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By DrJamil

A prototype is an original type, form, or instance of some thing serving as

a typical example, basis, or standard for other things of the same category.

Prototyping is the process of quickly putting together a working model (a

prototype) in order to test various aspects of a design, illustrate ideas or
features and gather early user feedback. Prototyping is often treated as an
integral part of the system design process, where it is believed to reduce
project risk and cost. Often one or more prototypes are made in a process
of iterative and incremental development where each prototype is
influenced by the performance of previous designs, in this way problems
or deficiencies in design can be corrected. When the prototype is
sufficiently refined and meets the functionality, robustness,
manufacturability and other design goals, the product is ready for

Design and modeling

In many fields, there is great uncertainty as to whether a new design will
actually do what is desired. New designs often have unexpected problems.
A prototype is built to test the function and feel of the new design before
starting production of a product. The construction of a fully working fullscale prototype, the ultimate test of concept, is the engineers' final check
for design flaws and allows last-minute improvements to be made before
larger production runs are ordered.
Building the full design is often expensive and can be time-consuming,
especially when repeated several times -- building the full design, figuring
out what the problems are and how to solve them, then building another
full design. As an alternative, "rapid-prototyping" or "rapid application
development" techniques are used for the initial prototypes, which
implement part, but not all, of the complete design. This allows designers
and manufacturers to rapidly and inexpensively test the parts of the design
that are most likely to have problems, solve those problems, and then build
the full design.

Advantages of prototyping

May provide the proof of concept necessary to attract funding

Early visibility of the prototype gives users an idea of what
the final system looks like
Encourages active participation among users and producer
Enables a higher output for user
Cost effective (Development costs reduced)
Increases system development speed
Assists to identify any problems with the efficacy of earlier
design, requirements analysis and coding activities
Helps to refine the potential risks associated with the delivery
of the system being developed

Disadvantages of prototyping

Users expectation on prototype may be above its

Possibility of causing systems to be left unfinished
Possibility of implementing systems before they are ready.
Producer might produce a system inadequate for overall
organization needs
Producer might get too attached to it (might cause legal
Often lack flexibility
Not suitable for large applications
Project management difficulties

Individual Assignment

Choose one product prototype and give the

details about that prototype.