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TYuo-Phase

for

Compressibility

Retrograde

D.Q.

Raayes,*

Gillespie

SPE,

&

Gases

L.D.

and

Aasocs.;

Piper,

S.W.

and

Factors

SPE,

Poston,

Texas

SPE,

A&M

Texas

; W.D.

A&M

h4cCairr

Jr.,

SPE,

Cawley,

U.

.,

~
SummarY.

The

This

paper

with

C7+

age

error

two-phase

presents
concentxadons
of

compressibility

a correlation

for

24

3 .66%

but

mol%

also

resuJt

in

may

factor

estimating

should

this

applies

factor

to rich

be

used

from

field

gases

larger

errors

for

the

compressibility

with

some

rich

in

material-balance

date.
large

The

calculations

correlation,

amounts

for

which

of

C02,

that

only

rich-gas-condensate

is bas~

H2S,

and

on

N2.

67

The

sys,tims.

fluid-depletion

correlation

studies

gives

an aver-

gass?..

Introduction
The

.md

Standing

tor

is

vslid

reservoirs
point.

Katz]

only,

for

experience
The

mation

of

factors
is

initial

gas

mav

be

fack

are

FfE.

gas

may

High-pressure

the

the

For

or

the

were
methods

for

the

not

duction

of

heptane-plus

specific

gas

sepmation

datig-l~

gmvi~

of

correct-

the

gives

Sut-

were

veriil~

factor

with

gas

n~=p~VJztRT.

Now

at Shell

, .Now

al S.A.

Copyright

SPE

1932

Formation

volumetric

is derived

reservoir

reservoir

for

mmins

n,

easily
moles

of

be

for

the

E&P

Hold(!ch

~ ASSOCS,

Sccle!y

of Petroleum

Evaluation,

March

1992

two-phase
of

similar

Eq.

to

for

GP/G

that

for

2 to account

remaining

tie

in the

&en

by

equil!briuro

the,v?lumes

reservou

compressibility

by

Vo

et al.,

give

factor

gas

and

14 indicates

is a weighted
and

amount

~nditions.

The
and

with

the

and

the

liquid,

average

a simcdon

of premue,

of

remaining

liquid

that
of

the

the

two-phase

liquid

and

tempmture,
in

the

gas
com-

resewoir.

real

gas

prw

.4khough

tie

the

for

the

the data
is

tbIOUgh

These

as

a result
for

for

to that

of

the

6,

two-phase

gases

concenperformed

partitions.

correlated

with

the

~:

step

of

ths pseudoreduced

psw-

compo-

constant-volume

presented

of

by

pres-

Sutton.

Fig.

compressibility

fac-

pseudoreduced

pseudoreduced

Silllib2
that

(Figs.

pressure,
gases

(Figs.
gas.

data

plots

the

data

pressure:

pressuzes,

a g@eral

noted

of

3 and

5)
the

shows

6)

different

indicated

factor

was

linear

a qwahme

trend

simik?r

in Figs;
found

partkdSy
of

trends

compressibility

to

temperature.

tempemmre

1 @OU@J

compressibility

a general

shows

not

values

SetS

two

two-phase

pseudoreduced

at low

Data

W&phase

while
4 and

for
have

The

While

compressibiMy
inverse

in pseudoreduced
of

C7+
was

both

methods

co-

at dewpoint

temperamre.

each

concentration.

lean

the

of

constant-

s~ples

data

these

two-phase

at low

6 show

a singkphase

of

tie

study

was

as a function

in~cate

rich

factor

spreading

from

131
gas

bases

supported

to calculate

spreads

C7+

the

set

of

on.the

factor

the

from

apparent.

figures
of

range

pseudoreduced

with

pseudoreduced

the

that

used

data

r@xograde

A sensitively

Iabixatorydetermined

entire

data

on
the

2).

gas

were

with

partitioned

f.TabIe

produced

trend

4.

faqor

was

and

temperature

with

1 shows

compressibility

sure

tor

law.

gas:

Tsble

correlations

studies

2 shows

performed

pressure

and

developed

studies

data

depletion

data

of

tial

of

Correlations

bnpmbies

two-phase

sitions

calcula-

simulated

of
were

worldwide.

variation
En@wers

the

depletion

function

l.c.

