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Date: ____________

BIOLOGY 12
THE CELL
Read through pages 49 to 61 and answer the following questions:
Part A: Mix and Match! Each definition has only one correct matching answer
MATCH
G
K
L
I
J
A
D
T

N
E
F
S
R

O
M
B
P
U
Q
C
H

DEFINITION
1. internal framework that anchors organelles, gives shape
2. cellular "ropes" made of repeating units of the protein actin
3. hollow tubes for transport, movement, made of actin & tubulin
proteins
4. vesicles pinch off these structures; proteins modified and
packaged here
5. cellular "stomach"
6. selectively permeable "doorman"
7. the most important plastid, turns CO2, H2O, sunlight into
glucose
8. membrane-bound spheres that store water & dissolved
materials. Membrane surrounding it is called a tonoplast.
Plants have a large, central one.
9. site of rRNA production in nucleus
10. rod-like structures that package the DNA into neat, discrete
units; play role in cell division
11. used for movement, and to move material past cell. Beat back
and forth like little oars
12. site of lipid synthesis
13. appearance due to being peppered with ribosomes; this
membranous network receives the just-synthesized protein
and may modify it
14. the "brain" of the cell
15. this organelle has a double membrane and converts glucose
and O2 to produce energy in the form of ATP
16. enclose plant cells. Strong cellulose fibers give rigidity
17. small organelles in plants that contain pigments or store
starch
18. small membranous spheres that transport materials around
cell, out of cell via exocytosis, and into cell via endocytosis
19. made of rRNA and protein, these small, numerous organelles
are the site of protein synthesis
20. twin barrel like structures in animal cells that play a role in
cell division; have 9 + 0 arrangement of microtubules
21. whip-like structures used for movement in unicellular
organisms; have 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules

TERM
A) cell membrane
B) cell wall
C) centriole
D) chloroplast
E) chromosome
F) cilia
G) cytoskeleton
H) flagella

I) Golgi body
J) lysosomes
K) microfilament
L) microtubule
M) mitochondria

N) nucleolus
O) nucleus
P) plastids
Q) ribosome
R) rough endoplasmic
reticulum
S) smooth endoplasmic
reticulum
T) vacuoles
U) vesicle

Part B: Make a table, something along the lines of the one below, except BIGGER, and
fill in the necessary information about each one of the organelles listed.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.

ORGANELLE
Vesicles & vacuoles
Centrioles
Smooth endoplasmic
reticulum
Rough endoplasmic
reticulum
Ribosomes
Nucleus
Nucleolus
Nuclear envelope
Mitochondria
Lysosomes
Golgi bodies
Chromosomes
Cell membrane

LABELED SKETCH

DESCRIBE STRUCTURE

DESCRIBE FUNCTION

Include phospholipid
bilayer, channel
proteins, receptor
proteins, cholesterol,
carbohydrates

Part C- Please answer the following questions in full sentences and on a separate paper.
For the following organelles, relate the structure to the function. a) chloroplast b)
mitochondrion c) smooth endoplasmic reticulum d) Golgi bodies
a) CHLOROPLAST: double membrane organelle with a fluid filled space the
interconnected stacks of thylakoids increase the surface area = more area for
photosynthesis to occur
b) MITOCHONDRION: double membrane organelle-the inner membrane invaginates to
form the cristae giving more surface area for cellular respiration
c) SMOOTH ER: a series of membranous channels and saccuoles increase surface
area for receiving and shipping vesicles of phospholipids
d) GOLGI BODIES: stacks of slightly curved saccuoles-increase in surface area for
receiving and shipping vesicles of proteins or phospholipids
2. Explain how the following organelles work together: a) nucleus and rough endoplasmic
reticulum b) vesicle and lysosome c) smooth endoplasmic reticulum and vesicles d)
ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum e) centrioles and flagellum f) mitochondria and
chloroplast
To explain how the organelles work together read the following:
a) rRNA is produced in the nucleolus in the NUCLEUS where it combines with proteins
to make ribosomes-ribosomes attach to ER to make ROUGH ER the instructions
for proteins are in the nucleus and a copy is sent to the ribosomes on the ER to
synthesize proteins
b) VESICLES may contain large molecules that need to be broken down if a
LYSOSOME fuses with a vesicle then the contents will be digested/broken down
into smaller pieces
c) VESICLES transport phospholipids that the SMOOTH ER makes and takes them to
the Golgi apparatus
d) proteins are synthesized at the RIBOSOMES found on the ROUGH ER
e) CENTRIOLES provide the basal bodies that direct the making of FLAGELLA
f) carbohydrates made in the CHLOROPLASTS are broken down in the
MITOCHONDRIA
1.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

If a tiny hole is made in a plasma membrane, it usually "heals" immediately, and no harm
results. What property of the plasma membrane allows this?
THE FLUID PROPERTY OF THE CELLS LIPID BILAYER ALLOW THE PLASMA
MEMBRANE TO HEAL IF THERE IS A HOLE IN IT.
Lipids, small molecules, and uncharged particles pass into and out of the cell with relative
ease. What characteristics of the cell membrane can be inferred from these
observations?
FROM THESE OBSERVATIONS, THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CELL MEMBRANE
ARE THAT IT IS COMPOSED LARGELY OF NON-POLAR LIPIDS AND CONTAINS
PORES FOR SMALL MOLECULES
Describe the Fluid Mosaic Model of membrane structure.
THE FLUID MOSAIC MODEL OF MEMBRANE STRUCTURE IS A BILAYER OF
PHOSPHOLIPIDS IN WHICH PROEIN MOLECULES ARE PARTIALLY OR WHOLEY
INSERTED. LIPID PROTEINS ARE THE MOSAIC.
A continuous system of membranous channels is believed to connect the nucleus with the
cell membrane. Describe the structure and function of the organelles prominent in this
system.
THE ORGANELLES THAT ARE PROMINENT IN THE CONTINUOUS SYSTEM OF
MEMBRANOS CHANNELS OR ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM INCLUDE THE NUCLEAR
MEMBRANE, ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, GOLGI APPARATUS, VESICLES, AND
CELL MEMBRANE. LOOK AT NOTES FOR STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION.
Why is the nucleus centrally positioned in most eukaryotic cells?
THE NUCLEUS IS CENTRALLY POSITIONED IN MOST EUKARYOTIC CELLS
BECAUSE ITS MESSAGES (RNA) NEED TO DIFFUSE TO ALL AREAS OF THE CELL,
SO A CENTRAL LOCATION IS MOST LOGICAL.
8. What challenges face a cell that undergoes a great increase in size? How can the cell
overcome these challenges?
THE CHALLENGE THAT A CELL FACES WHEN IT INCREASES IN SIZE IS THAT
THERE IS A DECREASE IN SA:V RATIO. THIS DECREASE MAKES IT HARDER
FOR THE CELL TO EXCHANGE ENOUGH NUTRIENTS, WASTES AND GASES
WITH THE ENVIRONMENT. TO OVERCOME THIS CHALLENGE CELLS CAN
DIVIDE, SLOW DOWN THEIR METABOLISM, OR CHANGE SHAPE (TO
MAXIMIZE SA:V RATIO).