2000-01

2001-02 2002-03 2003-04

Recycling of various effluent streams within the plant to the maximum possible extent.

35% Recycling of treated effluent for use as make-up in Cooling Towers.

Outcome of Water Conservation measures have resulted in substantial reduction in Water


Consumption. (refer Table 3)

Figure - 5
Graph Showing Progressive Reduction in Specific Chemical & Specific Power
Consumption

200

Percentage

160

Fibre Production

120

100%
Sp. Chem. Cons.

80
Sp. Power Cons.

40
0
8081

8283

8485

8687

8889

9091

9293

9495

96- 97- 98- 99- 00- 01- 0397 98 99 00 01 02 04

Year

ENERGY CONSERVATION
Rayon plants require considerable quantities of process steam and power. Rather than
generating them separately, properly designed co-generation plants can meet the process
steam and power requirement, economically and with lower emissions.
Steam

Steam consumption has been reduced by more than 38% by introduction of Multi-Stage
Flash Evaporators (MSFEs), Acid Absorption Crystallizers, Multi-effect Anhydrous
Evaporators and by using of steam in lieu of water in Cutter Venturies.
Figure 6
Steam Consumption

14

13.5

12
9.17

T/T Fibre

10

7.94

7.51

7.68

8.31

8.29

8
6
4
2
0
1980 - 1981 1998 - 1999 1999 - 2000 2000 - 2001

2001-2002

2002-2003

2003-04

Present steam consumption level is 8.29 T/T of Fibre against the one-time 13.5 T/T of
Fibre. This has resulted in steam saving equivalent to 1792 TPD for 344 TPD Fibre
Production.

Power Conservation
Power consumption level at Nagda have reduced from 1750 kwh/T of Fibre to 1144 kwh/T
of Fibre over the years thereby saving 8.69 MW of power for a production level of 344
TPD fibre.
Through continuous efforts, specific consumption of chemicals as well as energy in the
production process have continuously reduced.

Thus, Grasim has achieved the twin

objectives of Resource Conservation and Waste Minimization in the National as well as


Global interest.

Figure 7
Power Consumption

1900
1700
1500
1300
1100
900
700
500
300
100

1750
1362

1980 1981

1998 1999

1254

1999 2000

1107

1108

1098

1144

2000 2001

20012002

20022003

20032004

Energy Conservation Measure taken during 2003 2004


1.

Installation of :

Twin Roll Presses in place of Conventional Sieve Band Presses for Viscose
making.

Energy efficient motors in place of old motors.

Bigger size Mixing Condenser (1400 mm diameter) in all Multi Stage Flash
Evaporators.

Additional Multi Stage Flash Evaporator and idling down non-economical Double
/ Triple Effect Evaporators.

Counter flow Cooling Towers with RCC structure in Sulfuric Acid Plant.

Distributed Control System for Energy Centres.

Frequency Drives for :


Spinning Pumps for transferring Viscose to Spinning Machines.

Viscose Flash Deaerator Condenser Pumps.


ID fans of Boilers in Energy Centres.
2. Conversion of Double Effect Calcination evaporator to Triple effect.
3. Use of Energy Centre CBD water as Boiler Feed water in Sulfuric Acid Plant.
4. New Economiser in Sulfuric Acid Plant with increased heat transfer area.

Figure - 8
Graph Showing Progressive Reduction in Pollution Load

Percentage

200

Fibre
Production

150

100 %

100

Flow Rate
50

SS

BOD

Zinc

Year

SHE ACHIEVEMENTS

The company is accredited for IS/ISO 9001:2000, 14001, OHSAS-18001 and SA-8000.

First company in the World to have pioneered and implemented an innovative Zinc-Free
Process Technology for Viscose Manufacturing, thus eliminating Heavy Metal from
product and environment. No other VSF producer in the world has been able to do so.
This has been patented in 15 countries.

Viscose Staple Fibre, product, is Certified by BTTG Manchester, UK for free from
harmful substances under Oeko-Tex Standard 100 certification.

Adoption of World Class Manufacturing (WCM) concepts in all areas of Industrial


Activity. WCM encompasses TPM and TQM Systems also.

88% Reduction in Total Accidents achieved w.r.t. 1998.

100% Employees covered for Safety Training including Contractors Workmen.

Innovative methods adopted looking to 50 years old Industrial Set-up to create Safety
Awareness in different section of the plant Photographs on Unsafe and Safe way of
doing things displayed

On-site Emergency Plan approved by The Director (Industrial Health & Safety)

On-site Emergency Mock-drill being conducted without specifying date, time and
location in the Organization and response is found Excellent in 98% of the cases.

Third Party Safety Audit conducted every year.

Mutual Aid Scheme in place on monthly basis covering nearby industries.

Periodic Audit carried out for all lifting equipment to check conditions and design
aspects.

Most Modern Effluent Treatment Plants for Industrial and Domestic Effluents. 100%
Survival of Fish in 100% Effluent confirms excellent quality of Treated Waste Water

Effluent Treatment Plant Sludge has become Non-Hazardous on Adoption of Zinc-Free


Process Technology and the same is fully utilized for incineration in existing boilers for
energy recovery.