the

ftiors

dor.deed

de-

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...(I)

western

liquid

given

correlations

The

is based

perforkce

from
of

of

and

factor

Development
Our

modi-

temperature

can

equation

expansion

gas

factors

and

linear

equation

the

compressibility

fmtions

a cer-

correlation

that

of

:;,

material-balams

recently

voleme

pse:-

if well-smarn-comp.xition

correkv.ions

4,

Iected

by

of

also

compressibility

substitution

(3)

between

position,

gas

the

and

The

adjusbnent

pressure
gravity.

specific

~.

to calcu-

presented

Sutton

after

two-

pseudoreduced

use

gas

two-phase

gravity

and

rules.

two-phase

the

underes-

how

fraction,s

1 gives,

to both

(4)

when

calculating

imptities,e

applies
factor.z.lz

factor

properties

methods

2 now

as the

welM.rWn

and

in Eq.

fac-

usc

the

Eq.

and

by

compressibility

and

the

for

occupied

two-phase

the

reservoir:

compressibility

Rearrangement

and

the

low,

for

specific

correlations

2 by

compressibility

used

pressure

the

relationship

determining

from

pseudoreduced

material-balance

Initially

the

in

leaving

13

dewpoint.

pseudoreduced

calculated

for

in

factor

a two-phase

Eq.

of

palm.

diverge

data.

retrograde

g in

condenses

dewpoint,

rearrangement,

the

to
tea

compressibility

I(GP/G)

Figs.

The

remainin

phase
the

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...(2)

it is

and

a form

gas

reserves.

be

the

the

diverge

failuze

correlation

mixing

w&tream

Theory

liquid

and

below

of

pressures

both

tobe

should

with

gas

fbe

1,

aid

the

than

compressibility

that

on

be

the

to useti

avaisable.

a liquid

depletes

L=_!!!!!L

compressibdity

and

the

pseudoreducxd

calculating

surface

and

The

is based
can

weif-stream

.jnitial

ted from
are

in Fig.
causeph

data.

properties

when

the

Dividing

system,

factms

gas

factor

place

less

near

tw-pha.se

will

Steyar-Burkhardt:Vco7

&e

gas

is produced,

pressure

reserves

factors

in which

the

case

include

properties

termining
on

tie

calculated

pseudccriticd

fmm

the

3 In&s

at higher

observed
than

factor

The

ton.

relati.on

of

liquid,

nplnt

comrm=wibti~

presske.

exist

primary-separator

temperature

fied

in

field

that

stream.

docritical

is rich,

behavior

correlations

factor
gas

4 These

been

the

gas

from

prcduced

the

study
gases

remograde

compre?.sib$lty
that

compressibility

comprsssibtity

to well

moles

and

for

is uniformly

a different

factor

factor

gas

as the

~r=ntnp=pVl/zpRT.
Because

fluiddepletion

cmmressibfitv

of

is greiter

presents

composition
ed

for-

compressibility

twc-uhase

the

two

however,

gas

initial

paper

tie

have

pressures,

compressib?ty
the

of

factor

display

decreases.

this

n,

dew-

the.

equatiom

Gas

if the g~

if the

Systems

factor

two-phase
late

however,

and

phwe.compressibility

This

the

for

material-bal~ce

a reservoir

a tiurkon

regio~

than

timating

in

reserves..

is acceptable

rdationshb

factor,

low

befow

accounts

reservoir

ZW

depletes.

compressibility

pressure

when

practice

compressibility

temperatures

At

and

is lean;

the

pressure

is less

used

condensateas

compressibility

tor.

the

usti.2

two-phase

as the

are

underestimated

1 shows

a ricfi

depletion

factor

place

used

condensate

not

in

This

seriouslv
is

the

gaa

available.

if the

during

Assuming

fac-

gas-condensate

phase.
factors

normally,

not

fallout

gas

Retrograde

compressibility

a liquid

estimate

for

systems.

liquid

tyo-phase

Compressibility
to

correlation

dsy-gas

2 through
be

acmu+ts

pseudoreduced

a linear

In fact,
for

the
the

pressure.

87

Compressibility

~:

Factor

2.0-

2.0.

~:

15-

g.
.

