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Land Titling in the Philippines

ATTY. ERWIN L. TIAMSON


1

Outline
I. Land Administration
II. System of Land Ownership
III. Land Classification
IV. Land Surveys
V. Land Titling
VI. Land Registration

Land Administration
The processes of determining,
recording and disseminating
information about the tenure,
value and use of land
* Land Administration Guidelines, UN-ECE
(1996)

Land Administration
Land administration can be likened to
accounting and book keeping, except
that instead of money, it is land that is
being inventoried, accounted and
booked. The land is identified through
survey, the rights over it adjudicated
and registered and thereafter
anindefeasible title is issued by the
State.
4

Government Functions Associated


with Land Administration
! Cadastral

Surveying and

Mapping
! Land Titling
! Land Registration
! Cadastre/Land Information
Systems
5

Institutional Arrangement
! Government

Agencies Involved in
Land Administration

Land Agencies, Mandates & Records


LAND AGENCIES
MANDATES

DENR

Original Survey

LRA-RD

Registration

RECORDS GENERATED

Survey Data, Maps and Plans, Narrative


Descriptions,

Land
X
Classification/Use
Titling

LGU

LC Maps, Land Use Maps, IP Maps

PLAs, Expedientes, Patents, Certificate of


Titles, etc.

Certificate of Titles, Primary Entry Books

Survey Data, Maps and Plans, Narrative


Descriptions,

Subdivisions and
Consolidations

Cadastre

Cadastral Maps, Tax Maps, LRA Projection Map


7

System of Land ownership

System of Land Ownership


Basic Principles: There are two
basic principles that underpin land
ownership in the Philippines. The first
is State ownership under the concept
of the Regalian Doctrine. The second
is the right to private ownership.

System of Land Ownership


Regalian Doctrine - Article XII of
the 1987 Constitution.
All lands of the public domain, waters,
minerals, coal, petroleum and other mineral
oils, forces of energy, fisheries, forest or
timber, wildlife, flora and fauna and other
natural resources are owned by the State.
With the exception of agricultural lands, all
other natural resources shall not be
alienated.
10

System of Land Ownership


Only lands that has been delineated and
declared as alienable and disposable lands can
be disposed as private land by the State. Section 8 of Commonwealth Act No. 141 or
the Public Land Act
For purposes of administration and disposition,
alienable and disposable lands shall be subc l a s s i fi e d a s a g r i c u l t u r a l , r e s i d e n t i a l ,
commercial, industrial, educational,
reservations for public use, etc. in accordance
to its use or purpose. Section 9 of CA No. 141.11

System of Land Ownership


Public Domain Lands - are lands that
are owned by the State. It includes lands
that are intended for public use, such as
roads, canals, rivers, torrents, ports and
bridges constructed by the State, banks,
shores, roadsteads, and others of similar
character and lands that are intended for
some public purpose. Forest and mineral
lands and national parks are all lands of the
public domain and no private ownership is
allowed in this type of lands.
12

System of Land Ownership


Private Lands - are those lands that are
owned by private persons. Private lands
are originally acquired from the State by
q u a l i fi e d p r i v a t e p e r s o n s ( o r i g i n a l
disposition). Once disposed, it becomes
private property and it can be transferred
by the owner to any person who are
allowed by the law to acquire lands.

13

System of Land Ownership


Once the land has been granted, it
becomes private and the land
becomes segregated from the lands
of the public domain - Titled Lands
The private lands are absolute
property of the private owner to the
exclusion of everyone including the
State.
14

Classification of land
Lands of the
public domain
are classified
into
agricultural,
forest or
timber, mineral
lands and
national Parks.
(Section 3,
Article XII, 1987
Constitution
15

LAND OF THE PUBLIC DOMAIN


Forest
Mineral
Agricultural Lands National

Parks

Under Article XII of


the Constitution
forest and mineral
lands and national
parks are owned
by the State and
not subject to
disposition. Only
agricultural lands
may be disposed,
limit of 12
hectares. Lands
must be classified
the by the
government before
it can be disposed.
16

Classification of Land
! Article

XII of the 1987 Constitution

Alienable and Disposable Lands


Public Land Act (CA No.141, as
amended)
! Mineral Lands The Mining Act of 1995
(RA 7942)
! Forest Lands Revised Forestry Code
(RA 705)
! National Parks - Protected Area under
National Integrated Protected Area
System Act of 1992 (RA7586)/National
Parks (Act No. 3915)
17
!