More than 80% utilization of Power Plant Fly Ash for manufacture of Bricks etc. year
after year. Grasim is the only company in India utilizing fly ash of this order and far
superior than the world average of 32%.

Bio-gas generation from Dairy Effluent.

Water Conservation to the tune of 82 % w. r .t. Year 1980.

Energy Conservation w. r .t. Year 1980 :


Process Steam
Electrical Power

Reduction in Specific Chemical Consumption w. r .t Year 1980 :


Zinc
CS2

39%
35%

100%
10%

Pulp
10 %
H2SO4 7 %

Caustic Soda

8%

Research facilities for technology up-gradation and development of Solvent Spinning


Technology.

Actual results of Air, Water and Hazardous Waste are far superior then the limits
prescribed by Pollution Control Authorities.

ECOLOGICAL / SOCIO ECONOMIC INDICATORS AROUND NAGDA


Studies carried out by Centre of Excellence for Environmental Management School of
Studies in Botany, Vikram University, Ujjain in the year 1996 and 2002 regarding
Ecological and Socio-Economic Indicators in and around Nagda reveals as under:

Ecological Indicators
Quality of Air, Water, Soil, Crop and Plant Response, Bio-mass Production and Bio-diversity
is better or comparable at Nagda than surrounding villages.

Socio-Economic Indicators

Population Growth, Health Care and Educational Facilities, Individual Income/ Savings and
Revenue Collection are better at Nagda as compared to surrounding villages.

AWARDS
2004- The 2004 Stockholm Industry Water Award.
2003- Greentech Gold Award for Environment Excellence.
2003- PCRA Award for Energy Conservation from Ministry of Petroleum and Natural
Gas, Govt. of India.
2002- Rajiv Gandhi National Quality Award- Commendation Certificate.
2002- AVB Group Chaimans Silver Award for Manufacturing Excellence.
2002- ICMA.Award for Excellence in Management of Health/ Safety/ Environment for
the year 2001-02.
2002- ICMA Acharya P C Ray Award for Development of Indigenous Technology for
the year 2001-02
2002- Greentech Industrial Safety Platinum Award.
2002- Golden Peacock Environment Management Award from World Environment
Foundation.
2002-CII-Inter Industry Competition on Industrial Safety, Health and Environment
Management Award, Western Region.
2002-Indira Gandhi Memorial National Award for Best Environmental and
Ecological Implementation.
2001-Indo-German Greentech Environment Excellence Award.
2001-National Energy Conservation Award from Ministry of Power, Government of
India.

2001-Oil Conservation Award from The Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas,
Government of India.
2000 -M.P. State Level Award for Best Performance in the field of Pollution Control
and Protection of Environment.
LOOKING AHEAD
The green productivity management policies and practices adopted by Grasim have paid rich
dividends. However, what is more important is that it has infused an across-the-board culture
whereby the rank and file of the organization has become aware of the potential and
importance of involving human resources & innovative upgradation of technology for
management of environment to achieve Sustainable Development.
And the journey continues

Table 1
Raw Material Savings
Particulars

1996-98

Kg/ T F
Rayon Grade Pulp
Zinc
Caustic Soda
Sulphuric Acid
Carbon Disulphide
Lime

Avg.
1042
2
567
767
175
65

2003 -04
1010
0.0
551
744
162
56

Reduction

Impact

36
2
16
23
13
9

Rs./T F
968
106
176
43
205
16

Table-2
Fly Ash Utilisation
Fin. Year

Generation

Utilization

Utilization

1994 - 95
1995 - 96
1996 - 97
1997 - 98
1998 - 99
1999 - 00
2000 - 01
2001 - 02
2002 - 03
2003 - 04

(MT)
131627
127368
150858
150020
145321
181069
212640
234086
`201806
224913

(MT)
124336
112856
144388
126567
137702
180300
171333
200229
169323
194273

%
95
89
96
84
95
99
81 *
86 *
84 *
86 *

Balance Fly Ash was utilized for Land filling purposes


* Utilization is slightly reduced due to reduction in manufacturing of Bricks on account
of water shortage during the year (Avg. rain fall was 40% of normal rain fall in last 4
years). However, it is significantly on higher side as compared to any plant in India
and Worldwide figure of 32% utilization.

Table-3
Water Conservation
Year
1980 - 81
1999 - 00
2000 - 01
2001 - 02
2002 - 03
2003 - 04

M3/T Fibre
275.0
80.1
59.6
41.1
42.3
48.8

% Reduction w.r.t 1980-81


70.9
78.3
84.9
83.9
82.3

Vitae

S.S.Pipara is a Gold Medalist and Chemical Engineering Honours Graduate of


BITS, Pilani,1973.
Presently, working as Senior Vice President (Technical), Grasim Industries
Limited, Staple Fibre Division, Birlagram, Nagda and also worked in different
divisions of Grasim Industries Limited in various capacities.
He is a Management Representative for IS/ISO 9001:2000, 14001 & OHSAS 18001 and Member of Confederation of Indian Industry, National Committee on
Environment. Also, Past President, Rotary Club of Nagda, Dist-3040.
To his credit, he has delivered several lectures and published papers related to
Environment, Productivity, Leadership, Quality, Energy Conservation and World
Class Manufacturing Concepts etc.