.
...~
~

Lo-

~>j,>:.,,.~

=
e

,..

o,3-

.0.01

0.0
04

12

3Two-phase

while

the

Data

can

final

Set

be

obtained

for

wiih

those

with

large

data

sets

sample

with

.Fig.
and

Sets

that

and

singkph?,se

gas,

mzterial-balpce

on

the

are

of

depletion

accuracy

with
rich

the

As
tkan

@so
of

actual

gases,

Eq.

studies

factors

the

the

more

the
iwo-

Table

mate

and

The

the

of

the

Later,

fa~rl
lean

we

shotid

of

a lean

error

show
be

for

mol%.

of

data

C7+

are

following

fraction

factor
Data

use

Set

with

the
not

C7+

oIf

function

having

fraction

available.

the

a method

us~

to calculate

well-stream

CT+

concen-

is needed

when

We

correlation
from

as

2.

gases

Conseq~ntly,

concentration

the

pressu~

gas

the

esti-

well-stream

the

entire

the

concen~ation

specific

data

set

gravity

Fig.

factor.

absolute

24.0

for

2!4

=O.0885119+0.141013(~.J.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .

(6)

Sets2

factor

avemge

7.35%.

compressib,tity

Da@

compressibility

compressibility
5.

is

for

with

of

to develop

1 shows,
C02

5 is mcmmnendid

20

16

compresolblllty
pressure.

gas-composition

incklng

63 %

correlation

two-phase

4Two-phase

trations

nc,+

the

ELI.

combined

equatibns

67

impurities.

two-pbsss
by

the

7 shows

with

the ,actual

predicted

Fig.

of

H2S.

accuracy

with

function

pseudorsduced

3 compared

of

28%

compressibility

These

a sample

than

the

8 illustrates

Data

1 and

as

Set.1.

3. Fig.

factor.

more

be

basal

concentrations

shows

cannot

is

Set

Sets

include

4 compared

Fig.
gas

Data

compressibility

@ese

Data

two-phase

Data

8.12
Psendoreduced

factor

for

correlation

1, approximate

correlation
phase

pressure

04

Pressure

compressibility

pseudoreduced

20

16

Pseudoreduced.

of

... .. ,:.. .
-:,

F.: . :..-.:.
. .. . . .

Fig.

.
..:

.-..

used

for

the

the

ibility

in

tie

gxarize

the

Thus,

correlation

that

gases.

9. shows

fraction.

should

correlation
the

accuracy

if @e

wrrelation

not

be used.

The

be

for

recommended
factor

this

gas

should

compressibility

of

well-stream

used

procedure

for

with

specitic

single-phase
these

the

gravity

I*

acb.d
is

gas
gases.

determining

compressWe

g the

C7+

<0.911,

sum-

two-phase

below.
.

2.0

2.0

~.

:.

...
...

%
s

j
+

.+ ..

Lo. .. . .

. ..

... .
. ,.*

?
+

,. ,,. : ..
.: ;, . ... .. . .

.,

.-

<

Y,-

. . . .

. . .

os-

0.07

0.0.
04,8

12
. .

5Two-phase

aseudorsducsd

Formation

16

20

12

16

20.

.
Pseudoreduced

SPE

.Y::V.

;,..... ...:

;:,*

s,
~

05-

Fig.

: .

5
e

. ....
1.0

compressibility
pressure

Evaluation,

for

MaIch

Data

1992

Pressure

factor
Set

3.

Pseudorsduced

as

a function

of

Fig.

6Two-phase

pseudoreduced

compressibility
prsssure

for

Data

Pressure

factor
Set

a funtilon

4.

89

TABLE

3PERCENT

ERROR

OF

Percent
Data

Set

SELECTED

DATA

SETS

Average

,.
Rz

Maximum

3.3s

34.95

7.95

34.51

NA

4.81

27,58

NA

6.55

25,39

NA

4.98

34.95

NA

&
NA.

2.0

Error

g
~~
.

$
~

not appmable,

LO-

H
Calculate

1.

pseudoreduced

well-stieam
2.

If

stream

gas

3.

the

concentmtion
specific

or
of
is

the

dictions

are

made

known

gas,

are

both

of

gas

the

is

gas

24.0

> 0.911),

produced

mol
me

gas

~pecific
%

Eq.

