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Let's learn English [by] Audrey L. Wright [and] James H. McGillivray.

Wright, Audrey L.
New York, American Book Co. [c1955-1956]

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INDIANA

UNIVERSITY

LIBRARY

>

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LET'S LEARN ENGLISH

PART II

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LET'S

LEARN

ENGLISH

PART II

Audrey L. Wright Former Associate in English,

University of California at Los Angeles; Former Di-

rector of Courses, Instituto Mexicano-Norteamericano

de Relaciones Culturales, Mexico, D.F.; Former Direc-

tor of English Language and Orientation, Louisiana

State University; Former Assistant Director, Centro

Colombo-Americano, Bogota, Colombia.

James H. McGillivray Information Officer,

United States Information Service, Sao Paulo, Brazil;

Former Foreign Affairs Officer, Information Center

Service, Department of State; Former Executive Sec-

retary, Associacao Cultural Brasil-Estados Unidos,

Bahia, Brazil; Former Director, Centro Colombo-

Americano, Bogota, Colombia.

" L' - >"

AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY

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New York Cincinnati Chicago Atlanta Dallas San Francisco

775530

Copyright 1956 by American Book Company

Under International Copyright Convention

Philippines Copyright 1956 by American Book Company

All rights reserved. No part of this book protected by the copyrights hereon

may be reproduced in any form without written permission of the publisher.

Drawings by George Wilde

Wright and McGillivray: Let's Learn English, Part II

Made in the United States of America

E.P. 2

INDIANA UNIVERSITY

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LIBRARY

PREFACE

Oo

*? Part II of Let's Learn English assumes that the student has com-

pleted Part I and has acquired an elementary knowledge of English

-i structure. The twelve lessons in this book continue to stress the

aural-oral approach to learning a second language. The skills already

taught in Part I are reinforced by constant practice as they are co-

ordinated with the presentation of new material. Although the lessons

follow the same general pattern as those in Part I, there is greater

variety in each Oral Practice, the material under Pronunciation has

been expanded, and Composition is a new section at the end of each

lesson.

The thematic content of Part II centers around American customs

and the everyday life of an American family, particularly as seen

through the eyes of a foreign student in the United States. Numerous

drawings, large and small, serve to illustrate the text and stimulate

conversation.

Both vocabulary and structure are carefully controlled within each

lesson and from one lesson to another. They are purposely limited in

scope in order to teach the essentials of English as thoroughly as

possible and to avoid the common pitfall of teaching more vocabulary

and structure than a student can absorb.

The 565 new words and idioms in Part II, added to the smaller

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vocabulary of Part I, make a total of i000 vocabulary items in the

complete book. The majority of these words are used many times.

The choice of words has been determined by the content material of

each lesson and by their usefulness in ordinary conversation.

Part II offers the same careful presentation of new structure as

Part I. It progresses slowly and logically, increasing gradually in

difficulty. The first four lessons continue in the present tense, but the

future with going to is added. The next five lessons include the use of

can and the simple past tense. The last three lessons take up the

present perfect tense, which is equally important in conversation. In

general, the text presents those grammatical principles which are

considered most essential for a student at this level.

Emphasis is also placed on pronunciation. This is taught largely

through imitation and repetition, but the phonetic symbols and into-

nation lines provide additional aids. The transcriptions are based on

the International Phonetic Alphabet. Intonation lines are continued

in Part II, on the questions and answers and on the dialogues. For

convenient reference, a simple but careful analysis of American English

Pronunciation is provided in a section at the back of the book. This

consists of general comments, a brief description of each sound with its

phonetic symbol, and an explanation of the elementary principles of

stress and intonation.

The number of class hours to be devoted to each lesson will depend

on the amount of oral practice that is done. Other factors to be con-

sidered are the size, maturity, and motivation of the class. However,

a minimum of four or five clock hours is suggested for each lesson.

The authors are grateful for the help and suggestions of all those

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who have been interested in the publication of this text. They par-

ticularly wish to express their appreciation to the following people:

Dr. John B. Rust of Sweetbriar College, Virginia, for his careful

analysis and constructive criticism of the twelve lessons; Dr. Clifford

H. Prator of the University of California at Los Angeles, for reading

the manuscript of the section American English Pronunciation, and

for a number of useful ideas on the teaching of pronunciation which

have been incorporated in the text.

A. L. W.

J. H. M.

vi

TO THE TEACHER

Let's Learn English, Part II, consists of twelve lessons, three of

which are reviews. The following comments describe the various

sections of a lesson and offer some suggestions for teaching the material

effectively.

Oral Practice. As in Part I, this section is the core of each lesson,

providing the general theme as well as the new vocabulary and struc-

ture. All are woven into natural English, whether in simple questions

and answers, dialogues, or informative paragraphs. A feature under

this section is called Tom's Impressions. Tom represents all foreign

students in the United States, but his exact identity is to be determined

in Lesson 13. In answer to the question "Where are you from?"

Tom should reply with the name of the student's own country and city.

Each part of the Oral Practice is to be studied as a unit. With books

closed, first the students listen to the teacher's presentation of the

material in order to grasp the general meaning and to become familiar

with the new vocabulary. The teacher may use various types of

visual aids, give other English equivalents, or quickly translate into

the student's own language, if necessary; but no explanation of struc-

ture should be given at this time. Then the students repeat each

sentence in unison, imitating the teacher's pronunciation. After

sufficient aural-oral practice, a student reads the same material from

his book, both in class and at home.

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vii

Structure. Since the first items under Structure correspond to the

first units of the Oral Practice, it is not necessary to complete the Oral

Practice before beginning the Structure. The points of structure are

presented inductively; examples to be repeated are given first, followed

by a simple explanation of the principle involved. In teaching, how-

ever, it is better to present this material with the use of the blackboard

and the help of the class than to read it from the book. Let the ex-

amples teach. Each new item is accompanied by one or more exercises.

These should be done orally in class, at least in part, before any are

assigned for homework. The student should not write the exercises

in his book.

Vocabulary. Placed after the section on structure, the Vocabulary

actually becomes a review of what the student already knows rather

than a long list of words to be learned before beginning a lesson. The

teacher may or may not wish to have his students fill in the meanings

in their own language, although there is usually sufficient space in

which to do so. This also applies to the complete vocabulary at the

back of the book, which includes the iooo words and idioms used in

Parts I and II.

Pronunciation. This section provides drill first on vowel sounds and

then on consonant sounds. In each case, they are usually arranged in

groups of three similar but contrasting sounds. Both words and sen-

tences are used for drill, with additional practice on a given intonation

pattern for each group of sentences. All thirty-seven significant

sounds are included at least once in the text.

Imitation and repetition are the basis for all work in pronunciation

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and should be stressed accordingly. However, a thorough knowledge

of the section American English Pronunciation will help the teacher

in correcting the errors of his students. For the student, this material

will be useful as a review toward the end of the course, although he

may, at the discretion of the teacher, be referred to specific parts of it

from time to time.

Dictation. The two sections in the lessons of Part I that deal with

Comprehension, Repetition, and Writing are condensed in Part II

under the one heading Dictation. Although the procedure to be fol-

lowed here is essentially the same, the choice of material is left to the

teacher. He may use several lines of dialogue for one dictation and a

paragraph or two for another. Thus, the student will benefit from a

review of the whole Oral Practice, not knowing which part may be

chosen each time.

The speed at which a teacher can dictate may vary from class to

class. Dictation should be fast enough to challenge the student's

power of comprehension and retention; it should not be so slow that a

sentence becomes a series of separate words. Good dictation, like

conversation, makes proper use of pauses between thought groups,

while the words within a thought group are smoothly connected.

Conversation. The questions in the Conversation of each lesson

serve as an oral review of all the content material as well as the struc-

ture of the lesson. The teacher may wish to make this entirely a

student activity, according to the directions for II, unless there is

plenty of time available for both I and II.

Composition. Although the emphasis in Let's Learn English is on

spoken English, this new section in Part II gives the student further

practice on what he has learned. It is intended to be an organized,

written review of what he would say; it also provides early training in

writing simple paragraphs. The topics suggested are generally of

two types: those which require a summary of the text and those which

require a little originality. In the second case, some additional vo-

cabulary may be necessary. This exercise will be most profitable if

done in class, as indicated in the directions.

The three review lessons include all the features of the other lessons

except the Oral Practice, the Vocabulary, and the Dictation. Each

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one combines the vocabulary and thematic content of the preceding

three lessons, and each reviews all the points of structure in those

lessons. Finally, instead of writing a composition, the student talks

briefly in class about a familiar topic; the main purpose, of course,

is to give him confidence in speaking English.

IX

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CONTENTS

PREFACE v

TO THE TEACHER vii

LESSON 13 Welcome To Our Home 161

review of possessive adjectives the possessive form of nouns questions

with whose the future with going to object pronouns the prepositions

from, with, about, in, at, to

LESSON 14 From City To Suburb 177

short answers with be and do review of the verb do the expression

have to the omission of the definite article the prepositions in, on, at,

near, far from, for, like

LESSON 15 A Day With Mr. Dawson 189

negative questions ever, never, and seldom nouns used as adjectives

verbs followed by to and another verb the prepositions from ... to,

before, after, during

Note: Pages 1-160 appear in Part I of Let's Learn English.

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xi

LESSON 16 Review 202

the omission of the definite article possessive forms nouns used as ad-

jectives object pronouns short answers going to and have to verbs

followed by to and another verb word order prepositions

LESSON 17 Three Meals A Day 212

the auxiliary verb can count nouns and mass nouns some and any

much, many, and a lot of how much and how many the prepositions in,

at, for

LESSON 18 School Days 229

the past tense of be there was and there were expressions of past time

LESSON 19 Tom's First Football Game 243

negative commands the simple past tense of regular verbs (affirmative

statements, questions, and short answers) the simple past tense of irregular

verbs interrogative words and the simple past tense other, another, and

others the weather

LESSON 20 Review 260

count nouns and mass nouns some, any, much, many, and a lot of nega-

tive commands the auxiliary verb can the past tense of be the simple

past tense other, another, and others word order prepositions

LESSON 21 Let's Go Shopping 273

possessive pronouns the simple past tense (negative) other irregular

verbs in the simple past tense direct and indirect objects the verbs say

and tell the words very and too

LESSON 22 Leisure Time 292

the present perfect tense of regular verbs the present perfect tense of ir-

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regular verbs comparisons with more, -er, and as

LESSON 23 Let's Take A Trip 308

the present perfect tense with for and since comparisons with most and

-est the prepositions by, for, since

LESSON 24 Review 322

the simple past tense direct and indirect objects the verbs say and tell

possessive forms the words very and too the present perfect tense

comparisons word order review of verbs and interrogative words

prepositions

AMERICAN ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION xvii

VOCABULARY (Part I and Part II) xxxix

INDEX Ixv

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XIII

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LESSON THIRTEEN

THE THIRTEENTH LESSON

Welcome To Our Home

13

ORAL PRACTICE

A. Who's the man in thejpicjture?

That's Mr. Robert [Dawison. He's an AJmerican.

Who's theiworhan in the picture?

That's iHelen Dawson.

I .. ... .... .

r --*

Is she Mr. Dawson's isister?

No, she's his jwife. She's iMrs.'; Robert Dawson.

161

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Lesson Thirteen

Is her husband a j lawyer?

No, he's an Americanibusinessman.

What's thejdog'sjname?

It's'Spbt. He's ajwhitejdog * with a black jspbt.

What's the Dawsons' adjdress?

It's 756 Thirteenth;Street. (seven fifty-six)

* A slight pause.

B. Mr. and Mrs. Dawson have two children,

a son and a daughter. Their son's name is

William, but they call him Bill. His friends

also call him Bill. He's twenty years old, and

he goes to the state university. Ann is their

daughter. She's seventeen, and she goes to

high school. Ann lives at home, but Bill is

living at the university now.

C. Whose wife isiHelen?

Whose sister isjAnn?

Whose brother isjBill?

1\

Whose ichilidren are they?

Whose dog is j Spot?

She's Robert I Daw

_________ 1

She's jBiLl'si sister.

son's wife.

He's j Ann's brother.

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They're Mr. and Mrs.jDawjson's.

He's thejDawisons' dog.

Lesson Thirteen

162

D. The other young man in this picture is Bill's friend. His name

is Tom. Bill and Tom are roommates at the university. Tom is

going to spend this weekend at Bill's home. Bill is introducing him

to his family now.

Bill: Tom, this is my: mother, my j father, and my sister'Ann.

Tom: How do you j do,'Mrs. Dawson.

Mrs. D.: How do you j do,; Tom. Welcome to our j home.

ji-j\

i \

Mr. D.: Yes, we're j very glad to meet you.

Tom:

Ann:

Tom:

Bill:

Thankiyou, Mr. Dawson.

HeljIoViTom.

i '1

I'm glad to |know|you, Ann.

Here'sjSpbt, too. He's veryjfriendjly. Do youiiike dogs?

163

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Lesson Thirteen

Tom: Yes, I like them very:much. I have a dog atjhome.

Ann: Where are youjfrbm?

Tom: I'm from I come from

(your country) {your city)

Mr. D.: You speak English very j well.

Tom: Thank

it. Some people

iyou. But I don't always understand;

speak veryifast.

ix

Ann: Are you going to be an engineer like j Bill?

Tom: Yes, I'm studying engineering,;too. I'm ajgraduate student.

Mr. D.: That's ihne. Wejneediengineers.

Mrs. D.: How long are you going to j be: in the United States?

Tom: I'm going to be here a;year. I'm going to work atihome

next year.

Mrs. D.: Please come and see us i often this year.

Tom: Thankjyou. You're veryikind * to invite me to yourihbme.

* A slight pause.

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Lesson Thirteen 164

Tom's Impressions

There are many students in the United States

from other countries. I'm one of them. I'm studying

engineering at one of the large universities here. My

name is hard to pronounce in English, but my friends call me Tom.

I like this new name.

Bill Dawson is my roommate at the university. I'm happy to

have an American roommate. I like him very much. His sister Ann

is pretty and very nice. She lives at home and goes to high school.

I like her, too. Bill's parents, Mr. and Mrs. Dawson, are very friendly.

I like them very much. I'm going to see the Dawsons from time to

time.

My family and my country are far from here. My parents write

to me, and I write to them every week. I often write about my

impressions of the United States. I'm going to write a letter to-

nightor tomorrow.

STRUCTURE

I. Review of Possessive Adjectives.

A. Repeat these sentences after your teacher.

I have my pen and pencil. We're practicing our English.

You're opening your book. You're studying your lesson.

He's doing his homework.

She's writing her sentences. They're reading their letters.

Its name is Spot. (His, Her)

Note: Use it (its) for an animal that you do not know. Use he

or she (his or her) if you know the animal.

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B. Read each sentence with a possessive adjective in the blank. In the

first nine sentences, use the form that refers to the subject.

Example: We're listening to radio.

We're listening to our radio.

165 Lesson Thirteen

i. I don't have books. 8. He's visiting family.

2. You're not doing homework. 9. They like new house.

3. The doctor is in office. 10. address is ....

4. Mary is reading letters. 11. name is William.

5. Every school has library. 12. parents aren't young.

6. He and I are eating lunch. 13. husband is tall.

7. You're practicing English. 14. wife is very nice.

II. The Possessive Form of Nouns.

A. Repeat these examples after your teacher.

Bill's [z] roommate the boys' [z] roommates

Mrs. Clark's [s] address the Clarks' [s] address

the student's [s] book(s) the students' [s] books

the nurse's [iz] friend (s) the nurses' [iz] friends

the man's [z] name the men's [z] names

That office is Mr. Dawson's [z].

Are these your keys? No, they're George's [iz].

B. The possessive form of a noun that refers to a person or an animal

ends in 's or only an apostrophe (').

1. A singular noun has the ending 's.

Examples: Bill's [z], student's [s], nurse's [iz].

2. A plural noun that ends in s has only an apostrophe after the s.

Examples: boys' [z], students' [s], nurses' [iz].

3. A plural noun that does not end in s has the ending 's.

Examples: men's [z], women's [z], children's [z].

C. The possessive form of a noun is sometimes used alone.

Example: That office is Mr. Dawson's.

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D. A noun that refers to a thing is used with the preposition of to

show possession.

Example: the door of the room. {not the room's door)

Lesson Thirteen 166

E. Give the possessive form of the first noun and read it with the other

noun. Then use the expression in an original sentence.

Example: Bill dog Bill's dog

Bill's dog is white with a black spot.

i. Dr. Clark office

2. the dentist chair

3. Mrs. Dawson husband

4. Ann brother

5. my father pen

6. the men wives

7. your uncle house

8. your aunt garden

9. the children bedrooms

10. the girls mother

11. the teacher desk

12. John homework

13. the students names

14. the judge daughter

15. my friend father

16. his son friends

17. the boys parents

18. the doctor keys

19. Betty picture

20. the actors children

21. the week the days

22. the lesson the vocabulary

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23. our classroom the windows

24. the university the library

III. Questions with whose.

A. Repeat these sentences after your teacher.

Whose sister is she?

Whose house is that?

Whose books are those?

She's Bill's (sister).

It's the Dawsons' (house).

They're the children's (books).

B. The interrogative word whose is the possessive form of who. It

is usually an adjective followed by a noun. It always refers to a

person, indicated by a possessive noun in the answer.

C. Whose and who's (who is) have the same pronunciation [huz].

Compare: Who's the girl in the picture? Whose daughter is she?

D. (1) Make original questions with whose and the following nouns.

(2) Then answer your questions in complete sentences.

Example: notebook Whose notebook is this?

It's John's (notebook).

167

Lesson Thirteen

i. keys 5. friend 9. house 13. sentences

2. desk 6. cousin 10. pictures 14. office

3. chair 7. parents 11. address 15. school

4. pencil 8. wife 12. brother 16. umbrellas

IV. The Future with going to [goig ta].

A. Repeat these examples after your teacher.

QUESTIONS STATEMENTS

Are you going to eat now? I'm (not) going to eat.

Is he swim today? He's (not) swim.

Is she come tonight? She's (not) come.

Are we sing tomorrow? We're (not) sing.

Are they leave next week? They're (not) leave.

Who's going to be Tom's roommate this year?

Bill Dawson is going to be his roommate.

What are the boys going to study?

They're going to study engineering.

B. The verb be + going to + the simple form of the principal verb

indicates future time. In this case, the word going does not refer

to motion, but only to future time. It may be the immediate

future (now, today, tomorrow, this week) or a more distant future

(next week, next month, next year).

C. The short form I'm going is a substitute for I'm going to go. This

present tense form avoids the repetition of the verb go.

Example: Are you going (to go) downtown tomorrow?

No, I'm going (to go) downtown next week.

D. Likewise, some other verbs in the present tense may indicate

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future time, especially when an adverb of future time is mentioned.

Examples: Is he coming tonight? (Is he going to come . . . ?)

Is he leaving next week? (Is he going to leave . . . ?)

Does he leave on Friday? (Is he going to leave . . . ?)

Lesson Thirteen 168

, (1) Read these questions with the correct form of be + going to.

Then answer the questions in complete sentences.

Example: Ann see her brother this week?

Is Ann going to see her brother this week?

Yes, she's going to see him this weekend.

i. Tom be a graduate student this year?

2. What he study?

3. he have a roommate?

4. What Bill do this weekend?

5. the Dawsons invite Tom?

6. When Tom meet Bill's family?

7. Who introduce him?

8. Tom write many letters this year?

9. he write about the United States?

10. he be at the university next year?

11. How long he be in the United States?

12. Where he work next year?

(2) Ask the question What are you going to do? with each expression

of time given below. Answer each question; use a verb from the list

at the right and add other words to complete the meaning.

Example: What are you going to do tonight?

I'm going to write a letter tonight.

1. tonight

2. after class

3. tomorrow morning

4. tomorrow afternoon

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5. tomorrow evening

6. on Saturday

7. on Sunday

8. next week

9. next summer

10. next year

do

study

go

talk

see

visit

play

write

read

get up

rest

invite

sleep

practice

swim

listen to

work

have dinner

169

Lesson Thirteen

V. Object Pronouns.

A. Repeat these forms and sentences after your teacher.

Do they often invite you to their home?

(I) me Yes, they often invite me to their home.

They live near me.

Are you going to write to me? (to us)

(you) you Yes, I'm going to write to you.

I don't see you very often.

Does Tom live with Bill?

(he) him Yes, he lives with him.

He likes him very much.

Does Tom also like Bill's sister?

(she) her Yes, he likes her, too. She's very nice.

He's going to play tennis with her.

Does Tom speak English?

(it) it Yes, he speaks it very well.

Listen to it. (his English)

Does Tom visit you and your family?

(we) us No, he doesn't visit us.

He writes to us.

Is Tom going to see the Dawsons?

Yes, he's going to see them from time to time.

(they) them He likes to talk with them.

Does he have two letters today?

Yes, he's reading them now.

B. The object pronouns are me, you, him, her, it, us, and them.

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They are used after a verb or after a preposition. The word them

refers to people or things.

C. (1) Read each sentence. Then change the words in italics to object

pronouns as you read the sentence again.

Lesson Thirteen 170

Example: Tom speaks English very well.

Tom speaks it very well.

i. Tom likes the Dawsons. 9.

2. The Dawsons like Tom. 10.

3. Come with Betty and me. 11.

4. Please read this letter. 12.

5. The letter is from Mary. 13.

6. Let's invite those people. 14.

7. I don't know Ms wife. 15.

8. I see a spot on //ze rwg. 16.

Tom is writing to his father.

I'm going to visit my aunt.

I'm glad to meet you and Ann.

We often see our friends.

Mr. Lee is reading the words.

Listen to his pronunciation.

Ann likes Mr. Lee very much.

I don't know Ann's teachers.

(2) Read each question. Then answer it in the affirmative or in the

negative. Use an object pronoun in the answer in place of the words

in italics.

Example: Does Tom write to his parents every week?

Yes, he writes to them every week.

or No, he doesn't write to them every week.

1. Do you like those people}

2. Do you know Mrs. Dawson?

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3. Do youknow her husband?

4. Do you know AnnDawson?

5. Do you have their address ?

6. Do they call their son Bill?

7. Do you visit your friends?

8. Do they live near you?

9. Does Tom like the university?

10. Does he like his roommate?

VI. Prepositions: from, with, about, in, at, to. Read each sentence

with the preposition indicated.

A. From (origin)

1. Where's Mr. Dawson ?

2. He's the United States.

He's an American.

3. Where are you ?

4. I'm {country).

5. I come {city)-.

Note: Use a or an before a nationality in the singular.

B. With'(accompaniment)

1. Tom lives Bill. They're roommates.

2. He's spending the weekend Bill's family.

W5530

Lesson Thirteen

171

C. About (concerning)

i. Tom likes to talk his country.

2. He asks many questions the United States.

3. He often writes his impressions of the United States.

D. In (within limits)

1. The Dawsons live a city.

2. Who are the young men the picture?

3. Tom is going to work his country next year.

E. At (specific place)

1. Ann lives home with her parents.

2. Tom is Bill's roommate the university.

3. They're Bill's home this weekend.

F. To (various uses)

1. Ann goes high school. Bill goes the university.

2. Welcome our home, our city, and our country.

3. Bill is introducing Tom his family.

4. Tom writes (a letter) his parents every week.

5. He's happy have an American roommate.

6. His name is hard pronounce in English.

7. We're very glad meet you.

8. You're very kind invite me your home.

VOCABULARY Do you know these new words and expressions?

about Ann (proper name) country

[abdut] [sen] [k6ntn]

address Bill (nickname) Dawson (proper name).

[adres, aMres] [bil] [dosn]

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also call engineering

[olso] [kol] [end38nfnrj]

American city far

[am^rakan] [sfti] [far]

Lesson Thirteen 172

fast kind state

[faest] [kaind] [stet]

friend like Tom (nickname)

[frend] [laik] [tarn]

friendly need tomorrow

[frendli] [nid] [tamdro]

from next tonight

[fram] [nekst] [tondit]

graduate student nice too

[grjed3U9t stiidnt] [nais] [tu]

happy other university

[hcepi] [4Sar] [yunava-sati]

Helen (proper name).... people weekend

[helan] [pip]] [wikend]

hello Robert (proper name). .. welcome

[halo] [rdbat] [wdlkam]

high school roommate whose

[hdiskul] [rummet] [huz]

husband see wife (pi. wives)

[hSzband] [si] [waif] [waivz]

impression some William (proper name). .

[imprSan] [sam] [wilyam]

introduce spend with

[mtradus] [spend] [wiS]

invite spot (Spot)

[invdit] [spat]

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Note 1: Verb forms are shown in italics.

Note 2: The people of the United States are commonly called Americans because

the official name of the country is the United States of America. The term is

not exclusive, however, since there are many other Americans in North, Central,

and South America.

Idioms

They call him Bill Welcome to our home

state university Here's (Here is)

go to high school Where are you from?

173 Lesson Thirteen

I'm from J_ next year

I come from _1 from time to time.

how long? far from

PRONUNCIATION

I. Vowel Sounds.

A. Read these words (i) horizontally and (2) vertically. Imitate your

teacher.

[ae] fast Ann glad black happy family graduate

[a] far Tom spot Scott large Robert tomorrow

[a] from come rug husband country American university

Note: For the formation of these sounds, see the section on

American English Pronunciation, pp. xxi-xxii.

B. Repeat each sentence several times. Imitate your teacher. Use the

same general intonation pattern for each sentence.

i. Is Tom far from his country? J

2. Is Ann glad to meet Tom?

3. Is Tom happy to know Bill's family?

4. Do you see that black spot on the rug?

5. Is Mrs. Scott's husband coming tomorrow?

6. Does that university have many graduate students?

II. Consonant Sounds.

A. Read these words (i) horizontally and (2) vertically. Imitate your

teacher.

[s] see

six [ks]

sister

nice

also

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city

address

spend

state

store

street

school

study

student

[6] three

thank

third

thirty

month

Thursday

thirteenth

[t] two

Tom

time

write

letter

tonight

introduce

Lesson Thirteen

174

Note: For the formation of these sounds, see the section on

American English Pronunciation, pp. xxv-xxvi.

B. Repeat each sentence several times. Imitate your teacher. Use the

same general intonation pattern for each sentence.

i. Tom is writing two letters tonight. j \

2. Thursday is the thirteenth of the month.

3. See the three new stores on that street.

4. The high school is on Thirty-third Street.

5. My sister is spending six months in the city.

6. How many students study at that state university?

DICTATION (Comprehension, Repetition, and Writing)

A. Close your books and listen. Your teacher will read some sentences,

at normal conversational speed, from the Oral Practice of this lesson.

B. Listen carefully as your teacher reads each sentence again, as in

normal, slow conversation. Repeat each sentence after your teacher,

and then write it.

C. Check your written work as your teacher reads all the sentences once

more, at normal conversational speed.

CONVERSATION

I. Conversation with Your Teacher.

Close your books. Your teacher will ask the following questions for

you to answer. Use complete sentences; give two answers whenever

possible.

1. Who's Helen Dawson's husband? 6. Are they Americans?

2. How many children do they have? 7. What's the dog's name?

3. What are their names? 8. Who's Tom?

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4. What do you know about them? 9. Where's he from?

5. What's the Dawsons'address? 10. What's he studying?

175 Lesson Thirteen

ii. How long is he going to be in the United States?

12. What's he going to do next year?

13. When is he going to write to his family?

14. What's he going to write about?

15. Is he happy to have an American roommate?

16. Where's he going to spend this weekend?

17. Does he like Bill Dawson's family?

18. Is he going to see them from time to time?

19. Are there many students in the United States

from other countries?

20. What's your name? What's your address?

21. How many are there in your family?

22. Do you like dogs? Do you have a dog?

23. Do you like to meet new people?

24. Do you have an American friend?

25. What are you going to do tonight? (tomorrow)

II. Conversation with Other Students.

Use the questions in I above or make original questions. (1) One

student asks a question; a second student answers. (2) The second

student then asks a question, and a third student answers. Continue

around the class in this manner.

COMPOSITION

Choose one of these topics. Be prepared to write a paragraph about it in

class. Use short sentences and the vocabulary that you know.

1. The Dawson Family 2. Bill's Roommate

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Lesson Thirteen 176

LESSON FOURTEEN

THE FOURTEENTH LESSON

From City To Suburb

ORAL PRACTICE

A. Do the Dawsons live in thejcity?

Yes, they|do. They live on Thirteenth;Street

They live at j 7 561Thirteenth Street.

Do they i own their home?

No, they-don't. They're irenting their house now.

But they're going toibuy;a house veryisoon.

177

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Lesson Fourteen

Are they going to buy a house in the;city?

No, theyjaren't. They prefer to live in aisuburb.

i ...

r'

Why? Is a suburb moreiquiet?

Yes, it jis. They also like the new:houses in the suburbs.

When are they going toimbye?

They're going to move nextiniqnth.

B. Does Mrs. Dawson have aimaid?

No, sheidoesn't. She does her:ownihousework.

- : i i

ii

Does Ann!help her mother?

Yes, sheidoes. She helps her a little every iday.

\ - - \. -

Who does theishopping for the family?

i-.._............................

Mrs.iDawison does. She usually shops at the:supermarket.

Her husband sometimes goesiwithiher * on;Saturdays.

L............

Does Mr. Dawson take care of theiyard?

Yes, heidoes. He takes care of thejlawn and thelgariden.

\_. L

He has to cut the grass every!week * in thelsumimer.

u-.

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Lesson Fourteen 178

C. Whose house is this? It's

the Dawsons' new house in the

suburbs. The name of this

suburb is Belmont. It's a little

town near the big city. The

Dawsons' new address is 9i

Lake Avenue. Yes, there are

two small lakes in Belmont, and

they live near one of them.

They own their own home now. It's new and modern, and they like

it very much. It isn't very far from Ann's high school. There are

also several small stores and a supermarket near the house.

Mrs. Dawson is usually busy because she does her own house-

work. She gets the meals, she cleans the house, she washes and irons

the clothes, and she does the shopping for the family. Ann helps her

a little every day. Mr. Dawson sometimes helps his wife, too.

Tom's Impressions

Many people here are moving from the cities to

the suburbs. The big cities are often noisy and

crowded. A suburb is like a little townit's usually

more quiet and more friendly. It also has many new houses with big

yards. People prefer a house with a lawn and a garden.

Maids are very expensive in the United States. American

women usually have to do their own housework and take care of their

children. But they also have many modern conveniences in their

homes. Mrs. Dawson has a refrigerator, an electric stove, a vacuum

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cleaner, a washing machine, and several other small conveniences.

Children usually learn to help their parents. Husbands often help

their wives, too.

toQ m

fegp.^

179

Lesson Fourteen

STRUCTURE

I. Short Answers with be and do.

A. Repeat these sentences after your teacher.

QUESTIONS

Do they live in the city now?

Do they own their home?

Does Mrs. Dawson have a maid?

Does Ann help her mother?

Who takes care of the yard?

Are they going to move soon?

Are they going to move this week?

Is their new house in the city?

Is a suburb more quiet?

Is there a school near the house?

Are there any stores near it?

SHORT ANSWERS

Yes, they do.

No, they don't.

No, she doesn't.

Yes, she does.

Mr. Dawson does.

Yes, they are.

No, they aren't.

No, it isn't.

Yes, it is.

Yes, there is.

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Yes, there are.

B. A short answer has only a subject with the verb be or the auxiliary

verb do. The subject is usually a pronoun.

C. In short answers, there is no contraction in the affirmative form

of be. Examples: Yes, I am. Yes, it is. Yes, they are. Yes,

there is.

D. Read each question and give a short answer.

Examples: Are you going home now?

Yes, I am. or No, I'm not.

Do you live near here?

Yes, I do. or No, I don't.

i. Do the Dawsons live on Thirteenth Street? Yes, ....

2. Do they own their home there?

3. Are they going to move?

4. Are they going to buy a house?

Lesson Fourteen

180

5. Do they prefer to live in the city?

6. Is a suburb often a small town?

7. Is a small town always a suburb?

8. Does Mrs. Dawson have a maid?

9. Does Ann help her mother?

10. Who does the shopping?

11. Who takes care of the yard?

12. Do you live in a big city?

13. Does your house have a yard?

14. Is there a church near your house?

15. Is there a university in your city?

16. Are you learning English now?

17. Do you understand this lesson?

18. Do you like to study?

19. Are you an American?

20. Is Tom an American?

II. Review of the Verb do.

A. Repeat these examples after your teacher.

1. Do the Dawsons live in the city?

Yes, they do. They live in the city now.

Do they own their home?

No, they don't. They don't own their home.

Does Mrs. Dawson have a maid?

No, she doesn't. She doesn't have a maid.

2. What are you doing now?

I'm studying. I'm doing my homework.

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Do you do your exercises in your notebook?

Yes, I do. I always do them in my notebook.

Does Mrs. Dawson do her own housework?

Yes, she does. She does her own housework.

B. In section 1 above, the verb do is an auxiliary verb. It has no

meaning. It is used in questions, in negative statements, and in

short answers.

181 Lesson Fourteen

Do I have to

come?

Do you

go home?

Does he

walk?

Does she

leave?

Do we

help?

Do you

move?

Do they

work?

C. In section 2 above, the verb do is an auxiliary verb and also a

principal verb. As a principal verb, do indicates a general activity,

as in the question What are you doing? Or it is used with words

that indicate work, such as homework, lesson, exercise, house-

work, and shopping.

III. The Expression have to [hsfts].

A. Repeat these examples after your teacher.

QUESTIONS ANSWERS

Yes, you have to come.

No, I don't go home.

No, he doesn't walk.

Yes, she has to leave.

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Yes, you have to help.

No, we don't move.

Yes, they work.

B. Have to + the simple form of another verb indicates necessity.

1. The third person singular form is has to [tuesta].

2. The auxiliary verb do is always used with this expression in a

question and in a negative statement.

C. Two short answers are possible, one with the auxiliary verb do

and one with the expression have to. Examples: Do you have to

leave now? Yes, I do or Yes, I have to; No, I don't or No, I don't

have to.

D. (1) Fill the blanks with the correct form of have to as you read the

following sentences.

Example: I study tonight. I have to study tonight.

1. Those women do their own housework.

2. Mrs. Dawson clean the house every day.

Lesson Fourteen 182

3. Ann help her mother every day.

4. She be at school at eight-thirty.

5. Mr. Dawson eat dinner early today.

6. He cut the grass this evening.

7. He leave the city next week.

8. They get up early tomorrow.

9. They go downtown in the morning.

10. They buy a stove for the new house.

(2) Read the sentences in (1) in the negative.