Public Land For Titling to


Citizens
! Officially

delimited and classified as


Alienable and Disposable
! Surveyed
! Not reserved for public or quasipublic uses
! Not been appropriated by the
government
! Not Private Land
18

Land Classification Map Old

ALIENABLE AND DISPOSABLE


LC MAP NO. 1
MUNICIPALITY OF LABO
PROVINCE OF CAMARINES
NORTE, 1921

FOREST ZONE

19

Land Classification Map Old

Alienable or Disposable

Unclassified Public Forest

20

Land
Classification
(1930)
Cadastral Survey
(1967)

Forest

Lot No. 12

Lot No. 13
Lot No. 14
Lot No. 15

Lot No. 16
Lot No. 17

Lot No. 18
Lot No. 19
Lot No. 22

Lot No. 20
Lot No. 21

21

Land Classification Map New


12154'

12155'

12156'

12152'

12157'

12154'

1200'
Blk - A
FL
Blk - B
FL
Y#

Blk - L
FL

BLOCK D
FORESTLAND
(Protection Purposes)
AREA = 0.11 Has.

Y#

70

Y#

Y#

91

90

Y#
Y# 52

75

Y#

Y#

Y#

9 Y#

Y#

10

73

71 #
Y

63

11

[ YPK-2
%

64

Y#

70 #
Y
3

[ YPK-1
%

62

Y#

72

61

57 Y# 1
13
Y# 15
Y#
14
58
60

Y#

112

Y#

99
Y#

98

117 Y#

Y#

115

Y#

113

114

ALIENABLE

218

Y# Y#

91

92

Y#

12

51

108

109

Y#

110
Y#
93
94
95
96 97

111

Y#

217

Y# Y#

7
8 Y# 65

Y#

74

107

Y#

Y#

69

55

55 56

209

66

Y#

68

Y#

76

Y#

57Y#

54

Y#

54

BLOCK F
FORESTLAND
(Protection Purposes)
AREA = 0.02 Has.

106 Y#89
#

67

60Y#
77

59

58
53

105 Y#

Y#

#
#

52

Y#

102

84
101

210

85

#
#

#
#

BLOCK B
FORESTLAND
(Protection Purposes)
AREA = 10.44 Has.

Y#

59
#

# Y#

208 Y

50

Y#

118

49
#

Y#

48

Y# Y#

46

Y#

219

45

BLOCK A
FORESTLAND
(Protection Purposes)

Y#

Y#

120

220

Y#

121

Y#

Y#

Y#

123

119

124

Y#

Y#

125

Y#

10

Y#

129 Y# 29

11 Y#

Y#

148

Y#

Y##
Y 151
#

Y#

150
165 Y#

Y#

166 Y#

221

43Y# 43

Y#
Y#

Y#

4 Y# 5
9 Y#

30

BLG-3 [%
128 Y#

DISPOSABLE

162
153

#
#

44

Y#

Y#157
Y#

BLG-4 [%
1
127 Y# 31 Y#

205 Y#

Y#

206

Y#

Forestland+(Block0K).++
Rocky& Islet,& known& as& Gro9o&
with&an&area&of&0.03&hectares&

#
#

207

Y# 47

Y#
Y#

AND

48

1159'

147

Y# 42

41
Y#

130 Y# 28

#
#

#
#

Y#

133
25

40Y# 40
Y#

Y# Y#
#

136 Y#

Y#

37

21

169

13 Y# 145

Y#

Y#

Y#

12152'

12154'

222

BLOCK C
FORESTLAND
(Protection Purposes)
AREA = 36.33 Has.

Y# 20

138

1154'

137Y#
#

168

12 Y# 146

26 27

134 Y# 24
135#
Y
23

39
38
Y#

BLOCK L
FORESTLAND
(Protection Purposes)
AREA = 0.22 Has.

167 Y#
#

132

Y#

1156'

204

100 Y# 83

81

Y#

80

64 #
63

62
Y#
61 # 79
Y
78

Y#

BLOCK E
FORESTLAND
(Protection Purposes)
AREA = 0.38 Has.