(or

fmn

if the

5 to

z
~
:~

gravity
well

calctiate

th

0s

factor.

weu-stream

gravity

of

well-stream

C,+

gravity

compressibil@

specitic

last

composition

gas

two-phase

propenies

composition

unknown,

resemes

and

as

will

the

be

wel-stream

the

case

at an aba+domnent

composition

or

specific

ga

when

pressure,

pre

u:e

0.0.
0.0

th

gravity.

0.5

1.0

Actual
VerIficatbr

of

The

correlation

was

tion

tirocesses

with

EXE&YLIVETM
model

voir.

simulated

The

The
ridial
the

direction

with

meabtity.

pdii

The

constant

including

separator

temperamres

(EOS)

&d

and

matched
the

simulators

40,

rate

70,

4,CX30

data,

rock

presswes,

Mscf/D.

and

Table

for

thepseudoreduced

and

220

and

per-

17 gas

equation
4 shows

The

the

gas
was

Ffg.

pa-

Fig.

3.

tion

correlation

for

10 also

con-

the

of

state

place

the

fluid

pIzWe&tiS

actual

shows
As

and

latter
results

,of

plot

for

rich

the

feserves

the

actuaf

initial

these

tint

culculate
the

welf:

et al. 9 comela-

the

=0.9,

the

For

constant-volume

indicating

underestimated

by
and

form

reserves

depleto

that
10%.

of

comparison,

extrapolates

Pkw

in place

in

condensate.

from

actw?l
to

gm

to

method,

Gold

calculations

gas

data

the

are

second
The

in the

used

calculations.

the

expected,

used.

compressibility
is that,

were

in the

were

extrapolates

p[z

and

the

two-phase

twometbods

compositions

gravities

shows

study.

gas

properties,

used

the

in the

well-stream

specific

10

to calcufate

@Terence

material-babmce

and
Ref.

compressibility

3.

pressures
major

method,

tion

from

The

me

170,

other

of Iwo-phase

1 and

at several

swam

a lean

Peng-Robinson18

EOS-PAKTM.

grid

properdes,

taken

gas

the producer,

Alf

fluid

in

Sets

factor.

analyses.

ysis

z Factor

>

diameter.

p.omsiV,

and

a richq

reser-

The

130,

were

from

the

100,

setup

md

7Accuracy

Dafa

the

400

around

Fig.

VIP

was
of

direction.

deple
the

a 440-ft

was

tbiclmess,

was

of

center

with

rings

eqwd

dam

with

fi Odck

vertical

30,

reservoir

simulator

in the

permeability

the

of

flow

well

concentric

20,

each

depletion

were

in

saturation

Constant-volume

r&ervoir

150

the

nine

at 10,

layers,

was

md

had

nine

rameters,

densate

16 The

and

40

natural
module

producing

0.13,

and

simulating

VIP-C!OMP~

one

model

external
had

by

the

reservoir

was

simulation

ft und

tested

with

porusity

Two-Phase

COrrelatIOn

simulator.

as an r-Z

1.5

1.0,

in$ial

The
with

and

gas

in

calculated
an

error

of

+3.0%.
siimdated

methods

data
used

were

the

analyzed

two

ps-eudoreduced

different

ways.

properties

of

tie

Both

amaf-

Ftg.

11

system.

produced

For

shows
this

similar

calculations

system,

the

for

actwal

tie

Lean-gas-wmdensate

extrapolates

p/z

to

=0.98,

in-

0.15

.5

6.12-

a
2
k

z
*

,*

g
*.

0.05-

.~r.,

.s
%

o.~

OS.

,.

0.0
.0.0

0.5
Actual

Fig.
for

90

SAccuracy
Data

Sets

for
2 and

0.W3

1.0
Two-Phase

two-phase

1.5

z Factor

compressibility

Actual

Heptane

Plus

Fraction

correlation
lg.

4.

9Accuracy

of

C,+

correlation

SPE

Fomtion

fOr

initial

cOmP~ltiO~.

Evaluation,

M%ch

1992

mm

s0@2

3W+3

Cnliulated

(p/z)2ph

(mm!x.sitk?m)

Cdcuhtd(P/z)2ph

(mwtilion)

Calculated

(tiz)20h

(Cold,

Calculated

(Gold,

Actual

Actual

($.lz)%,h

Actual

P/.

et al)

4cW

3W3

2W0

n,
Zooil

161n3 -

102+ -

0-!