Example: I study tonight. I don't have to study tonight.

(3) Change the sentences in (1) to questions. Then give short answers,

affirmative and negative, to each question.

Example: I study tonight. Do you have to study tonight?

Yes, I do. or Yes, I have to.

No, I don't. or No, I don't have to.

(4) Give five different answers to this question: What do you have to

do tomorrow?

D7. The Omission of the Definite Article.

>

A. Repeat these sentences after your teacher.

Supermarkets are very interesting. (general)

The supermarket near their house is new. (specific)

I like people. I like young people. (general)

I like the people in my office. (specific)

B. There is no definite article before a noun used in a general sense.

If there is a descriptive adjective before the noun, then the two

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words together have a general meaning.

C. Read the following sentences and indicate the nouns that have a

general meaning.

183 Lesson Fourteen

Example: Do you like to work with people? (people in general)

i. People prefer a house with a lawn and a garden.

2. Maids are very expensive in the United States.

3. American women generally do their own housework.

4. Children usually learn to help their parents.

5. Husbands often help their wives, too.

V. Prepositions: in, on, at, near, far from, for, like. Read each sen-

tence with the preposition indicated.

A. In (a city, a country)

1. Tom is the United States this year.

2. The Dawsons live a big city.

3. They prefer to live the suburbs.

4. Their new house is Belmont.

5. Do you like to live a small town?

B. On (a street)

1. They live Thirteenth Street now.

2. They're going to live Lake Avenue.

C. At (an address)

1. They live 756 Thirteenth Street.

2. They're going to live 91 Lake Avenue.

D. Near or far from? (a place)

1. Belmont is a little town a big city.

2. Their house isn't Ann's high school.

3. There's a new supermarket the house.

E. For (the benefit of)

1. She gets the meals the family.

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2. She washes and irons the clothes them.

Lesson Fourteen 184

F. Like (similar to)

i. A suburb is a small town.

2. Ann is her mother. Bill is his father.

3. Bill is going to be an engineer Tom.

VOCABULARY Do you know these new words and expressions?

because

[bik6z]

Belmont (proper name).

[belmant]

big

[big]

busy

[bfzi]

buy

[bai]

clean

[klin]

clothes

[kloz]

conveniences

[kanvinyansiz]

crowded

[krdudid]

cut

[kat]

electric

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[ilektrik]

expensive. .

[ikspensiv]

for

[for, fo]

grass.

[graes]

help. .

[help]

housework quiet

[hduswark] [kwdrat]

iron refrigerator..

[diarn] [nfrid38retar]

lake (Lake) rent

[lek] [rent]

lawn shop

[Ion] [Sap]

little sometimes. ..

[lft]] [s8mtaimz]

soon...

[sun]

stove. .

[stov]

suburb.

[s6barb]

maid

[med]

meal

[mil]

modern

[madam]

more supermarket

[mor] [suparmarkit]

move town

[muv] [taun]

noisy vacuum cleaner.

[noizi] [vsekyuam klinar]

own wash

[on] [waS]

own washing machine.

[on] [wdSirj ma^in]

prefer (to) why

[prifff] [hwai]

185

Note 1: Verb forms are shown in italics.

Note 2: Clothes is a plural noun. It has no singular form.

Idioms

from city to suburb take care of...

the suburbs have to

a little get a meal

do the shopping

PRONUNCIATION

I. Vowel Sounds.

A. Read these words (1) horizontally and (2) vertically. Imitate your

teacher.

[i] eat

need

meal

people

cleaner

machine

convenience

[1] it

big

Bill

little

prefer

electric

expensive

does

often

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[a] cut

women

quiet

Sunday

sometimes

Note: For the formation of these sounds, see the section on

American English Pronunciation, pp. xx-xxii.

B. Repeat each sentence several times. Imitate your teacher. Use the

same general intonation pattern for each sentence.

1. Is Sunday a quiet day? J

2. Does Bill live in a big city?

3. Does he eat three big meals every day?

4. Does his mother need a vacuum cleaner?

5. Do women often prefer a little kitchen?

6. Is an electric refrigerator expensive?

II. Consonant Sounds.

A. Read these words (1) horizontally and (2) vertically. Imitate your

teacher.

Lesson Fourteen

186

[s] it's likes grass class soQn stove suburb summer

[z] is who's whose clothes busy noisy always husband

[8] with the these those them there other brother

Note: For the formation of these sounds, see the section on

American English Pronunciation, p. xxvi.

B. Repeat each sentence several times. Imitate your teacher. Use the

same general intonation pattern for each sentence.

i. Whose clothes are these? j \ j

2. Helen's husband is always busy. Ni

3. He cuts the grass on Saturdays.

4. He likes the suburbs in the summer.

5. Those boys are sometimes noisy in class.

6. Who's the other boy there with them?

DICTATION (Comprehension, Repetition, and Writing)

A. Close your books and listen. Your teacher will read some sentences,

at normal conversational speed, from the Oral Practice of this lesson.

B. Listen carefully as your teacher reads each sentence again, as in

normal, slow conversation. Repeat each sentence after your teacher,

and then write it.

C. Check your written work as your teacher reads all the sentences once

more, at normal conversational speed.

CONVERSATION

I. Conversation with Your Teacher.

Close your books. Your teacher will ask the following questions for

you to answer. Give two answers whenever possible; in questions

like 2, the first answer may be a short answer.

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i. Where do the Dawsons live in the city?

2. Do they own that house?

187 Lesson Fourteen

3. Where is their new house?

4. When are they going to move?

5. Why do they prefer to live in a suburb?

6. Do the suburbs have many stores?

7. Does Mr. Dawson like to work in the yard?

8. Why is Mrs. Dawson busy every day?

9. What modern conveniences does she have?

10. Where does she like to shop?

11. Does she have to wash and iron every week?

12. Do American men often help their wives?

13. What do you know about maids in the United States?

14. Do you live in a city, a suburb, or a small town?

15. Are there many new houses in the suburbs?

16. Does your house have a big yard? ... a lawn? ... a garden?

17. Who gets the meals for your family?

18. Who does the shopping? Who takes care of the children?

19. Do many people here have maids? (in your country)

20. Do many people own their own homes?

II. Conversation with Other Students.

Use the questions in I above or make original questions. (1) One

student asks a question; a second student answers. (2) The second

student then asks a question, and a third student answers. Continue

around the class in this manner.

COMPOSITION

Choose one of these topics. Be prepared to write a paragraph about it in

class. Use short sentences and the vocabulary that you know.

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1. The Dawsons' New Home 2. Mrs. Dawson's Housework

Lesson Fourteen 188

LESSON FIFTEEN

THE FIFTEENTH LESSON

A Day With Mr. Dawson

15

ORAL PRACTICE

A. What does Mr. Dawson;do?

He's ajbusinessman. He works for an insurance company.

Does he go to work everyjday?

No, hejdoesn't. He works only five days ajweek: Monday,

Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and:Friday.

Doesn't he go to the office on:Saturdays?

No, hejdoesn't. Hejnever goes on Saturdays oriSunjdays.

j , j I _ _ , 1 j

i i .

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189 Lesson Fifteen

How many hours does heiworkjin a day?

He works fromininejin the morning * to five in the afterinobn.

He sometimes works at home in thejevejning, too.

What time does he go to work in the!morning?

He seldom leaves theihouseibefore eight-jtwenjty.

He usually arrives at thejofjfice * at five minutes toiriine.

B. Does Mr. Dawson drive his'car downtown?

r~~->

Yes, heiusually does. But he sometimes takes a|bus.

/gikUM IMI*B|ftQ

Doesn't he ever!walk to the office?

No, hejnever does. He lives veryifar1,from the office.

When does he havejlunch?

His lunch hour is from twelve to jbne.

Does he ever go j home for lunch?

No, he'never does. He has only an j houri for lunch.

Does he ever leave theioffice before five o'clock?

No, hejseljdom does. He usually leaves jafjter five o'clock.

ii

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Lesson Fifteen 190

C. Mr. Dawson works for a big insurance company in the city. He

likes his work. The company sells life insurance, fire insurance, and

automobile insurance. He has to be at work at nine o'clock in the

morning. He always tries to be on time, and he's seldom late.

He gets up at seven, gets dressed, and has his breakfast. He

tries to read the morning paper during breakfast. Then he drives

downtown. He doesn't walk because he lives very far from the office.

He sometimes takes a bus or a streetcar because his wife wants to use

the car during the day.

Mr. Dawson never goes home for lunch. He has to eat down-

town because he has only an hour. Sometimes he needs to talk with

other businessmen, too. His office closes at five, but he seldom leaves

before five-fifteen. Then he goes home and rests a little before dinner.

The family always eat together at six-thirty.

Tom's Impressions

Americans generally work from thirty-five to

forty hours a week. Mr. Dawson doesn't have to work

on Saturdays, but many people do. In the United

States, almost all the single women work; and many married women

do, too. They're often teachers, nurses, librarians, secretaries, or

clerks. Some women are doctors, lawyers, or dentists.

The people generally work hard. Americans are efficient, and

time is important to them. They're very active. They're always

busy and often in a hurry, but they're also very friendly.

191

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Lesson Fifteen

STRUCTURE

I. Negative Questions.

A. Repeat these sentences after your teacher.

QUESTIONS SHORT ANSWERS

Don't they own their own home? No, they don't.

Doesn't he go to work every day? No, he doesn't.

Doesn't Ann help her mother? Yes, she does.

Aren't they going to buy a house? Yes, they are.

Isn't the city often noisy? Yes, it is.

Am I not on time? No, you're not.

B. Negative questions indicate that the speaker anticipates a certain

answer, either affirmative or negative. Sometimes they also indicate

surprise.

C. The negative contraction of be or of the auxiliary verb do precedes

the subject in a negative question. Am I not is an exception

because there is no contraction of am not.

D. Other long forms with not, such as does she not help and are they

not going, are seldom used in conversation.

E. (1) Ask each question in the negative form. Then give one short

answer, affirmative or negative, whichever is true.

Example: Are you going to leave now?

Aren't you going to leave now?

Yes, I am. or No, I'm not.

i. Is Mr. Dawson a businessman?

2. Does he work on Saturdays?

3. Does he go home for lunch?

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4. Are you going home after class?

5. Do you live near here?

Lesson Fifteen 192

6. Are there seven days in a week?

7. Are there thirty-one days in September?

(2) Change each sentence to a negative question. Then give a short

answer, affirmative or negative, that agrees with the statement.

Examples: Ann helps her mother.

Doesn't Ann help her mother? Yes, she does.

Mrs. Dawson doesn't have a maid.

Doesn't Mrs. Dawson have a maid? No, she doesn't.

1. Mr. Dawson doesn't walk to the office.

2. He drives his car downtown.

3. He doesn't take a bus.

4. He doesn't arrive late.

5. He leaves the house before eight-thirty.

6. He doesn't go home for lunch.

7. His lunch hour is from twelve to one.

8. He doesn't leave the office at five.

9. The secretaries leave at five.

10. They don't have two hours for lunch.

11. The Dawsons are living in a suburb now.

12. They don't live on Thirteenth Street.

13. Their home is on Lake Avenue.

14. The house has a big yard.

15. There's a supermarket near the house.

II. Ever, never, and seldom.

A. Repeat these examples after your teacher.

Do (Don't) you ever leave early?

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Yes, I often do. I often leave early.

.. T T , (I never leave early.

No, I never do. j 1 d(m,t ever kave earfy

Does (Doesn't) he ever take a bus?

Yes, he sometimes does. He sometimes takes a bus.

No, he seldom does. He seldom takes a bus.

193 Lesson Fifteen

Is (Isn't) he ever in a hurry?

Yes, he usually is. He's usually in a hurry.

_ _ , ( He's never in a hurry.

No, he never is. j He ^ eyer in a hufry

Are (Aren't) they ever late?

Yes, they always are. They're always late.

No, they seldom are. They're seldom late.

B. EveiLmgang at any time or on any occasion.

i. Ever is used especially in questions. The answer to a question

with ever may be affirmative or negative. A frequency word is

often used in the answer.

2. Ever is also used with not in negative statements, but not in

short answers.

C. Never = not ever. Never and seldom are used only in negative

statements, but without the word not. They are negative words,

and an English sentence has only one negative expression in it.

D. Ever, never, and seldom are frequency words like always, often,

usually, generally, and sometimes.

i. Frequency words precede the principal verb, except the verb

be. They also precede the auxiliary verb in a short answer.

(The word ever is not used in short answers.)

2. They follow the verb be in a complete sentence. They precede

the verb be in a short answer. (The word ever is not used in

short answers.)

3. The words usually, generally, and sometimes may also be

used at the beginning of a sentence for emphasis. Example:

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Sometimes he needs to talk with other businessmen.

Lesson Fifteen 194

E. (1) Use ever in the following questions as you read them. (2) An-

swer in the affirmative and in the negative. Give a short answer

and a long answer, each with a frequency word.

Example: Do you see Mary after class?

Do you ever see Mary after class?

Yes, I often do. I often see her after class.

No, I seldom do. I seldom see her after class.

1. Do you get up early on Sundays?

2. Don't you go to bed early?

3. Do you read the paper before breakfast?

4. Don't you rest a little in the afternoon?

5. Are you busy on Monday evenings?

6. Don't you swim in the summer?

7. Do you sell your old books?

8. Does your brother write to you?

9. Do your friends speak English?

10. Is it cool in the summer?

n. Is Mr. Dawson's secretary late?

12. Does Mrs. Dawson use the car?

13. Doesn't Ann do the shopping?

14. Aren't little children quiet?

15. Are the streetcars crowded?

III. Norms Used as Adjectives.

A. Repeat these expressions after your teacher.

large

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company

company

blackboard

an

insurance

housewife

his

life

insurance

her

housework

his

lunch

hour

the

newspaper(s)

the

morning

paper (s)

the

notebook (s)

the

Dawson

family

the

classroom (s)

the

family

car(s)

his

roommate (s)

195

Lesson Fifteen

B. In English, there are often two nouns together. The first noun is

used as an adjective and is always singular. It describes the

second noun, or the principal noun.

C. In very common expressions, the two nouns become one word, as

in classroom and housework.

D. Use the following words and expressions in complete sentences.

Example: insurance company

Mr. Dawson works for an insurance company.

I.

fire insurance

IO.

telephone book(s)

2.

automobile insurance

ii.

address book(s)

3-

family dinner

12.

bookstore (s)

4-

evening paper (s)

i3-

office work

5-

14.

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vacuum cleaner (s)

office hours

6.

city street (s)

15-

afternoon class (es)

7-

streetcar (s)

16.

state university

8.

weekend (s)

17-

university library

9-

businessman (-men)

18.

graduate student(s)

IV. Verbs Followed by to and Another Verb.

A. Repeat these sentences after your teacher.

They prefer to live in the suburbs.

His wife wants to use the car today.

He always likes to read the morning paper.

He tries to be at the office on time.

He often needs to talk with other businessmen.

We're learning to speak English.

I'm beginning to understand it now.

B. Certain verbs, such as prefer, want, like, try, need, learn, and

begin, are often followed by to and the simple form of another

verb. The second verb with to is the complement of the principal

verb.

Lesson Fifteen 196

C. Two short answers are possible after a question, one with the

auxiliary verb do and one with the principal verb followed by to.

Example: Do they prefer to live in the suburbs?

Yes, they do. or Yes, they prefer to.

D. (1) Change the sentences in A to questions. Then give two short

answers to each question. Follow the example in C above.

(2) Answer the following questions in complete sentences.

Example: What do you try to do every day?

I try to speak English every day.

1. Where do you try to speak English?

2. Where do you prefer to study?

3. When do you prefer to study?

4. Where do you want to go?

5. When do you want to go there?

6. What do you want to do there?

7. Do you like to get up early?

8. What do you like to do on Sundays?

9. Do you ever try to read an English newspaper?

10. Do you need to see your dentist soon?

11. What do you need to buy?

12. What are you learning to do this year?

13. Are you learning to drive a car?

14. Are you beginning to understand English?

15. Do you prefer to live in a city or a small town?

V. Prepositions: from ... to, before, after, during. Read these sen-

tences with the prepositions indicated.

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A. From ... to (time or place)

1. He's moving the city the suburbs.

2. He works nine five.

3. He usually drives his house the office.

4. He takes a bus time time.

197 Lesson Fifteen

B. Before (time)

i. He doesn't leave the house eight-twenty.

2. He works hard lunch.

3. He seldom leaves the office five-fifteen.

C. After (time)

i. Ann sees her friends school.

2. She does her homework dinner.

3. I usually go home this class.

D. During (time)

i. He often reads the paper breakfast.

2. He doesn't use his car the day.

3. His wife rests a little the afternoon.

VOCABULARY Do you know these new words and expressions?

active drive late

[sektiv] [draiv] [let]

all during life

[ol] [dtirin] [laif]

almost efficient married

[olmost] [afiSant] [mend]

arrive (at) ever money

[ardiv] [eva-] [mani]

automobile fire never

[otam6bil] [fair] [nva-]

before generally only

[bif5r] [d3enarali] [6nh]

bus hard paper

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[bas] [hard] [pepar]

car hour seldom

[kar] [aur] [seldam]

close important sell

[kloz] [importnt] [sel]

company insurance single

[kampani] [inurans] [sirjg]]

Lesson Fifteen 198

streetcar tune use

[stritkar] [taim] \yaz]

take together want (to).

[tek] [togeSar] [want]

then try (to) work.. . .

[Sen] [trai] [wark]

Note: Verb forms are shown in italics.

Idioms

What does he do? be at w6rk

go to w6rk on time

five days a week get dressed

from nine to five in a hurry

take a bus

PRONUNCIATION

I. Vowel Sounds.

A. Read these words (1) horizontally and (2) vertically. Imitate your

teacher.

[e] late name maid eight today later paper roommate

[e] let get help friend many letter never generally

[9] bus what Helen seldom money Monday hundred company

Note: For the formation of these sounds, see the section on

American English Pronunciation, pp. xxi-xxii.

B. Repeat each sentence several times. Imitate your teacher. Use the

same general intonation pattern for each sentence.

1. The maid is seldom late. i \

2. Let's read this letter later.

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199 Lesson Fifteen

3. There are many American engineers.

4. Helen generally helps her friends.

5. The bus company has a hundred buses.

6. What's the name of that morning paper?

n. Consonant Sounds.

A. Read these words (1) horizontally and (2) vertically. Imitate your

teacher.

[t] too take time town want dressed twenty breakfast

[d] do day drive need during doctor dinner downtown

[6] the they this that then their other together

Note: For the formation of these sounds, see the section on

American English Pronunciation, pp. xxv-xxvi.

B. Repeat each sentence several times. Imitate your teacher. Use the

same general intonation pattern for each sentence.

1. Do they often drive downtown?

2. Do they have their dinner together?

3. Is that other doctor there today?

4. Does he need his car during the day?

5. Does Tom get dressed before breakfast?

6. Are those twenty-two students always on time?

DICTATION (Comprehension, Repetition, and Writing)

A. Close your books and listen. Your teacher will read some sentences,

at normal conversational speed, from the Oral Practice of this lesson.

B. Listen carefully as your teacher reads each sentence again, as in

normal, slow conversation. Repeat each sentence after your teacher,

and then write it.

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C. Check your written work as your teacher reads all the sentences once

more, at normal conversational speed.

Lesson Fifteen 200

CONVERSATION

I. Conversation with Your Teacher.

Close your books. Your teacher will ask the following questions for

you to answer. Give two answers whenever possible; in questions

like 6, the first answer may be a short answer.

i. What does Mr. Dawson do?

2. What does his company sell?

3. How many days does he work every week?

4. What are his office hours?

5. What time does he leave the house?

6. Does he always drive downtown?

7. Are the buses usually crowded?

8. When does he read the morning paper?

9. Why doesn't he go home for lunch?

10. Do the Dawsons have dinner together?

11. Are Americans often in a hurry?

12. Do they usually try to be on time?

13. Are they generally efficient?

14. How many hours do they work every week?

15. Do many American women work? What do they usually do?

16. Do many women in this country work? (in your country)

17. Do people here have a long lunch hour? (in your country)

II. Conversation with Other Students.

Use the questions in I above or make original questions. (1) One

student asks a question; a second student answers. (2) The second

student then asks a question, and a third student answers. Continue

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around the class in this manner.

COMPOSITION

Choose one of these topics. Be prepared to write a paragraph about it in-

class. Use short sentences and the vocabulary that you know.

1. My Day 2. Mr. Dawson's Work

201 Lesson Fifteen

LESSON SIXTEEN

THE SIXTEENTH LESSON

Review

PRONUNCIATION

I. Consonant Sounds.

A. Read these words (1) horizontally and (2) vertically. Imitate your

teacher.

[h] who how here high Helen hello hurry housework

[1] all call sell life like little single William

[r] car near rent try arrive Friday married refrigerator

Note: For the formation of these sounds, see the section on

American English Pronunciation, pp. xxvii-xxviii.

B. Repeat each sentence several times. Imitate your teacher. Use the

same general intonation pattern for each sentence.

1. Hello, Helen. How are you? j

2. All William's friends call him Bill.

3. Bill's roommate is arriving on Friday.

4. Many people like the life of a small town.

5. Robert wants to sell the old refrigerator.

6. Who's renting the little house near the high school?

H. Review of Sounds and Intonation.

A. Repeat each sentence several times. Imitate your teacher.

B. Copy the sentences in your notebook. Mark the intonation pattern

for each one.

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Lesson Sixteen 202

Examples: Heljlo,: Helen. Are you in ajhurry?

i. Is the eax far from here?

2. Is his secretary ever late?

3. Does she need the money on Monday?

4. Is Robert married? Is Bill single?

5. Do people generally try to be on time?

6. What bus do you take?

7. That businessman is active and efficient.

8. Breakfast is at seven. Get up and get dressed.

9. What's the address of that American university?

10. There are forty-eight states in the United States.

STRUCTURE

I. The Omission of the Definite Article. Read the following sentences

and indicate the nouns that are used in a general sense.

Example: Life is very interesting. (life in general)

1. Friends are important.

2. Are Americans very friendly?

3. Do you like dogs? Do dogs like children?

4. Do graduate students have to study hard?

5. Big cities are often noisy and crowded.

6. Small towns are more quiet and friendly.

7. Do people prefer a house with a garden?

8. Are maids expensive in the United States?

9. American women do their own housework.

10. Do American men help their wives?

11. Children learn to help their parents.

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12. Supermarkets are large and very interesting.

13. Are automobiles expensive?

14. Are streetcars noisy? Are buses more quiet?

15. Are Americans often in a hurry?

16. Yes, time is important to Americans.

203 Lesson Sixteen

17. Work is good for people.

18. People work because they need the money.

19. Americans work from thirty-five to forty hours a week.

20. Life insurance is important to men with families.

II. Possessive Forms.

A. Use the possessive form of each noun in parentheses as you read

these sentences.

Examples: Mr. (Dawson) office is downtown.

Mr. Dawson's office is downtown.

What's the name (his company)?

What's the name of his company?

1. The (Dawsons) new house is in Belmont.

2. What's the name (the street)?

3. Is that a picture (their house)?

4. Mrs. (Dawson) kitchen has many conveniences.

5. Her (husband) sister writes (children) books.

6. Ann is going to (Mary) house for dinner.

7. She wants to drive her (father) car.

8. What's the color (the car)?

9. (Ann) brother goes to the university.

10. Her (brother) roommate is a graduate student.

n. The (boys) classes are very interesting.

12. Where's the library (the university)?

13. What's the number (this lesson)?

14. What's the date (that letter)?

15. Women sometimes shop in a (men) store.

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16. Men don't usually shop in a (women) store.

B. (1) Make five questions with whose. (2) Answer your questions in

complete sentences. Use a possessive noun in each answer.

Example: Whose house is that? It's the Dawsons' (house).

HI. Nouns Used as Adjectives. Read each sentence. Then insert the

noun in parentheses as an adjective and read the sentence again.

Lesson Sixteen 204

Example: Clothes are expensive. (winter)

Winter clothes are expensive.

i. That light isn't very good. (ceiling)

2. They're going to buy a new lamp. (floor)

3. He's sitting at the table. (dining room)

4. He always reads the paper. (morning)

5. What time does the boy come? (paper)

6. She has a good table in the kitchen. (work)

7. She uses a cleaner on the rugs. (vacuum)

8. Don't you have your key with you? (house)

9. What's your number? (telephone)

10. Those windows are very pretty. (store)

11. Do you like those chairs? (garden)

12. Betty has her lessons on Mondays. (piano)

13. Some high schools are very large. (city)

14. Our teacher has a calendar. (desk)

15. Is there a map of the United States? (wall)

16. Do many children take the bus? (school)

17. Tom is a student this year. (graduate)

18. He and Bill have a room together. (corner)

19. Do they go to the university? (state)

20. Do they ever play tennis? (table)

21. Those rooms aren't very large. (hospital)

22. Those nurses go to work at n :oo p.m. (night)

23. How many companies are there? (insurance)

24. Do many people have insurance? (fire)

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IV. Object Pronouns. Read each question, and then answer it in a

complete sentence. In your answers, use object pronouns in place

of the words in italics.

Example: Does Mrs. Dawson drive the car?

Yes, she sometimes drives it.

1. Do you like those people?

2. Does Tom like the university?

3. Does he like his roommate?

205 Lesson Sixteen

4. Where's he spending the weekend?

5. Is he glad to know Ann?

6. Does Bill help Tom with his English?

7. Do the Dawsons own their new home?

8. Do they ever invite the Browns for dinner?

9. When does Mr. Dawson take care of the yard?

10. When does Mrs. Dawson wash the clothes?

11. Do you study your English every day?

12. Who explains the lessons to you (plural)?

13. Do we need to close the windows now?

14. What do your friends call you?

15. Do you often see your dentist?

16. Do you know his daughter?

17. Are you going with me now?

18. Where do you take the bus?

19. Do you often visit your married sister?

20. When are you going to see your uncle?

V. Short Answers. (1) Close your books. Your teacher or one of the

students will ask these questions. (2) Give short answers in the

affirmative or in the negative, whichever is true.

Examples: Is your house near here? Yes, it is. or No, it isn't.

Do you often take a bus? Yes, I do. or No, I don't.

1. Don't the Dawsons have two children?

2. Isn't their daughter's name Ann?

3. Do they call their son William?

4. Is he going to be an engineer?

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5. Does Tom know the Dawsons now?

6. Does he always understand English?

7. Do some people speak very fast?

8. Are Americans often in a hurry?

9. Do they usually want to be on time?

10. Are there many Americans in your country?

n. Doesn't Mr. Dawson sell insurance?

12. Isn't he in his office on Saturday mornings?

13. Does he work only five days a week?

Lesson Sixteen 206

14- Does he go to work at eight o'clock?

15. Does he usually go home for lunch?

16. Do you have a brother (a sister)?

17. Is he (she) learning English, too?

18. Do you ever speak English with your friends?

19. Are you going home after this class?

20. Are you going to be at home this evening?

VI. Going to and have to.

A. (1) Make original questions with the expressions below. Use dif-

ferent subjects. (2) Then give a short answer, affirmative or negative,

and add a long answer.

Examples: going to be ?

Is John going to be here next Saturday?

No, he isn't. He isn't going to be here.

have to work ?

Does he have to work on Saturdays?

Yes, he does. He has to work on Saturdays.

going to shop ? 6

going to drive ? 7

going to invite ? 8

going to arrive ? 9

going to introduce ? 10

have to see ?

have to take ?

have to buy ?

have to move ?

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have to get up ?

B. Read each question and then answer it in a complete sentence.

Examples: When are you going to write to Tom?

I'm going to write to him tomorrow.

What do you have to do tonight?

I have to study tonight.

1. What does Ann have to do every day?

2. When is she going to clean her room?

3. Where are you going to spend this weekend?

4. When are your friends going to visit you?

207 Lesson Sixteen

5. What are they going to call their new dog?

6. Why do you have to leave early today?

7. What time do you have to go?

8. How long are we going to use this book?

9. What do we have to study for tomorrow?

10. How many sentences do we have to write?

VII. Verbs Followed by to and Another Verb.

A. (1) Make two different questions with each expression. Use the two

verbs at the right. (2) Then give a short answer and a long answer

to each question.

come

Example: Do you like to ... ?

Do you like to come to class early?

Yes, I do. I like to come to class early.

Do you like to shop on Saturdays?

No, I don't. I don't like to shop on Saturdays

shop

Does Ann like to ... ?

Do you want to ... ?

Do they prefer to ... ?

Do we need to ... ?

Is she learning to ... ?

Is he trying to ... ?

Are you beginning to . .

help

sell

repeat

take

invite

close

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arrive

practice

drive

pronounce

sleep

listen to

write

understand

B. Read each question and then answer it in a complete sentence.

Example: When do you want to go downtown?

I want to go downtown tomorrow morning.

1. Where do the Dawsons prefer to live?

2. Why does Mr. Dawson need to cut the grass?

3. When does he try to read the morning paper?

4. What time does he begin to work every day?

5. Where are you learning to speak English?

6. Why do you want to know English?

7. What do you like to do in the evening?

Lesson Sixteen

208

VIII. Word Order. Arrange each group of words in the correct order

and read the sentence. Questions are indicated by a question mark (?)

below the words.

i. notebook

2. are

3. the

4. what's

is

friends

what's

number

this

why

address

their

whose

important

Dawsons'

telephone

5. Bill

6. is

8. his

call

at

her

helps

why

busy

day

too

they

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7. a

Mrs. Dawson

helps

sometimes

William

home

little

wife

do

very

Ann

Mr. Dawson

generally

every

9. for

10. in

11. the

12. many

go

have

he

state

he

evening

on

has

lunch

always

to

graduate

ever

together

goes

that

Examples: Where are you ?

Where are you from? I'm from ....

Do you live here?

Do you live near here? Yes, I live near here.

(No, I don't live near here. I live far from here.)

vU

i. Who's the girl that picture?

2. Does she go^- high school?

3. Does she live^ ner parents?

4. Is her brother the university?r\vft-

5. Is he going to be a businessman his father?

6. Is he glad''**- have a roommate ?w\a*-

7. Where does his roommate comeT- ?

8. Is his name hard'i*- pronounce English?

9. Does he write his family every day?

10. Does he write his impressions the United States?

n. Does he see the Dawsons time time?

12. Are there many students the United States

other countries?

13. Do the Dawsons live a suburb now?

14. Do they live Lake Avenue?

15. Do they live 91 Lake Avenue?

16. Do they like a house a big yard?

17. Who does the shopping the family?

18. Does she usually shop the supermarket?

19. Is it their house or it?

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20. Who sometimes goes her?

21. Does Mr. Dawson work the telephone company?

22. When does he go work the morning?

23. Does he drive his house the office?

24. What time does he arrive the office?

25. Does he always try be time?

26. Does he usually go home lunch?

27. Does he need his car the day?

28. Does he leave the office five or five?

29. Does he have dinner eight o'clock?

30. When does he take care the yard?

31. Do you generally go home this class?

about

after

at

before

during

far from

for

from

in

like

near

of

on

to

with

Lesson Sixteen

210

CONVERSATION

One student asks a question; a second student answers. The second

student then asks a question, and a third student answers. Continue

around the class in this manner. Give two answers whenever possible.

i. Who's Robert? . . . Helen? . . . Ann? . . . BiU? . . . Tom?

2. What's the Dawsons' old address? What's their new address?

3. Where's Tom living now? Where's he from?

4. What are Bill and Tom studying?

5. Does Ann go to the university, too?

6. Why does Tom like the Dawsons?

7. Where are you from? What city do you come from?

8. Do you know an American? Do you generally speak English

with him (her)?

9. How long are you going to study English?

10. What are you going to do next weekend?

11. Do you like to live in a big city or a small town?

12. Where are people usually more friendly?

13. Are many people moving to the suburbs now?

14. Does Mrs. Dawson work hard at home?

15. Do the women here do their own housework? (in your country)

16. Who takes care of the children?

17. What does Mr. Dawson do?

18. When does he go to work?

19. Why are Americans often in a hurry?

20. Do they generally have a short lunch hour?

ORAL COMPOSITION

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Choose three topics from the list below. Be prepared to talk in class for

two minutes about any one of your three topics.

1. The Dawson Family 5. My Day

2. Bill's Roommate 6. I Like My Work

3. An American Friend 7. The Dawsons Are Moving

4. Next Weekend 8. An American Housewife

211 Lesson Sixteen

17

LESSON SEVENTEEN

THE SEVENTEENTH LESSON

Three Meals A Day

ORAL PRACTICE

A. Can Mrs. Dawsonicook?

Yes, sheican. She's ajgoodjcook.

\_ i

Can she make pies andjcakes?

Yes, sheican. She can make|wonderful pies and cakes. - J \_ - !

Can she get breakfast in a j hurry?

Yes, sheican. She can get it in ten [minutes.

>__ i -.

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Lesson Seventeen 212

Can she sleepjlate in the morning?

No, shejcan't. She has to get upjearjly.

B. It's Friday morning. Mrs. Dawson is very sleepy, but she's

getting breakfast now. There's a small table in one corner of the

kitchen. The Dawsons always eat their breakfast there.

Mrs. D.: Rolbert? Ann? It's seven-jthirjty. Breakfast is'reajdy.

Mr. D.: Yes, we're [coming. \AsV

Ann: Mother, where's mylEnglish book? I can'tjfindiit.

1 -. i- 1 , ._ j J

II

Mrs. D.:\ don't | know,; dear, but you can find it after j breakfast.

Please jcome inow. ^V/f^r\

Mr. I).: What can lido,'Helen? Is thelcoffee ready? q ^.

Mrs. D.: Yes, you canjpouriit now. Ann, please make some!toast.

The bread and butter are on theitajble. V ..'r

Ann: How much toast do wejwant? ^^^^^LJ)

Mrs. D.: We can eat five or six ipieces. f J /& ]

Mr. D.: This isjwonderfuljorange juice. 0-r>

Mrs. D.: Yes, the oranges arejgoodjnow, but they're exjpensive.

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213 Letton Seventeen

Mr. D.: How much j are jthey?

i _..

Mrs. D.: Small oranges are j six j for twenty-nine j cents. And there

isn't much other fruit injseason.

,I

,,- ' , - |

r"\

Ann: Who's ready for a piece of jtoast?

Mr. D.: I

am. I like it with myj'eggs. Do we have anyjcream?

Mrs. D.: I'mjsoriry, dear, but there i isn't any cream this morning.