95 Y#
97
Y#
80 Y#
Y#
87
103 Y#

Y#

81

Y#

211

Y#

Y#

216

99
Y#
82

94 Y#

98

66Y# 83
65 Y#
82

A& D

Blk - K
FL

1158'
L

Y#

Y#

69Y#
68 Y# 85
67Y# 84
#

53

93

89

213

212

Forestland+(BlockC).&&&
Area&of&36.33&hectares.&&
Mountainous&with&elevaBon&from&
sixty& (60)& to& ninety& eight& (98)&
meters& above& sea& level& (asl)& and&
with& slope& gradient& ranging& from&
18%&and&above.&&
C overed& with& natural& forest&
generally&with&rocks&and&limestone.&&
C o v e r e d& w i t h& u n a p p r o v e d&
cadastral& maps,& FLAGT& and& tax&
declaraBons&

75
Y#

Y#

Y#

Y#

72

87 88

BLOCK A
FORESTLAND
(Protection Purposes)
AREA = 132.21 Has.

74

73

214

1200'

Forestland+(Block0L).++
Rocky& Islet& with& an& area& of& 0.22&
hectares&

215

1200'

139 Y# 19

36
203

Y#

Y#
#

Y#
Y#

170 Y#
144

Y#

223

171 Y#
[ BLG-5
BLG-6 %
[#%
Y

BLBM 1
[
%
34
Y# 17
16
33 141
Y#
Y#
142
32

173

LAND CLASS

Y#
#

174

Y#

143

31
#
31Y

Y#

15

Y#

PROVINCE O

1158'

175

#
#

202

Y#

Y#

Y#

224

Y# 30
Y#

29

28
Y#

176 Y#

27
Y#

26
177

25Y# 25

201 Y#

Y#

Y#

13- A

225
Y#

24
Y# 23

BLOCK A
FORESTLAND
(Protection Purposes)

178 Y#

22

21

188 Y#

759.98

G
BA
NO
LA
BA
MA
GY
OC
BR
AN
YM

Y#

16

Y#

Y#

130 Y#
194

Y#
Y#

199 Y#

216 Y#

230
Y#
Y#

Trail

233
Y#

Y#
Y#

232

Buffer (River and Road)

217

214
#

13

#
#

Y#

12
Y#

Covered canal

BLOCK I
FORESTLAND
(Protection Purposes)
AREA = 0.03 Has.

Y#

NOTE :

Road alignments were based on Topographic Maps at Scal


secondary data.

11

218

Y#

10Y# 10

Y#

234

#
#

Y#
Y#

BLOCK G
FORESTLAND
(Protection Purposes)
AREA = 0.42 Has.

#
#

8
#

198 Y#

1157'

Main Road

215

14

250

Control Point

231

Y#

Y#

500

New LC Lines

Y# Y# 228

143
193

196 Y#
197
Y#
Y#
Y#
Y#
Y#
147 Y#
211
Y#
Y# Y#
Y#
201
199Y# 149
153Y# Y# 208
154 Y#
Y#
204Y#
Y#
200
205

15Y# 15

750

LEGEND
227
Y#

142

G
BR

1000 mts.

Y#

132 Y#

Y#

17

226

S C A L E : 1:

18

Y#

Forestland+(Block0+I). ++
Rocky&Islet&with&an&area&of&0.03&hectares&

Boracay Island,
Malay

184

190 Y# 140

19
Y#

For AGRICULTURAL
PURPOSES
(ALIEN. and DISP.)

Y#

Y#

200 Y#

Y#

135Y#

20Y# 20
Y#

179 Y#

Y#

187 Y#
Y#

Y#

A R E A
MUNICIPALITY

Forestland+(Block+0+G).+
Rocky&Islet&with&an&area&of&0.42&
hectares&
PROJ. No.

Y#

Forestland+(Block+0++H).+
Rocky&Islet&with&an&area&of&0.12&
hectares&

140 Y# 18

[
35 %

[
%

AKN 8

14 Y#

BLBM 2

BLOCK K
FORESTLAND
(Protection Purposes)
AREA = 0.03 Has.

Y#

#
#

Y#

Y#

#
Y# Y

235

INFORMATION SHOWING BUFFERZONES ON


CANAL, ROADS AND SHORELINES

3 meters

DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL

#
#
#

MAC-3

#
#

[
%

MAC-4
[
%

Y# 3

Y#

Y#

236
Y#
Y#

220

I hereby certify that this is the correct map of the areas delineate
Philippine Tourism Authority based on Proclamation No. 1801 and se
______, 2006 as open for disposition under the Public Land Act. The
with standard mapping procedures of the National Mapping and Reso
is hereby approved.