0.2

0.0

0.4

Cumulative

lg.

Gas

Produce4

10Material.balance

0.8

0.6

plot

0.

1.0

0.0

for

0.4

0.2,

Fmctiori

Cwna2ative

Fig.

rich-gas-condensate

0.6

Gas

1 lMaterial-balance

Produce&

plot

for

dicating

that

ressrvez

can

be

acceptable

estimate

of

initial

gas

in

place

obtained

with

tie

gas

compressl%ifity

4HYDROCARBON

factor.

estimate

with

of

the

initial
i3

gas

the

two-phme

correlation
i3 =4.0

compressibility

presented

mol%

or

if

the

the

f6ctor

can

be

C0UG5n@Iti0U

C,7+

wdhtmam

g33

specific

of
grwi-

>0.911.

2.

When

the

well-stream

initi21

s23

C7 +

specific

compressibility

concentration

gravity

factor

is

should

be

is

e 0.911,

used

in

the

<4.0

mol%

or

the

singfe-pfxtse

plz

material-balance

the
s33

Component

The

cor@ation
for

for

rich

gases

the

with

two-phase
large

compressibility

amounts

of

C02,

factor
H2S,

and

1.21.
1.94

for

fK

mole

fraction

of

gas

fL

mole

fraction

of

liquid

initial

m-r+
~$

cm+tkient

F.q.

gas

cwmd~ke

heptmmplus
titi

=
=

~r

C*

8.69

5.78

c.
iC ~

5.91

2.87

2.39

0.56

2.78

1 .2s

1.57

0.52

1.12

0:60

n-Cs
C8

i .81

0.72

c,+

6.59

3.10

weight

= mti

moles

remaining

nt

total

moles,

lbm-mol

presmre,

psia

dewpoint

pressure,

pi

initizl

ps.%doreduced

radial

universal

in

s@d.3tic~
temperature,

pzeudoreduced

Vg

volume

volume

total

gas

Zd

de~oht

Fom,ti,m

(10.73

psia-

R]

initi61

g23

ZL

fiquid

compressibility

compressibtby

twwphase

vertical

-fg

g33

thank

factor

compressibtity

factor
factor

compressibility
direction;

factor

ft

gravity

Core

Texas

ciol

support
Poe

Laboratories

A&M
for
Jr.

U.
this

for

Inc.

for

and

MaradIon

project.

Special

thek

valuable

providing
Oil

the

Co.

for

thmkz

to

suggestions

data.

We

providing

R.R.

and

dso
tinan-

Hocking

and

input.

References

ft3

Gs.s,),

Moses,

P. L.:

4.
factor

KenymI,

D.E.

Cycfing

Gas

1992

Sutton,

D.L.:
MME

2r@neering

Condensate
and

Systems,
Bebie,

A.:

of K@ogmde

Demiv

of Cm&Chls

(1942)

146,

Applications

of Phase

JPT

198Q

Third

(My
SPE

Saturated

Wit&

159.
Behavior

Compamtive

Condensate

of Crude

715-23.
SoIution

Reservoirs,

JPT

Proj(Aug.

9S1.97.
R.P.:

R&voir
fmtor

and Katz,
Ems.,

ect
1987)

ft3

March

Natural

OiJ and
3.

compressibility

M.B.

1. standing,

ft3

compressibility

E./abJation.

gas

R.D.

2.

fiquid,

volume,

gas

zi

ft
constant,

gas,

of

0.774
.0.823

Ibm-mol

tempcrahwe

of

2P

thank

psia

VI

(p <PJ,

pmtir

T,

VL

reservoir

psia

gas

132.0

0.774

Acknowledgments

: fi3)/[~bm+@ff2

lbrn+w.i
lbm-mol

pressure

direction,

14,0

C,+

C,+

1.128

Z=

We

pressure,

of

scf

gas, lbm-mol

of liquid,
produced,

P,

of

gravity

scf

moles
moles

pd

mti
toml

0.08
82.10

-f~(air=l)

produced,

of

2.44

65.99

fraction

moles

Condensate

can

place,

gas

n~
np

in

Gas

c,

Moleculm

Gp,

Lean

Condensate

N2

Specific

DEWPOINT

N2.

Nomenclature

sm.