Can you drink your coffee jblack today? -F~h

Mr. D.: Yes, I jeanwith some: sugar in it.

Mrs. D.: You're not drinking yourjmilk,

Ann.

Ann: But I'migojing to. Mother, whyjdo we have eggs every day?

"lid

Mrs. D.: Don't youjlike them?

Ann: Yes, lido. But I likejcereal, too.

...J \ . L ' \

Mr. D.: And|I;like|pan|cakes.

--1 j ;

Mrs. D.: All j right. We can have some cereal tojmorirow *and some

pancakes oniSuniday.

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Note: The short form I'm going to means I'm going to drink it.

Lesson Seventeen 214

C. Mr. Dawson's lunch hour is from twelve to one. He can't go

home for lunch because he doesn't have much time. He goes to a res-

taurant or a cafeteria near the office. He usually goes with one or

two friends. What does he have for lunch? He often has some soup,

a sandwich or a hamburger, and a piece of pie or some ice cream.

He drinks a cup of coffee or a glass of milk with his lunch. Does he

drink water, too? Yes, he often drinks a glass of water because he's

thirsty. How much is his lunch? It's usually ninety cents or a dollar.

D. Mrs. Dawson always gets dinner for the family at night. They're

often tired and hungry. They usually have some meat or fish, two

vegetables, a salad, and a dessert. Ann drinks milk; Mr. and Mrs.

Dawson drink coffee. There's always some water on the table, too.

Tom's Impressions

The Dawsons eat three meals a day. They have

breakfast in the morning, a light lunch at noon, and a

big dinner at night. They often eat breakfast and

lunch in a hurry, but they have more time for dinner. Americans

drink a lot of water, a lot of milk, and a lot of coffee, but they don't

drink much tea. Yes, I like American food very much now, including

the pancakes, the sandwiches, the hamburgers, the salads, the apple

pie, and the wonderful ice cream.

Some Americans like to eat in a cafeteria. They can go there

for breakfast, lunch, or dinner. A person takes a tray with a knife,

a fork, a spoon, and a napkin. Then he walks in line in front of a

long counter. He can see all the food there in front of him. He

chooses his meal and puts it on his tray. Then he pays for it and

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carries his tray to a table. I like this self-service, and the meals aren't

very expensive in a cafeteria.

TRTTU

215

Lesson Seventeen

STRUCTURE

I. The Auxiliary Verb can.

A. Repeat these sentences after your teacher.

STATEMENTS

I (We) can swim. I (We) can't swim.

[kan] [kaent]

You can sing. You can't sing.

He can find it. He can't find it.

She can cook. She can't cook.

They can help us. They can't help us.

QUESTIONS SHORT ANSWERS

Can I (we) speak English? Yes, you can. No, you can't.

[kaen] [kaen] [ksent]

Can't you understand it? Yes, I can. No, I can't.

Can he play tennis? Yes, he can. No, he can't.

Can't she come with us? Yes, she can. No, she can't.

Can they sleep late? Yes, they can. No, they can't.

B. The word can indicates mental or physical ability. It means

know how to or be able to.

C. Can is an auxiliary verb like do or does. It is used in all persons

with the simple form of the principal verb (sfv).

i. Can precedes the subject in a question. It precedes the prin-

cipal verb in affirmative and negative statements.

2. The negative form is cannot or the contraction can't.

D. A short answer has only a subject with the word can or can't.

E. (1) Answer these questions in complete sentences, affirmative and then

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negative.

Example: Can you come early? Yes, I can come early.

No, I can't come early.

Lesson Seventeen 216

i. Can you see the blackboard? 6. Can you go with us?

2. Can you understand me? 7. Can you leave now?

3. Can those children read? 8. Can we take this bus?

4. Can Tom speak English? 9. Can we eat there?

5. Can he drive a car? 10. Can we swim there?

(2) Change these statements to questions. Then give a short answer,

affirmative or negative, that agrees with the statement.

Examples: You can swim. Can you swim? Yes, I can.

You can't swim. Can't you swim? No, I can't.

1. The girls can make good cakes.

2. The boys can play football.

3. Betty can play the piano.

4. Ann can walk to school every day.

5. Bill can get dressed in a hurry.

6. You can't see the map very well.

7. Mary can't find her notebook.

8. Tom can't go with us tomorrow.

9. He can't read that French.

10. They can't help us today.

(3) Answer these questions in complete sentences.

Example: Who can answer these questions?

I can answer these questions.

1. Who can make good pies and cakes?

2. Who can get breakfast in a hurry?

3. How many eggs can you eat for breakfast?

4. Who can't find her English book?

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5. Who can't come to class tomorrow?

6. Who can't sleep late in the morning?

7. Why can't she sleep in the morning?

8. When can you go downtown?

9. Where can we have lunch?

10. What can I do for you?

217 Lesson Seventeen

II. Count Nouns and Mass Nouns.

A. Repeat these examples after your teacher.

i. Count Nouns

the student(s) (one) a student (two) students

the meal(s) (one) a meal (three) meals

the sandwich (es) (one) a sandwich (four) sandwiches

2. Mass Nouns

the bread (one) a piece of bread (two) pieces of bread

the milk (one) a glass of milk (three) glasses of milk

the coffee (one) a cup of coffee (four) cups of coffee

B. Count nouns refer to people or objects that can be counted. They

have a singular and a plural form. Examples: student, students;

sandwich, sandwiches.

i. There can be a definite article, an indefinite article, or a number

before a count noun.

2. The word one is used only to emphasize the idea of number.

Otherwise, the indefinite article a or an is generally used.

Example: a student; but one student, not two students.

C. Mass nouns refer to objects that can be measured or weighed, but

not counted. They have only a singular form. Examples: bread,

milk, coffee.

i. There can be a definite article before a mass noun, but no

indefinite article or number.

2. To indicate quantity with a mass noun, there are many ex-

pressions, such as a piece of, a glass of, a cup of, one piece of,

two glasses of, three cups of.

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D. Some mass nouns are also count nouns, but the meaning is different

then. Examples: a pie, two pies, but a piece of pie; a cake, two

cakes, but a piece of cake; a paper, two papers, but a piece of

paper.

Lesson Seventeen 218

E. Repeat the question with each mass noun and one of the expressions

of quantity. Answer with Yes, please or No, thank you.

Example: bread Do you want a piece of bread?

Yes, please. or No, thank you.

[ a piece of

Do you want a glass of

(a cup of

III. Some and any.

i. meat

2. water

3. tea

4. toast

5. cake

6. milk

7. pie

8. butter

9. coffee

10. orange juice

A. Repeat these sentences after your teacher.

QUESTIONS

Is there any cream?

Do we have some sugar?

ANSWERS

Yes, there's some (cream).

No, there isn't any (cream).

Yes, we have some (sugar).

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No, we don't have any (sugar).

Doesn't he want any pancakes? Yes, he wants some (pancakes).

No, he doesn't want any.

Don't you want some eggs? Yes, I want some (eggs).

No, I don't want any (eggs).

B. In the sentences above, the words some and any indicate an in-

definite quantity. They are used before singular mass nouns or

plural count nouns.

1. Some is used in questions and affirmative statements.

2. Any is used in questions and negative statements.

C. These words may be omitted without changing the meaning of

the sentence. Examples: Do we have sugar? Yes, we have

sugar. No, we don't have sugar.

219

Lesson Seventeen

D. In the answer to a question, some and any are often used alone

without the mass or count noun. Examples: Do we have any

cream? Yes, we have some. No, we don't have any.

E. Fill the blanks with some or any as you read these sentences.

Examples: There's water on the table.

There's some water on the table.

There isn't water on the table.

There isn't any water on the table.

i. We can have eggs for breakfast.

2. We don't have cereal.

3. We can have pancakes tomorrow.

4. Is there cream for the coffee?

5. No, there isn't this morning.

6. There's bread on the table.

7. Is there butter on the table?

8. The children want hamburgers for lunch.

9. Mrs. Dawson is making soup.

10. Isn't she going to make dessert?

11. No, she isn't going to make .

12. She has ice cream for dessert.

13. She has to buy vegetables for dinner.

14. She doesn't have to buy meat.

15. She's going to cook fish.

16. Don't you want salad?

17. No, I don't want salad.

18. Are there restaurants in the suburbs?

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19. Yes, there are good restaurants.

20. But there aren't cafeterias.

Note: The words salad, dessert, and fish are both mass nouns and

count nouns. The plural of the count noun fish is also fish.

IV. Much, many, and a lot of.

A. Repeat these examples after your teacher.

Lesson Seventeen 220

Does (Doesn't) he have much time?

Yes, he has a lot of time.

No, he doesn't have much time.

or Yes, he has a lot.

or No, he doesn't have much.

Do (Don't) you write many letters?

' Yes, I write many letters. or Yes, I write many.

Yes, I write a lot of letters. or Yes, I write a lot.

No, I don't write many letters. or No, I don't write many.

B. Much, many, and a lot of indicate a large quantity.

i. Much is used with singular mass nouns. It is used in questions

and negative statements, but rarely in affirmative statements.

2. Many is used with plural count nouns. It is used in questions

and statements, affirmative and negative.

3. A lot of is used with singular mass nouns and plural count

nouns. It is used especially in affirmative statements.

C. In the answer to a question, these words are often used alone, as

shown by the examples at the right in A.

D. (1) Read each group of questions with the word indicated. (2) Then

answer the questions in the affirmative and in the negative. Follow

the examples in A above.

much

1. Does she buy meat?

2. Do they eat ice cream?

3. Do you drink coffee?

4. Do you use sugar in it?

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5. Don't they drink tea?

6. Does she do housework?

7. Does he sell insurance?

8. Do they have money?

9. Is there paper there?

10. Isn't there chalk?

many

1. Do you eat vegetables?

2. Doesn't she buy eggs?

3. Does he eat hamburgers?

4. Do they have sandwiches?

5. Does she make pies?

6. Aren't there students?

7. Do they ask questions?

8. Do you read books?

9. Do you meet people?

10. Do you know Americans?

221

Lesson Seventeen

V. How much and how many.

A. Repeat these sentences after your teacher.

i. How much water do you drink every day?

I drink a lot of water. or I drink a lot.

I drink six glasses of water. or I drink six glasses.

I don't drink much water. or I don't drink much.

I don't drink any water. or I don't drink any.

2. How many restaurants are there on that street?

There are many restaurants. or There are many.

There are several restaurants. or There are several.

There are a lot of restaurants. or There are a lot.

There are five restaurants. or There are five.

There aren't many restaurants. or There aren't many.

There aren't any restaurants. or There aren't any.

3. How much is that apple?

It's five cents. ($.05)

How much are those oranges?

They're six for twenty-nine cents. ($.29)

How much is Mr. Dawson's lunch every day?

It's usually ninety cents or a dollar. ($.90 or $1.00)

B. In sections 1 and 2, how much and how many are used in questions

that refer to quantity. How much is used before a singular mass

noun. How many is used before a plural count noun.

C. Several answers are often possible. They may be long, complete

answers or short answers like those at the right in sections 1 and 2.

D. In section 3, how much is used with the verb be in questions that

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refer to price. Examples: How much is it? How much are they?

E. (1) Fill the blank with how much or how many as you read each

question. Then give a long answer or a short answer.

Example: time does he have for lunch?

How much time does he have for lunch?

He has an hour for lunch. or He has an hour.

Lesson Seventeen 222

io

ii

12

13

14

15

16

I?

l8

IQ

20

meals do you have every day?

milk does Ann drink every day?

glasses of milk do you drink?

coffee do Americans drink?

cups of coffee do you drink every day?

tea do Americans drink?

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cups of tea do you drink in a week?

eggs does Mrs. Dawson use in a week?

sugar does she need for a cake?

pieces of cake can you eat for lunch?

hamburgers can Bill eat?

toast does he usually eat for breakfast?

cars do the Dawsons have?

people do they know in the city?

shopping does Mr. Dawson do?

hours does he work every day?

hours are there in a day?

papers does Mr. Dawson read every day?

paper is there on the desk?

time do we have for our class?

(2) Answer these questions in complete sentences. Use the American

prices as given.

Example: How much is soup? ($.15 or $.20)

It's fifteen or twenty cents.

1. How much is a cup of coffee? ($.10 or $.15)

2. How much is a glass of milk? ($.10 or $.15)

3. How much are hamburgers? ($.35 or $.40)

4. How much are meat sandwiches? ($.50 or $.60)

5. How much is a fruit salad? ($.40 or $.50)

6. How much is a piece of cake? ($.20 or $.25)

7. How much is a lunch at that restaurant? ($1.00)

8. How much is a dinner there? ($2.00 or $3.00)

VI. Prepositions: inj at, for. Read each sentence with the preposition

indicated.

223 Lesson Seventeen

A. In (time)

i. They have a good breakfast the morning.

2. Mrs. Dawson can get it ten minutes.

3. They often eat it a hurry.

B. At (time)

1. They have a light lunch noon.

2. They always have dinner together night.

C. For (purpose)

1. Are you ready breakfast?

2. The bread the toast is on the table.

3. Who's ready a piece of toast?

4. Is there some cream the coffee?

5. Mr. Dawson can't go home lunch.

6. What does he usually have lunch?

7. What do you want dinner?

8. We have some cake dessert.

VOCABULARY Do you know these new words and expressions?

a lot of cent cup

[9 lat av] [sent] [kap]

any cereal dear

[em] [sfrral] [dir]

bread choose dessert

[bred] [t$uz] [dizaH]

butter coffee dollar

[bSta-] [k5fi] [date]

cafeteria cook drink

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[karfatfra] [kuk] [drirjk]

cake cook egg

[kek] [kuk] [eg]

can (auxiliary) counter find

[kaen, kan] [kduntar] [fjaind]

carry cream fish (pi. fish)

[ken] [krim] [fi$]

Lesson Seventeen 224

food meat sandwich

[fud] [mit] [ssen(d)witS]

fork milk some

[fork] [milk] [sam]

fruit much soup

[frut] [matS] [sup]

glass napkin spoon

[glaes] [naepkin] [spun]

hamburger pancake sugar

[luembargar] [psenkek] [Sugar]

ice cream pay (for) tea

[aiskrim] [pe] [ti]

including person tired

[inkhidin] [p&sn] [taird]

in front of pie toast

[in frant av] [pai] [tost]

juice pour tray

[d3us] [par] [tre]

knife (pi. knives) put vegetable

[naif] [naivz] [put] [vd3tab]]

light ready water

[kut] [rdi] [w6tar]

line restaurant wonderful

[lain] [rstarant] [wa'nda*fal]

make salad

[mek] [sselad]

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Note: Verb forms are shown in italics.

Idioms

three meals a day in season

get breakfast be s6rry

be sleepy All right

how much? be thirsty

How much is it? at night

225 Lesson Seventeen

be hungry in line

at noon self-service

PRONUNCIATION

I. Vowel Sounds.

A. Read these words (1) horizontally and (2) vertically. Imitate your

teacher.

[e] egg any bread carry ready breakfast vegetable

[ae] have can't salad napkin pancake sandwich Saturday

[a] cup much some front butter hungry wonderful

Note: For the formation of these sounds, see the section on

American English Pronunciation, pp. xxi-xxii.

B. Repeat each sentence several times. Imitate your teacher. Use the

same general intonation pattern for each sentence.

rr

1. Breakfast is ready, and Ann is hungry

2. Many men like pancakes for breakfast.

3. There isn't much for lunch today.

4. We can have some salad and a sandwich.

5. We can't have any eggs. There aren't any.

6. The bread and butter are in front of you.

II. Consonant Sounds.

A. Read these words (1) horizontally and (2) vertically. Imitate your

teacher.

[p] pie put pay pour piece soup spoon person

[b] buy book black bread butter table about hamburger

[k] cake cook make milk drink cream coffee cafeteria

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[g] g good girl egg big glass grass together

Lesson Seventeen 226

Note: For the formation of these sounds, see the section on

American English Pronunciation, p. xxv.

B. Repeat each sentence several times. Imitate your teacher. Use the

same general intonation pattern for each sentence.

i. Can we go to a good cafeteria?

2. Can I buy a big piece of pie there?

3. Can't you drink a cup of coffee now?

4. Does a good cook use a cook book?

5. Do little boys like big hamburgers?

6. Are big glasses of milk good for little girls?

DICTATION (Comprehension, Repetition, and Writing)

A. Close your books and listen. Your teacher will read some sentences,

at normal conversational speed, from the Oral Practice of this lesson.

B. Listen carefully as your teacher reads each sentence again, as in

normal, slow conversation. Repeat each sentence after your teacher,

and then write it.

C. Check your written work as your teacher reads all the sentences once

more, at normal conversational speed.

CONVERSATION

I. Conversation with Your Teacher.

Close your books. Your teacher will ask the following questions for

you to answer. Give two answers whenever possible.

1. What time do the Dawsons have breakfast?

2. Where do they always eat it?

3. What do they often have for breakfast?

4. Who makes the coffee? . . . the toast?

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5. Does Mr. Dawson like cream in his coffee?

227 Lesson Seventeen

6. Where does he go for lunch?

7. What time does he have lunch?

8. What do the Dawsons eat for dinner?

9. Why do they have their big meal at night?

10. Why do some Americans like to eat in cafeterias?

11. Do you have three meals a day?

12. Do you eat all your meals at home?

13. What time do you have breakfast?

14. Do you eat much for breakfast?

15. Are you sometimes sleepy in the morning?

16. When can you sleep late?

17. When do you have dinner, at noon or at night?

18. Do you like to eat at a restaurant?

19. What are the names of some restaurants here?

20. Are there any cafeterias here? (in your country)

21. Do you drink much coffee? . . . tea? . . . milk?

22. Do you like eggs? . . . meat? . . . vegetables? . . . fruit?

23. Can you cook? Are you a good cook?

24. What can you make? (tea, coffee, pies, cakes, bread, toast,

soup, pancakes, sandwiches, salads, desserts, ice cream)

II. Conversation with Other Students.

Use the questions in I above or make original questions. (1) One

student asks a question; a second student answers. (2) The second

student then asks a question, and a third student answers. Continue

around the class in this manner.

COMPOSITION

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Choose one of these topics. Be prepared to write two paragraphs about

it in class. Use short sentences and the vocabulary that you know. Your

teacher will give you some new words, if necessary.

1. Breakfast with the Dawsons 2. The Meals in My Country

Lesson Seventeen 228

THE EIG

ESSON EIGHTEEN 1 V

HTEENTH LESSON 1 U

School Days

** *,

rfr

s>J+

ORAL PRACTICE

A. Tom is talking with Ann about her school work. He wants to

know more about American schools.

Tom: Whatisubjects are you taking this semester?

i .__ .

r,_,|,

Ann: I'm taking English, Spanish, chemisjtry, and'government. Next

r1||

semester * I'm going to take economics in place of 'government.

Tom: Which classes do you have in the'morning?

Arm: I have English andjchemistry, and then ajstudy period.

229

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Lesson Eighteen

Tom: When do you have Spanish andlgoyernment?

Ann: Those classes come after Hunch.

V...

i,-~\

Tom: Where do youieatiyour lunch?

i . .......

Ann: Usually at;home. Sometimes I eat in the cafeiteria at. school.

. _- ! \ ... i i -j V

V V

r ... _*

Tom: Do you have those j same classes every day?

Ann: Yes. And the last hour in the afternoon, from two-thirty to

three-jthirty, I also havejgym;twice a week, orchestra twice a

week, and chorus on Fridays. j J

Tom: Don't you have any classes on I Saturdays?

Ann: No, there isn't any i school ion Saturdays.

Tom: Do you have to'study much in high school?

Ann: Yes, wefdo. We have a long asjsignjment for everyiclass.

Tom: Are you going to study tojnight?

Ann: No, this isjFrijday. Iinever study onjFrijday nights.

Tom: Good! . Do you want to go to a j movie tonight?

Ann: Yes, Fdjlikejto. Thankjyou for the invijtation.

LL

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Lesson Eighteen 230

B. Were youjlate for school yesterday?

No, IJwasn't. I was onjtime.

Was your (English test hard?

Yes, ittwas. It wastvejy hard.

\-. I

Was [Mary in school yesterday?

No, shejwa&n't. She wasjabjsent

Was George in the|lbrary after school?

No, bejwasn't. He was in thejlaboratory.

Were the other boys in the audijtorram?

No, they (weren't. They were in the gymjnasium

C. Was there ajnew student in class yesterday?

Yes, theretwas. His name was Dick|Wheeler.

r------ ______ *

Was there a meeting of the]Spanish Club last week?

No, therejwasn't. The meeting isfthisjweek.

ii

Was there a P.T.iA. meeting last night?

Yes, there jwas. It was in the auditorium.

*<*

231

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Lesson Eighteen

Wasn't there ajdance at school last Saturday?

Yes, there was a dance in the gyminasium.

i.

Were there manyistudents at the dance?

Yes, there were ailbt, but there weren't manyiteachers.

D. Where were all thejstuidents * at 8:30 yesterday i morning?

L...

They were in the audiitofium. There was an asisemibly.

-- ' ! ' I

i1

Where was i Ann * at 4:00 o'clock yesterday afterjnobn?

She was in the:chemistry lab. Georgeiwas there, tob.

1 . \__

Where was George at 7:30 lastiriight?

He was in the gyminasium. He was at aibasketball game.

1i

Where were Mr. and Mrs.iDawison last evening?

Ikfi

They were atischool. They were at the P.T.iA.imeeting.

E. Last year Ann was a junior. It was her third year in high school.

Her subjects were English, Spanish, history, and mathematics. There

were many school activities, too. There was an assembly almost

every week, and there were several school dances during the year.

There were football games in the fall, basketball games in the winter,

and baseball games in the spring. Ann was in the school orchestra

and also in the Spanish Chib.

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Lesson Eighteen 232

This year Ann is a senior. It's her last year in high school, and

she's going to graduate in June. It doesn't seem possible! One year

in kindergarten, six years in elementary school, two years in junior

high school, and four years in high school! Now she's taking English,

Spanish, chemistry, and government. She also plays in the orchestra,

sings in the chorus, and writes for the school paper. She wants to be

in the senior play, too. The senior year is always a busy year.

Tom's Impressions

American schools begin in September after a long

summer vacation. There are two semesters in a school

yearj the first semester is from September to January,

and the second semester is from February to June. The majority of

American children go to public schools. There are good public schools

in every part of the country, and they're free from kindergarten

through high school.

High school students take only four or five subjects at a time.

They usually go to the same classes every day, and they have an

assignment for every class. They often have one or two study periods

in school, but they have to study at home, too. They also enjoy

many school activities during the year, including band, orchestra,

chorus, clubs, games, assemblies, plays, and dances.

After high school, many students go to college. They can choose

a small school or a large school, in their own state or in another.

They generally have to pay for a college education. But there are

some scholarships for good students, and many college students work

233

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part time because they need the money for their education.

Lesson Eighteen

STRUCTURE

I. The Past Tense of be.

A. Repeat these sentences after your teacher.

STATEMENTS

Ann is in class today.

She was absent yesterday.

She wasn't here yesterday.

(was not)

QUESTIONS

Were you early yesterday

Was I late

[ he absent

Was I she happy

| it warm

you tired

Were \ we quiet

they busy

They are on time today.

They were late yesterday.

They weren't on time yesterday,

(were not)

SHORT ANSWERS

Yes, I was.

Yes, you were.

Yes, he

Yes, she \ was.

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Yes, it

Yes, we

No, I wasn't.

No, you weren't.

No, he

No, she \ wasn't.

No, it

No, we

Yes, you I were. No, you \ weren't.

Yes, they

No, they

B. The past tense of be has two forms, was [waz] and were [war].

The negative forms are was not or wasn't [waznt] and were not

or weren't [want].

C. The word order for the past tense of be is the same as for the

present tense.

D. A short answer has only a subject with a form of the verb be.

E. (i) Fill the blanks with was or were as you read these sentences.

Example: I busy yesterday. you busy? Yes, I .

I was busy yesterday. Were you busy? Yes, I was.

i. I n't in class yesterday. you there? Yes, I .

2. Those lessons easy. the test easy? Yes, it .

Lesson Eighteen

234

3. The teacher n't late. the students happy? Yes, they .

4. The students n't late. the teacher happy? Yes, she ..

5. The men on time. the women on time? Yes, they .

6. Bill tired yesterday. Tom tired, too? Yes, he -.

7. We sleepy after lunch. you sleepy, too? Yes, we .

8. That restaurant quiet. it expensive? Yes, it .

9. Our dinner late. the children hungry? Yes, they .

10. It hot yesterday. you at home? Yes, we .

(2) Read these sentences with the past tense of be. Use the affirma-

tive form except in the short answers.

Example: Where you at noon yesterday? you at home?

No, I . I downtown for lunch.

Where were you at noon yesterday? Were you at home?

No, I wasn't. I was downtown for lunch.

1. Where Mary yesterday? - she in school?

No, she . She absent.

2. Where those boys at 4:00 o'clock? they in the office?

No, they . They in the gymnasium.

3. Where George at 4:00? he in the gym, too?

No, he . He in the laboratory.

4. Where the teachers at 4:00? they in their classrooms?

No, they . They at a teachers' meeting.

5. Where the meeting? it in the auditorium?

No, it . It in the library.

II. There was and there were.

A. Repeat these examples after your teacher.

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STATEMENTS

There is a meeting today. There are some classes today.

There was yesterday. There were yesterday.

There wasn't yesterday. There weren't any yesterday.

235 Lesson Eighteen

QUESTIONS

Is there a test today?

Was there yesterday?

Are there many absent?

Were there many absent?

SHORT ANSWERS

Yes, there is.

Yes, there was.

No, there isn't.

No, there wasn't.

Yes, there are. No, there aren't.

Yes, there were. No, there weren't.

B. The expressions there was and there were are used in the past the

same as there is and there are are used in the present.

C. Fill each blank with was there or were there as you read these

questions. Then give a short answer in the affirmative or the nega-

tive, as indicated.

Example: a game yesterday?

Was there a game yesterday?

io

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a dance at school on Saturday?

many people at the dance?

a good orchestra?

an assembly yesterday?

any classes during the assembly?

many students absent?

a P.T.A. meeting yesterday?

many parents at the meeting?

any students there?

some coffee after the meeting?

No,.

No, there wasn't.

Yes, .

No, .

No, .

Yes, .

No, .

Yes, .

Yes, .

Yes, .

No, .

No, .

HI. Expressions of Past Time.

A. Repeat these sentences after your teacher.

I was busy

yesterday.

yesterday morning.

yesterday afternoon.

yesterday evening.

last evening.

last night.

They were busy

last week.

last weekend.

last Sunday

last month.

last summer.

last year.

Lesson Eighteen

236

She has gym the last hour in the afternoon.

Saturday is the last day in the week.

This is the last week in the month.

Today is the last Sunday in the month.

December is the last month in the year.

B. Expressions of definite time usually come last in a sentence.

For special emphasis, however, they may come first. Example:

I was busy yesterday. or Yesterday I was busy.

C. The word last is used with or without the definite article.

i. It is used with the article to indicate order in a series.

Example: the last week in the month (not the first week).

2. It is used without the article in an expression of past time

related to the present. Example: last week (not this week).

3. The expression last night is used more frequently than last

evening or yesterday evening.

D. Time expressions with this usually indicate present time, as in

I'm busy this morning (now). However, it is possible to say:

(in the afternoon) I was busy this morning.

(in the evening) I was busy this afternoon.

(at 10:00 p.m.) I was busy this evening.

E. (1) Answer these questions in the affirmative or in the negative.

Give a short answer and then a long, complete answer.

Example: Were you in class last Monday?

Yes, I was. I was in class last Monday.

or No, I wasn't. I wasn't in class last Monday.

1. Were you at home yesterday?

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2. Was Mr. Dawson in the office yesterday morning?

3. Was George in the laboratory yesterday afternoon?

4. Were your friends busy last evening?

5. Was there a P.T.A. meeting last night?

237 Lesson Eighteen

6. Was there a Spanish Club meeting last week?

7. Was there a school dance last Saturday?

8. Were the children in school last summer?

9. Was it cold here last month?

10. Was Tom in the United States last year?

(2) Answer these questions in complete sentences. Try to use a

different time expression in each answer.

Example: When was the dance? It was last Saturday.

1. When were you downtown?

2. When were you at church?

3. When were you at the library?

4. When was our last test?

5. When were you absent?

6. When was the doctor at your house?

7. When were your friends in the United States?

8. When was Tom at Bill's home?

9. When was George in the laboratory?

10. When was there a good movie here?

VOCABULARY Do you know these new words and expressions?

absent basketball economics

[tebsnt] [bafcskitbol] [ikandmiks]

activity chemistry education

[aektfvati] [kSmistri] [ed3uke$an]

assembly chorus elementary school.

[asembli] [k6ras] [ebmfintn skul]

assignment club enjoy

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[asdinmant] [kteb] [ind30i]

auditorium college free

[od9t5rram] [kdlid3] [fri]

band dance game

[basnd] [daens] [gem]

baseball Dick (nickname) government

[besbolj [dik] [g6var(n)mant]

Lesson Eighteen 238

graduate mathematics (math).... semester

[grsed3uet] [maefomaetiks] [samesta*]

gym meeting senior

[d3im] [mitirj] [sinya-]

gymnasium (gym) movie Spanish

[d3imneziam] [miivi] [spseni]

history orchestra subject

[hist(a)n] [orkistra] [s6bd3ikt]

in place of part test

[in pies av] [port] [test]

invitation play through

[mv9te9n] [pie] [dm]

junior possible twice

[d3unyar] [pdsab]] [twais]

kindergarten public school vacation

[kindargartn] [pablik skul] [vekean]

laboratory (lab) same Wheeler (proper name)

[keb(a)raton] [sem] [hwilar]

last scholarship which

[last] [skdlarSip] [hwitS]

majority seem yesterday

[m9d3orati] [sim] [ysta*di]

Note i: Verb forms are shown in italics.

Note 2: The subjects economics and mathematics are plural in form, but they are

used with a singular verb. The word vacation is usually singular; vacations means

two or more separate vacations.

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Idioms

take a subject last night

study period yesterday morning

twice a week junior high school

I'd like to at a time

last week go to cdllege

P.T.A. (Parent-Teacher Association).. part time

239 Lesson Eighteen

PRONUNCIATION

I. Vowel Sounds.

A. Read these words (1) horizontally and (2) vertically. Imitate your

teacher.

[o] own home don't cold close toast window

[0] all small lawn chorus water orchestra auditorium

[01] boy noisy enjoy

Note: For the formation of these sounds, see the section on

American English Pronunciation, pp. xxii-xxiii.

B. Repeat each sentence several times. Imitate your teacher. Use the

same general intonation pattern for each sentence.

1. They own their own home. ! x*

2. Water is good for the lawn.

3. Please close all those windows.

4. I don't enjoy cold toast for breakfast.

5. The boys in the chorus were noisy this morning.

6. The orchestra always practices in the auditorium.

II. Consonant Sounds.

A. Read these words (1) horizontally and (2) vertically. Imitate your

teacher.

[] she short sugar Spanish vacation insurance impression

[t] much lunch which choose teacher picture question

[d3] John juice enjoy subject college majority generally

Note: For the formation of these sounds, see the section on

American English Pronunciation, p. xxvi.

B. Repeat each sentence several times. Imitate your teacher. Use the

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same general intonation pattern for each sentence.

Lesson Eighteen 240

i. She likes English very much. ! \

2. She enjoys her Spanish class, too.

3. Which subjects can she choose?

4. Teachers generally have a short lunch hour.

5. The majority of colleges are having vacation now.

6. What was John's impression of that French movie?

DICTATION (Comprehension, Repetition, and Writing)

A. Close your books and listen. Your teacher will read some sentences,

at normal conversational speed, from the Oral Practice of this lesson.

B. Listen carefully as your teacher reads each sentence again, as in

normal, slow conversation. Repeat each sentence after your teacher,

and then write it.

C. Check your written work as your teacher reads all the sentences

once more, at normal conversational speed.

CONVERSATION

I. Conversation with Your Teacher.

Close your books. Your teacher will ask the following questions for

you to answer. Give two answers whenever possible.

1. When does the school year begin in the United States?

2. How many semesters are there?

3. Where do the majority of children go to school?

4. How many years do they go to kindergarten? . . . elementary

school? . . . junior high school? . . . high school?

5. Which year is the junior year? . . . the senior year?

6. What were Ann's subjects last year?

7. What subjects is she taking this year?

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8. Does she have an assignment for every class?

9. Does she do all her lessons at home?

10. Does she go to school on Saturdays?

241 Lesson Eighteen

ii. What activities are there in American schools?

12. What's an assembly? ... a study period? ... a school paper?

... a school club? ... a P.T.A.?

13. Do many Americans go to college?

14. Is a college education free?

15. Why do many college students work part time?

16. In this (your) country, how many years do children go to

elementary school? . . . high school?

17. How many subjects do they take at a time?

18. Do they have the same classes every day?

19. Do they have to do some homework for every class?

20. What are their school hours?

21. Do they have school on Saturdays?

22. Do they usually go home for lunch?

23. Do you like history? . . . chemistry? . . . mathematics?

24. Are you ever late for this class? Are you ever absent?

25. Are you ready for a test on this lesson?

II. Conversation with Other Students.

Use the questions in I above or make original questions. (1) One

student asks a question; a second student answers. (2) The second

student then asks a question, and a third student answers. Continue

around the class in this manner.

COMPOSITION

Choose one of these topics. Be prepared to write two paragraphs about

it in class. Use short sentences and the vocabulary that you know. Your

teacher will give you some new words, if necessary.

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1. Ann's School Work 2. Our Schools 3. My School Day

Lesson Eighteen 242

LESSON NINETEEN 1 U

THE NINETEENTH LESSON U

Tom's First Football Game

ORAL PRACTICE

A. It's a Saturday morning in October. There's going to be a big

football game this afternoon, and the boys are making their plans.

Tom: It's cloudy andjcooljthis morning. What's the!temperature?

ii

Bill: Fifty degrees (50). This is good if 00 tjball weather.

>l

Tom: If it doesn'tirain. What time does the game beigin?

Bill: At two o'clock. We have to leave here at one-ithirity.

Note: 500 Fahrenheit = io centigrade.

243

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Lesson Nineteen

_____ , _

Tom: Alljright. Is John going jwith us?

r * p--- ---i i-^

Bill: I don't i know, but let's not j wait i for him. He's often i Tate. - j \ ; i \

\-_ I i

I* "I

Don't forget youriticket, Tom.