CANAL

Y#

222

Y#

221

NATIONAL MAPPING AND RESOURCE IN

BLOCK H
FORESTLAND
(Protection Purposes)
AREA = 0.12 Has.

AREA = 759.98 Has.


#

197 Y#

Protection Forest includes roads and its corresponding bu


of road and 30 meters inland of shoreline and other bodies of wate

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

219

5Y# 5

Y#

238

2
#

The original reports, fieldnotes and computation in connection he

1Y# 1
AKN 9 Y#[% Y# 244Y#
194 Y# 242
191Y#

BLOCK A
FORESTLAND
(Protection Purposes)

12154'

Checked by
Verified by
Finally checked by

:
:
:

Marlo M. Baetiong
Eduardo G. Penos
Ben C. Lino
Chief, LC Mapping Section

Attested by

12155'

Virgilio F. Basa
Director, RSRDAD
NAMRIA

Y#

Y#

224 Y#

Y#
Y#

Y#

186

MAC-2
[
%
MAC-1 %
[

235

Y#

228

Y#

232

230
Y#

Y#

242
Y#
Y#

244

245

Y#

243

12156'

Y#

240

226 225Y#

Y#
Y#

Y#

Quezon City, Philippines.


ROAD

233
Y#

182
Y#

Y#

Topo Map - 3355_IV


Sub-classification Report
Land Classification Report of
Arthur J. Viernes &
Jose L. Aguilar - Team Leaders
Reference - Proposed LC Map 3642

15 meters from the center

AU TH O RI TI ES
239

240

Y# #
Y
Y#

Y#

Forestland+(Block+0+J).++
Rocky& Islet& with& an& area& of&
0.07&hectares&

223

227

NO TE

241
BLOCK J
FORESTLAND
(Protection Purposes)
AREA = 0.07 Has.

Blocks D to L of Project 13 - A form


part of the forestland (protection)
as shown on the map.

30 meters

SHORELINE

12157'

22

Land Survey
! No

patent shall issue nor shall any


concession or contract be finally
approved unless the land has been
surveyed and an accurate plat made
thereof by the Bureau of Lands.
Lot
12-A

Lot 12-C

Lot
12-B

Lot
12-D

Lot
12-E

Lot 12-F

Lot 12-G

Lot 12-H

Lot 12-I
23

Defining Boundaries in Land


Parcel
Lot boundaries delineates the extent of
land ownership of land owners. Boundaries
defines the extent of the parcel, lot or
property unit in accordance with specific
standards, rules and regulations issued by
the DENR.

24

Importance of Survey
Boundaries
Identifies the actual or exact location
of a property.
Identification can be made with
reference to documents and
muniments of titles (e.g. title, survey
plans, technical descriptions, tax
declaration, tax mapping)
Or through ground identification by
way of ocular inspection, relocation
and verification survey.

25

Defining Boundaries in Land


Parcel
Boundary Indicators in Built-up Areas - the
primary indicator of boundaries will most
likely be walls and fences. However, these
can be subject to confirmation to ensure
that the fences were properly located
before it was built and are not subject to
encroachment by the owners of the
adjoining lands.

26

Defining Boundaries in Land


Parcel
Boundary Indicators in New Subdivisions the primary indicators of land boundaries
will be the survey marks place by the
surveyor on the lots or parcels. These
survey marks are made of concrete
monuments that conforms to the Manual
of Land Surveys.

27

Classification of Land Surveys


Cadastral Surveys - conducted to
determine the metes and bounds of all
parcels within an entire municipality or city
for land registration and other purposes
including public land subdivisions less than
1,500 hectares. (Section 5, DAO 07-29)
Isolated Surveys - all types of surveys of
isolated parcels of land for agricultural,
commercial, residential, and other
purposes not more than 1,500 hectares. 28

Land Surveys
FP980

H-322

MSA-223
FP121

FP545

H-12

PSU-1323
PSU-101
FP-977
6

PSU-101

- Director of Lands
exercises direct
executive control of
the survey of the
lands of the public
domain.
- Issues land survey
regulations
- Approves all
original land survey
plans (Isolated and
Cadastral Surveys)
- LRA approves
simple subdivision
of registered land
PSU-101 corrected
in the Cadastral
Survey
PSU-101 is erroneous
29

Isolated to Cadastral Survey


5
6

9
10

11

4
14

Lot 12

Lot 13
(PSU-1323)

15

Lot 16
(PSU-101
Amended)

Check Point
- Old isolated surveys are
adopted, amended or
rejected
- New survey number is
given (Cadastral No.)
- No new original isolated
survey in Cadastral Survey
Area

30

Simple Subdivision
Lot 12-A

Lot 12

Lot 12-B

LRA and DENR has


concurrent
jurisdiction in the
approval of simple
subdivision of
Registered Land.