Gas

IC5

used

OF

SAMPLSS

C02

n.C

plot.
3.

lean-gas-condensate

Rich

An

made

ANALYSIS

FLUID

@mcluslOns

the

Fraction

and
TABLE

1.

1.0

0.8

system.

;ystem.

be

ef al)

(#z)2Ph

N
.,

IJ

@fz)Zph

al Technical

Compressibility

Gases,

papv

Conferen~

Factors

SPE

14265

aod

Exbibhion,

for

presented
Las

f@b-Molecular-Weight
at he
Ve8as,

1985
Sept.

SPB

Annu-

22-25..

.
B
~e
.

5.

7,

10.
Piper

fOr

A&M

Inst.

Worlh

and

Sf8fe

from

Tes8s

U.

and

on

1972-75

the

8nd

Accre@tation

70.

McCaln

an

SPE

MS

the

he

positions
and

ME

degree

In pettuleum

sefved

ori
and

the

and

14

Review

the

years

McCain

at

international

10catlOnS.
engineering

all

from

Committee

Texas
during

Jones,

SM

Userk

NC

(1985).

Reference

AgM

the

2S7.

the

De&rflays,

Authom

Re-

Determination

of

JPT(Nov.

Gases,

Petroleum

York

(1P78)

Resem.r

(1959)

City

Engi-

59-P6.

Engineering,

Elsevier

Scien-

37-43,

and Ragbavan,

Resewoki,

R.:

SPEFE

Starisdcs,

M-1

for

Version

EOS-PAK

Performance.
(De+.

19S9)

5 eibion,

S.42

Firoozaba@,

A.,

CaJmlatiois

fork

and

Predicdom

576-84

Trans.,

Hekim,

Y.,

and

Con&nsafm

Eqw,fion

of

Cay,

Western

At-

(1987).

Katz,

Using

Sate:,

Inst. la..,

VfP-EWXOTJW

Houston

Tehologies,

Peng,

D.-Y.

and

r%.

Robinson,

of State,

Imi.

S[

Metric

Conversion

& Eng.

II
ft~

S.W.

D. L.:

Reservoir

Depletion

AmlYses

m the Peng-

Extended
J.

Chem.

Ens.

(Oct.

D. B.:

Chem.

New

Two

Constant

(1976)

Fundanwnrafs

15,

1978)

56,

No.

Equation
1,59-64.

in

Factors

3.048*

E01

2.831685

E02

rn3

.C

md

9.869233

EO-I

#mz

psi

6.894757

E+OO

kpa

A&M
Co.

POStOn
and

J. W.:
for

R&mgmde

of Reservoir

J. R.,

for

for Relrogmde

Jennings,

Applied

New

Oxford

emate

Gufde:

and

1991.

011 E&P

Gas-Comf

t%wity
AJMB,

2S7.

Fundamwtak

1967-

at Texas

Gulf

D. T.,

for

Tram.,

287.

for

M. F.;
h.,

Co.,

Inmmved

the

during
to

Vo,

Robimm

18.

Georgia

Education

engineering

L. P.:
Fubfisbi!12

Pub.

610-15.

M18-

chairman

1984

17.

ASM

Committee,

chaired

Dal%

h
S@fic

Met30d

Methcd

Gravity

Pseu-

(1975).

w,

J.W.:

Gravity

ard

of

1959 AfChE

edition,

B-m&

747-5Z

AJME,
1..,

AIME,

tid

Welfs,

Improved

fmpmved

Hawldm.,

at tie

Jeminm.

An

Tram.,

P@@Hefl

pTdiCtiO!l

the Res*Gss
1989)

W.D.

Trans.;
and

and
of

of

2p@c

lw i&rdted
he

frOIII

1967-71

from

[n gealcgkal

engineering,

from

Section

petroleum

h! U.S.
degrees

ha

Mis@lppl

for

Editorial

1980-84.

which

worked

degr.se

Guidance

16.

& Assocs.
at Texas

a,BS

the

consultant

englnewlng.

and

15.

degree

Previously,

degrees

instructor
of

executive

chemical

and

Po8fgraduate

engineering

PhD

MS

Gillespie

holds

Career

1972

Course

Previously,

SS

In

an

Station.

Cawley,

He

and

and

B.C.