B. On Monday, John asked about the game.

John: Did you go to the j game last Saturday?

Tom: Yes, I;cud. I went with [Bill.

John: Did you j walk to the stadium?

Tom: Yes, we j walked. It wasn't very j far.

John: Did you have good'seats?

Tom: Yes, wejdid. We hadivery good seats near thejcenjter.

John: How was the:weather? j i

Tom: Fine. It was aibeautiful afternoon, cool butisuniny.

\ _. J ' I ' *

\IL

John: Did the game begin on j time?

Tom: Yes, itjdid. It began at two o'clock;sharp.

John: Did you enjjoy the game?

Tom: Yes, Ijdid. I enjoyed it very j much.

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Lesson Nineteen 244

C. Last Saturday I went to my first football game. It was American

football, not soccer. The game started at two o'clock and ended at

four-thirty. The big college stadium was full. There were sixty

thousand (60,000) people there. Some people walked to the stadium,

some went on the bus, and others drove. The weather was fine that

afternoon; it wasn't cloudy, and it wasn't windy. It was a beautiful

fall day.

Each team had eleven men on the field. Each team defended its

own goal. Each team also tried to cross the other goal line with the

ball. Sometimes they ran with the ball, sometimes they threw the

ball, and sometimes they kicked it. The game was very exciting.

But when do they run? When do they throw the ball? And when

do they kick the ball? I don't understand all the rules of the game.

There are two halves in a football game. In the first half, our

team crossed the other goal line once and made a touchdown. The

other team made two touchdowns. The band played between the

halves, and we cheered for our team. During the second half, we

made another touchdown, and then another. The final score was

21 to 14. Of course, we were very happy because we won the game.

245

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Lesson Nineteen

Tom's Impressions

Americans like sports very much. In the fall,

the popular sport is football. All the high schools and

universities have their teams. The boys on the teams

practice after school every day. The games with other schools are

usually on Saturday afternoons. Thousands of people, young and

old, watch these football games in September, October, and November.

In the winter, the popular sport is basketball. There's usually

a game every Friday night in one school gymnasium or another.

Some parts of the United States have a lot of snow and ice during the

winter. Many people there like to ski or skate.

In the other seasons, spring and summer, millions of Americans

enjoy baseball. The schools have their games in the spring, but the

important professional teams play during the summer. Some people

go to these big games. The majority, however, listen to them on the

radio, watch them on television, or read about them in the news-

papers. Of course, a lot of people go swimming in the summer, too.

Some also play tennis or golf, and others go fishing. They like to be

outdoors because it's warm during the months of June, July, and

August.

<^-

Lesson Nineteen

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246

STRUCTURE

I. Negative Commands. (The Negative Imperative)

A. Repeat these examples after your teacher.

Don't be late today. Please don't be late today.

Don't wait for him. Please don't wait for him.

Don't forget your ticket. Please don't forget your ticket.

Let's not be late today.

Let's not wait for him.

Let's not forget our tickets.

B. To form a negative command, use the word don't before the

simple form of the verb (sfv). The polite form is please don't.

C. In the negative, let's becomes let's not before the simple form of

the verb (sfv).

D. (1) Repeat these commands in the affirmative, the negative, and the

polite negative forms.

Example: Walk on the grass. Don't walk on the grass.

Please don't walk on the grass.

i. Copy these words. 6. Listen to those students.

2. Erase the blackboard. 7. Talk with your friends.

3. Open your books now. 8. Wait for me.

4. Do your homework now. 9. Sit in that chair.

5. Write in your books. 10. Read your letter now.

(2) This conversation is for two students or for twelve students.

Change the preceding sentence to the negative and then read the new

sentence. Use 1 and 2 as an example.

1. Let's open the door. 3. No,

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AT . ., , i. j Let's talk about the weather.

2. No, let's not open the door.

Let's open the windows. 4. No,

Let's study for our test.

247 Lesson Nineteen

5. No, 9. No,

Let's practice our English. Let's play the piano.

6. No, 10. No,

Let's visit the Dawsons. Let's see a movie.

7. No, 11. No,

Let's invite them here. Let's go to the game.

8. No, 12. All right. Let's go!

Let's listen to the radio.

II. The Simple Past Tense of Regular Verbs. (Statements)

A. Repeat these sentences after your teacher.

I walked to the game yesterday.

You preferred to go in your car.

Tom arrived fifteen minutes early.

He studied the rules of the game.

It started at two o'clock sharp.

It ended at four-thirty.

We liked our seats in the center.

The two teams played very well.

B. The simple past tense indicates a completed action at a definite

time in the past.

C. To form the simple past tense of regular verbs, add ed to the

simple form of the verb. The same form is used in all persons.

Example: walk, walked. I (you, he, she, we, they) walked.

1. If the verb ends in e, add only the letter d.

Examples: like, liked; arrive, arrived.

2. If the verb ends in y, preceded by a consonant, change the y

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to i and add ed. Example: study, studied. {but play, played)

3. If the verb ends in a single consonant, preceded by a single

vowel, and the stress is on the last syllable, double the con-

sonant and add ed. Example: prefer, preferred.

Lesson Nineteen 248

D. The ending ed has three pronunciations: [t], [d], and [id].

i. It is pronounced [t] if the verb ends in a voiceless sound, except

[t]. Examples: walked [wokt], liked [laikt].

2. It is pronounced [d] if the verb ends in a voiced sound, except

[d]. Examples: arrived [ardrvd], played [pled].

3. It is a separate syllable, pronounced [id], if the verb ends in the

sound [d] or [t]. Examples: ended [6ndid], started [stdrtid].

E. (1) Pronounce the following verbs in the simple past tense, first

vertically and then horizontally.

ed = [t]

ed = [d]

ed = [id]

1. I asked

1. we answered

1. they defended

2. you crossed

2. they called

2. it ended

3. he erased

3. you cheered

3. I needed

4. she helped

4. I closed

4. he graduated

5. they kicked

5. he opened

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5. we invited

6. we laughed

6. it seemed

6. you repeated

7. I practiced

7. you used

7. they rented

8. you talked

8. we enjoyed

8. she skated

9. she washed

9. he carried

9. I visited

10. they watched

10. she copied

10. he waited

11. he worked

11. they tried

11. we wanted

(2) In these sentences, use the simple past tense of the verbs.

Example: My sister (graduate) from high school last year.

My sister graduated from high school last year.

1. The Dawsons (live) in the city last year.

2. They (move) to the suburbs in the fall.

3. Tom (visit) Bill and his family last weekend.

4. The boys (arrive) for dinner on Friday.

5. Bill (introduce) Tom to his family.

6. It (rain) there on Saturday afternoon.

7. They (listen) to the game on the radio.

249

Lesson Nineteen

AUX.

r.v. \siv

walk

> . ^.

Did

you

to the game?

Did

arrive

on time?

Did

he

study

the rules?

Did

it

start

at two o'clock?

Did

you

enjoy

the game?

Did

they

wait

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after the game?

8. The teacher (explain) the past tense in our last class.

9. We (pronounce) the new words and (repeat) the examples.

i0. We (copy) some sentences from the blackboard.

III. The Simple Past Tense. (Questions and Short Answers)

A. Repeat these examples after your teacher.

SHORT ANSWERS

Yes, I did.

Yes, you did.

Yes, he did.

Yes, it did.

Yes, we did.

Yes, they did.

B. The interrogative form of the simple past tense begins with the

auxiliary verb did [did], the past tense of do and does.

i. Did, in this case, has no meaning. It only indicates a question

in the past.

2. Did is used in all persons with the simple form of the principal

verb.

C. A short answer has only a subject with the word did.

D. (i) Change each statement to a question. (2) Give a short answer

in the affirmative.

Example: The students opened their books.

Did the students open their books? Yes, they did.

i. Ann wanted to read.

2. Tom preferred to talk.

3. He asked many questions.

4. She answered all his questions.

5. You practiced your English with them.

6. You learned many new words.

Lesson Nineteen 250

7. The students erased the blackboard.

8. They helped the teacher after class.

9. They carried some books to the library.

10. The game started at two o'clock.

11. Each team defended its own goal.

12. Each team tried to cross the other goal line.

13. Tom enjoyed the game.

14. His friends waited for him after the game.

15. Mr. Dawson washed his car last Saturday.

16. He closed the windows of the car.

17. He worked in the yard, too.

18. Mrs. Dawson cleaned the house in the morning.

19. They invited some friends for dinner.

20. They rested on Sunday.

IV. The Simple Past Tense of Irregular Verbs.

A. Repeat these verb forms and sentences after your teacher.

begin

began [biga^n]

make

made [med]

drive

drove [drov]

run

ran [rasn]

go

throw

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went [went]

threw [Gru]

have .

had [haed]

win

won [wan]

Did Tom go to the game yesterday?

Yes, he did. He went with Bill.

Did they have good seats?

Yes, they did. They had very good seats.

Did the game begin on time?

Yes, it did. It began at two o'clock.

B. An irregular verb has a special form for the simple past tense. In

place of the ending ed, there is usually a change in the simple

form of the verb. The same form is used in all persons.

C. Questions are formed with the auxiliary verb did and the simple

form of the principal verb. The interrogative form is the same

for all verbs, regular and irregular, except be.

251 Lesson Nineteen

D. (1) Read these questions. Then complete the answers with the neces-

sary verb forms.

Example: Did each team have eleven men?

Yes, it . It eleven men.

Yes, it did. It had eleven men.

i. Did some people drive to the game?

Yes, they . Many people .

2. Did the boys run with the ball?

Yes, they . They often with the ball.

3. Did they throw the ball, too?

Yes, they . They sometimes the ball.

4. Did your team make a touchdown?

Yes, it . It three touchdowns.

5. Did you win the game?

Yes, we . We the game, 21 to 14.

6. Was the game exciting?

Yes, it . It very exciting.

(2) Learn the simple past tense of these irregular verbs.

1. come came [kem] 6. read read [red]

2. drink drank [draerjk] 7. sleep slept [slept]

3. forget forgot [fargtit] 8. swim swam [swsem]

4. know knew [nu] 9. teach taught [tot]

5. meet met [met] 10. write wrote [rot]

11. understand understood [andarstud]

(3) Make questions with did and the principal verbs in (2); add

other words to complete the meaning. Then give a short answer and

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a long answer in the affirmative.

Example: understand understood

Did you understand the lesson yesterday?

Yes, I did. I understood it (yesterday).

V. Interrogative Words and the Simple Past Tense.

A. Repeat these sentences after your teacher.

Lesson Nineteen 252

I.W.

Aux.

S. - P.V. (sfv) -> C.

ANSWERS

What did

you

forget?

When did

you

have them?

How many did

you

have?

Where did

you

put them?

What time did

you

go to bed?

I forgot the tickets.

I had them last night.

I had two tickets.

I put them on our radio.

I went to bed at 11:3c

Note: put put [put]. The past tense is like the simple form.

B. An interrogative word precedes the auxiliary verb did the same

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as it precedes do or does.

C. Each sentence below is the answer to a question. (1) Make the question

with the interrogative word in place of the words in italics. Change

the words I, we, my, and our to the second person. (2) Then read

the answer as given.

Example: Where . . . ? Tom learned English in his country.

Where did Tom learn English?

Tom learned English in his country.

1. When . . . ?

2. Where . . . ?

3. What... do .

4. When . . . ?

5. What time . .

.?

6. What . . . ?

7. How much . .

.?

8. How many . .

.?

9. What . . . ?

10. What time . .

.?

n. How long . . .

12. Who . . . ?

13. Which . . . ?

14. Whose . . . ?

15. Why . . . ?

16. Where . . . ?

He came here last year.

Bill met him at the university.

They played tennis yesterday morning.

They swam in the afternoon.

We had dinner at seven o'clock.

My mother made a pie for dessert.

I drank two cups of coffee.

I wrote three letters last night.

My sister read a good book.

She went to bed at two o'clock.

She slept only five hours.

Mr. Lee taught our class yesterday.

He knew all the students.

I used Betty's book.

I forgot my book because I was in a hurry.

VI. Other, another, and others.

A. Repeat these examples after your teacher.

i. There are two boys in this picture.

One boy is Bill.

The other boy

The other

is Tom.

^f. *, 2. There are three boys in this picture.

frM CT The first boy is Bill.

3. I have one ticket for the game.

I need another ticket for my sister.

I need another for a friend, too.

One boy ran with the ball.

Another boy threw the ball.

Another kicked the ball.

UkU

5. Some people walked to the game.

Other people went on a bus.

Others drove. /^

B. Other is sometimes an adjective and sometimes a pronoun.

1. As an adjective, it has only one form, other, before a singular

noun or a plural noun.

2. As a pronoun, it has a singular and a plural form. The other

and the others refer to specific persons or things. Others, with-

out an article, refers to persons or things in general.

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C. Another (an + other) is an indefinite adjective or pronoun. It

means one more or a different.

1. As an adjective, it is used only with a singular count noun.

2. As a pronoun, it replaces a singular count noun.

Lesson Nineteen

254

D. Other and others are often used in contrast to the word some.

E. Complete these sentences with other, another, or others.

Example: Tom went to a football game last Saturday.

He's going to game this week.

He's going to another game this week.

i. Our team made three touchdowns. The team made two.

2. Some people like to skate in the winter. people like to ski.

like to watch basketball games.

3. There's a game in one gymnasium or on Fridays.

4. The boys on the team practice every afternoon. They play

with school teams once a week.

5. In the seasons, spring and summer, millions of Americans

enjoy baseball.

6. Some people go to the big games. people watch them on

television. listen to them on the radio.

7. The Dawsons have one radio, but they want to buy .

8. My two uncles like sports very much. One often plays tennis,

but the prefers to play golf.

9. There are five in our family. I like to go fishing, but the

prefer to go swimming.

10. What do you know about the students in your class? One

student is (wants to be) a doctor, student is a lawyer, is

a chemist, is an engineer, is a secretary, and is a

librarian. I don't know much about the .

VII. The Weather.

A. Repeat these sentences after your teacher.

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It's cold today. It's cloudy today. It rains every day.

It's cool today. It's sunny today. It's raining now.

It's warm today. It's windy today. It rained yesterday.

It's hot today.

It was cloudy and cool yesterday morning.

It rained a little, too.

It was very sunny in the afternoon.

It wasn't cloudy, and it wasn't windy.

255 Lesson Nineteen

B. In sentences about the weather, the word it is often used as subject,

either with the verb be or with a verb like rain. The words cold,

cool, hot, warm, cloudy, sunny, and windy are all adjectives after

the verb be.

VOCABULARY Do you know these new words and expressions?

another forget rain

[anaSar] [farg&t] [ren]

ball full rule

[bol] [ful] [rul]

beautiful goal score

[byutafol] [gol] [skor]

between golf seat

[bitwin] [golf] [sit]

center half (pi. halves) skate

[sntar] [haef] [haevz] [sket]

centigrade however ski

[sntagred] [hauvar] [ski]

cheer (for) ice snow

[tSir] [ais] [sno]

cross if soccer

[kros] [if] [sdkar]

defend kick sport

[difend] [kik] [sport]

degree million stadium

[digri] [mflyon] [stediom]

each once start

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[itS] [wans] [start]

exciting outdoors team

[iksditirj] [autd5rz] [tim]

Fahrenheit plan television (TV) .

[frenhait] [plaen] [tl8vi38n] [ti vi]

field popular temperature

[fild] [pdpyalar] [tmp(o)ratSar]

final professional thousand

[fdin]] [prafeSan]] [0duznd]

Lesson Nineteen 256

threw wait (for) weather

[dro] [wet] [we Sar]

ticket watch win

[tikit] [watS] [win]

touchdown

[t6tSdaun] Note: Verb forms are shown in italics.

Idioms

make a plan be windy

be cloudy make a touchdown

sixty thousand people of course

How was the weather? go swimming

be sunny go fishing

PRONUNCIATION

I. Vowel Sounds.

A. Read these words (i) horizontally and (2) vertically.

[o] warm fall George score sport before football

[9] was club sunny summer public another touchdown

[9*] were hurry thirsty dessert forget soccer weather

Note: For the formation of these sounds, see the section on

American English Pronunciation, pp. xxii-xxiii.

B. Repeat each sentence several times. Imitate your teacher. Use the

same general intonation pattern for each sentence.

i. Is it warm and sunny in the summer?

2. Did George play golf this morning?

3. Is football the popular sport in the fall?

4. Did Robert forget to buy another ticket?

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5. Were those girls in a hurry before the game?

6. Were their pictures in the paper on Thursday?

257 Lesson Nineteen

II. Consonant Sounds.

A. Read these words (1) horizontally and (2) vertically.

[3] usually television

[d3J gym June enjoy junior graduate education generally

[y] use year young senior million popular yesterday

Note: For the formation of these sounds, see the section on

American English Pronunciation, pp. xxvi, xxviii.

B. Repeat each sentence several times. Imitate your teacher. Use the

same general intonation pattern for each sentence.

1. Young people usually enjoy sports. J

2. Millions of Americans enjoy television.

3. It's William's junior year at the university.

4. The majority of seniors graduate in June.

5. Graduate students generally use the library a lot.

6. Public education is popular in the United States.

DICTATION (Comprehension, Repetition, and Writing)

A. Close your books and listen. Your teacher will read some sentences,

at normal conversational speed, from the Oral Practice of this lesson.

B. Listen carefully as your teacher reads each sentence again, as in

normal, slow conversation. Repeat each sentence after your teacher,

and then write it.

C. Check your written work as your teacher reads all the sentences once

more, at normal conversational speed.

CONVERSATION

I. Conversation with Your Teacher.

Close your books. Your teacher will ask the following questions for

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you to answer. Give two answers whenever possible.

Lesson Nineteen 258

i. What's the season for football in the United States?

2. Are the games usually on Saturdays?

3. What do you know about American football?

4. What time did the boys go to the game last week?

5. Did they walk to the stadium?

6. Did they have good seats?

7. Were there many people at the game?

8. How was the weather that afternoon?

9. When did the band play?

10. How many touchdowns did each team make?

11. What was the final score?

12. When is the basketball season in the United States?

13. Do Americans like baseball, too?

14. Do they often go to the professional games?

15. What other summer sports do they enjoy?

16. What are the popular sports here? (in your country)

17. Which sport or sports do you like?

18. Do you like to play games or do you like to watch them?

19. Do you ever go fishing? (When . . . ? Where . . . ?)

20. Do you often go swimming? (When . . . ? Where . . . ?)

II. Conversation with Other Students.

Use the questions in I above or make original questions. (1) One

student asks a question; a second student answers. (2) The second

student then asks a question, and a third student answers. Continue

around the class in this manner.

COMPOSITION

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Choose one of these topics. Be prepared to write two paragraphs about

it in class. Use short sentences and the vocabulary that you know. Your

teacher will give you some new words, if necessary.

1. An Exciting Game 2. Sports in My Country

259 Lesson Nineteen

20

LESSON TWENTY

THE TWENTIETH LESSON

Review

PRONUNCIATION

I. Consonant Sounds.

A. Read these words (1) horizontally and (2) vertically.

[m] meat from same game team stadium gymnasium

[n] need noon rain knife begin napkin government

[g] long spring drink uncle during morning exciting

sing doing going taking fishing writing shopping

Note: For the formation of these sounds, see the section on

American English Pronunciation, p. xxvii.

B. Repeat each sentence several times. Imitate your teacher. Use the

same general intonation pattern for each sentence.

1. Do we need knives and napkins? ..]

2. Is it beginning to rain now?

3. Is she doing her shopping this morning?

4. Does the same team play in every game?

5. Is the stadium far from the gymnasium?

6. Is Tom writing a long letter to his uncle?

7. Is he going fishing during his spring vacation?

II. Review of Sounds and Intonation.

A. Repeat each sentence several times. Imitate your teacher.

B. Copy the sentences in your notebook. Mark the intonation pattern

for each one.

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Lesson Twenty 260

Examples: Howjoldjare those boys? Are they all fourteen?

i. An insurance company has to be efficient.

2. What time do those offices close?

3. Don't you usually go home at four?

4. Next Saturday is the tenth of January.

5. Wasn't the weather wonderful last Sunday?

6. Robert worked in the yard in his old clothes.

7. Are those beautiful yellow flowers from your yard?

8. Helen has her washing machine in the kitchen.

9. Does she put vegetables in her refrigerator?

10. Which vegetables does she generally choose?

11. Were the girls thirsty after dinner?

12. Yes, they wanted a glass of cold water.

13. Did they eat their dessert in a hurry?

14. That team crossed the goal line only once.

15. What was the final score of the game?

STRUCTURE

I. Count Nouns and Mass Nouns.

A. Read the words in this list with or without an indefinite article, as

required. Some words like cake may be count nouns and also mass

nouns.

Examples: an apple, bread, butter, a cafeteria, a cake or cake

apple

egg

soup

bread

fish

money

spoon

butter

food

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milk

napkin

sugar

cafeteria

fork

orange

supermarket

cake

fruit

pancake

tea

cereal

ice cream

paper

time

chalk

juice

pie

toast

coffee

knife

restaurant

tray

cream

meal

salad

vegetable

dessert

meat

sandwich

water

261

Lesson Twenty

B. Read all the nouns in A with the word some. Use the plural form

of each count noun.

Examples: some apples, some bread, some cakes or some cake

C. Repeat each sentence with each word in parentheses. Make the

necessary change for count nouns used in the plural.

Example: Do we have any (soup, fruit, apple) ?

Do we have any soup?

Do we have any fruit?

Do we have any apples?

i. I'm going to buy some (food, egg, bread, cereal).

2. We don't need any (butter, cream, sugar, orange).

3. Do you drink much (water, tea, milk, coffee)?

4. I don't eat much (fruit, fish, salad, dessert, ice cream).

5. Do you eat many (egg, apple, orange, vegetable)?

6. She makes a lot of (soup, coffee, pancake, sandwich).

7. How much (time, money, paper, chalk) is there?

8. How many (fork, knife, spoon, napkin, tray) are there?

9. Let's have a cup of (tea, coffee) now.

10. I prefer a glass of (milk, water, orange juice).

n. Who wants a piece of (bread, toast, meat, pie, cake)?

12. Are there some good (restaurant, cafeteria, supermarket)?

II. Some, any, much, many, and a lot of.

A. (1) Read these sentences with some or any, as required. (2) Read

the sentences again with a lot of and either much or many.

Example: There are apples; there aren't oranges.

There are some apples; there aren't any oranges.

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There are a lot of apples; there aren't many oranges.

1. We have bread, but we don't have butter.

2. We need sugar, but we don't need cream.

3. Let's have toast, but let's not have cereal.

4. She always buys fruit, but she seldom buys bananas.

5. She often makes sandwiches; she never makes hamburgers.

Lesson Twenty 262

6. He usually drinks water, but he doesn't drink milk.

7. He often eats vegetables, but he doesn't eat salad.

8. He wants pie, but he doesn't want ice cream on it.

9. There are restaurants, but there aren't cafeterias.

10. I have time now, but I don't have money.

B. (1) Make five original questions with how much and five with how

many. (2) Then answer your questions in complete sentences.

Examples: How much English does your friend know?

He knows (a little, a lot of) English.

or He doesn't know (much, any) English.

How many Americans do you know?

I know (two, several, many, a lot of) Americans.

or I don't know (many, any) Americans.

III. Negative Commands (Polite Form).

A. Fill the blank in each sentence with the expression please don't.

Example: help me. I can do it.

Please don't help me. I can do it.

10

11

12

13

14

15

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cross the street here. Cross at the corner.

drive fast. We're not in a hurry.

talk to me. I'm busy now.

wait for me. I have to answer this letter.

be late. The bus leaves at four-thirty.

forget your umbrella. It's going to rain.

be in a hurry. Let's enjoy our dinner.

pour the coffee now. We aren't ready for it.

be noisy. The children are sleeping now.

watch television now. We want to talk.

make plans for Saturday. We're going to the lake.

shop this morning. Let's go together this afternoon.

buy a lot of oranges. They're expensive now.

put your books here. We're going to use this table.

throw the ball. You're near a window.

263 Lesson Twenty

B. Practice these sentences in groups of three students, (a), (b), and (c).

Use i as an example.

i. (a) Let's listen to the radio.

(b) No, let's not listen to the radio. Let's watch TV.

(c) No, let's not watch TV. Let's go to a movie.

2. (a) Let's do our shopping tomorrow.

(b) No, . Let's go fishing.

(c) No, . Let's go swimming.

3. (a) Let's invite Bill.

(b) No, . Let's invite Tom.

(c) No, . Let's invite Ann.

4. (a) Let's take a streetcar.

(b) No, . Let's take a bus.

(c) No, . Let's walk. It isn't far.

5. (a) Let's study our chemistry now.

(b) No, . Let's study our history.

(c) No, . Let's study our English.

6. (a) Let's pronounce these words.

(b) No, . Let's read this Oral Practice.

(c) No, . Let's do these exercises.

7. (a) Let's go to a cafeteria.

(b) No, . Let's go to a restaurant.

(c) No, . Let's eat at home.

8. (a) Let's have some soup.

(b) No, any . Let's have some eggs.

(c) No, any . Let's have some sandwiches.

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IV. The Auxiliary Verb can.

A. Use can or can't according to the meaning of the sentence.

Examples: A small child walk, but he run.

A small child can walk, but he can't run.

A small child read, but he talk.

A small child can't read, but he can talk.

Lesson Twenty 264

i.I sing, but I play the piano.

2. Bill skate, but he ski very well.

3. Bill drive a car, but Tom drive.

4. Ann cook, but she make good pies.

5. She speak Spanish very well, but she read it.

6. We swim, but we watch you.

7. A child ask a lot of questions, but he answer them.

B. (1) Complete each question; use a verb from the list at the right and

add other words to complete the meaning. (2) Then give a short

answer in the affirmative or in the negative.

Example: Can you

? Can you walk home from here?

Yes, I can. or No, I can't.

1. Can you .

2. Can't you

3-

4-

5.

6.

Can Mary .

Can't Mary

Can John . .

Can't John . . . 1

7. Can your friends .

8. Can't your friends

play

come

sleep

eat

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answer

speak

get up

study

go

take

have

wait

leave

walk

(1) Change the statement to a question with the interrogative word

indicated. (2) Then complete the answer given.

Example: I can take a bus.

(a) Where . . . ? (b) ... at the next corner.

(a) Where can I take a bus?

(b) You can take a bus at the next corner.

1. We can't cross the street now.

(a) Why . . . ? (b) . . . because there's a red light.

2. I can buy some fruit.

(a) Where . . . ? (b) ... at that fruit store.

3. You can go swimming tomorrow.

(a) What time . . . ? (b) ... at three o'clock.

265

Lesson Twenty

4. John can't leave now.

(a) Why . . . ? (b) . . . because he's busy.

5. He can be ready (soon).

(a) When . . . ? (b) ... in twenty minutes.

6. The boys can't wait for him.

(a) Why . . . ? (b) . . . because they're late now.

7. Ann can help us.

(a) When . . . ? (b) ... on Saturday.

8. She can come here.

(a) What time . . . ? (b) ... at ten o'clock.

V. The Past Tense of be.

A. Fill the blanks with was or were as you read these sentences.

Examples: The Dawsons tired last night.

The Dawsons were tired last night.

Mrs. Dawson sleepy this morning.

Mrs. Dawson was sleepy this morning.

1. Breakfast ready at seven-thirty.

2. The bread and butter on the table.

3. There some hot coffee on the stove.

4. There n't any cream for the coffee.

5. Mrs. Dawson sorry.

6. There n't any classes last week.

7. There a new student in class yesterday.

8. His name Dick Wheeler.

9. Three students absent.

10. There a short test during the hour.

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11. There several activities after school.

12. Some boys in the gymnasium.

13. The seniors in the auditorium.

14. That football game very exciting.

15. There many people at the game.

16. The big stadium full.

Lesson Twenty 266

17. Some people hungry between the halves.

18. It a beautiful afternoon.

19. It n't cloudy, and it n't windy.

20. Tom and Bill very happy after the game.

B. (1) Change each statement in A to a question. (2) Then give a short

answer, affirmative or negative, that agrees with the statement.

Example: The Dawsons were tired last night.

Were the Dawsons tired last night? Yes, they were.

C. Answer these questions in complete sentences.

Example: Where was Ann after school yesterday?

She was in the library (after school yesterday).

1. How was the weather yesterday?

2. How was the game last week?

3. What was the final score?

4. Why were you late for class today?

5. When was our last test?

6. How much time was there for the test?

7. How many questions were there?

8. Whose answers were very good?

9. Who was at the P.T.A. meeting yesterday?

10. What time was the meeting?

VI. The Simple Past Tense.

A. Pronounce the simple past tense of each verb with its subject. As

you pronounce the forms, write them in three columns according to

the pronunciation of the ending ed: [t], [d], or [id].

Example: I (ask, answer, need, play, rest, shop, study)

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[t] [d] [id]

I asked I answered I needed

I shopped I played I rested

I studied

267 Lesson Twenty

i. I (call, carry, cheer, clean, close, enjoy)

2. You (copy, erase, explain, help, learn, laugh)

3. He (defend, graduate, introduce, invite, kick, listen)

4. She (live, move, open, pour, practice, prefer, rent)

5. It (arrive, end, rain, seem, start)

6. We (pronounce, repeat, talk, try, use, visit, watch)

7. They (skate, ski, wait, walk, work, want, wash)

B. Choose two verbs from each group in A and make two affirmative

statements in the simple past tense. Use the subject given.

Example: study I studied my English last night.

need I needed to study before the test.

C. (1) Complete each question; use a verb from the list at the right and

add other words to complete the meaning. (2) Then give a short answer

and a long answer in the affirmative.

Example: Did you .

1. Did you . . . ?

2. Did your brother

3. Did he ... ?

4. Did your sister . .

5. Did she . . . ?

6. Did your teacher

7. Did we ... ?

? Did you forget your book today?

Yes, I did. I forgot it (today).

7. Did we ... r

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Did Bill and Tom .

9. Did they . . . r

-10. Did you and your friend . .

.?

begin

meet

come

put

drink

read

drive

sleep

forget

swim

go

teach

have

understand

know

win

make

write

D. Answer these questions in complete sentences.

Example: When did you meet Dick Wheeler?

I met him last week.

1. When did you begin to study English?

2. Whose class did you visit yesterday?

Lesson Twenty

268

3. Who came to class with you today?

4. Why did you come early?

5. Which exercise(s) did you write for today?

6. How much time did you have for lunch yesterday?

7. How many cups of coffee did you drink?

8. Where did you go after lunch?

9. What did you read last night?

10. What time did you go to bed?

VII. Other, another, and others. Fill the blanks with one of these

forms as you read the following sentences.

Examples: We don't like these seats.

Are there any seats?

Are there any other seats?

Yes, but the are more expensive.

Yes, but the others are more expensive.

1. Ann has ticket for the play. Do you want it?

2. No, thank you. I have invitation for Saturday.

3. I can't go because I have some plans.

4. Some colleges are large, and are small.

5. George is in the lab now. Where are the boys?

6. Are we going to have test? We had one last week.

7. Some subjects are easy for me; are hard.

8. There's a meeting this week and in two weeks.

9. This restaurant is very crowded. Let's go to .

10. These sandwiches are fine. The aren't very good.

n. We need two spoons, one for dessert and the for coffee.

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12. I had one cup of coffee, but I want .

13. Can you eat piece of cake, too?

14. The oranges are good now; there isn't much fruit.

15. Can you make some sentences like these?

Vlil. Word Order. Arrange each group of words in the correct order

and read the sentence. Questions are indicated by a question mark (?)

below the words.

269 Lesson Twenty

i. be

2. in

3. you

4. I

class

don't

today

I'm

let's

your

go

no

for

please

can

busy

not

book

swimming

can't

late

write

very

5. a

7. we

8. you

three

at

why

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6. a

black

they

eat

some

can

day

light

don't

your

have

they

coffee

drink

always

noon

make

coffee

meals

lunch

9. a

10. in

n. Ann

12. we

in

was

year

can

was

an

taking

our

new

the

what

where

class

there

i. The bread and butter are the table.

2. There isn't much fruit season now.

3. He likes his toast his eggs.

4. He has a light lunch noon.

5. He goes a restaurant the office.

6. He usually goes one or two friends.

7. He has dinner his family night.

8. What do they have dinner?

9. a cafeteria, a person walks line a

long counter.

10. He can see all the food there him.

11. Does he carry his own tray a table?

12. Tom likes American food, the pie, the

pancakes, and the hamburgers.

13. Tom is talking Ann her school work.

14- How many subjects does she take a time?

15. Does she have an assignment every class?

16. Does she have a study period lunch?

17. Does she eat the cafeteria school?

18. Can she take economics government?

19. There are two semesters a school year.

20. The majority American children go

public schools.

21. Education is free kindergarten high school.

22. high school, many students go college.

23. Are there any scholarships good students?

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24. Football is the popular sport the fall.

25. The boys the teams practice school.

26. Are the games usually Saturdays?

27. Do many people watch them television?

28. Tom went Bill his first football game.

29. The game started time, two o'clock.

30. The boys had good seats the center.

31. Each team had eleven men the field.

32. Did the band play the halves?

33. Did the people cheer their team?

34. The final score was 21 14.

about

after~

at .

before -

between

during -

for

from

in

including

in front of

in place of

near-

of

on

through

to

with

271

Lesson Twenty

CONVERSATION

One student asks a question; a second student answers. The second

student then asks a question, and a third student answers. Continue

around the class in this manner. Give two answers whenever possible.

i. When do Americans have breakfast? . . . lunch? . . . dinner?

2. What do they often eat for breakfast? . . . lunch? . . . dinner?

3. Why do they sometimes eat lunch in a hurry?

4. What's a cafeteria?

5. Why are cafeterias popular in the United States?

6. What time do you have your meals?

7. When does the school year begin in the United States?

8. When is the first semester? . . . the second semester?

9. Do the majority of children go to public schools?

10. How many subjects do they take at a time?

11. Do they have any study periods in school?

12. What are some of their school activities?

13. Do many schools here teach English? (in your country)

14. How much time do you spend on your English assignments?

15. Do you like sports?

16. Do you have much time for sports?

17. How much are those tickets?

18. How much is this book?

19. What's the temperature here today?

20. Does it rain very much here? (in your country)

ORAL COMPOSITION

Choose one topic from each group below. Be prepared to talk in class

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for two or three minutes about any one of your three topics.