31

Complex Subdivision
Lot 12-A

ROAD LOT
Lot
12

Lot 12-B

Under PD No. 957,


approval of complex
subdivision or those
subdivision that
creates a road lot is
with the Director of
Lands
32

Complex Subdivision
Subdivision surveys
with more than 9
resulting lots is a
complex subdivision

Lot
12-A

Lot 12-C
Lot
12-B

Lot
12-D
Lot
12-E

Lot
12
Lot
12-F
Lot 12-G

Lot 12-H

Lot 12-I

Lot 12-J

33

Identifying Land with Reference


to a Document
Narrative
Technical
Description

LOT 13, BLK. 15, Pcs-13-003519


PEDRO PENDUCO
A parcel of land (Lot 13, Blk. 15 of the cons. subd. plan,
Pcs-13-003519, being a portion of the consolidation of Lots 17 Blk. 2, 15 Blk.
3, 15 Blk. 4, 15 Blk. 5, 12 Blk. 5, 15 Blk. 7, 1 & 17 Blk. 9 & 16 Blk. 12, all of
Pcs-13-001412, Lots 5 & 5-A, both of Pcs-3866 &Lot 783-A, Psd-49419, LRC
Rec. No.
), situated in the Barrio of Bagbag, City of Quezon, Province of
Metro Manila, Island of Luzon.
Bounded on the S., along line 1-2 by Lot 14; along line 2-3 by Lot
15; along line 3-4 by Lot 16; along line 4-5 by Lot 17, all of Blk. 15 of the
cons. subd. plan; on the NW., along line 5-6 by Lot 541, Piedad Estate; on
the N., along line 6-7 by Lot 12 of Blk. 15 and on the E., along line 7-1 by
Road Lot 6, both of the cons. subd. plan.
Beginning at a point marked "1" on plan, being S. 85 deg. 37' E.,
1,305.16 m. from LM No. 20, Piedad Estate.
thence Due West, 13.00 m. to point 2;
thence Due West, 10.00 m. to point 3;
thence Due West, 10.00 m. to point 4;
thence S. 65 deg. 10' E., 6.52 m. to point 5;
thence N. 40 deg. 35E., 16.78 m. to point 6;
thence Due East, 16.16 m. to point 7;
thence Due South, 10.00 m. to the point of;
beginning, containing an area of THREE HUNDRED THIRTY
FOUR (334) SQUARE METERS, more or less. All points referred to are
indicated on the plan and are marked on the ground by P.S. cyl. conc. Mons
15x60 cms; bearings True; Date of the original survey, July 1 Dec. 14, 1907
and that of the cons. subd. survey on May 20-30, 1988.

34

NARRATIVE TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION


LOT 13, BLK. 15, Pcs-13-003519
PEDRO PENDUCO
A parcel of land (Lot 13, Blk. 15 of the cons. subd. plan, Pcs-13-003519, being a portion of the consolidation of Lots
17 Blk. 2, 15 Blk. 3, 15 Blk. 4, 15 Blk. 5, 12 Blk. 5, 15 Blk. 7, 1 & 17 Blk. 9 & 16 Blk. 12, all of Pcs-13-001412, Lots 5 & 5-A,
both of Pcs-3866 &Lot 783-A, Psd-49419, LRC Rec. No.
), situated in the Barrio of Bagbag, City of Quezon, Province of
Metro Manila, Island of Luzon.
Bounded on the S., along line 1-2 by Lot 14; along line 2-3 by Lot 15; along line 3-4 by Lot 16; along line 4-5 by Lot
17, all of Blk. 15 of the cons. subd. plan; on the NW., along line 5-6 by Lot 541, Piedad Estate; on the N., along line 6-7 by
Lot 12 of Blk. 15 and on the E., along line 7-1 by Road Lot 6, both of the cons. subd. plan.
Beginning at a point marked "1" on plan, being S. 85 deg. 37' E., 1,305.16 m. from LM No. 20, Piedad Estate.
thence Due West, 13.00 m. to point 2;
thence Due West, 10.00 m. to point 3;
thence Due West, 10.00 m. to point 4;
thence S. 65 deg. 10' E., 6.52 m. to point 5;
thence N. 40 deg. 35E., 16.78 m. to point 6;
thence Due East, 16.16 m. to point 7;
thence Due South, 10.00 m. to the point of;
beginning, containing an area of THREE HUNDRED THIRTY FOUR (334) SQUARE METERS, more or less. All points
referred to are indicated on the plan and are marked on the ground by P.S. cyl. conc. Mons 15x60 cms; bearings True; Date
of the original survey, July 1 Dec. 14, 1907 and that of the cons. subd. survey on May 20-30, 1988.