Hydmcarfmn

ATMF -, 3R7.
.-..
---

epglnfering

Naval

is an

Committee,

is a professor

various

U.

19 S6-89

was

U.

14.

be-

r88w-

MS,

121%

Jr..
tion

An

D.:

&s

@iic

1216

of

of

JPT@ly

McCain,

19S9)

d6C

TX.

phase

BS,

13.

Rmerv&Gas

19S9)

Craft,

for Sour Gases,

& Consermdon

&Discussion

Reservoir-Gas

neering,

at

and

holds

U.S.

petroleum

Cammlttee,

Short

Poston

Jr.

with

all

Textbook

He

12.

from

Station,

Include

in petroleum

in College

State

College

A&M

MS

Tesdng

W.D.

Dk
Gases,

D.K.,

18.

the

McCain.

of the

Frac-

153-58.

pa~r~ented

Resmuces

C.H.:

of Entbafpy

lP7!Sl

S .F. . and VW.

May
of

fa Discussion

the

is a ssnlor

englneerlng,

the

McCaIn

Technology,

8ewed

1976,

degrees

taught

Mississippi

of

holds

simulation.

engineer

and

reservoir

PhD

a petroleum

In

In

engineering

interes@

volr

& A880cs.

si88ippi

U.

D.

U.

Inc.

and

Piper

petroleum

research

Holditch

BS

D.

Gold,
ply

TakuMe2s

tiasy

Re@?a.de

Predk+ion

flvfarch

119-22.

Cily,

Pratice

(NOV.

Jmprove

for h;

fortbe

Whitscm,

Bakefs.

engineering

[n

fmm

E&P
Div.,

holds

In petroleum

havior,

reservoir

Western

Rayes

A&MU.

Texas

research

associate

ProductIon

CA.

Iecturw

His

an

Shell

Kemrldge

Tex8s

Poston

Is

K:
1972)

. Burkhardt.

D.K..

@nation

McCain

Rayes

degrees

u.

Gold.

B. I.:
Processing

Kamas
and

JPT

field,

In Foe

Ptietm

for

en91neer

was

W.F.

docriti~

Meth;d

the

WfNIam

Stewaxt.

3heoV

9.

Lee,

(hfay

ERCS-75-34,

11.

at S.A.

md

E. andti,

Meeting,
8.

D.G.

School.

Hydrocarbon

Froces#ng

,,:
,.
.

operations

M.G.

tions,
6. Wichert,

Rayes

In

Kesler,

~F32)/l.8

a PhD
U.

1974-75,

He

.Coversion

factor

Orlglml

nmn.wrlp!

SPE

Aug. 13,1691.
ed at the

1990

Pew+

1s wad,

SPEFE

received

for revlow

aaaP@4f0rPubllcMb

Call f.arnla

Re91.nal

Meeting

Awl!

16,1990.

SaPt.4,
held

1S91.
!.

Rev!ssd

nmnuscrlfl

P.Qwr(SPE2C@53

Ventura

APIU 4-6..

received
flrsl -M.

W 20055

,!*

2.0

1.6

1.2

0.[

0.

0.0

1.2

0,8

0.4

1,6

2.0

Actual Two-Phase Z Factor


Fig. 8

Accuracy of Two=Phasc Compressibility Correlation for Data Sets 2 and 4.

0,15

0.0

0,0

0,06

0!03

0,09

().i2

0,15

Actual Heptane Plus Fraction


Fig, 9

Accuracy of Heptane

Plus Correlation for Iu!tial Compositions,


117

5000

O p / Z2phCalC,(Composition)
D P/ Z2phCalc,(Goldet al.)
~ p/ Z2phActual

pJ Z Actual

4000

3000
N
Q

2ootl

lC!Q(

c
O.O

0:2

0.6

0.4

0.8

1.0

1.2

Cumulative Gas Produced, Fraction


Fi& 10.

Material

Balance Plot for a

Rich t3as=Condensate System,

5000

4000

p / Z2phCalc.(Composition)

p / z2ph (Mc, (Gold et al.)


m p/ Z2ph Actual

p/Z Actual

3000
N
la

200(

100(

0.0

0,2

0.4

o~6

o.8

1,0

1,2

Cumulative Gas Produced, Fraction


Fig. 11 Material Balance Plot for a Lean Gas=Condensate System.

118