1. An American Breakfast 2. American Schools

Lunch in a Cafeteria School Activities

Dinner with the Dawsons Ann's Senior Year

3. I Like Sports

Popular Summer Sports

Tom's First Football Game

Lesson Twenty 272

LESSON TWENTY-ONE ) J

THE TWENTY-FIRST LESSON &- A

Let's Go Shopping

ORAL PRACTICE

A. Are you going to wear ajcoat today?

No, but I'm going to take myirainicoat. It looks likeirain.

Whose .glovesiare these? Are theyjyours?

you.

Yes, they're imine. Thank;

You reiwelicome. Are wejready now?

Yes, let'sigo.

273

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Lesson Twenty-One

B. What did you do j yesterday?

L-

f __-, ,_ ,

I went to thejdenjtist, and then I did someishopiping.

Ii

I'

What time did you leaveihome?

I left at nine ofclbck.

Did youjdrive downtown?

No, ijdian't. I took ajbus.

f\

Did itirain during the day?

No, itjdidn't. I took my jrainjcoat, but I didn't jneed

it.

C. What did you ] buy?

I bought aj sweater and a pair of jglbves.

Did you look atisuits? """'^Sk

No, I'didn't. But I tried on somejhats and somejshoes.

\_

Did you meet your isister downtown? C^S^.

Yes, I met her atjnoqn, and we atejlunchitogether.

When did you getfhbme?

I got home at a quarter to ifour.

Lesson Twenty-One

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274

D. Mr. Dawson seldom goes shopping with his wife. He doesn't have

much time, and he doesn't like to go shopping. One Saturday, how-

ever, they decided to go together. Mrs. Dawson wanted a new dress,

and her husband needed a new winter coat. He wanted a brown coat,

but his wife said to him, "Why don't you get a gray coat, dear? Your

last coat was brown, you know."

They went to a large department store downtown. First, they

took an elevator to the men's department on the third floor. The

clerk offered Mrs. Dawson a seat. Then he showed Mr. Dawson sev-

eral brown coats. Mr. Dawson liked the first coat very much, but

he said that it was too expensive. The others didn't fit very well.

One was too big, another was too small, and another was too short.

Then he tried on some gray coats, and one fitted him very well.

He asked his wife, "Do you like this coat, Helen?"

"Yes, I do. It looks very good on you," she answered.

"Can I wear it with my brown suit?"

"Of course you can. You can also wear it with your blue suit or

with your gray suit."

Mr. Dawson thought about it for a. minute, and then he said,

"Yes, it's very practical. I'm beginning to like it now."

"And it's a good coat for the price," his wife said.

E. Five minutes later, they took an elevator to the dress department

on the fifth floor. Mr. Dawson found a chair and sat down.

Clerk: Do you want to look atiwool dresses orisilkidresses?

riii

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Mrs. D.: Please show me somejwooljdresses. j

i w--i

Clerk: Whatisizeido you wear?

Mrs. D.: Size fouriteen.il think.

i '

Clerk: Do you likejblack? It's jaljways a good color.

L__.. ................ .......

275 Lesson Twenty-One

Mrs. D.: Yes, but Ijhave!a black dress. I'd like ajbright;color.

1 1 ---_- i 1

1i1j

Clerk: Here's a pretty j blue j wool. Or what about thisjredjdress?

Mrs. D.: Ijlike it, but myihusjband likesjblu'e.

Clerk: Why don't you tryjonjthese two dresses?

Mrs. Dawson tried on the blue dress, and then the red dress.

Mrs. D.: The blue dress wasjpretity, Bob. But look at;this!

Mr. D.: Red? It's a littlejbnght, don't youjthink?

Mrs. D.: But for fall and: winter? Is it j too bright?

Mr. D.: Perjhapsinot. Itjisjvery bejcorhing to you. II Wji

Mrs. D.: Itifitsjwell, and I like thejstylejof it, too.

Mr. D.: How much | is

it?

Mrs. D.: It's twenty-nine ninety-jfiye. ($29.95) 'v

Mr. D.: Alljright, dear. If youilikejit, why don't youjget

Clerk: Do you want tojcharge it or pay for itjnow?

Mrs. D.: Please; charge jit.

Note: $29.95 = twenty-nine dollars and ninety-five cents.

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Lesson Twenty-One 276

Then Mrs. Dawson gave the clerk her name and address, and the

clerk put the dress in a box for her.

Mr. D.: Are we ready to go j home now?

Mrs. D.: Alimbst. We need some j toothpaste and some j vitamins.

Ann wants a film for her [camera, too

Mr. D.: Then let's go to the j drugstore on the [corner. And what

about some iceicreamifor desjsertjtonight? I^^^^RfWl

Mrs. D.: Albright. They havejgoodiice cream at that drugstore.

Tom's Impressions

Some American women make their own dresses,

and many make clothes for their children. The majority

of Americans, however, buy their clothes ready-made.

Mrs. Dawson is always well-dressed. She says that she usually buys

her clothes. She also tells me that she doesn't spend a lot of money

for them.

There are several large department stores in most American cities.

There are other small stores, too; but people like the big stores because

they can usually do all their shopping in one place. Many department

stores also have a restaurant for lunch. They open at nine-thirty or

ten in the morning, and they close at five-thirty or six in the afternoon.

In a department store, there are generally many coats, dresses,

and suits alike. They come in all sizes. In some departments the

clothes are expensive, and in others they're cheap. Of course, the

price depends on the quality and the style.

277

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Lesson Twenty-One

STRUCTURE

I. Possessive Pronouns.

A. Repeat these examples after your teacher.

Whose book is that?

It's mine.

It's yours.

It's ours.

(my book)

(your book)

(our book)

Whose books are those?

Is this Bill's raincoat?

Are these Bill's gloves?

Is that Ann's raincoat?

Are those Ann's gloves?

Is this the boys' ball?

Are these the boys' coats?

They're mine.

They're yours

They're ours.

Yes, it's his.

Yes, they're his.

Yes, it's hers.

Yes, they're hers

(my books)

(your books)

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(our books)

(his raincoat)

(his gloves)

(her raincoat)

(her gloves)

Yes, it's theirs.

Yes, they're theirs.

(their ball)

(their coats)

B. The possessive pronouns are mine, yours, his, hers, ours, and

theirs. They replace a possessive adjective and the noun that

follows it.

i. Each pronoun ends in the letter s, except mine. The pronoun

his is the same as the adjective his.

2. Like the possessive adjectives, these pronouns always refer to

the possessor. They do not agree with the noun possessed,

which may be singular or plural.

C. As you read these sentences, fill each blank with the possessive pronoun

that refers to the word or words in italics.

Examples: Is that your camera? No, is at home.

No, mine is at home.

I don't have my camera. Do you have ?

Do you have yours?

Lesson Twenty-One

278

i. Is this your coat? No, is in the other room.

2. Is it Mary's? No, it isn't. is brown.

3. Is that Tom's ticket? No, it isn't. He has with him.

4. Do you have your tickets? Yes, we have .

5. Are these Ann's gloves? Yes, they're .

6. Where are Betty's? She forgot .

7. Which car is Mr. Scott's? is the green car.

8. Which car is the Dawsons'? is the blue car.

9. Ann likes to see her friends. Do you like to see ?

10. I'm going to take my raincoat. Is Dick going to take ?

11. I put my umbrella in the corner. Where did you put ?

12. We always do our homework. Do they always do ?

13. I studied my lesson last night. Did John study ?

14. We understood their English. Did they understand ?

15. Here's my telephone number. Can you give me now?

II. The Simple Past Tense. (Negative)

A. Repeat these sentences after your teacher.

Did it rain yesterday?

No, it didn't. It was cloudy, but it didn't rain.

Didn't you take your raincoat?

No, I didn't. I didn't take it, and I didn't need it.

B. The negative form of the simple past tense is the same for all verbs,

regular and irregular, except be.

1. In all persons, the auxiliary verb did and the word not are used

with the simple form of the principal verb (sfv).

2. The contraction of did not is didn't [didnt]. This contraction

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is generally used in conversation, both in negative statements

and in negative questions.

C. A short answer has only a subject with the word didn't.

D. (1) Change each statement to a question. Then answer the question

in the negative; use contractions.

279 Lesson Twenty-One

Example: I went to the dentist yesterday.

Did you go to the dentist yesterday?

No, I didn't go to the dentist yesterday.

i. Bill and Tom went to the football game.

2. The boys drove to the stadium.

3. Tom met Bill at one o'clock.

4. The game began at one-thirty.

5. They watched it on television.

6. They listened to it on the radio.

7. Their team made a touchdown.

8. They won the game.

9. Tom enjoyed the game.

10. He understood all the rules.

(2) Answer these questions in the negative. Give a short answer and

then a long answer.

Example: Did (Didn't) you sleep well last night?

No, I didn't. I didn't sleep well last night.

1. Did Ann walk to school this morning?

2. Did she arrive on time?

3. Did she know her Spanish lesson?

4. Didn't she study last night?

5. Didn't she write any exercises?

6. Did the other students ask many questions?

7. Did they forget their homework?

8. Did they erase the blackboard?

III. Other Irregular Verbs in the Simple Past Tense.

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A. Repeat these new verb forms after your teacher.

buy bought [bot]

get got [gat]

choose chose [toz]

leave left [left]

do did [did]

see saw [so]

eat ate [et]

take took [tuk]

find found [faund]

wear wore [wor]

Lesson Twenty-One

280

B. An irregular verb has a special form for affirmative statements

in the simple past tense (Lesson 19). It is necessary to learn

each form. The negative and interrogative forms are regular.

C. (1) Read these questions and answers. Fill each blank with the

simple past tense of the verb in the question.

Example: Where did you find your gloves?

I them in a chair. I found them in a chair.

1. Did you do any shopping yesterday?

Yes, I some shopping.

2. Did you wear a coat?

Yes, I my brown coat.

3. What time did you leave home?

I home at nine o'clock.

4. Did you take a streetcar?

No, I didn't. I a bus.

5. What did you see in the store windows?

I a lot of suits, hats, and shoes.

6. Did you buy a new hat?

No, I didn't. But I a sweater.

7. What color did you choose?

I a pretty green sweater.

8. Did you meet your sister downtown?

Yes, I her for lunch.

9. Where did you and your sister eat?

We in one of the department stores.

10. What time did you get home?

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I home at half past four.

(2) Use tlte subject she in place of you and I, and read the sentences

in (1) again. Make other necessary changes.

Example: Where did she find her gloves?

She found them in a chair.

281 Lesson Twenty-One

D. (1) Learn the simple past tense of these irregular verbs.

cut cut [kat] sit sat [saet]

give gave [gev] speak spoke [spok]

pay paid [ped] spend spent [spent]

say said [sed] tell told [told]

sell sold [sold] think thought [0ot]

A ux. can could, couldn't [kud, ktjdnt]

(2) Fill each blank with the past tense of the verb in italics.

Example: I often think about you. I about you last night.

I thought about you last night.

1. Mr. Dawson sells insurance. He a lot of it last year.

2. He often cuts the grass. He it last week.

3. Tom spends many weekends there. He last weekend there.

4. We speak English in class. We English in class yesterday.

5. I usually sit here. I near the door yesterday.

6. Please tell us about the test. I you about it last week.

7. Did you pay for the tickets? Yes, I for them yesterday.

8. I can't wear that suit this year, and I wear it last year.

9. Mr. Dawson always says, "I don't have time." Last night his

wife , "Why don't we go on Saturday?"

10. He often gives some money to his wife. He some to her this

morning.

11. Some people spend a lot of money for books. I three dollars

for a book yesterday.

IV. Direct and Indirect Objects.

A. Repeat these sentences after your teacher.

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The clerk showed Mr. Dawson the brown coats. (him)

He showed the brown coats to Mr. Dawson. (to him)

He showed them to Mr. Dawson. (to him)

Mrs. Dawson bought Ann the red umbrella. (her)

She bought the red umbrella for Ann. (for her)

She bought it for Ann. (for her)

Lesson Twenty-One 282

B. Some verbs (like buy, get, give, make, show, and write) often

have two objects, a direct object and an indirect object.

i. In this case, the direct object is usually a thing (coats, umbrella),

and the indirect object is usually a person (Mr. Dawson, Ann).

2. The indirect object precedes the direct object. Examples: He

showed Mr. Dawson the coats. She bought Ann the umbrella.

C. Instead of an indirect object, the same verbs often have a phrase

with to or for after the direct object. Examples: He showed the

coats to Mr. Dawson. She bought the umbrella for Ann.

D. A few verbs, like explain and repeat, always have a phrase with to

or for instead of an indirect object. Examples: Explain that sen-

tence to me. Repeat that word for me. {not Repeat me that word).

E. Likewise, if the direct object is a pronoun, a phrase with to or for

is always used instead of an indirect object. Example: She bought

it for Ann. {not She bought Ann it.)

F. (1) Change the words in italics to indirect objects.

Example: The men offered their seats to the women.

The men offered the women their seats.

i. George offered his book to Ann.

2. Mrs. Dawson made a sweater for her daughter.

3. Ann showed her new sweater to Betty.

4. Mr. Dawson bought some meat for the dog.

5. He got a film for Ann for her camera.

6. The clerk sold a gray coat to Mr. Dawson.

7. Tom wrote a long letter to his family.

8. Miss Lee taught a lot of English to her students.

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9. She showed many interesting pictures to them.

10. Please buy some ice cream for us.

11. Please pour a cup of coffee for me.

12. Please give your name and address to the secretary.

(2) Change the first nine sentences in (1) to questions; use indirect

objects again instead of the words in italics. Then answer the ques-

tions; use a pronoun for each indirect object.

283 Lesson Twenty-One

Example: The men offered their seats to the women.

Did the men offer the women their seats?

Yes, they offered them their seats.

(3) Answer these questions in the affirmative. Use object pronouns in

place of the words in italics.

Example: Did Tom write that letter to his parents?

Yes, he wrote it to them.

1. Did George offer his book to Ann?

2. Did the clerk sell the gray coat to Mr. Dawson?

3. Did he also show the brown coats to Mr. Dawson?

4. Did Mrs. Dawson make that sweater for Ann?

5. Did Ann show her new sweater to Betty?

6. Did you get the meat for your dog?

7. Did you buy those vitamins for me?

8. Did Mary read her letter to you?

9. Did she show her pictures to you and John?

10. Did you give your name and address to the secretary?

V. The Verbs say and tell.

A. Repeat these examples after your teacher.

Please say the names of the months.

Please tell me the names of the months.

Tom says, "I have to study a lot."

Tom says that he has to study a lot.

Tom tells us that he has to study a lot.

Ann said (to Tom), "I have to write a letter."

Ann said that she had to write a letter.

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Ann told Tom that she had to write a letter.

B. The verbs say and tell have the same meaning, but they are used

differently in a sentence.

1. Say has only one object, a direct object. Tell usually has two

objects, a direct object and an indirect object. You say some-

thing, but you tell a person something.

Lesson Twenty-One 2S4

2. Say (not tell) is used when the exact words of a speaker are

given in quotation marks ("..."). In this case, a phrase with

to indicates the person to whom the words are spoken.

C. The words of a speaker are given indirectly (not exactly) after

say that or tell a person that.

i. In the examples in A, notice the change in pronouns (from

I to he or she), according to the meaning of the sentence.

2. In the last two examples, notice that the second verb after

said or told also indicates past time.

E. (i) Use say or tell in the blanks as you read these sentences. Follow

the first two examples in A.

i. Please the numbers from one to twenty.

2. Please me your telephone number.

3. Please her your name and address.

4. Please the names of the days of the week.

5. Please us the final score of the game.

(2) Fill the blanks with the simple past tense of say or tell as you read

these sentences. Follow the last three examples in A.

i. Mrs. Dawson , "We're going downtown."

She that they were going downtown.

She us that they were going downtown.

2. Mr. Dawson , "I need a new winter coat."

He that he needed a new winter coat.

He his wife that he needed a new winter coat.

3. He to her, "I want to get a brown coat."

He that he wanted to get a brown coat.

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He her that he wanted to get a brown coat.

4. She , "Your last coat was brown."

She that his last coat was brown.

She him that his last coat was brown.

285 Lesson Twenty-One

5. She to the clerk, "I'd like to look at wool dresses."

She that she'd like to look at wool dresses.

She the clerk that she'd like to look at wool dresses.

6. She to her husband, "I like the style of the red dress."

She that she liked the style of the red dress.

She her husband that she liked the style of the red dress.

VI. The Words very and too.

A. Repeat these examples after your teacher.

This coat is very practical. I can wear it with all my suits.

That brown coat is too small. I can't wear it.

That brown coat is too small for me to wear.

Mr. Dawson speaks very fast, but I understand him.

Mrs. Dawson speaks too fast. I don't understand her.

Mrs. Dawson speaks too fast for me to understand her.

B. Very indicates a high degree which is desirable or acceptable.

C. In the examples above, the word too indicates a high degree which

is not acceptable to the speaker. Too is more personal in its applica-

tion than very.

D. Fill the blanks with very or too as you read these sentences.

Examples: He arrived late, but we waited for him.

He arrived very late, but we waited for him.

He arrived late. We couldn't wait for him.

He arrived too late. We couldn't wait for him.

He arrived late to go with us.

He arrived too late to go with us.

i. This red dress is bright, but I like it.

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That red dress is bright. I don't like it.

2. This hat is cheap, but it's a good hat for the price.

That hat is cheap. The quality isn't good.

Lesson Twenty-One 286

3. This suit is expensive, but I'm going to buy it.

That suit is expensive. I can't buy it.

That suit is expensive for me to buy.

4. The clerks are busy now, but I'm not in a hurry.

The clerks are busy now. I can't wait another minute.

The clerks are busy to help us now.

5. It's late, but we have time if we go now.

We can't go now. It's late. The stores close at 5:3c

It's late (for us) to go now.

6. It was warm yesterday. We went swimming in the afternoon.

We can't go swimming today. It's cold.

It's cold (for us) to go swimming today.

7. Ann was tired last night, but she did her homework.

Ann was tired last night. She couldn't study.

Ann was tired to study last night.

8. Our English lesson was long, but I did it in an hour.

Our English lesson was long. I couldn't do it in an hour.

Our English lesson was long (for me) to do in an hour.

9. I'd like a glass of water. I'm thirsty.

Can't you drink your coffee? No, I can't. It's hot.

My coffee is hot (for me) to drink now.

i0. I'm not hungry. I ate much ice cream this afternoon.

Let's not wait. There are many people in that line.

VOCABULARY Do you know these new words and expressions?

alike camera decide (to)

[aldik] [ksemara] [disdid]

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Bob (nickname) charge department

[bob] [tSard3] [dipdrtmant]

bright cheap depend (on)

[brait] [tSip] [dipnd]

box coat dress

[baks] [kot] [dres]

287 Lesson Twenty-One

drugstore pair style

[drSgstor] [per] [stall]

elevator perhaps suit

[elavetar] [parhsps] [sut]

film place sweater

[film] [pies] [swetff]

fit practical take

[fit] [pr&ktikj] [tek]

floor price tell (about). .

[flor] [prais] [tel]

get quality that

[get] [kwdlati] [Sat]

give raincoat think (about).

[giv] [renkot] [fiirjk]

glove ready-made too

[gtev] [rSdimed] [tu]

gray say (says) toothpaste. ..

[gre] [se] [sez] [tuflpest]

hat shoe try on

[hast] [$u] [traidn]

look (at) show vitamin

[luk] [$o] [vditamm]

meet silk wear

[mit] [silk] [wer]

mine sit down well-dressed.

[main] [sitddun] [weldrest]

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offer size wool

[dfar] [saiz] [wul]

open spend yours

[opan] [spend] [yurz]

Note: Verb forms are shown in italics.

Idioms

go shopping go to the d6ntist

It looks like rain get home

You're welcome department store

Lesson Twenty-One 288

It looks good on you It's becoming to you

What about _1? in most cities

I'd likeJL They come in all sizes

PRONUNCIATION

I. Vowel Sounds.

A. Read these words (i) horizontally and (2) vertically. Imitate your

teacher.

[u] new blue cool suit shoe through movie beautiful

[u] put good wool full look sugar during football

[a] one cup some glove month alike arrive drugstore

Note: For the formation of these sounds, see the section on

American English Pronunciation, p. xxii.

B. Repeat each sentence several times. Imitate your teacher. Use the

same general intonation pattern for each sentence.

1. I need some new shoes soon. j

2. Look at that beautiful wool suit.

3. These two blue gloves aren't alike.

4. It was cool through the month of June.

5. I saw some good movies during the summer.

6. Put one full cup of sugar in the cake.

II. Consonant Sounds.

A. Read these words (1) horizontally and (2) vertically.

[f] if half fit film fifth office Friday February

[v] of have five leave very halves vitamin vacation

\b] Bob box buy band club bright before baseball

Note: For the formation of these sounds, see the section on

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American English Pronunciation, p. xxv.

289 Lesson Twenty-One

B. Repeat each sentence several times. Imitate your teacher. Use the

same general intonation pattern for each sentence.

i. Is Friday the fifth of February? i

2. Do you have a vacation in November?

3. Does that film fit a French camera?

4. Did Bob buy some vitamins at the drugstore?

5. Did he leave the office before half past five?

6. Is American football a very fast game?

7. Does the band always play between the halves?

DICTATION (Comprehension, Repetition, and Writing)

A. Close your books and listen. Your teacher will read some sentences,

at normal conversational speed, from the Oral Practice of this lesson.

B. Listen carefully as your teacher reads each sentence again, as in

normal, slow conversation. Repeat each sentence after your teacher,

and then write it.

C. Check your written work as your teacher reads all the sentences once

more, at normal conversational speed.

CONVERSATION

I. Conversation with Your Teacher.

Close your books. Your teacher will ask the following questions for

you to answer. Give two answers whenever possible.

1. What's a department store?

2. What are some of the departments in it?

3. Why do people like to shop in a department store?

4. Are there often many coats and suits alike?

5. Do they come in all sizes?

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6. What does the price depend on?

7. Do American women make their own clothes?

8. Does Mr. Dawson often go shopping with his wife?

9. Why did they go downtown together one Saturday?

10. Where did they go first?

n. Why did Mr. Dawson buy a gray coat?

Lesson Twenty-One 290

12. Where was the dress department?

13. Did Mrs. Dawson look at black dresses?

14. How many dresses did she try on?

15. What did her husband say about the red dress?

16. Why did she choose the red dress?

17. How much was it? Did she pay for it?

18. Where did they go after that?

19. What did they buy (get) at the drugstore?

20. Do you like to go shopping? . . . window shopping?

21. Are there many department stores in your country?

22. Do you have any stores like American drugstores?

23. What time do the stores open? What time do they close?

24. Did you wear a coat today? ... a hat? . . . gloves?

25. What did you do yesterday?

II. Conversation with Other Students.

Use the questions in I above or make original questions. (1) One

student asks a question; a second student answers. (2) The second

student then asks a question, and a third student answers. Continue

around the class in this manner.

COMPOSITION

A. Choose one of these topics. Be prepared to write two or three para-

graphs about it in class. Use short sentences and the vocabulary that

you know. Your teacher will give you some new words, if necessary.

1. Mr. Dawson's New Coat

2. Mrs. Dawson's New Dress

3. My New Hat (Suit, Shoes)

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B. Imagine that you are in a store. You want to buy either a hat, a

dress, a suit, a coat, a sweater, a pair of shoes, or a pair of gloves.

Write your conversation with the clerk, which begins as follows:

Clerk: What can I do for you?

Please show me some. . . .

I want to look at some.

291 Lesson Twenty-One

22

LESSON TWENTY-TWO

THE TWENTY-SECOND LESSON

Leisure Time

ORAL PI

A. Look! It'sjsnowing outdoors. Do youjlike the snow?

\1|j

% i

Yes, it'sjpretity. But it'sjcbld, toothirty-two dejgrees.

i \._ \...

\ i --i j 1

Of jcourse, this isjwiniter. We can go skating andiskiiing soon.

You jean go, butillprefer to stay injdobrs. I like to! read

or look at | television in my leisure time.

Note: 320 Fahrenheit = o centigrade.

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Lesson Twenty-Two 292

B. Have you read any goodfbooks recently?

Yes, ijhqve. I've read j several this winter.

Have you seen anyjmovies recently?

"No, iihaven't. I haven't hadjtime.

Have you gone to thejart gallery recently? H}1 jlj^j 3]

Yes^ ijhave. I've gone two or three itimes.

Have you ever been to anjopera? m#| X

No, I'haven't. But I'vejlistened to some on theiradio.

ii[jL.i!

1I

r- \M\%

C. Has Tom gone to thejtheater recently? JRlK!=^r'j

No, heihasn't. But he went twice last j month

-_i i | -_. j *

Has he heard many I concerts this winter?

Yes, he[has. He heard thejsymphony orchestra ajweeklago

Has he seen a balilet this year?

Yes, he [has. He saw one twoiweeks:ago. 1i \ j j

\._ t

Have there been any good TiV programs recently?

p6.

v.. p^

>

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Yes, thereihave. There were several lastiweek.

293 Lesson Twenty-Two

D. Mrs. Dawson has a brother in New York. He moved there a year

ago. His name is James Smith, but his family call him Jim. In

February this year, he came to visit the Dawsons. They were glad

to see him again, and they asked him many questions about New York.

Mrs. D.: Has it beenicold in New York?

Jim: Yes, it'has. But it's jnever as cold as it is j here. And we

haven't had much;snow:this winter.

.1,

Mr. D.: Have you seen many] shows?

Jim: Yes, I've seen several iplays and two musicalicomedies.

l'i

Mrs. D.: Were they|good? Did youilike them?

Jim: Yes, but the j plays; were more interesting than theimusicals.

Onejplay was veryifunjny; theiothers were moreisehous.

Ann: I'd like aimusical better than aiplay,iI think. I've heard

a lot of theisongs;from the new shows.

r ; ; ; >

Mr. D.: We want to go to New York ini March orlAjpril. Is it j hard

--- 1 ' : j

to get theater tickets?

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Jim: Yes, it lis. People i of ten get them weeks in advance.

**

v- \

Mrs. D.: Is it easier to get seats downjstairs than in the j balcony?

Lesson Twenty-Two 294

Jim: Somejtimes. They're expensive downstairs, and more people

prefer thejcheaper seats in thejbalcony.

Mr. D.: Perhaps you can get some tickets forius.

J^iw: I'd beigladito. I'm near the theater district every!day.

ri \ r 1

Mrs. D.: We'd like to see an j opera, too. We've never i been \ to the

J A| ' \ 4 i >

\__

l1

MetropolitaniOpera House.

Mr. D.: But we often hear theibroadcasts from there on'Saturdays.

i -_.

i ^ , 1

Jim: I;listen, too, but I also]seeian opera now and then.

\_. i

Ann: When are weigojing to New York?

r*f

Mr. D.: Did you sayj"We"? Aren't you going to j Washington during

your spring vaication?

Ann: Yes. But I'd like to go to New j York, too.

ii

Mrs. D.: Washington is veryipretity in the spring. You can visit

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r~---\

New York some jother time.

Mr. D.: Yourjmotner and I are going to have ajspecial vacation.

Mrs. D.: Our secondjhoneymoon, Bob?

295 Lesson Twenty-Two

Tom's Impressions

We've had a very cold winter here. Mr. Dawson

says that it's been colder this year than it was last year.

But the houses and public buildings are always warm

because they have central heating. For this reason, there are many

activities indoors during the winter.

The Dawsons usually spend the winter evenings at home. They

like to read, listen to the radio, and look at television. There have

been a lot of good programs this winter. Sometimes they go to a

movie, but they prefer a concert or a play now and then.

Of course, there's more to do in New York than in any other city

in the United States. However, it isn't the only place for good plays

and good music. Many smaller cities, too, have theaters, art galleries,

and symphony orchestras. In fact, the majority of Americans live in

other parts of the country, often very far from New York. A lot of

them have never been to New York. The Dawsons have been there

only once, and that was several years ago.

STRUCTURE

I. The Present Perfect Tense of Regular Verbs.

A. Verb Forms. Repeat these examples after your teacher.

STATEMENTS

I have talked.

You have listened.

He has worked.

She has played.

It has rained.

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We have waited.

They have moved.

I (You, We, They) have not decided.

He (She, It) has not arrived.

[aiv] I've

[yuv] You've

[hiz]

EH

[its]

[wiv]

He's

She's

It's

We've

[tSev] They've

talked.

listened.

worked.

played.

rained.

waited.

moved.

I haven't decided.

He hasn't arrived.

Lesson Twenty-Two

296

QUESTIONS SHORT ANSWERS

Have you tried? Yes, I have. No, I haven't.

Haven't they helped? Yes, they have. No, they haven't.

Has he learned it? Yes, he has. No, he hasn't.

Hasn't she studied? Yes, she has.- No, she hasn't.

B. To form this tense, use the verb have as an auxiliary verb with

the past participle of the principal verb.

i. The past participle of a regular verb ends in ed. It is like the

simple past tense, both in spelling and pronunciation.

2. In the affirmative contraction, the apostrophe replaces the

first two letters of have or has. Examples: I've talked (I have

talked); he's worked (he has worked). Compare the form

he's working (he is working).

3. The negative contraction is haven't [ha^vnt] or hasn't [hznt].

Examples: I haven't decided (I have not decided); he hasn't

arrived (he has not arrived).

4. A short answer has only a subject with the auxiliary verb have.

C. Use of the Tense. Repeat these sentences after your teacher.

Have you (ever) played tennis with Bill?

Yes, I've played tennis with him. I've often played with him.

I've played with him many times, {recently, this week)

No, I haven't played with him. I've never played with him.

D. The present perfect tense refers to an action in the past, but no

definite past time is mentioned.

1 i. It may be a single action or a repeated action.

2. It may be in the recent past or at any time in one's fife, up to

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the present.

E. If a definite past time is mentioned, use the simple past tense

and not the present perfect. The word ago in expressions of time

is used only with the simple past. Example: I played with him

a week ago. (last week, yesterday)

297 Lesson Twenty-Two

F. (1) Answer these questions in the affirmative or in the negative, as

indicated. Give a short answer and then a long answer.

Examples: Have you looked at those pictures? Yes, ....

Yes, I have. I've looked at those pictures.

Have you visited New York? No, ....

No, I haven't. I haven't visited New York.

i. Have you studied your lesson? No, ....

2. Has your teacher explained it? Yes, ....

3. Have the students asked any questions? Yes, ....

4. Have they copied the sentences? No, ....

5. Has Ann graduated from high school? No, ....

6. Has it rained here this afternoon? Yes, ....

7. Has it snowed here recently? No, ....

8. Have you enjoyed the concerts this year? Yes, ....

(2) Complete the short answer with have or has. Then use the

simple past tense of the principal verb in the long answer.

Example: Have you looked at those pictures?

Yes, I . I at them before dinner.

Yes, I have. I looked at them before dinner.

1. Has Ann learned to ski?

Yes, she . She to ski last winter.

2. Have her parents visited New York?

Yes, they . They New York several years ago.

3. Has your cousin arrived?

Yes, he . He a week ago.

4. Have you introduced him to your friends?

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Yes, I . I him to my friends last week.

5. Have you and Mary studied this lesson?

Yes, we . We it yesterday afternoon.

6. Has your teacher explained it?

Yes, he (she) . He (She) it in class yesterday.

7. Has it rained here recently?

Yes, it . It yesterday morning.

Lesson Twenty-Two 298

8. Have you watched television this week?

Yes, I . I it last night.

9. Have the new programs started?

Yes, they . They two weeks ago.

10. Have you moved recently?

Yes, we . We a month ago.

II. The Present Perfect Tense of Irregular Verbs.

A. Repeat these verb forms and sentences after your teacher.

SIMPLE FORM

SIMPLE PAST

PRESENT PERFECT

read [rid]

read [red]

have (has) read [red]

see

saw

have (has) seen [sin]

have

had

have (has) had [haed]

be

was, were

have (has) been [bin]

go

went

have (has) gone [gon]

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Have you read any good books recently?

Yes, I have. I've read two or three.

Have you seen many movies?

No, I haven't. I haven't had time.

Have there been any good programs on TV?

Yes, there have been several good programs.

Haven't you gone to the art gallery recently?

No, we haven't gone this winter.

B. The present perfect tense is always formed in the same way.

Each irregular verb, however, has a different past participle;

there is no regular ending.

1. The past participle is sometimes like the irregular past tense.

Example: have, had, had.

2. The past participle is sometimes different from the other forms

of the verb. Examples: go, went, gone; see, saw, seen.

3. In a few verbs, the past participle, the past tense, and the

simple form of the verb are all the same. Examples: cut, put.

Read has the same spelling, but two different pronunciations.

299 Lesson Twenty-Two

(1) Learn the past participle of each irregular verb below. Then use

the present perfect tense of that verb in the sentence at the right. Use

contractions.

Example: understand, understood, understood

I never that.

I've never understood that.

I.

buy, bought, bought

1.

2.

find, found, found

2.

3-

hear, heard, heard [herd]

3-

4-

leave, left, left

4-

5-

make, made, made

5.

6.

meet, met, met

6.

7-

7-

8.

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pay, paid, paid

say, said, said

8.

9-

sell, sold, sold

9-

IO.

sit, sat, sat

10.

ii.

sleep, slept, slept

11.

12.

spend, spent, spent

12.

13-

teach, taught, taught

13-

14.

tell, told, told

14.

15-

think, thought, thought

15.

16.

win, won, won

16.

I a new hat.

you your pen?

We that orchestra.

He n't the house.

She another sweater.

you her brother?

I n't for the book.

He often that.

They their car.

you in this chair?

she this afternoon?

We n't much money.

he ever mathematics?

You me that many times.

We often about you.

they all their games?

Note: There are two past participles of get: got and gotten. They

are generally used only in conversation. I've got = / have;

I've gotten = I've gone to get or I've obtained, implying action.

(3) Change each statement to a question. Give a short affirmative

answer, and then a long answer in the past tense with the definite

time indicated.

Example: The concert has begun. (ten minutes ago)

Has the concert begun?

Yes, it has. It began ten minutes ago.

1. There have been some good concerts recently. (two last week)

2. The Scotts have been in New York. (a year ago)

3. They've driven their new car. (yesterday)

4. You've given them your new address. (last night)

5. Your friends have come. (two days ago)

6. You've spoken to them about the ballet. (yesterday)

7. They've gone to a movie tonight. (an hour ago)

8. Mrs. Dawson has worn her new dress. (to church last Sunday)

9. She's done her shopping today. (this morning)

10. She's eaten her lunch. (at twelve o'clock)

11. Mr. Dawson has been busy recently. (very busy yesterday)

12. The Dawsons have seen Jim Smith recently. (two weeks ago)

13. He's written to them this week. (on Friday)

14. He's gotten some theater tickets for them. (last week)

15. Ann has studied history and mathematics. (last year)

16. She's forgotten her notebook today. (yesterday, too)

III. Comparisons with more, -er, and as.

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A. Repeat these sentences after your teacher.