35

Lot Data Computation Sheet

36

Sources of Original Titles


!

Initial Component
! Under

Section 19 of Act No. 496


(1902) Land Registration Law

Spanish Land Grants - Perfect Titles

! Public

Land Disposition under Act


No. 926 (1902) Public Land Act

!
!

Confirmation of Imperfect Titles by


the Court
Public Land Grants by way of
Homestead, Sales and Free Patent
37

Sources of Original Titles


(Direct Grants Public Lands)
! Public

Land Grants from Alienable


Agricultural Lands
! Patents Issued by the DENR under the CA
141, RA730 and RA10023;
! Homestead Patent- issued to those who are
willing to settle in frontier lands
! Free Patent - issued to actual occupant and
cultivator of agricultural land; now includes
residential (RA No. 10023)
! Sales Patents - Agricultural, Residential,
Commercial and Industrial lands (Direct
Sale residential lands, RA No. 730)
! Confirmation of Imperfect Titles
38

Sources of Original Titles


(Indirect Grants - BOL)
! Lands

covered by Sec. 14 of PD No. 1529


! Lands under open, continuous,
exclusive and notorious possession
and occupation of alienable and
disposable lands of the public domain
under a bona fide claim of ownership
since June 12, 1945, or earlier.
! Lands acquired lands by prescription
under the provision of existing laws.
! Lands acquired by right of accession
or accretion under the existing laws.

39

Sources of Original Titles


(Indirect Grants - BOL)
!

Decrees issued by the Land


Registration Authority on the Judgment
rendered by the Court on a land
registration under Act No. 926 and PD
No. 1529
! Land is claimed as private lands
! Land is acquired by operations of law
! Judicial determination of the claim
under voluntary or cadastral
proceedings
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Derivative Titles
! Titles

acquired through
transfers as a consequence of:
! Sale
! Exchange
! Inheritance/Succession
! Donation
! Eminent Domain
! Involuntary Processes
! Tacking of Possession in
Unregistered Lands
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LAND OF THE PUBLIC DOMAIN


Forest

Agricultural Lands

Mineral

Not for Disposition

Alienable and Disposable


Agricultural

Residential

Commercial

Homestead

Sales

Sale

Direct Sale

Free Patent

Free Patent

Sale

Foreshore and
Reclaimed

Lease

National
Parks

Private Lands

Decree

Intended for some Public Use or


Purpose

Reservations
Special Patent

Lease
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Land Registration
! The

main objects of land title


registration are to protect property
rights, to facilitate transactions in
land, and to enable land to be used
as collateral for a loan. A system of
land title registration identifies each
individual land parcel and provides
confirmation by the state that the
person named in the register has
specified property rights in that
parcel.

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SYSTEMS OF REGISTRATION
! DEED

SYSTEM - The deed itself,


being a document that describes
an isolated land transaction is
registered.
! TITLE SYSTEM - The legal
consequence of the transaction
or the right created by the deed is
registered. With the registration,
an indefeasible title is created
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Purpose of Land Registration


! Provide

order and stability to society


by providing security in property
ownership in defined units of land
through recording rights and
changes in the legal situation.
! Provide a safe and certain
foundation for control, enjoyment
and transfer of rights in land.
! Recording of rights in land is
through a public registry of
properties.

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TORRENS SYSTEM
! Indefeasible

titles are acquired


through registration
! The register reflects accurately the
true state of the title to land (Mirror)
! Investigation of the root of the
title is not necessary (Curtain)
! State guarantees the title compensation to innocent
purchasers for value (Insurance)
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Thank you very much!

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