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Signal Processing for

Mechatronics
DR. TAREK TUTUNJI
PHILADELPHIA UNIVERSITY
2014

Mechatronic System Block Diagram

Controller
Signal
Conditioning

Sensors

Tarek A. Tutunji

A/D

(Computer,
Microcontroller,
or DSP)

Physical Process

D/A

Driver

Actuators

Signal Processing Applications in Mechatronics


Signal Conditioning
Filtering
Noise reduction
Amplification
Data smoothing and correction
Analog-to-Digital conversion
Control
Efficient and fast control algorithms
Parameter estimation
Vibration control
System and parameter identification

Tarek A. Tutunji

Signal Conditioning
DR. TAREK TUTUNJI
PHILADELPHIA UNIVERSITY
2014

Signal Conditioning
Signal conditioning circuits improve the quality of signals

generated by transducers before they are converted into


digital signals by the PC's data-acquisition hardware.

Filtering and Amplifying measured signals from sensors


Tarek A. Tutunji

Signal Conditioning
The signal conditioner accepts

the electrical output of the


transducer and transmits the
signal to the comparator in a form
compatible with the reference
input. The functions of the signal
conditioner include:

Amplification
Isolation
Sampling
Noise elimination
Linearization
Span and reference shifting

Math manipulation
differentiation, division, integration,
multiplication, root finding, squaring,
subtraction, or summation
Signal conversion
DCAC, ACDC, frequencyvoltage,
voltagefrequency, digitalanalog,
analogdigital
Buffering
Digitizing
Filtering
Impedance matching
Wave shaping
Phase shifting
In a digital control system, many of

the signal conditioning functions


listed here can also be
accomplished by software

Filtering
Electronic filters are circuits which perform signal processing functions,
specifically to eliminate unwanted frequencies and/or enhance wanted ones

Example: Low Pass Filter

H (s)

Passes low frequencies

Vout
1 / sC
1

Vin 1 / sC R 1 RCs

Blocks high frequencies

Amplification

Amplification expands the range of the

transducer signals so that they match the input


range of the A/D converter.

For example, a x10 amplifier maps transducer signals


which range from 0 to 1 V into the range 0 to 10 V before
they go into the A/D converter.

Example: Non-inverting amplifier

-R f
Vout
Vin
Ri

Voltage Follower
Used to repeat a signal without loading down the

sensor.

Differential Amplifier

By letting:
Ra = Rb
Rf = Rg

VOUT

Rf
Ra

(Vb Va )

Instrumentation Amplifier
Amplifier with a very good CMRR.

Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) is the ratio of amplified


signal to amplified noise

Op Amps

Integrator Circuit
Output voltage is proportional to the area under a

signal curve.

Differentiator Circuit
Output is proportional to the rate of change of the

input.

Active Low Pass Filter

Digital Control
DR. TAREK TUTUNJI
PHILADELPHIA UNIVERSITY
2014

Feedback Control Block Diagram

or DSP

Digital Control Algorithms can be programmed in DSPs

Tarek A. Tutunji

System Response

The objective of a controller is to


Stabilize the plant
Minimize the steady-state error
Reduce the overshoot, rise time, and settling time during the transient response

PID Control
Analog

Digital

Tarek A. Tutunji

Digital PID Realization

Required Operations:
Multiplication
Addition
Delay

PID Controller Flow Chart

DSPs are used for fast and efficient implementation of control algorithms
Tarek A. Tutunji

Applications
DR. TAREK TUTUNJI
PHILADELPHIA UNIVERSITY
2014

Robotic Applications
Multi-axis and multi-

variable linear and


nonlinear controllers
Image processing and
image recognition
Speech processing and
analysis
State estimation and
prediction

Tarek A. Tutunji

Hard Disc Drives

Position and speed control


Vibration control

Noise filter
Signal transmission and Communication
Tarek A. Tutunji

Automotive Applications

Combustion Engine Control

Anti-lock Braking System

Speed Control

Airbag

Military Applications
Fast and accurate

controller response
Efficient maneuvering
Target recognition and
allocation
State estimation
Communication

Other Applications
Industrial Applications:
Precision tooling machines, smooth operations of
nonlinear electric machines, and HVAC.
Office Equipment:
Position and speed control using AC motor control of
copiers and printers.

Conclusion
Signal processing techniques in mechatronic systems

are used to:


1.

Filter and amplify the signal received from the


sensor

2. Program fast and efficient algorithms in controllers

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