A is taller than B.

B is shorter than A.

C is as tall as B.

C isn't as tall as A.

B and C aren't as tall as A.

301 Lesson Twenty-Two

That brown coat is more expensive than this gray coat.

That brown coat is as expensive as that blue coat.

Those two coats aren't as practical as this gray coat.

There are more plays in New York than in Washington.

Some plays are better than others.

Does Jim like plays better than musical comedies?

Does Ann play the piano better than Betty?

B. The expressions -er than and more . . . than compare two persons

or things that are different. The word than is used before the

second part of a complete comparison.

i. The suffix -er [ar] is the comparative ending for one-syllable

adjectives and adverbs. Examples: taller than, faster than.

Notice the spelling of larger, bigger, and hotter.

2. The word more precedes adjectives and adverbs of three or

more syllables. Examples: more expensive than, more recently

than. The word more before a noun is the comparative of much,

a lot, and many. Examples: more music than, more plays than.

3. The comparison of two-syllable words is irregular. Some end

in -er, some are used with more, and some have both forms.

a. Words that end in y: easy, easier than; pretty, prettier than;

early, earlier than.

b. Words with more: more active than, more crowded than.

c. Words with both forms: quieter than, more quiet than;

friendlier than, more friendly than; oftener than, more often

than.

4. Better is the irregular comparative of good and well. Better is

much.

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also used after the verb like, as the comparative form of very

C. The expression as ... as compares two persons or things that are

alike. Examples: as tall as, as expensive as, as fast as. The nega-

tive form is usually not as . . . as.

Lesson Twenty-Two 302

D. (1) As you read these sentences, change the words in parentheses to

the comparative form with more or the ending -ex. Add the word

than in a complete comparison.

Examples: This coat is (practical) that coat. It's (warm), too.

This coat is more practical than that coat.

It's warmer, too.

Clothes are (cheap) in this store in that store.

Clothes are cheaper in this store than in that store.

i. One play was (interesting) the other play. It was (serious).

2. Some musicals are (funny) others.

3. The seats are (expensive) downstairs in the balcony.

4. It's (hard) to get seats in the balcony downstairs.

5. The Scotts have been to New York (recently) the Dawsons.

6. Washington is (beautiful) New York.

7. There are (many) shows in New York in any other city.

8. Some people are (efficient) others.

9. Boys are often (active) girls. They're often (noisy), too.

10. Ann is (young) her brother.

n. A small town is (quiet) a big city.

12. The people there are often (friendly), too.

(2) Read each sentence with three comparative forms. Follow the

example.

Example: This suit is (pretty) that suit.

This suit is prettier than that suit.

This suit is as pretty as that suit.

This suit isn't as pretty as that suit.

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1. Baseball is (popular) football.

2. The game today was (exciting) the last game.

3. Our team played (well) the other team.

4. Our boys ran (fast) the others.

5. It's been (cold) this year it was last year.

6. It's been (hot) today it was yesterday.

7. It was (windy) yesterday it is today.

8. Your green dress is (long) your blue dress.

303 Lesson Twenty-Two

g. My brown shoes are (old) my black shoes.

i0. His new coat is (warm) his old coat.

ii. I'm (busy) today I was yesterday.

i2. I'm (sleepy) this morning I was last night.

i3. Their house is (big) ours.

i4. This meeting is (important) the last meeting.

i5. This theater is (crowded) the others.

VOCABULARY Do you know these new words and expressions?

again downstairs reason

[agen] [daunsterz] [rizn]

ago funny recently

[ago] [fani] [risntli]

any hear serious

[em] [hir] [sfrias]

art honeymoon show

[art] [hanimun] [So]

art gallery indoors Smith (proper name).

[art gselari] [md5rz] [smi0]

as... as James (proper name)... snow

[az ... az] [d3emz] [sno]

balcony Jim (nickname) song

[baMkani] [d3im] [sorj]

ballet leisure time special

[baele] [113a- taim] [speSal]

better music stay

[beta-] [myuzik] [ste]

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broadcast musical (comedy) symphony orchestra. .

[br5dkasst] [myuzikl kdmadi] [simfani drkistra]

building New York than

[bildirj] [nuyork] [San]

central heating only theater

[sentral hitirj] [onli] [0iata-]

concert opera time

[kdnsart] [dp(a)ra] [taim]

district program Washington, D.C

[dfstnkt] [pr6graem] [WdSirjtan di si]

Lesson Twenty-Two 304

Note i: Verb forms are shown in italics.

Note 2: Washington, D.C. = Washington, District of Columbia.

Idioms

go skating I'd be glad to

go skiing Metropolitan Opera House.

Have you been to _L? now and then

go to the th6ater some 6ther time

a week ago for this reason

(weeks) in advance more to do

in the balcony in fact

PRONUNCIATION

I. Vowel Sounds.

A. Read these words (1) horizontally and (2) vertically.

[i] see seat meet cheap please reason theater recently

[e] say stay play rain place James ballet raincoat

[o] ago know snow show cold home only program

Note: For the formation of these sounds, see the section on

American English Pronunciation, pp. xx-xxii.

B. Repeat each sentence several times. Imitate your teacher. Use the

same general intonation pattern for each sentence.

1. James saw that show a week ago.

2. Please meet me at the theater.

3. These are cheap seats, but we can see.

4. What did they say about the ballet?

5. We stayed at home because it rained.

6. That isn't the only place for good plays.

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305 Lesson Twenty-Two

II. Consonant Sounds.

A. Read these words (1) horizontally and (2) vertically.

[v] TV [vi] have glove very visit elevator invitation

[w] Y [wai] want wait wear wife watch William

[hw] why what when where white which Wheeler

Note: For the formation of these sounds, see the section on

American English Pronunciation, pp. xxv, xxviii.

B. Repeat each sentence several times. Imitate your teacher. Use

the same general intonation pattern for each sentence.

1. Why is Y hard to pronounce? i

2. What do you want to watch on TV?

3. Which woman is Mr. Wheeler's wife?

4. When did William visit Washington?

5. Where did you wear your white gloves?

6. We've waited a long time for the elevator.

7. We have a very nice invitation from the university.

DICTATION (Comprehension, Repetition, and Writing)

A. Close your books and listen. Your teacher will read some sentences,

at normal conversational speed, from the Oral Practice of this lesson.

B. Listen carefully as your teacher reads each sentence again, as in

normal, slow conversation. Repeat each sentence after your teacher,

and then write it.

C. Check your written work as your teacher reads all the sentences

once more, at normal conversational speed.

CONVERSATION

I. Conversation with Your Teacher.

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Close your books. Your teacher will ask the following questions

for you to answer. Give two answers whenever possible.

Lesson Twenty-Two 306

i. Who's James Smith?

2. When did he visit the Dawsons?

3. What does he do in his leisure time?

4. Does he like musical comedies?

5. Are there many theaters in New York?

6. Is it hard to get theater tickets there?

7. Which seats are always more expensive?

8. When are the Dawsons going to New York?

9. How many times have they been there?

10. What do they want to do there?

11. Is Ann going with her parents?

12. Do you have four seasons in your country?

13. Is it cold in the winter?

14. Do you ever have snow in your city? ... in your country?

15. What do you do in your leisure time?

16. Do you like to read? Have you read a good book recently?

17. Do you like movies? Have you seen a good movie recently?

18. Do you like plays? Have you seen a play recently?

19. Do you like opera? Have you ever been to an opera?

20. Do you like ballet? Have you ever seen a ballet?

21. Do you like music? Have you heard a good symphony orchestra?

22. Do you like art? Have you gone to an art gallery recently?

23. Do you like to look at television?

24. Is television popular in your country?

II. Conversation with Other Students.

Use the questions in I above or make original questions. (1) One

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student asks a question; a second student answers. (2) The second

student then asks a question, and a third student answers. Continue

around the class in this manner.

COMPOSITION

Choose one of these topics. Be prepared to write two or three paragraphs

about it in class. Use short sentences and the vocabulary that you know.

Your teacher will give you some new words, if necessary.

1. The Dawsons' Plans 3. A Good Movie (TV Program)

2. My Leisure Time 4. Television in My Country

307 Lesson Twenty-Two

23

LESSON TWENTY-THREE

THE TWENTY-THIRD LESSON

Let's Take A Trip

^-rr^pa

ORAL PRACTICE

A. May ithird! What aibeautiful spring iday!

Yes, it'sjniceiafter the rainsixty-five degrees.

Look at the green jgr'ass * and the new leaves on thejtrees.

And listen to theibirds. They're back from thejSouth.

. j vv --

Spring is my favoriteiseason. Is itiyours?

I i like | it, but I prefer j sumimer. It's really j warm j then.

1i

Note: 65 Fahrenheit = i80 centigrade.

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Lesson Twenty-Three 308

B. How long has Mr.jDawjson worked for that insurance company?

He's worked there for manyjyearssince 1940.

How long have the Dawsons lived in the [suburbs?

l_.

They've lived there for seven i monthssince last Ocjtoiber.

._... . . j \ i ;

How long has Ann studied j Spanish?

She's studied Spanish for two'yearssince 19--.

C. Have the Dawsons been to New York recently? |"

EEB

No, they haven't been there for ajlongitime, not since 1946.

Have they bought a new j car this year? ^-==^R^^s=>.

1 i -i

Nq, they haven't bought one for jthree years, not since 19

Have theyjdriven their car very much?

Yes, theyj have. They've taken a lot of j trips lin it.

Do Americans j like to travel?

Yes, theyj do. They go by plane and by] boat, by train and

by j bus, but more often by j car. ^^"flli^)

Note: 1940=nineteen if ority; i946 = nineteen forty-isix. i 1 - ' \

L... v..

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309 Lesson Twenty-Three

D. New York is the largest city in the United States. Perhaps it's

the noisiest city, too. It has the tallest buildings and the most crowded

subways. It has some of the biggest department stores. It has the

most offices and the most telephones of any city. In New York,

people can hear the best music and see the newest plays. Broadway

and Fifth Avenue are two of the most famous streets in New York.

Yes, it's really a city of superlatives.

Washington, D.C. is much smaller than New York. In fact,

several cities in the United States are larger than Washington. Some

Americans say that it's the most beautiful city in the country. Others

say that it's the cleanest city. There are many national monuments

in Washington, and the most important government buildings are

there. Why? Because it's the capital of the United States.

E. Ann has gone to Washington this week for her spring vacation.

It's her first trip to the capital. She's been there for two days now,

but she hasn't seen her friend Sue. She's going to call her on the

telephone tonight.

Ann: Heljlo, Sue? This is AnnjDawison.

Sue: Heljlo, I Ann! What are you doing in j Washington?<

Ann: It's our spring vacation now. I'm here with the senior!class.

i ... \__

Sue: How did you i come?

Ann: We came byjbus. There areifority of us * and two|teachers.

- --- \ j L--~ - -; j

Sue: How long have youibeenfhere?

v.- i i

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Ann: Twojdays. I wanted to call you:yesterday, but we werelbusy.

Sue: What have youi done? Where have you ibeen?

Lesson Twenty-Three 310

Ann: We've seen the Washington!Monument, the Lincoln Meimorial,

the famous:cherry trees, and some embassies of otherjcounitries.

Sue: Have you been to the | White House?

Ann: Yes, wejhaye. We wereivery lucky to see thejPresident, too.

v._. *

r,,,

Sue: And theiCapitol building? Congress is in jsesision now.

Ann: Yes, we've been to theiCapitol and the SupremeiCourt.

Sue: Are you going to the National Gallery of jArt?

Ann: Yes, to|morirow. We're also going to the Pan-American i Union.

L1

Sue: Well, you've I really been busy! How do youilike Washington?

Ann: I like it veiy:much. It's aibeautiful city, and verylcle'an.

Note: The Washington Monument was built in honor of George

Washington, the first president of the United States, 1789-1797. The

Lincoln Memorial was built in honor of Abraham Lincoln, the sixteenth

president of the United States, 1861-1865.

311

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Lesson Twenty-Three

Sue: How long are you going to jstay?

Ann: Only two more-days. Fdjlikeito stay for twoiweeks:

Sue: When can weiseejyou? Can you come foridinner tomorrow?

Ann: Yes, Iic'an. Thank you veryimuchifor the invijtation.

Sue: Good. We usually have dinner at seven o'clock.

r^ i 1

Ann: That'sifine. How do Iigetito your house?

v__ 1

Sue: Why don't you take aitaxi? That's theieasiest way. jj

ii

1i1i1

Ann: Alljright. See you toimorirow, then. Good-ibye,iSue.

r_"~ 1

Sue: Good-ibye,;Ann. //Z-rv\

m*.

Tom's Impressions

/+l-j Americans like to travel. Their country is very

V, large. They want to see the interesting places in the

East and the West, the North and the South. Some go

by plane or by train, others take boat trips or bus trips, but the

majority travel in their own cars. Many families take an automobile

trip during the summer. The tourist business is a big business in

the United States.

There are about fifty million (50,000,000) cars in the country.

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In fact, more than seventy per cent (70%) of the families own one.

A car is expensive, but it's very important in the life of an American.

He uses it for business and for pleasure. American cities have wide

streets, and there are good roads in all parts of the country. There's a

lot of traffic on these roads during the summer because that's vacation

time for the majority of Americans.

Lesson Twenty-Three 312

STRUCTURE

I. The Present Perfect Tense with for and since.

A. Repeat these sentences after your teacher.

minutes, hours, days

PAST -^ PRESENT

weeks, months, years

How long have the Dawsons lived in their new house?

They've lived there for seven months.

They've lived there since last October.

(They are living there now.)

Have they been to New York recently?

No, they haven't been there for a long time.

No, they haven't been there since 1946.

B. The present perfect tense often refers to an action which has

continued from the past to the present. The period of time may

be minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, or years.

1. The word for indicates the length of time. Examples: for ten

minutes, for a week, for two years.

2. The word since indicates the beginning of the period of time.

Examples: since yesterday, since last week, since 1950.

C. (1) Complete each question with the present perfect tense of the verb

in parentheses. Then give two long answers; use the time expressions

indicated.

Example: How long Tom (be) in the United States?

(a) for nine months (b) since last summer

How long has Tom been in the United States?

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(a) He's been in the United States for nine months.

(b) He's been in the United States since last summer.

1. How long the Dawsons (be) married?

(a) for twenty-two years (b) since 19 - -

313 Lesson Twenty-Three

2. How long Mr. Dawson (work) for the same company?

(a) for many years (b) since 1940

3. How long Bill (be) at the university?

(a) for three years (b) since 19 --

4. How long you (study) English?

(a) for one year (b) since last year

5. How long you (live) in the same house?

(a) for . . . years (b) since 19 - -

6. you (go) to the dentist recently?

(a) No, for six months. (b) No, since (month).

7. the boys (play) tennis recently?

(a) No, for a long time. (b) No, since last fall.

8. Betty (come) to class recently?

(a) No, for several days. (b) No, since last Tuesday.

9. you (talk) with her today?

(a) No, for two days. (b) No, since (day).

10. the Dawsons (take) a trip recently?

(a) No, for a year. (b) No, since last year.

(2) Use for or since in the blanks as you read these sentences.

Examples: He's had his new car a week.

He's had his new car for a week.

He's had his new car last week.

He's had his new car since last week.

1. We've waited here twenty minutes.

2. We've been here eight o'clock.

3. It's rained more than two hours.

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4. It's rained early this morning.

5. I've known the Clarks 1952.

6. Dr. Clark has been a dentist twenty-five years.

7. Mrs. Clark has been in the hospital a week.

8. I haven't seen her Saturday afternoon.

9. I haven't written any letters a month.

10. There hasn't been a good movie here several weeks.

Lesson Twenty-Three 314

(3) Use the present perfect tense or the simple past tense of the verb

in parentheses, as required.

Example: Tom (be) in the United States for nine months now.

He (arrive) in the United States last summer.

Tom has been in the United States for nine months now.

He arrived in the United States last summer.

1. Mr. Dawson (work) for that company since 1940.

He (start) to sell insurance in September, 1940.

2. The Dawsons (move) to the suburbs last October.

They (live) there for seven months now.

3. They (buy) their car three years ago.

They (have) their car since April, 19 --.

4. They (take) some interesting trips since then.

They (take) a long trip last summer.

5. Bill (help) his father since noon today.

He (help) him last night, too.

6. The boys (play) tennis last Saturday.

They (playnegative) again since then.

7. Jim Smith (be) in New York for a year now.

He (work) in Washington before that.

8. I (meet) him two months ago.

My cousin (know) him for a long time.

9. I (readnegative) that book for many years.

I (read) it a long time ago.

10. I (study) English for one year now.

I (begin) to study English a year ago.

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II. Comparisons with most and -est.

A. Repeat these examples after your teacher.

A is the tallest of the three girls.

B is the busiest of the three.

C is the nicest girl of all.

A is the most serious girl in the class.

B is the most active girl in school.

C is my best friend at school.

315 Lesson Twenty-Three

POSITIVE

COMPARATIVE

SUPERLATIVE

tall

taller than

the tallest

nice

nicer than

the nicest

big

bigger than

the biggest

busy

busier than

the busiest

active

more active than

the most active

serious

more serious than

the most serious

good, well

better than

the best

much, many

more than

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the most

B. The superlative forms are used in comparisons of three or more

persons or things.

i. The word most [most] and the ending -est [ist] are used in the

superlative in the same way that more and the ending -er are

used in the comparative.

2. The definite article the usually precedes the superlative.

3. The most + a noun means the largest number of. Examples:

the most offices, the most telephones.

4. A preposition usually follows the superlative. It may be the

word of or a preposition of place (in, on, at).

C. Complete each sentence with the superlative form of the word in

parentheses. Include the definite article.

Example: Mary is (short) of the three girls.

Mary is the shortest of the three girls.

1. Ann is (pretty) girl in her class.

2. She speaks Spanish (well) of all the students.

3. Miss Lee is (young) teacher at school.

4. Her classroom is (small) room on the second floor.

5. February is (short) month in the year.

6. Yesterday was (hot) day this summer.

7. It was also (lucky) day of my life.

8. Baseball is (popular) sport in the United States.

9. The game yesterday was (important) game of the season.

10. It was also (exciting) of all the games.

Lesson Twenty-Three

316

ii. Washington, D.C. isn't (large) city in the United States.

New York is (big) of all the cities.

12. Washington is one of (beautiful) cities in the country.

13. New York has (tall) buildings of any city. (tall) building of all

has 102 floors.

14. New York has (many) theaters and (many) subways of any

American city.

15. Broadway and Fifth Avenue are two of (famous) streets in New

York. Broadway is also one of (long) streets.

DI. Prepositions: by, for, since. Read each sentence with the preposition

indicated.

A. By (means)

1. I always come to class bus. (on the bus)

2. John usually comes streetcar (on the streetcar)

3. Ann went to Sue's house taxi. (in a taxi)

4. Did your uncle go to New York plane or boat?

5. He went plane. Then he went to Washington train.

6. Do the Dawsons like to travel car?

B. For (length of time)

1. I've studied English one year.

2. I'm going to study it several years.

3. My sister studied it two years, from 1953 to 1955.

4. Tom studied English in his country five years.

5. The Dawsons haven't been to New York a long time,

6. They were there a week in 1946.

7. It rained two hours this morning.

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8. It's rained every day a week.

C. Since (beginning of a period of time)

1. It's rained every day last Thursday.

2. Tom has been in the United States last summer.

3. I haven't talked with him last week.

4. Mr. Dawson has sold insurance 1940.

5. The Dawsons have lived there last October.

6. They haven't gone to New York 1946.

317 Lesson Twenty-Three

VOCABULARY Do you know these new words and expressions?

about

[about]

Abraham

[ebrahaem]

best

[best]

bird

[ba-d]

boat

[bot]

Broadway (street name)

[br5dwe]

business

[bfznis]

by

[bai]

capital

[kaepat]]

Capitol

[kEepatJ]

cherry tree

[tSn tri]

clean

[klin]

Congress

east

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[kdrjgras]

' [ist]

embassy

[embasi]

famous

[femas]

favorite

[fevnt]

for

[for, fa-]

leaf (pi. leaves).

[lif] [livz]

Lincoln

[lfrjkan]

memorial

[manorial]

monument. . . .

[mdnyamant]

most

[most]

national

[nseSan]]

nice

[nais]

north

[nor0]

Pan-American Union.. .

[psenamrakan yunyan]

per cent

[pa-sent]

plane

[plen]

pleasure

[pl^]

president

[prezadant]

rain. . .

[ren]

really. .

[ri(a)li]

road. . .

[rod]

session.

Idioms

What a JL\ be lucky

be back be in session

a long time How do you like ?.

take a trip get to (a place)

by plane (boat, train, bus, car) See you tomorrow. . .

There are forty of us fifty million cars. . . .

PRONUNCIATION

I. Vowel Sounds.

A. Read these words (1) horizontally and (2) vertically.

[a] art charge opera comedy concert Congress popular

[cu] by fine size style decide exciting all right

[au] how house about crowded thousand outdoors downstairs

Note: For the formation of these sounds, see the section on

American English Pronunciation, pp. xxi, xxiii.

B. Repeat each sentence several times. Imitate your teacher. Use the

same general intonation pattern for each sentence.

1. I've decided to charge it. _i \ ;

2. The size is fine, and I like the style. ^

3. How did you like that musical comedy?

4. The Opera House was crowded last night.

5. Our summer concerts are very popular.

6. About a thousand people sit outdoors and listen.

II. Consonant Sounds.

A. Read these words (1) horizontally and (2) vertically.

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319 Lesson Twenty-Three

[s] Sue seen since lesson person subway September

[$] shoe show shop session national Washington professional

[3] leisure pleasure usually television

Note: For the formation of these sounds, see the section on

American English Pronunciation, p. xxvi.

B. Repeat each sentence several times. Imitate your teacher. Use

the same general intonation pattern for each sentence.

1. Did Sue show you her new shoes? j

2. Does she usually shop on Saturdays?

3. Is Washington the national capital?

4. Is Congress in session in September?

5. Does a person take a subway for pleasure?

6. Have you seen a professional game on television?

DICTATION (Comprehension, Repetition, and Writing)

A. Close your books and listen. Your teacher will read some sentences,

at normal conversational speed, from the Oral Practice of this lesson.

B. Listen carefully as your teacher reads each sentence again, as in

normal, slow conversation. Repeat each sentence after your teacher,

and then write it.

C. Check your written work as your teacher reads all the sentences once

more, at normal conversational speed.

CONVERSATION

I. Conversation with Your Teacher.

Close your books. Your teacher will ask the following questions for

you to answer. Give two answers whenever possible.

1. Do Americans like to travel?

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2. When do they often take trips?

3. Are there many cars in the United States?

Lesson Twenty-Three 320

4. What's the capital of the United States? Where is it?

5. When did Ann go to Washington?

6. Did she go with her family?

7. How did she go? How long did she stay?

8. What did she do in Washington?

9. What did she say about the city?

10. When did she see her friend Sue?

11. Was it easy to get to Sue's house?

12. Is Washington larger than New York?

13. What's the White House? . . . the Capitol building? . . . the

Supreme Court? . . . the Pan-American Union?

14. Why is New York a city of superlatives?

15. Have all Americans been to New York?

16. What's your favorite season? Why do you like it?

17. Where do you live now? How long have you lived there?

18. Where do you work now? How long have you worked there?

19. How long have you studied English?

20. Have you gone to a movie recently?

21. Have you seen your cousins recently?

22. Have you ever talked with an American tourist?

23. Do you like to travel? How do you like to travel?

24. Have you taken a trip recently?

25. Where did you go? How did you go? How long did you stay?

n. Conversation with Other Students.

Use the questions in I above or make original questions. (1) One

student asks a question; a second student answers. (2) The second

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student then asks a question, and a third student answers. Continue

around the class in this manner.

COMPOSITION

Choose one of these topics. Be prepared to write two or three paragraphs

about it in class. Use short sentences and the vocabulary that you know.

Your teacher will give you some new words, if necessary.

1. Ann's Spring Vacation 3. By Plane or by Train?

2. My Favorite Season 4. The Capital of My Country

321 Lesson Twenty-Three

24

LESSON TWENTY-FOUR

THE TWENTY-FOURTH LESSON

Review

PRONUNCIATION

A. (1) Review the vowel triangle and the consonant chart on pp. xx, xxiv.

(2) Then read the examples under English Stress and American

English Intonation, pp. xxix-xxxvii.

B. Repeat each sentence below after your teacher. Imitate carefully.

C. Copy the sentences in your notebook. Mark the intonation patterns.

Examples: Whose; glove lis this? Is itiyours? Yes, itjis.

1. Are we ready now? Yes, let's go.

2. Which restaurant has the best food?

3. Thank you very much for the invitation.

4. Meet me at the same place at the same time.

5. Did you drive downtown yesterday?

6. Why didn't you walk in this nice weather?

7. The leaves on the trees are green again.

8. Do you really like the rain?

9. A train travels faster than a bus.

10. Are you going by plane or by boat?

n. Take a warm coat. It's cold there in the winter.

12. When does it usually begin to snow?

13. Did you enjoy that program last night?

14. Did you buy your tickets in advance?

15. How long have you waited for the elevator?

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16. Is the shoe department on the fifth floor?

17. Are there many famous buildings in Washington?

18. Ann saw the Capitol, the Supreme Court, and the White House.

Lesson Twenly-Four 322

STRUCTURE

I. The Simple Past Tense.

A. Use the simple past tense of the verbs as you read these sentences.

Example: She (have to) go to the dentist yesterday.

She had to go to the dentist yesterday.

i. She (want) to do some shopping, too.

2. She (decide) to go downtown early.

3. She (get up) a little after seven.

4. She (get) dressed and (have) her breakfast.

5. She (leave) the house at nine o'clock.

6. She (wear) a coat because it (be) cool.

7. She (walk) to the corner and (take) a bus.

8. The bus (be) crowded, but she (find) a seat.

9. She (get) downtown in twenty minutes.

10. First, she (do) some window shopping.

11. She (look) at the clothes in the store windows.

12. She (need) to buy a new hat.

13. She (go) to the hat department in her favorite store.

14. A nice clerk (speak) to her and (offer) her a chair.

15. Then the clerk (show) her a lot of hats.

16. She (try on) several.

17. She (choose) a pretty white hat.

18. The clerk (say) that it (be) very becoming to her.

19. She (like) it, too, and (decide) to get it.

20. She (pay) for it. The clerk (put) it in a hat box for her.

B.

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(1) First answer all these questions in the affirmative. (2) Then

answer them in the negative. Give short answers and long answers.

Example: Did (Didn't) you go to class yesterday?

Yes, I did. I went to class (yesterday).

No, I didn't. I didn't go to class (yesterday).

1. Did you meet those Americans last night?

2. Did you speak English with them?

323 Lesson Twenty-Four

3. Did you find your glove?

4. Did you get home very late?

5. Did you buy a paper this morning?

6. Didn't you read about the fire?

7. Didn't you eat any breakfast?

8. Didn't you write your sentences for today?

9. Didn't you understand the assignment?

10. Didn't you study English last year?

C.

Each statement below is the answer to a question. (1) Make the

question with the interrogative word in place of the words in italics.

(2) Then read the answer as given.

Example: When ... ? Jim Smith visited the Dawsons in February.

When did Jim Smith visit the Dawsons?

Jim Smith visited the Dawsons in February.

1. When . . . ?

2. How . .

3. Why . .

4. Who . .

5. When .

6. Where

7. How . .

8. Why . .

9. How many ..

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10. How long . .

n. What. . . ?

12. Where . . . ?

13. What. . . ?

14. What time ..

15. What . . . ?

Mr. and Mrs. Dawson went to New York in

April.

They traveled by train.

They didn't take a plane because it was too

expensive.

Jim Smith got some theater tickets for them.

He got them several weeks in advance.

Ann spent her spring vacation in Washington.

The seniors went together on a special bus.

They didn't go by train because the bus was

cheaper.

There were forty students and two teachers.

They stayed in Washington for four days.

They saw the most important buildings there.

Ann went to Sue's house for dinner one night.

The easiest way to get there was by taxi.

They had dinner at seven o'clock.

Ann said, "Washington is a beautiful city."

II. Direct and Indirect Objects. Place the word or words in parentheses

in the correct position as you read each sentence.

Lesson Twenty-Four

324

Example: I bought a book. (my sister)

I bought my sister a book.

i. Please give your name and address.

2. Please repeat that address.

3. Ann said, "Please get a film for my camera."

4. Her mother bought an umbrella, too.

5. Why did Tom give those flowers?

6. Does Mr. Dawson want to sell some insurance?

7. Yes, I wrote a long letter last night.

8. I asked a lot of questions.

9. Did Jim show a map of New York?

10. Yes, he showed a map of the city.

11. Mr. Dawson said, "Can you get some tickets?"

12. Jim said, "Yes, I can get some."

13. Mr. Dawson gave some money for the tickets.

14. Did Mrs. Dawson offer some coffee?

15. Yes, she made some hot coffee.

16. Our teacher always explains the lesson.

17. Does he (she) ever teach a song in English?

18. Can you tell the answer to this question?

19. Why did the little boy give an apple?

20. He gave an apple because he liked her.

(me)

(for me)

(me)

(her)

(you)

(him)

(him)

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(Ann)

(the Dawsons)

(them)

(us)

(you)

(Jim)

(the men)

(them)

(to us)

(you)

(me)

(his teacher)

(her)

III. The Verbs say and tell.

A. Fill the blanks with say or tell, as required.

Examples: Please that again. Please me that again.

Please say that again. Please tell me that again.

1. Did you hello to Mary?

2. Did you her hello?

3. Did you good-bye to John?

4. Did you him good-bye?

5. What did you to them?

6. What did you them?

7. Please that word again.

8. Please that sentence again.

325

Lesson Twenty-Four

0. Please me your friend's name.

10. Can you the names of the months?

ii. When can you us about your trip?

12. Can you me the assignment for tomorrow?

B. Read each sentence preceded by Tom (He) says that or Tom (He)

tells us that.

Example: Americans like to travel.

Tom says that Americans like to travel.

or He tells us that Americans like to travel.

i. They often take trips during the summer.

2. The majority of American families have a car.

3. There are millions of cars in the United States.

4. It's often cold there in the winter.

5. American homes usually have central heating.

6. Some television programs are very good.

7. Many cities have good symphony orchestras.

8. Americans usually buy their clothes ready-made.

9. They have a lot of big department stores.

10. An American drugstore is very interesting.

C. Complete these sentences with the past tense of say or tell, as required.

Example: Tom said, "I have to go to the dentist."

Tom said that he had to go to the dentist.

Tom told me that he had to go to the dentist.

1. Ann to Sue, "I'm in Washington for spring vacation."

Ann that she was in Washington for spring vacation.

Ann - Sue that she was in Washington for spring vacation.

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2. She , "I'm with the seniors from school."

She that she was with the seniors from school.

She her that she was with the seniors from school.

3. She , "There are forty of us."

She that there were forty of them.

She her that there were forty of them.

Lesson Twenty-Four 326

4. She , "I like Washington very much."

She that she liked Washington very much.

She her that she liked Washington very much.

5. She , "I want to stay for two weeks."

She that she wanted to stay for two weeks.

She her that she wanted to stay for two weeks.

IV. Possessive Forms.

A. Answer these questions in the affirmative. Use a possessive pronoun.

Eocamples: Is this your room? Yes, it's mine.

Are these your pictures? Yes, they're mine.

1. Is this your notebook? 5. Is that the Dawsons'house?

2. Are these your sentences? 6. Are those Mrs. Dawson's keys?

3. Is this Ann's pen? 7. Is that Mr. Dawson's office?

4. Are these Ann's books? 8. Are those his pictures?

B. Answer these questions in the negative; use a possessive pronoun.

Then add an affirmative statement; use a possessive noun.

Example: Is that Tom's hat? No, it isn't his. It's Bill's.

1. Is that Bill's camera? 5. Are these Mr. Dawson's gloves?

2. Are those your films? 6. Is this your sister's umbrella?

3. Is that Ann's red dress? 7. Are those the students' books?

4. Is that the Dawsons' car? 8. Is that your brother's store?

C. As you read these sentences, fill each blank with a possessive pronoun.

Follow the examples.

Examples: That isn't my pencil. is yellow.

That isn't my pencil. Mine is yellow.

We bought our tickets. Did you buy ?

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We bought our tickets. Did you buy yours?

1. These aren't our coats. are in the other room.

2. That isn't the Dawsons' car. is blue.

3. That isn't Sue's house. is white.

327 Lesson Twenty-Four

4. Those aren't Jim's gloves. are bigger.

5. These aren't your pictures. are in that envelope.

6. This isn't Mr. Dawson's office. is on the second floor.

7. That isn't my telephone number. is 5-3-1-8-2.

8. Ann ate her salad. Did Tom eat ?

9. Tom drank his milk. Did Ann drink ?

10. The Scotts sold their car. Did the Dawsons sell ?

11. They had their vacation in July. When did you have ?

12. I have your address. Did I give you ?

V. The Words very and too. As you read these sentences, fill the

blanks with very or too, whichever is more logical.

Examples: I like the Dawsons' new house.

It's modern. It's very modern.

I can't walk home from here.

It's far. It's too far (for me to walk).

1. We couldn't see well. The art gallery was crowded.

2. The last concert was good, but it was long.

3. That play was serious, but we liked it much.

4. We sat in the balcony. The other seats were expensive.

5. Ann is young to understand that play.

6. I prefer a small town. New York is big for me.

7. Jim likes New York. A small town is quiet for him.

8. It's cold there in the winter, but he likes cold weather.

9. Let's take this road. There's much traffic on that road.

10. Some people drive fast for me.

11. We're late. The bus left five minutes ago.

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12. It's cloudy this morning. It looks like rain.

13. That coat doesn't fit you. It's small.

14. I never wear red. It's pretty, but it's bright for me.

15. I was busy to call you yesterday.

16. Thank you much for the invitation.

17. My brother was lucky to win a scholarship.

18. I couldn't do all the assignment. It was long.

19. I can't study now. I'm tired and sleepy.

20. Six o'clock is early for me to get up.

Lesson Twenty-Four 328

(find)

(do)

(write)

(leave)

(go)

(take)

(think)

(decide)

(buy)

(make)

VI. The Present Perfect Tense.

A. (i) Complete each question with the present perfect tense of the verb

in parentheses. (2) Then give a long answer in the affirmative or in

the negative, as indicated; use contractions.

Example: (be) you absent recently? No, ....

Have you been absent recently?

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No, I haven't been absent recently.

- you your English book? No, ....

- you your assignment for today? Yes, ....

- you all the exercises? Yes, ....

- Mrs. Dawson the house? Yes, ....

- she shopping? No, ....

- she her raincoat with her? No, ....

- they about a trip to New York? Yes, ....

- they to go in April? Yes, ....

- they their train tickets? No, ....

- you any plans for your vacation? No, ....

B. Use the present perfect tense of the verbs in parentheses.

Example: (rain) it here this week?

Yes, it . It almost every day.

Has it rained here this week?

Yes, it has. It's rained almost every day.

i. (meet) Tom many Americans?

Yes, he . He a lot of Americans.

2. (spend) he much time with the Dawsons?

Yes, he . He many weekends with them.

3. (be) they ever to New York?

Yes, they . They there once.

4. (see) they any plays recently?

No, they . They one for two months.

5. (hear) they the symphony orchestra?

Yes, they . They it twice this winter.

329 Lesson Twenty-Four

C. In these sentences, use the present perfect tense and the past tense, as

shown in the example.

Example: (begin) it to rain?

Yes, it . It five minutes ago.

Has it begun to rain?

Yes, it has. It began five minutes ago.

i. (take) Tom ever a boat trip?

Yes, he . He one three years ago.

2. (see) he Ann recently?

Yes, he . He her last weekend.

3. (call) he ever her on the telephone?

Yes, he . He her once last month.

4. (come) your cousin to visit you?

Yes, she . She yesterday.

5. (have) you your dinner?

Yes, we . We it an hour ago.

6. (go) you to a movie this week?

Yes, we . We to one last night.

7. (read) you that new book?

Yes, I . I it two weeks ago.

8. (be) there many good TV programs recently?

Yes, there . There several last week.

D. Complete each question with the present perfect tense of the verb in

parentheses. Then give two answers, one with for and one with since.

Example: (wait) How long you for a bus?

How long have you waited for a bus?

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I've waited for ten minutes.

I've waited since ten o'clock.

Lesson Twenty-Four 330

i. (study) How long you English now?

2. (use) How long we this book?

3. (know) How long the Dawsons Tom?

4. (drive) How long Mr. Dawson a car?

5. (work) How long he for the same company?

6. (be) How long Jim Smith in New York?

VII. Comparisons.

A. As you read these sentences, change the words in parentheses to the

comparative form with more or the ending -er. Add the word than

in a complete comparison.

Examples: It's (late) you think.

It's later than you think.

Friends are (important) money.

Friends are more important than money.

1. Their house is (modern) ours. Our street is (quiet) theirs.

2. A big city is (exciting) a small town.

3. The department stores are (big); the restaurants are (famous).

4. But the people in a small town are often (friendly).

5. It's (warm) in the summer in the spring.

6. It's (sunny) today it was yesterday.

7. Washington is (beautiful) New York, but New York is (large).

8. There's (a lot) to do in New York in Washington.

9. There are (many) shows and concerts there in other cities.

10. A musical is usually (expensive) a play.

11. Balcony seats are (cheap) seats downstairs.

12. They're also (hard) to get.

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13. The Clarks have been to New York (recently) the Dawsons.

14. I like to travel by boat (very much) by plane.

15. That bus leaves (early) the train, but the train goes (fast).

16. The city buses are (crowded) at five o'clock at four o'clock.

17. I'm (tired) today I was yesterday.

18. My sister speaks English (well) I do.

19. It's (easy) for her it is for me. She's (lucky) I am.

20. One little boy said to another, "My father is (good) yours."

331 Lesson Twenty-Four

B. Make original sentences with these comparative expressions. They

may be questions or statements, affirmative or negative.

Examples: Tom is as tall as Bill.

Bill isn't as tall as his father.

Is Ann as pretty as her picture?

Isn't this street as wide as that street?

Does Bill study as hard as Tom?

i. as old as 6. as clean as 11. as far as

2. as big as 7. as noisy as 12. as well as

3. as full as 8. as nice as 13. as fast as

4. as good as 9. as happy as 14. as late as

5. as easy as 10. as hungry as 15. as early as

C. (1) Read each question with the superlative form of the word in

parentheses. Include the definite article. (2) Then answer the

question in a complete sentence.

Example: What's (easy) way to learn English?

What's the easiest way to learn English?

The easiest way is to study and to practice.

1. Is this (long) lesson in the book?

2. Which lesson was (short) of all?

3. Which lesson was (hard) for you?

4. Which lesson was (interesting) of all?

5. What's (popular) sport in your country?

6. What's (beautiful) city in your country?

7. Which city is (modern)?

8. What's (busy) street in this city?

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9. What's (tall) building here?

10. What's (good) newspaper here?

VIII. Word Order. Arrange each group of words in the correct order

and read the sentence. Questions are indicated by a question mark (?)

below the words.

Lesson Twenty-Four 332

i. in 2.

to 3.

him 4.

does

him

yes

for

now

glad

many

they

live

see

they

time

brother

were

about

been

New York

again

asked

long

Mrs. Dawson's

the Dawsons

there

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New York

questions

haven't

5. of 6.

in 7.

any 8.

the

the

you

see

any

are

good

ago

has

most

seen

you

city

buildings

movies

one

tallest

important

have

week

New York

Washington

recently

didn't

buildings

government

9. go 10.

go II.

the 12.

it

his

to

Examples: How many lessons are there in this book?

How long have you studied English?

Why didn't you come to class yesterday?

When can we have lunch together?

Where are you going to spend your vacation?

i. Who . . . ?

2. Whose . . .

3. What . . . ?

4. Where . . .

5. When . . . ?

6. Why . . . ?

7. What time

8. How much

9. How many

10. How long .

am, is, isn't; are, aren't

there is(n't); there are(n't)

was, wasn't; were, weren't

there was(n't); there were(n't)

(am, is, are) + going to

can, can't

do, don't; does, doesn't

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did, didn't

have, haven't; has, hasn't

X. Prepositions. Fill each blank with the correct preposition.

number (2) indicates that two prepositions are possible.

Example: Do you like to shop a department store?

Do you like to shop in a department store?

The

We went downtown Saturday.

I took my umbrella because it looked rain.

We went a department store Fifth Avenue.

It opened ten o'clock the morning.

First, I bought a sweater my sister.

Then I looked some hats the fourth floor.

I liked one, but I didn't buy it. I'm going to think

8. That coat looks very good Mr. Dawson.

9. He can wear it all his suits.

It's a good coat the price.

Prices usually depend quality and style.

Mrs. Dawson's new dress is very becoming her.

I like the color it.

What do you do your leisure time?

Do you often look television?

16. Have you ever been an opera?

10.

11.

12.

14.

i5.

it.

Lesson Twenty-Four

334

17. Do you often go the theater?

18. Do you have to get tickets advance?

19. Where do you like to sit, downstairs or the balcony?

20. Mrs. Dawson's brother is (2) New York.

21. He came to visit the Dawsons February.

22. New York is the largest city the United States.

23. fact, it's much larger than any other American city.

24. It has the most theaters any city the country.

25. A car is important the life an American.

26. He uses it business and pleasure.

27. The Dawsons like to travel car.

28. They've taken many trips their car.

29. There are good roads all parts the country.

30. There's a lot of traffic the roads (2) the summer.

31. How long has Mr. Dawson worked that company?

32. He's worked there many years, 1940.

33. There are many beautiful buildings Washington.

34. The city is very pretty (2) the spring.

35. Look the new leaves the trees.

36. This is Ann's first trip the capital.

37. She's gone her senior class. They went bus.

38. There are forty them and two teachers.

39. Ann hasn't seen Sue last year.

40. She called her the telephone last night.

41. How is Ann going to get Sue's house?

42. Have you made any plans your vacation?

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ORAL COMPOSITION

Choose one topic from each group below. Be prepared to talk in class

for two or three minutes about any one of your three topics.

1. A Good Place to Shop 2. My Leisure Time

A New Coat (Suit, Dress, Hat) A Good Movie (Play)

The Seasons and the Weather Radio or Television?

3. My Vacation Plans

The Life of a Tourist

My Most Interesting Trip

335 Lesson Twenty-Four

Tom's Impressions

This has been a very interesting year for me in the

United States. I've studied hard, and I've learned a lot

not only about engineering but also about American life.

At first, many things seemed new and strange, and it was hard for

me to speak English all the time. The people, however, were very

friendly, and they helped me in many ways.

The Dawsons are my best friends, but I know a lot of Americans

now. They've invited me to their homes, and they've explained their

customs to me. They've also asked me many questions about my

country.

Yes, I've really been busy here this year. I've enjoyed all the

sports very much. I've traveled on several buses and trains. I've

visited some of the schools. I've gone shopping in the supermarkets

and the big department stores. I've learned to like American food,

too, and I understand a movie in English now. I've also seen several

good plays and heard some wonderful music this year.

The majority of Americans live well, but they also work hard.

They're practical and efficient. They want to own a home and a car;

they want to have a radio, a television set, and many conveniences

in their homes. Their taxes are high; but they have good schools,

good roads, and good government. They often seem to be in a hurry.

In fact, everything moves faster here than in my country.

Well, I have to say good-bye now because I'm going home soon.

I've been very happy this year, and I'm not going to forget my friends

in the United States.

336

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Lesson Twenty-Four

AMERICAN ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION

The first step in learning a new language is to learn the sounds of

that language. It is difficult for a student to develop a new set of

speech sounds because he often cannot hear or produce the sounds

which are different from those of his native language. All habits, how-

ever, are developed through practice; with constant repetition, the

student will gradually become familiar with the English sounds.

Therefore, a great deal of attention should be given to correct pro-

nunciation throughout the first year's work as it is very difficult to

change faulty pronunciation habits later.

The rhythm and intonation of English are also important for the

beginner. A misplaced stress, or accent, in a word or sentence may

lead to misunderstanding; likewise, an intonation pattern which is

not English may make a sentence difficult to understand, even though

the individual sounds are perfectly correct and clear.

The best way to learn the pronunciation of a new language is

through imitation. The student should imitate the teacher constantly;

the more accurately he imitates, the better his pronunciation will be.

Through careful imitation, the student can learn to pronounce English

reasonably well. However, the phonetic symbols used in this text in

addition to explanations by the teacher of the formation of the sounds

will also help the student to produce the sounds more clearly and

accurately.

xvii

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AMERICAN ENGLISH SOUNDS

I. Phonetic Symbols.

The letters of the alphabet may represent several different sounds

in English; spelling, therefore, is not a key to pronunciation. For this

reason, it is better to use a symbol to represent a sound than to use a

letter, although some of the symbols are also letters. A phonetic

symbol is a sound symbol; each phonetic symbol, placed in brackets

[ ], represents only one speech sound. These symbols can be a useful

guide to good, clear pronunciation, although the sounds themselves

are always more important than the symbols.

The pronunciation indicated in this text represents that of "General

American" conversational English. The phonetic transcription is

based upon the alphabet of the International Phonetic Association

(IPA) and the authoritative work of John S. Kenyon and Thomas

A. Knott in their Pronouncing Dictionary of American English, with

these exceptions: the symbol [j] of the IPA is replaced by [y]; the

diphthongs [ai] and [au] of the IPA are replaced by [ai] and [au]; the

symbols [a] and [jj are eliminated for the sake of simplicity in favor

of [9] and [ar], which are used for both stressed and unstressed syllables;

and accent marks are placed over the stressed vowel instead of before

the stressed syllable.

The number of symbols used is limited for pedagogical reasons

with the result that the transcription is a phonemic one. In other

words, only the sounds which may distinguish meaning are represented.

Generally, only one pronunciation of a word is given in order not to

confuse the student, although English pronunciation varies consider-

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ably from region to region, from individual to individual, and from situa-

tion to situation.

II. Articulation.

For the correct articulation or formation of each sound, the student

should know the position of the lips, the Jaw, and the tongue. The

speech organs used in producing the sounds are shown in the first dia-

gram on the following page.

xviii

The Speech Organs

The Vowel Triangle

TR

HP

VC

lip

toothridge

hard palate

velum

vocal cords

Tongue:

Tip (blackened)

F = front

M = middle

B = back

III. The Vowel Sounds.

There are twelve vowel sounds that a beginner must know. Five of

these sounds exist in almost every language: [i], [e], [a], [o], [u]. The

other seven are more or less peculiar to English and are usually more

difficult for the foreign student to distinguish and to produce.

The relation of one vowel sound to another can be represented

graphically on a vowel triangle. The triangle in the diagram above

shows the different positions of the tongue for the corresponding

sounds: for [i] the tongue is high in front; for [u] the tongue is high in

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back; and for [a] the tongue is low in the mouth and the jaw drops

considerably.

xix

For the other intermediate vowel sounds, see the complete vowel

triangle below. From [i] to [a] and from [u] to [a], the tongue is just

a little lower for each sound; the jaw also drops gradually just a little

so that each sound is a little more open than the preceding sound.

From [i] to [a], the lips are drawn back, or unrounded; from [u] to [a],

the lips are rounded and more or less protruded. For [a] and [ar], the

tongue is in the middle of the mouth and the lips are relaxed.

UNROUNDED

ROUNDED

Front

Back

i.[i]\

/ M i-

seek\

/ suit

2.[l]\

Av) 9.

sick\

/ soot

3. [e]\ 12. [9-]

sake \ sir

/[o]8.

/ soak

/i]7.

4. [e]\ 11. [a]

set \ son

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/ sought

[sot]

5- [\ /

sack\ /

6. [a]3

sock

[i]

Narrow opening between lips; lips drawn

back rather tensely in smiling position; tip

of tongue may touch lower teeth; middle of

tongue pressing against hard palate and sides

of tongue against upper teeth.

be, key, sleep, green, eat, speak, read, teach

XX

2.

Closely related to [i]; same narrow opening

between lips; lips drawn back less tensely

than for [i]; tip of tongue may touch lower

teeth; middle of tongue slightly lower than

for [i] and sides of tongue on upper teeth.

it, is, it's, Miss, this, six, sit, near, here

3-

[e]

[e]

More open than [i] and [1]; jaw drops a little;

lips drawn back rather tensely; tip of tongue

may touch lower teeth; middle of tongue

slightly lower than for [1] and sides touching

upper teeth; when stressed, pronounced [ei].

name, day, page, play, they

More open than [e]; jaw drops a little more;

lips drawn back less tensely than for [e] by

relaxing the corners of the mouth; front of

tongue a little lower and more relaxed, and

sides of tongue barely touching upper teeth.

yes, pen, desk, well, there, where, chair

More open than [e]; jaw drops a little more;

lips drawn back in a laughing position; tip

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of tongue receded from lower teeth; front of

tongue a little lower and sides of tongue no

longer touching upper teeth.

am, class, map, man, that, glad, thank

Most open vowel sound; jaw drops consider-

ably, leaving large opening between lips; lips

rounded and relaxed; tip of tongue receded;

tongue low in mouth.

are, on, not, clock, John

xxi

[]

More closed than [a]; jaw raised a little; lips

rounded and somewhat protruded; tongue

drawn back a little.

wall, small, tall, long, or, door, floor, four

8.

[o]

More closed than [o]; jaw raised a little more,

leaving small, round opening; lips well rounded

and protruded; tip of tongue touches nothing;

tongue drawn back a little more; when stressed,

pronounced as a diphthong: [ou].

no, go, home, those, close

More closed than [o]; jaw raised a little more,

with opening wider horizontally but narrower

between teeth; lips less rounded but some-

what protruded; tongue drawn back and

upward with sides touching upper teeth.

book, look, good, foot, put

10.

[]

Jaw almost closed, leaving very small, round

opening; lips rather tensely rounded and well

protruded in whistling position; tip of tongue

touches nothing; back of tongue raised and

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touching velum.

you, do, two, school, room, who

ii.

Lazy, effortless sound in neutral position;

lips not drawn back and not rounded, but

completely relaxed in natural open position;

tip of tongue touches nothing; tongue relaxed

on floor of mouth; sound called the schwa.

a, of, son, run, young

xxii

12. [a1] The r-vowel or the schwa r; lips in natural

open position, but slightly rounded and pro-

truded; tip of tongue raised and tensely drawn

back a little; sides of tongue touching upper

teeth.

word, work, girl, third, learn

IV. The Diphthongs.

A diphthong is one continuous gliding sound from one vowel to

another within the same syllable. There are three basic diphthongs in

English. The first part of the sound in these diphthongs is stronger

than the second.

i.

[ca] Tongue and lips begin in position for [a] and

change rapidly to position for [i].

I, time, five, nine, light, write

2. [au] Tongue and lips begin in position for [a] and

change rapidly to position for [u].

now, brown, house

3. [oi] Tongue and lips begin in position for [0] and

change rapidly to position for [1].

boy, voice

All vowel sounds in English have a tendency to be lengthened by

a glide and to become diphthongs, especially when they occur in

stressed syllables at the end of an intonation pattern. This is par-

ticularly true of the sounds [e] and [0], which become [ei] and [ou].

In spite of this general tendency for all vowels, the simple symbols of

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the triangle are used in the transcription of this text, such as [e] in

day [de] and [o] in go [go]. It should be understood, however, that

they are pronounced [del] and [gou] when noticeably stressed.

xxiii

V. The Consonant Sounds.

In English there are twenty-five consonant sounds. Sixteen of

these sounds occur in eight pairs; each pair is produced in the same

way except that one sound is voiceless and the other is voiced. A

sound is voiceless, or without voice, when there is no vibration of the

vocal cords; a sound is voiced when one hears the voice because of the

vibration of the vocal cords. The voiceless sounds are usually ac-

companied by a puff of air known as aspiration; there is no aspiration

with a voiced sound.

All the vowel sounds and most of the consonant sounds are voiced.

Except for the three nasal sounds, [m], [n], and [n], the velum closes

the passage of the nose so that the air escapes through the mouth.

The chart below shows all the consonant sounds in graphic form.

All the sounds inside the box are voiced; the sounds outside the box

are voiceless.

VOICELESS

VOICED

i. pen

[p]

[b]

Ben

10. [1] law

2. tWO

[t]

[d]

do

3. cold

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Nasals

[g]

gold

n. [m] my

4. fine

[f]

vine

12. [n] no

5. thin

[6]

[]

then

13. [n] sing

6. Sue

zoo

Glides

7. missior

i[$]

[3]

vision

14. [r] are; red

8. cheap

[t$]

[d3]

jeep

15. [y] yes

9. he

[h]

16. [w] we

17. [h

w]

hat

XXIV

[p] voiceless

[d] voiced

[k] voiceless

[g] voiced

[f] voiceless

Lips closed, then open to release air; strong

aspiration at beginning of words for [p].

[p] pen, pencil, piece, page, play

[b] book, boy, blue, brown, black, board

Tip of tongue on toothridge, then released;

sides of tongue touching upper teeth; strong

aspiration at beginning of words for [t].

[t] table, two, ten, tall, time, telephone

[d] day, do, door, desk, doctor

Tip of tongue touches nothing; back of

tongue on velum, then released; strong as-

piration at beginning of words for [k].

[k] key, cool, cold, come, class, clock, clerk

[g] go, get, good, girl, glad, green, garden

Lower lip touches edge of upper teeth, allow-

ing air to escape between lip and teeth; some

aspiration in all positions of [fj.

[f] fine, four, floor, first, Friday, half

[v] voice, very, every, seven, five, leave

[v] voiced

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XXV

[5] voiced

6. [s] voiceless

Broad tip and front of tongue visible between

teeth; air escapes between tongue and teeth;

some aspiration in all positions of [8].

[8] thank, three, third, thirty, month, bath

[6] this, that, these, those, there, they

[z] voiced

Tip of tongue may touch lower teeth; front

of tongue near toothridge, allowing air to

escape over narrow front surface of tongue;

some aspiration in all positions of [s]; a hissing

sound [s] or a buzzing sound [z].

[s] six, sit, sleep, Sunday, ceiling, sentence

[z] zoo, zero, is, those, close, has, days, easy

7. [S] voiceless

[3] voiced

Tip of tongue receded; middle of tongue

raised toward hard palate and spread laterally,

with sides touching upper teeth; air escapes

over broad front surface of tongue; some aspi-

ration in all positions of [].

[] she, sharp, short, nation, machine

[3] azure, pleasure, measure, vision, garage

8. [t$] voiceless

[d3] voiced

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Tip of tongue on toothridge; middle of tongue

touching hard palate and spread laterally,

with sides touching upper teeth; air escapes

against upper teeth with release of tongue tip;

aspiration in all positions for [t$].

[t$] chair, chalk, child, much, teach, picture

[d3] John, judge, June, July, George, large

xxvi

9. [h] voiceless

A puff of air over the vocal cords; tongue and

lips in position for following sound; pure

aspiration, but light as a breath of air.

he, how, here, hot, house, home, have, who

i3. [n] voiced

Tip of tongue on toothridge the same as for

[t] and [d]; tip of tongue released for following

vowel, but not at end of word; middle of

tongue low with sides free for air to escape

laterally.

lesson, light, lawyer, library, wall, well, tall

Lips closed; lips released for following vowel,

but not at end of word; velum open for air

to escape through nasal passage.

Miss, map, my, meet, man, name, time

Tip of tongue on toothridge as for [t], [d],

and [1]; tip of tongue released for following

vowel, but not at end of word; velum open

for air to escape through nasal passage.

no, not, name, night, now, nurse, near, nine,

fine

Back of tongue on velum as for [k] and [g],

but not released at end of word; velum open

for air to escape through nasal passage.

sing, young, long, morning, ceiling, playing

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xxvii

14- [r] voiced

Mouth slightly open; tip of tongue raised and

curved backward (retroflex position) but not

touching anything; sides of tongue touching

back teeth; impossible to pronounce alone.

Final r: tongue glides from vowel sound

backward to position for r.

Initial r: from the r position, tongue glides for-

ward to position for following vowel sound.

are, art, warm, four, Clark

read, room, ruler, run, red, radio

15. [y] voiced

Tongue position for [i]; tongue glides quickly

to position for following vowel sound; im-

possible to pronounce alone.

yes, you, your, young, year, yellow

16. [w] voiced

Lips and tongue in position for [u]; lips and

tongue glide quickly to position for following

vowel sound; impossible to pronounce alone.

we, well, wall, week, word, one [wan], window

17. [hw]

Lips rounded and tongue .in position for [u];

with a puff of air, lips and tongue quickly glide

to position for following vowel sound; impossi-

ble to pronounce alone.

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what, where, when, white

xxviii

ENGLISH STRESS

I. Word Stress.

Stress means emphasis. A particular syllable in a long word

receives much more emphasis than the other syllables; this syllable

is marked with an accent in a dictionary in order to show where

the emphasis is. There are no rules to determine which syllable is

to be stressed.

pencil

housewife

calendar

eraser

today

window

classroom

envelope

eleven

afternoon

ruler

homework

exercise

banana

engineer

table

notebook

telephone

umbrella

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seventeen

II. Sentence Stress.

A. Certain words in a sentence, including many of one syllable, are

more important than others and therefore receive special emphasis

or stress. These words are nouns, verbs (except be), adjectives,

adverbs, demonstrative words, and interrogative words. Sentence

stress occurs on both accented syllables of long words and stressed

words of one syllable if the latter are among the important words

mentioned above.

B.

What's this?

Is that a book?

WMre's the clock?

Is your sister pretty?

Does she speak French?

It's a pen.

Yes, it's a book.

The clock is on the wall.

Yes, she's young and pretty.

Yes, she speaks French well.

The teacher always pronounces the new words.

We live in the green house on the corner.

The children like to play in the garden.

In the sentences above, the unstressed words are the articles a

and the, the verb be, the auxiliary verb do, the personal pronouns,

and the prepositions. To this list can be added the relative pro-

nouns, the common short conjunctions, and all other auxiliary

verbs.

XXIX

in. Vowel Sounds in Unstressed Syllables.

A. In contrast to the heavy stress on the important syllables or words,

the unstressed syllables or words become very weak. The vowel

sounds in the weak syllables are usually [a], [i], [u], and [ar], whereas

all the vowel sounds on the triangle may occur in the stressed

syllables. In fact, the most frequent sound in the English language

is [a] because it occurs not only in stressed syllables but also in the

majority of weak syllables.

seven

August

minute

thank you

w6man

breakfast

pretty

to meet you?

3u

question

celling

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picture

usually

ar

U3 I

kitchen

calendar

repeat

ten to &ght

a ar

children

umbrella

eraser

do you know?

33

i ar

U3

It's twenty minutes to el6ven.

IIiuI3

There are seven days in a week.

e ar 3 i 3

She 6ften goes to the st6re in the m6rning.

B. A vowel that is pronounced in a certain way in a stressed syllable

is usually pronounced differently in a weak syllable.

day today Sunday exercise explain

fast breakfast

table vegetable

ea

Sometimes an unstressed syllable in the middle of a word is so

weak that the vowel sound disappears completely.

every

[evn]

several

[sgvrel]

evening

[ivnirj]

bus/ness

[bisnis]

D. When the vowel sound disappears in a weak syllable, especially

between t-n, d-n, t-1, and d-1 at the end of a word, the nor I remains

to form the syllable alone or with another consonant. This is

known as a syllabic consonant and is represented in phonetics by

its symbol with a dot under it. A syllabic consonant occurs when

the tongue position for the last two consonant sounds is the same.

garden student curtain h6spital

[dn] [dnt] [to] M]

When the tongue position is similar or the two sounds can be

pronounced almost simultaneously, one may hear either a syllabic

consonant or a weak vowel sound between the last two consonants.

16sson

cousin

apple

uncle

[sn] or [san]

[zn] or [zan]

\p\] or [pal]

[k[] or [kal]

listen

season

table

pencil

[sn] or [san]

[zn] or [zan]

[bj] or [bal]

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[s[] or [sal]

AMERICAN ENGLISH INTONATION

I. General.

Intonation is the music of a spoken language as the voice is raised

and lowered. Americans generally use three tones: (1) a low tone,

(2) a medium tone, and (3) a high tone. The medium tone is a

little higher than the low tone, and the high tone is a little higher

than the medium tone. The high tone, or note, is not really high,

but only relatively so. Each individual has his own three notes

depending on the natural pitch of his voice.

II. Two Intonation Patterns.

There are two basic intonation patterns for English sentences.

They usually begin on a medium note, (marked 2); they may end

on a high note or a low note according to the type of sentence.

Correct intonation at the end of a sentence is very important.

xxxi

A. Rising Intonation:

Is this aj'book?

Is Georgeireading?

Do you understand?

Are these:pencils?

Are youigoing?

Does she play!tennis?

The voice rises from 2 to the higher note 3, and the sentence finishes

on 3. In fact, the sentence finishes a little higher than 3, as shown

by the curve of the line upward; the voice rises a little more on the

last syllable of a word or slides upward on a one-syllable word.

This pattern is used in questions that can be answered by yes or

no; such questions always begin with the verb be or an auxiliary

such as do or does.

B. Rising-Falling Intonation: 2

Who's the|woman?

What are you;doling?

Where's the umjbrelila?

Wh6re are the!apples?

She's Mrs.iAllien. i

I'm learning I English.

The umbrella is in the j corner. ' 1

The apples are on theltaible.

The voice rises from 2 to the higher note 3 and then falls more or

less gradually to the low note 1; the sentence then finishes on 1.

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This pattern is used for all statements and all questions that begin

with an interrogative word. A vertical line through a consonant

indicates that the voice falls more gradually than when the line

separates two letters, unless these two letters are identical.

XXXII

i. A Slight Variation: 2

_3_

What's [this? It's a[pen. j \ ir \

What are [these? They're [books.

Where's the [clock? The cl6ck is on the [wall.

Where are the;boys? The boys are iniclass.

Sometimes the voice rises to 3 and falls to i on the same syllable.

The vowel is lengthened and pronounced with a definite glide as

the voice slides from 3 to i. This is indicated above by a diagonal

line through the single or double vowel of that syllable. A line

through y or w shows that the letter helps to form a diphthong with

the preceding vowel.

m. The High Note.

A. On the medium note 2, the voice usually rises a little on each

stressed syllable, but one of these stressed syllables is more prom-

inent and therefore higher than the others. In both patterns,

then, it is important to know when the voice rises to the high note

3. This usually occurs on the last sentence stress, or near the

end of a sentence, in normal unemotional conversation.

B. There are often times when one gives special emphasis, because

of meaning, to a stressed syllable earlier in the sentence, or even

to an unstressed syllable. In fact, it is the position of the high

note which varies with individuals and situations, and seldom the

general pattern of 2-3 or 2-3-i.

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xxxiii

C. Wherever one puts the high note, the remainder of a short sentence

is pronounced either all on the high note 3 or all on the low note

1, depending on the intonation pattern required at the end of the

sentence. The words yes and no are spoken in various ways, either

alone for emphasis (2-3-1) or joined with only a slight pause to

the statement that follows (2, 2-3, or 3-2). Some examples

from the text with possible variations are shown below.

NORMAL

SPECIAL STRESS

Is this an eiraser?

Is:this an eraser?

Yes, it's an eiraser. i i i

Yes, it's an eiraser.

L...

Y&, it's an eiraser.

i-

Y6s. It's an eiraser.

Is the eraser on theidesk?

Is the eiraser on the desk?

It's n6t ajpen. It's aipenicil. \. ' [....

It'sjn6tia pen. It's aipenicih

N6, it's n6t the first: 16sison.

No, it's n6t theifirstllesson.

.ii

1ii

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N6, it's fnotj the first lesson.

N6,iit's n6t the first lesson.

There's a map in theiofifice.

There's a [map! in the 6ffi.ce.

ji

Wh6re!islit? Wh6reiis it?

s L [_

H6wiarejyou?

H6w arejyou? Howiare you?

xxxiv

What's your [name? Whit's{your iname? Whit's lyour name?

J^

ii

Whitftfimelis it?

What timejisjit? Whatjtime is it?

H6w[61d]are you?

H6w 61d arejyou?

How 61diarejyou?

Howl old are you?

What are they; doing?

What are:theyjd6ing?

What[are]they d6ing?

i_- ...

What; are they d6ing?

Where's J6hn|g6iing?

Where's [John! g6ing?

Where [is iJ6hn g6ing?

Where's jJ6hn g6ing?

ST'".

H6w manyicousins do you have? How many c6usins do youjhave?

How many cousins do j you i have?

H6w many cousins idol you have?

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Howimany cousins do you have?

H6w!many cousins do you have?

XXXV

IV. Combinations of the Two Intonation Patterns.

There are no definite rules except for the two general patterns.

Certain types of sentences or constructions, however, frequently

combine these patterns as shown below.

A. Questions with or. 2-3 and 2-3-1

Is today:Tuesday orjW&inesiday? It'sjTuesiday.

Is that ajmap or ajpiciture? It's ajpfciture.

Are th6seid6ors or[win]dows? They're idobrs.

Do you Ifkejthis orftfiat? I Mkejtfi^t.

The first part of the question before or is spoken with rising in-

tonation, 2 - 3; but the second part rises first and then falls to the

low note, thus following the 2-3-1 pattern. There is a slight

pause before or, shown by the broken line. The answer is a choice

of one or the other, and not yes or no.

B. Words in a Series. 2 - 3, 2 - 3, and 2-3-1

We have classes on M6n[day, W&inesjday, andjFrfjday.

The seasons are spring, sumimer, 441, andjwfnlter.

We count ,6ne, tw6, thr6e, f6ur, andlffve.

The voice rises on each word in a series, 2-3, except the last one,

where it follows the 2-3-1 pattern at the end. There is a slight

pause between the words in a series, shown by the broken line and

the comma.

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xxxvl

C. Longer Sentences. 2-3 or 2-3-2 and 2-3-i

In the United] States, it's usually c61d in thejwfnjter.

In the UnitediStates, it's usually h6t in the;summer.

B6tty doesn't have aisfelter, but she has tw6ibr6thers.

The b6y isitw61veiyears 61d, and the girl is nineteen.

The s6n isitwelve, and the daughter is nineteen.

They live oniSixth!Street* near the c6rner of Tenth;Avenue.

1 1 . 1 1

1 .. .....

Summer begins on June twenty-jfirst*

and ends on September twenty-first.

Longer statements are naturally divided into two or more parts,

according to the thought, with a slight pause between the parts.

The pause is often indicated by some mark of punctuation. If

there is no punctuation, the natural pause is marked in this text

with an asterisk (*). Each part of the sentence has its own high

note. Before the pause the intonation may be 2-3 or 2-3-2,

indicating that the sentence is not complete at this point. The end

of the sentence follows the usual 2-3-i pattern.

V. Intonation Markings in This Text

A. The light dotted lines represent a natural intonation pattern in

ordinary conversation. They attempt to show the continuous flow

of speech, both within words and within sentences. They indicate

the movement of the voice up or down, but all the syllables on the

medium note or the low note do not need to be pronounced on

exactly the same tone.

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xxxvfl

B. A uniform pattern of intonation is often repeated within a similar

group of sentences as if each sentence were an isolated one. In

some cases, however, context seems more important than drill on

a given pattern, and the position of the high note varies within the

group of sentences.

C. For pedagogical reasons and for the sake of simplicity, no sentence

stresses are marked in the text itself as they are in this introduction.

On the contrary, attention is centered on the one high note, while

the remaining stressed and unstressed syllables are to be smoothly

connected or blended. With the guidance of the teacher, whose

pronunciation the student should imitate constantly, the student

will learn to stress the more important words sufficiently without

conscious effort. The essential thing is the general intonation

pattern, 2-3 or 2-3-1, with special attention being given to

the high note 3 and to the intonation at the end of a sentence.

D. Intonation differs considerably from one person to another and

from one situation to another. Although the intonation at the

end of a sentence is more or less standard, the position of the high

note depends entirely on the attitude of the speaker and the

meaning that he wishes to give to a sentence at a given time.

Thus, there can be no rules for intonation that would cover all

situations and individuals. The sentences in this text can be said

in different ways. For pedagogical reasons, however, a definite

pattern has been chosen, one which is natural for normal unemo-

tional conversation. The teacher should follow the basic intonation

patterns marked in the text as closely as possible so that the

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student will acquire a feeling for them as well as an adequate

control of them in his initial study of English.

XXXVIII

VOCABULARY

afternoon

[aeftamun]

good afternoon

[gud aeftamun]

also. . .

[dlso]

always.

[olwiz]

am

[32m, am]

in the afternoon A.M

[in Si asfta-nun] [e em]

American.

[amerakan]

and

[and, an]

again.

[agen]

aS Arm (proper name).

[ago] [sen]

a week ago another

[a wik ago] [anSSar]

answer.

[aensar]

answer.

any.

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[aensa1]

[&11]

alike

[aldik]

all

[ol]

Note: Verb forms are shown in italics except when listed in idioms.

a, an

[a] [an]

about

[abdut]

What about _ ?.

[hwat abdut]

Abraham (proper name)

[ebrahaem]

absent.

[aabsnt]

active

[sektiv]

activity

[aektfvati]

actor

[aekta-]

actress

[sektris]

address

[adres, aklres]

advance: in advance.

[advaens] [in advaens]

after. .

[teftar]

All right apple...

[ol rait] [^p|]

Allen (proper name) .... April.

[*lan] [epral]

the Aliens architect.

[Si jelanz] [drkatekt]

almost are

[51most, almost] [ar, a-]

XXXIX

are there? at school. ..

[or Ser] [at skul]

arrive (at) auditorium. . .

[ardiv] [odat6nam]

art August (Aug.).

[art] [Sgast]

art gallery aunt

[art gselari] [ffint]

automobile. . . [otamobil]

artist avenue

as.

. 3z]

[artist]

as . .

[az . .

ask. .

[aesk]

ask questions..

[aesk kwstSanz]

[aevanu]

back: be back.

[b<ek] [bi baek]

assembly. .

[asmbli]

assignment.

Generated for alum (Columbia University) on 2014-05-25 22:57 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/inu.32000000865990


Public Domain, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-google

[asdinmant]

balcony

[baelkani]

in the balcony,

[in Sa bcelkani]

ball.

association [bol]

[asosieSan]

at

[aet, at]

at a time..

[at a team]

at first

[at fa-st]

at home

[at hom]

at night bath.

[at nait] [ba;0]

at noon be...

[at nun] [bi]

baUet

[bade]

banana...

[banana]

band

[baend]

baseball. . .

[besbol]

basketball.

[baeskitbol]

be at work

[bi at wa*k]

be back

[bi back]

be cloudy

[bi kldudi]

be eighteen years old

[bi etin yirz old]

be hungry

[bi hSrjgri]

be in session

[bi in seSan]

be lucky

[bi laki]

be thirsty

[bi fcrsti]

be windy

[bi wfndi]

Have you been to ?

[hsev yu bin ta]

beautiful

[byutafal]

because

[bikoz]

becoming: It's becoming

[bikamirj] [its bikSmirj

to you

ta yu]

bed: go to bed

[bed] [go ta bed]

bedroom

[bedrum]

before

[bifor]

begin

[bigin]

let's begin

[lets bigfn]

Belmont (proper name). .

best

Generated for alum (Columbia University) on 2014-05-25 22:57 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/inu.32000000865990


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[belmant]

[best]

better

[beta-]

Betty (Elizabeth) . ..

[beti]

between

[bitwin]

big

[big]

Bill (William)

[bil]

They call him Bill.

[oe kol him bil]

the boys and girls.

[Sa boiz an ga-lz]

bread.

[bred]

breakfast

[brekfast]

eat breakfast.

[it brekfast]

get breakfast.

[get brekfast]

have breakfast.

[haev brekfast]

bird

[bard]

bright

black [brait]

broadcast

blackboard [brodkaest]

[blaskbord] Broadway (street name)

blue [brodwe]

[blu] brother .'

boat [br^

[bot]

by boat. . ..

[bai bot]

Bob (Robert).

[bab]

book

[buk]

box

take a bus

[tek a bas]

business

[biznis]

businessman (pi. -men)

[bfznismaen] [-men]

busy

[bfzi]

but

[bat]

not only... but also

[nat 6nli... bat 51so]

butter

[bata-]

buy

[bai]

by

[bai]

by boat

[bai bot]

by bus

[bai bas]

by car

[bai kar]

by plane

[bai plen]

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by taxi

[bai tksi]

by train

[bai tren]

cafeteria

[kaefatfna]

cake

[kek]

calendar

[kselanda*]

call

[kol]

They call him Bill. . .

[Se kol him bil]

camera

[ksemara]

can (auxiliary)

[kaen, kan]

capital

[ksepat]]

Capitol

[kaepat]]

the Capitol building.

[Sa ksepat] bfldirj]

car

[kar]

by car

[bai kar]

fifty million cars. . ..

[fffti milyan karz]

care: take care of

[ker] [tek ker av]

carry

[ken]

ceiling

[sihrj]

cent

[sent]

center

[senta-]

centigrade

[sentagred]

central heating. . .

choose

[tSuz]

chorus

[k5ras]

church

[tSartSl

go to church

[go to tSartS]

city

[sfti]

from city to suburb,

[fram sfti to s6barb]

in most cities

[in most sftiz]

Clark (proper name).

[klark]

class

[klaes]

come to class

[kam to klaes]

go to class

[go to kites]

in class

[in klaes]

classroom

clean

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[kkesrum]

[klin]

clean. . .

What color is (are) ?

[klin]

[hwat k31ar iz (or)]

cleaner:

vacuum cleaner

[klin*] [

ysekyuam klinar]

come

[kam]

They come in all sizes.

[kla-k]

clock. .

[Se kam in ol sdisiz]

[klak]

company

nine c

[nam

('clock

[kampani]

akldk]

composition

[kampaziSan]

comprehension

close . . .

[kloz]

[kampnhnSan]

cloudy:

be cloudy

[kldudi]

[bi kldudi]

concert

[kdnsa-t]

Congress

club. . .

[kdrjgras]

[klab]

conveniences

coat.. .

[kanvinyansiz]

[kot]

[k5fi]

counter

[kdrntar]

country

[kSntn]

course: of course

[kors] [av kors]

court

[kort]

in court

[in kort]

Supreme Court. . . .

[saprim kort]

cousin

[kazn]

cream

[krim]

cross

[kros]

crowded

[krdudid]

cup

[kap]

curtain

[ksrtn]

custom

[kastom]

Generated for alum (Columbia University) on 2014-05-25 22:57 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/inu.32000000865990


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out

[kat]

dance

[daens]

date: What's the date?.

[det] [hwats oa det]

daughter

[dota-]

Dawson (proper name).

[dosn]

day

[de]

every day

[evn de]

five days a week

[faiv dez 9 wik]

three meals a day. . .

[0ri milz a de]

dear

[dir]

December (Dec.)

[disembar]

decide (to)

[disdid]

defend

[difend]

degree

[dJgrfl

dentist

[dentist]

go to the dentist. . . .

[go ta Sa dentist]

department

[dipdrtmant]

department store. . .

[dipdrtmant stor]

depend (on)

[dipend]

desk

[desk]

dessert

[dizaH]

Dick (Richard)

do the shopping....

[du Sa Sdpin]

How do you do. ...

[hau da yu du]

more to do

[mor ta du]

What does he do?..

[hwat daz hi du]

do (auxiliary)

[du, da]

doctor (Dr.)

[ddktar]

dog

[dog]

dollar

[ddla-]

door

[dor]

downstairs

[daunsterz]

downtown

[dauntdun]

dress

[dres]

dressed: get dressed.

[drest] [get drest]

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drink

[drink]

drive eighth

[draiv] [et0]

drugstore eighty

[dragstor] [eti]

during electric

[dunrj] [itektnk]

elementary school

E [elamntn skul]

each

[itS]

early elevator

[aHi] [laveta-]

east eleven

[ist] [ilevan]

easy eleventh

[izi] [ilevanfl]

eat Elizabeth (proper name)

lit] [ilfzaba0]

eat breakfast embassy

[it brekfast] [gmbasi]

eat dinner end

[it dina-] [end]

eat lunch.

[it lantS]

economics. .

[ikandmiks]

engineer. . .

[end3anfr]

engineering,

[endsaninrj]

education. .

[ed3ukeSan]

efficient. ..

[affSant]

egg

[eg]

eight

[et]

eighteen. .

[etin]

eighteenth.

[etin0]

envelope

[Envelop]

erase. . .

[ir&]

eraser..

[iresar]

evening.

[ivnirj]

fifty

[fffti]

fifty-five.

[ffftifdiv]

film

[film]

final

[fdmj]

fall , ,

good evening r, ,-. fond

[gud ivnirj] [famd]

fine

[fain]

in the evening ff0",8 Fine, thank you. And you?

fact:in fact...

[faekt] [in faekt]

Fahrenheit.

fall

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[teranhait]

[fel]

family,

[fsfemll]

[in Si ivnirj]

[femas]

far. .

[far]

[fain flaerjk yu an(d) yu]

ever far from fire

[6var] [far from] [fair]

every farmer first

[6vn] [fdrmar] [fg.st]

every day fast at first

[tvn de] [faest] [atfa-st]

father fish (pi. fish).

[fi$]

[fdSa-

everything favorite

[vnflqj] [fevrit]

example February (Feb.)

[igz&mpj] [februen]

except

[iksgpt]

exciting field

[iksditirj]

exercise..

[6ksarsaiz]

expensive.

[iksp&isiv]

explain...

[iksplen]

[fild]

fifteen

[fiftin]

fifteenth flower.

[fiftinfl] [flduGP]

fifth food...

[fif0] [fud]

fishing: go fishing.

[ff$m] boflSnol

fit...

[fit]

five. .

football friend.

[futbol] [trend]

play football friendly

[pie ftjtbol]

for

[for, fa-]

for this reason.

[far t5is rizn]

[frendli]

from

[fram]

far from

[far fram]

I come from

[ai kom fram]

Where are you from?

[hwer ar yu fram]

forget I'm from _

[target] [aim fram]

fork

[fork]

forty

[forti]

forty-five

[fortifdiv]

four

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[for]

fourteen

[fortin]

fourteenth

[fortin0]

fourth

[fori?]

free

[fri]

French

[frentS]

study French front: in front of. .

[stodi frentS] [font] [m frant ov]

from ... to

[fram ... to]

from city to suburb.

[fram sfti to sobarb]

from nine to five. .

[fram nam to faiv]

from time to time. .

[fram taim to taim]

Friday fruit.

[frdidi] [frut]

full

[ful]

funny

[foni]

gallery: art gallery . ..

[gallon] [art gslon]

game

[gem]

garden

[gdrdn]

generally

[d3narali]

George (proper name)

[d3ord3]

get

[get]

get a meal

[get o mil]

get breakfast

[get brekfost]

get up

[getap]

girl

rga-l]

the boys and girls. . .

[Sa boiz an ga*lz]

give

[giv]

glad

feted]

I'd be glad to

[aid bi glaed tu]

I'm glad to meet you.

[aim glsed ta mit yu]

glass

[glaes]

glove

[glav]

go

[go]

It looks good on you.

[it luks gud an yu]

go to bed

[go ta bed]

go to church

[go ta tSartS]

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go to class government

[go ta klass] [gava-(n)mant]

go to college graduate

[go to kdhd3] [grasd3uet]

go to school graduate student.

[go to skul] [graed3uat studnt]

go to the dentist

[go ta 6a dentist]

grass.

[grses]

go to the theater gray

[go t9 Sa ^feta1] rrei

green

[grin]

go to work gym

[go to wa-k] [dgimj

goal gymnasium (gym).

[gol] [d3imneziam]

golf

[golf]

good.

[gud]

go fishing

[goffSirj]

go home

[go hom]

go shopping

[go Sdpirj]

go skating

[go sketirj]

go skiing

[go skiirj]

go swimming

[go swimirj]

good afternoon half (pi. halves)

[gud aeftariun] [haef] [haevz]

It's half past nine.

[its haef passt nam]

good-bye

[gudbdi]

good evening hamburger

[gud ivnin] [heemba-ga-]

good morning

hard

[hard]

hat

[haet]

have

[hffiv]

have breakfast

[haev brekfast]

have dinner

[haev dinar]

have lunch

[haev lant]

have to

[hsefta]

he

[hi]

hear

[hir]

heating: central heating

[hitirj] [sentral hitirj]

Helen (proper name).

[bilan]

high school.

[hdiskul]

go to high school.

[go ta hdiskul]

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junior high school. .

[d3unyar hdiskul]

his

[hiz]

history

[hfst(a)n]

home

[horn]

at home. .

[at hom]

get home.

[get hom]

hello.

[halo]

go home.

[go hom]

help. .

[help]

homework.

[homwa-k]

honeymoon.

[h^nimun]

her

here

[hir]

here's (here is) honor..

[hirz] [dna-]

hospital

[hdspit]]

high hot....

[hoi] [hat]

hour

[aur]

house

[haus]

White House

[hwdithaus]

housewife

[hduswaif]

housework

[hduswark]

how

[hau]

How was the weather?

[hau waz t5a wSar]

however

[haufeva-]

hundred

[handrid]

one hundred

[wan handrid]

hungry: be hungry

[harjgri] [bi hSrjgri]

hurry: in a hurry

[hai] [in a hffi]

husband

[hazband]

[oi]

ice

[ais]

ice cream

[diskrim]

if

[if]

important

[importnt]

impression

in

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[imprSan]

[m]

in advance

[in advsens]

in a hurry it

[in a ha-i]

in fact

[in f aekt]

in front of

[in frant av]

in line

[in lain]

[it]

it's,

[its]

in many ways.

[in mni wez]

in place of... .

[in pies av]

James (proper name).

[d3emz]

January (Jan.)

[d3cenyuen]

in season.

[in sizn]

in session.

[in san]

Jim (nickname for James)

[d3im]

John (proper name)....

[d3cm]

in the balcony judge

[in Sa bslkani] [d3ad3]

including juice

[inkhldin] [d3us]

indoors.

[indorz]

insurance. .

[inSurans]

interesting.

[fntnstirj]

intonation.

[intaneSan]

kind later

[kamd] [leta-]

kindergarten laugh

[kfnda-gartn] [laef]

lawn

[Ion]

kitchen lawyer

PrftSan] [I6yapj

knife (pi. knives) leaf (pi. leaves).

How do you like ?

[hau da yu laik]

I'd like _

[aid laik]

[naif]

Inaivz

[lif]

learn.

[lam]

[livz]

I'd like to. .

[aid laik tu]

know.

[no]

let s learn Lincoln (proper name).

[lirjkan]

laboratory (lab) [1j]

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[Ueb(8)raton]

lake (Lake).

[lek]

lamp

[laemp]

large

[lards]

last

[test]

last night.

[test nait]

lesson. . . .

[lesn]

letter

[leta-]

librarian. . .

[kubrerian]

library. .

[ldibren]

life

[laif]

last week light....

[test wik] [laItl

like....

[laik]

late like (to).

[let] [laik]

line. .

[lam]

[lets lgrn]

leave

[liv]

Lee (proper name) in line.

[in lain]

leisure time ,. . ,.

n, . i listen (to).

[lisf f taim] M

little

[lit]]

a little. .

[9 litl]

live

[liv]

living room. . .

look (at)

make a plan

[luk]

[mek a plaen]

It looks good on you.

[it luks gud an yu]

make a sweater

It looks like rain

[mek a sweta-]

[it luks kiik ren]

make a touchdown. . .

lot: a lot of

[mek a ttSdaun]

[lat] [a lat av]

lucky: be lucky

man (pi. men)

[laki] [bilaki]

[mam] [men]

[mem]

how many?

[tentS]

[hau mem]

eat lunch

[it Ismtfl

[maep]

have lunch

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[haev lantS]

[martS]

married

[mrid]

machine

Mary (proper name)....

[men]

[maSin]

washing machine....

mathematics (math)....

[ma20amaetiks]

[wdSirj maSin]

maid May.

[med] [me]

majority meal.

[mad3orati]

make

[mek]

make a pie. .

[mek a pai]

[mil]

get a meal

[get a mil]

three meals a day. .

[0ri milz a de]

meat

[mit]

meet

[mit]

I'm glad to meet you.

[aim glasd ta mit yu]

meeting

[mitirj]

memorial

[mam5nal]

Metropolitan Opera

[metrapdlatn dpra

House

haus]

milk

[milk]

million

[milyan]

modern.

[mdda-n]

Monday.

[mandi]

mother.

[maSa*]

move..

[muv]

money movie

[mani] [muvi

month Mr.. .

[man0]

monument

[mdnyamant]

more.

[mor]

more . . . than

[mor . . . San]

more to do.

[mor ta du]

[mista-]

Mrs

[mfsiz]

much

[matS]

how much?

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[hau matS]

How much is it?.

[hau matS Iz lt]

Thank you very much.

[0aerjk yu ven matS]

morning

[m5rnirj]

good morning

[gud mornirj]

very much.

[ven matS]

in the morning

[in Samornirj]

music

[myiizik]

musical (comedy).

[myuzik] kdmadi]

yesterday morning .

[y&terdi m6rrurj]

most

[most]

in most cities.

[in most sftiz]

What's your name?

[hwats ya* nem]

napkin. .

[mepkin]

national.

[naSan|]

near,

[nir]

need.

[nid]

never.

[neva-]

new

[nu]

newspaper.

[nuzpepa-]

New York.

[nuyork]

next

[nekst]

next year.

last night

[laest nait]

nine

[nam]

It's nine o'clock

[its nam akldk]

nineteen

[namtin]

nineteenth

[namtfnfl]

ninety

[ndmti]

ninth

[name]

no

[no]

noisy

[noizi]

noon: at noon

[nun] [at nun]

north

[nor0]

not

[nat]

not only... but also

[nat onli... bat also]

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notebook

[notbuk]

November (Nov.)

[nov&nbar]

now

[nau]

now and then

[nau an Sen]

nurse

[nsrs]

o'clock: It's nine o'clock.

[akldk] [its nam akldk]

October (Oct.)

[aktobar]

of

[av]

of course

[av kors]

offer

[4fer]

office

[ofis]

often

[5fon]

old

[old]

How old are you?....

[hau old ar yu]

I'm eighteen years old.

[aim etin yirz old]

on

[an]

on Saturdays

[an saetardiz]

on Sundays

[an sandiz]

on time

[an taim]

once

[wans]

one

[wan]

only

own

[on]

own

[on]

page

[ped3]

on page two

[an ped3 tu]

pair

[per]

Pan-American'Union .

[paenamerakan yiinyan]

pancake

[p<enkek]

paper

[pepa-]

a piece of paper....

[a pis av pepar]

school paper

[skul pepar]

parents

[perants]

part

[part]

part time

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Public Domain, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-google

[part taim]

pay (for)

foe]

pen

[pen]

pencil

[pens]]

people

[pipH

sixty thousand people

[siksti 0tiuznd pip]]

per cent

[parsent]

perhaps

[pa-hseps]

period: study period. . .

[piriad] [stadi piriad]

person

[pa-sn]

piano

[piano]

play the piano

[pie Sa piceno]

picture

[piktSar]

pie

[pai]

make a pie

[mek a pai]

piece

[pis]

a piece of chalk

[a pis av tSok]

a piece of paper.

[a pis av pepar]

place

[pies]

in place of

[in pies av]

plan

[plaen]

make a plan

[mek a pteen]

plane

please listen.

[pliz lisn]

proper name

[prdpa- nem]

pleasure

[ple3ar]

P.M

[pi em]

policeman (pi. -men).

[paKsman] [-man]

P.T.A.

[pi ti e]

public school.

[pabhk skul]

put. . . .

popular [put]

[pdpyala1]

possible

[pdsabl] quality.

pour [kwdlati]

[por]

quarter.

practical [kwortar]

[praktik]l

a quarter after nine

practice I3 kw3rtar lt8r naInl

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[pnektis]

prefer (to)

[prifai]

president

[prezadant]

pretty

[prfti]

a quarter to ten.

[a kworta- ta ten]

pnce

[prais]

professional.

[prafeSan]]

question

[kwestSan]

ask questions. .

[aesk kwest^anz]

program. .

[program]

quiet. . .

[kwdiat]

pronounce

[pranduns]

pronunciation radio. .

[prenansiean] [r6dio]

rain

[ren]

It looks like rain.

[it luks leak ren]

rain

[ren]

raincoat

[renkot]

read

[rid]

ready

[idi] .

ready-made

[rdim6d]

really

[ri(a)b]

reason

[rizn]

for this reason. .

rest

[rest]

restaurant

[restarant]

review

[rivyti]

Richard (proper name).

[ritSa-d]

right: All right

[rait] [ol rait]

road

[rod]

Robert (proper name).

[rdbart]

room

[rum]

roommate

'[rumrnet]

rug

[rag]

rule

[nil]

ruler

[rular]

run

salad

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[ran]

[salad]

same

[sem]

sandwich

[sasn(d)witS]

Saturday

[scetardi]

on Saturdays.

[an sxt^diz]

seem.

[siml

seldom....

[seldam]

y(.iys) self-service.

M [SEz] [selfsavis]

scholarship

[skdlaSip]

school

[skul]

at school

[at skul]

go to school.

[go ta skul]

in school.

[in skul]

score

[skor]

Scott (proper name).

[skat]

season

[sizn]

in season.

[in sizn]

seat.. . .

[sit]

second..

[sekand]

sell

[sel]

semester.

[samesta-]

senior. . .

seventeenth

[sevantin0]

seventh

[sevan0]

seventy

[sevanti]

several

[sevral]

sharp: ten o'clock sharp

Barp] [ten akldk Sarp]

she

[Si]

shoe

Bu]

shop

Bap]

go shopping

[go Sdpirj]

short

Bort]

show

Bo]

show

Bo]

silk

since

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[silk]

[sins]

sing

[sirj]

single

[sirjgl]

sister

[sfstff]

sit. .

[sit]

Smith (proper name)

[smi0]

sit down.

[sitddun]

six

[siks]

sixteen

[sikstin]

sixteenth

[sikstin 0]

sixth

[siks0]

sixty

[sfksti]

size

[saiz]

They come in all sizes.

[Se kam in ol sdiziz]

sleep

[slip]

skate

[sket]

go skating.

[go sketirj]

snow

[sno]

snow

[sno]

soccer

[sdkar]

sofa

[sofa]

some

[sam]

special street

[speSal] [strit]

spend streetcar

[spend] [stritkar]

spoon structure

[spun] [str6ktSa-]

sport student

[sport] [stiidnt]

spot (Spot) graduate student.

[spat] [grsed3uat studnt]

spring

[sprirj]

stadium study..

[stadi]

study English.

[stadi fngliS]

[stediam]

start

[start]

state

[stet]

state university P*

[stet yunav&sati]

[stadi pfriad]

United States. .

stay.

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[yuntiitidst6ts]

[ste]

style

[stall]

subject

[s6bd3ikt]

take a subject. .

[tek a S8bd3ikt]

store

[stor] suburb

department store [saba"b]

[dipdrtmant star] . from city to suburb.

[fram siti to saba-b]

stove.

[stov]

strange. .

[strend3]

the suburbs,

[tfo saba*bz]

subway

[sabwe]

Sue (nickname for Susan)

[su]

sugar

Biter]

suit

[sut]

summer

[samar]

Sunday

[sandi]

on Sundays

[an sandiz]

sunny: be sunny

[sani] [bi sani]

superlative

[saplativ]

supermarket

[suparnarkit]

Supreme Court

[saprim kort]

Susan (proper name) ...

[suzn]

sweater

go swimming.

[go swimirj]

symphony orchestra .

[simfani orkistra]

teach

[titSl

teacher

[tftSar]

team

[tim]

telephone

[telafon]

T television (TV).

table [tfebvisen] [ti vi;

take

[tek]

take a bus

[tek a bas]

take a trip.

[tek a trip]

talk.. .

[tok]

taU. . ..

[tol]

tax. .. .

[taeks]

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taxi. . .

[teeksi]

tea....

[ti]

television set.

[telavi3an set]

thank you

[0aerjk yu]

Thank you very much.

[0aerjk yu veri matS]

that

[Sset]

that

[oat]

the

[Sa, Si]

theater

[0iata-]

go to the theater.

[go ta Sa 0iata-]

take a subject. .

[tek a sabdsikt]

tell (about)

[tel]

temperature ^.e"!

[temp(a)ratSa-]

ten. ..

[ten]

tennis

take care of [tenIs]

[tek ker av]

[o'er]

then

[Sen]

now and then.

[nau an Sen]

play tennis.

[pie tenis]

tenth

[tenS]

test

[test]

than

[Saen, oan]

they

[e]

thing

[ml

think (about)

[mk]

third

[0a-d]

thirsty: be thirsty

[0ffsti] [bi 0ffsti]

thirteen

[0a-tin]

thirteenth

[0grtin0]

thirtieth

[0aHn0]

thirty

[0aHi]

thirty-first

[0aHifa-st]

thirty-five

[0a-tifdiv]

this

[Sis]

Thomas (proper name). .

those

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[tdmas]

[oz]

thousand

[0duznd]

sixty thousand people

[siksti 0duznd pip]]

thousands of people.

[0duzndz av pip]]

three

[ftri]

through

[0ru]

throw

[0ro]

Thursday

[08-zdi]

ticket

[tfkrt]

time

[taim]

a long time

[a lorj taim]

at a time

[at a taim]

from time to time. .

[fram taim ta taim]

leisure time

[Ii3ar taim]

on time

[an taim]

part time

[part taim]

some other time . .

[sam aSff taim]

What time is it? . .

[hwat taim iz it]

tired

[taird]

toast. . . .'

[tost]

today

[tade]

together

[tageSa-]

travel. .

[trsev]]

tray. . .

[tre]

twice very.

[ven]

[twais]

twice a week.

[twais a wik]

tree,

[tri]

cherry tree two.

[tS&i tri]

trip

[trip]

take a trip.

[tek a trip]

[tu]

umbrella

[ambrela]

uncle

[*QkU

understand. . . .

try (to) [anda-staend]

^trai^ United States..

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try n [yunditidst6ts]

[traidn]

Tuesday

[tlizdl] university. .

twelfth [yunava,sati]

[twelf0]

twelve

[twelv]

twentieth. . . .

[twentu0]

twenty

[twenti]

twenty-first.

[twentifa-st]

twenty-five.

[twentifdiv]

state university. .

[stet yunava'sati]

use. .

[yuz]

Thank you very much.

[0asrjk yu veri matS]

very much.

[veri matS]

very well. .

[viri wel]

Very well, thank you.

[veri wel 0aerjk yu]

visit

[vfzit]

vitamin. . .

[vditamin]

vocabulary. . .

[voksebyalen]

wait (for).

[wet]

walk

[wok]

usually wall.

[yu3uali]

twenty-one. . .

[twentiwan]

twenty-second.

Washington, D.C

[wdirjtan di si]

watch

[watS]

water

[wotar]

way

[we]

in many ways

[in meni wez]

we

[wi]

wear

[wer]

weather

[weSa-]

How was the weather?

[hau waz Sa weSa*]

Wednesday

[wenzdi]

week

[wik]

a week ago

[9 wik ago]

five days a week

[faiv dez a wik]

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last week

[best wik]

twice a week.

[twais a wik]

weekend

[wikend]

welcome

[welkam]

Welcome to our home.

[welkam tu aur horn]

You're welcome.

[yur welkam]

What's your name?

[hwats ya- nem]

What time is it?

[hwat taim iz it]

well

[wel]

very well.

[vn wel]

well-dressed.

[weldrest]

Wheeler (proper name)

[hwflar]

when

[hwen]

where

[hwer]

which

[hwitS]

white

[hwait]

White House

[hwdithaus]

west

[west]

what

[hwat]

What a _!

[hwat a]

What about ?

[hwat abdut]

who

[hu]

window word.

[windo] [ward]

window shopping work

[windo Sdpin]

windy: be windy. .

[windi] [biwindi]

winter.

[winta1]

with

[wiS]

woman (pi. women).

[wnman] [wimanl

wonderful.

[wanda-fal]

wool.

[wul]

wark]

be at work.

[bi at wark]

I'm eighteen years old.

[aim etin yirz old]

next year.

[nskst yir]

work ye!fow

go to

[go ta wa-k]

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work...

[wark]

write. . .

[rait]

writing.

[rditirj]

yard. .

[yard]

year,

[yir]

lyflo]

yes

[yes]

yesterday

[y^sta-di]

yesterday morning .

[yestffdi mornir)]

you... .

[yu, yu]

young.

[yarj]

your

[yur, yar]

yours.

[yurz]

Ixiv

INDEX

References are to page numbers.

about, 171-17 2

adjectives: review of possessive, 165-

166; nouns used as, 195-196, 204-

205; comparison of, 301-304,331-332

adverbs: comparison of, 301-303, 331-

332

after, 197-198

ago, 297-299, 301

a lot (of), 220-221, 262-263

another, 254-255, 269

any, 219-220, 262-263

article: omission of definite, 183-184,

203-204

articulation, xviii-xix

as ... as: in comparisons, 301-304

at, 171-172, 184, 223-224

auxiliary verbs: can, 216-217, 264-266;

did, 250-253, 270-280; have, 296-299

be: in short answers, 180-181, 206-207,

234-235; in past tense, 234-235, 266-

267

before, 197-198

better, 302

by, 317

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can, 216-217, 264-266

commands: negative, 247-248, 263-264

comparisons: with more, -er, as, 301-

304, 331-332; with most and -est,

3IS-3I7, 332

consonant chart, xxiv

consonant sounds, xxiv-xxviii, xxxi

[p] 226-227; [b] 226-227, 289-290

[t] I74-I7S, 200; [d] 200

[k] 226-227; [g] 226-227

[f] 289-290; [v] 289-290,306

[0] 174-175; [ol 187, 200

[s] 174-175, 187, 320; [z] 187

[$J 240-241, 320; [3] 258, 320

[t$] 240-241; [d$] 240-241,258

[h] 202; [1] 202; [r] 202

[m] 260; [n] 260; [rj] 260

fy] 258; [w] 306; [hw] 306

contractions: can't, 216; wasn't (weren't),

234; didn't, 279-280; of auxiliary

verb have, 296-297

count noun, 218-219, 261-262

diphthongs, xxiii

[ai] 319; [au] 319; [01] 240

direct objects, 282-284, 324-325

do: as principal verb, 181-182, 280,300;

as auxiliary verb, 181-183, 250-253,

279-280; in short answers, 180-183,

206-207, 250-251, 279-280

during, 197-198

ever, 193-195

far from, 184

for, 184^ 224, 313-314, 317; in phrase

replacing indirect object, 282-284

frequency words: order of, 193-195

from, 171

from... to, 197

future: with going to, 168-169, 207-208;

present tense in place of, 168

going to: future with, 168-169, 207-208

Ixv

have: as principal verb, 251, 299; as

auxiliary verb, 296-299; in short an-

swers, 296-299

have to, 182-183, 207-208

how long: with going to, 164; with pres-

ent perfect tense, 313-314, 330-331

how many, 222-223, 263

how much, 222-223, 203

imperative: negative, 247-248, 263-264

in, 171-172, 184, 223-224

indirect objects, 282-283, 324-325J with

tell, 284-286

interrogative words: whose, 167-168,

204; how many, how much, 222-223,

263; how long, 164, 313-314, 33-

331; and past tense, 252-253; review

of, 324, 333-334

intonation, 202-203, 260-261,322, xxxi-

xxxviii

irregular verbs: simple past tense of,

251-252, 280-282; present perfect

tense of, 299-301

last, 236-238

let's: negative form of, 247-248, 264

like: as preposition, 184-185

lot: a lot (of), 220-221, 262-263

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many, 220-221, 262-263

mass noun, 218-219, 261-262

more: in comparisons, 301-304, 331

most: in comparisons, 315-317, 332

much, 220-221, 262-263

near, 184

never, 193-195

nouns: possessive forms of, 166-167,

204,327-328; used as adjectives, 195-

196, 204-205; count and mass, 218-

219, 261-262

objects: pronoun, 170-171, 205-206;

direct and indirect, 282-284, 324_325

of, 166-167, 204

on, 184

order of words: see word order

other(s), 254-255, 269

participles, past: of regular verbs, 296-

297; of irregular verbs, 299-301

past tense, simple: of be, 234-235; 266-

267; of regular verbs, 248-251, 267-

268; of irregular verbs, 251-253, 268-

269, 280-282; with interrogative

words, 252-253, 324; negative form

of, 279-280; review of, 323-324

phonetic symbols, xviii, xx-xxviii; see

also consonant sounds, diphthongs,

vowel sounds

possessive forms: of adjectives, review

of, 165-166; of nouns, 166-167, 204,

327-328; of pronouns, 278-279, 327-

328

prepositions: review of, 210, 270-271,

334-335; see also about, after, at, be-

fore, by, during, far from, for, from,

from ... to, in, like, near, of, on, to,

with

present perfect tense: of regular verbs,

296-298; of irregular verbs, 299-301;

and simple past tense, 298-299, 301,

3!5, 33; with for and since, 313-314;

review of, 329-331

present tense: in place of future, 168

pronouns: object, 170-171, 205-206;

say, 284-286, 325-327

seldom, 193-195

short answers: with be and do in pres-

ent, 180-181, 206-207; with have to,

182; with verbs followed by to, 197;

with can, 216; with was (were), 234;

with there was (were), 236; with did,

250; with have, 297

since, 313-314, 317

some, 219-220, 262-263

speech organs, xix

stress, xxix-xxxi

superlative, 315-317, 332

tell, 284-286, 325-327

tenses: see future, past, present perfect

there was (were), 235-236

time: expressions of past, 236-238

to, 171-172; after certain verbs, 196-

197, 208; in phrase replacing indirect

object, 282-284

too, 286-287, 328

verbs: followed by to and another verb,

196-197, 208; review of, 333-334; see

irregular verbs; see also future, past,

present perfect

very, 286-287, 328

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vowel sounds, xix-xxiii, xxx-xxxi

[i] 186, 305; [1] 186

[e] 199-200, 305; [e] 199-200, 226

[ae]i74, 226; [a] 174, 319

[0] 240, 257; [o] 240, 305

[u] 289; [u] 289; [ar] 257

[a] 174, 186, 199-200, 226, 257, 289

vowel triangle, xix-xx

weather: expressions of, 255-256

whose, 167-168, 204

with, 171

word order: with whose, 167-168, 204;

of object pronouns, 170-171; in nega-

tive questions, 192-193; of frequency

words, 193-195; of nouns used as

adjectives, 195-196; of expressions of

past time, 236-238; of direct and in-

direct objects, 282-284; review of,

209, 269-270, 332-333; see also can,

going to, have to, past, and present

perfect

Ixvii

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PA1

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3 2000 000 865 990

DO NOT n7.M0VE

ci ip

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