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There are two types of moving coil instruments namely, permanent magnet moving coil type

which can only be used for direct current, voltage measurements and the dynamometer type

which can be used on either direct or alternating current, voltage measurements.

In PMMC meter or (DArsonval) meter or galvanometer all are the same instrument, a

coil of fine wire is suspended in a magnetic field produced by permanent magnet. According to

the fundamental law of electromagnetic force, the coil will rotate in the magnetic field when it

carries an electric current by electromagnetic (EM) torque effect. A pointer which attached the

movable coil will deflect according to the amount of current to be measured which applied to the

coil. The (EM) torque is counterbalance by the mechanical torque of control springs attached to

the movable coil also. When the torques are balanced the moving coil will stopped and its angular

deflection represent the amount of electrical current to be measured against a fixed reference,

called a scale. If the permanent magnet field is uniform and the spring linear, then the pointer

deflection is also linear.

Assume there are (N) turns of wire and the coil is (L) in long by (W) in wide. The force

(F) acting perpendicular to both the direction of the current flow and the direction of magnetic

field is given by:

where N: turns of wire on the coil I: current in the movable coil

F = N BI L

B: flux density in the air gap L: vertical length of the coil

Electromagnetic torque is equal to the multiplication of force with distance to the point of

suspension

W

W

in one side of cylinder

in the other side of cylinder

TI 1 = NBIL

TI 2 = NBIL

2

2

The total torque for the two cylinder sides

TI = 2 NBIL = NBILW = NBIA

2

This torque will cause the coil to rotate until an equilibrium position is reached at an angle with

its original orientation. At this position

Electromagnetic torque = control spring torque

TI = Ts

Since

Ts = K

NBA

NBA

So

=

I

where

Thus

C=

= CI

K

K

The angular deflection proportional linearly with applied current

Seventh Lecture

pointer

F

B

S

F

W

N

B

1- D.c Ammeter:

An Ammeter is always connected in series with a circuit branch and measures the current

flowing in it. Most d.c ammeters employ a dArsonval movement, an ideal ammeter

would be capable of performing the measurement without changing or distributing the

current in the branch but real ammeters would possess some internal resistance.

Im

Rm

Since the coil winding in PMMC meter is small and light, they can carry only small

currents (A-1mA). Measurement of large current requires a shunt external resistor to

connect with the meter movement, so only a fraction of the total current will passes

through the meter.

Vm = Vsh

Im Rm = IshRsh

Ish = I T Im

Im Rm

Rsh =

I T Im

I range=IT

Ish

Rsh

Im

Rm

Seventh Lecture

Example:

If PMMC meter have internal resistance of 10 and full scale range of 1mA.

Assume we wish to increase the meter range to 1A.

Sol.

So we must connect shunt resistance with the PMMC meter of

Rsh =

Im Rm

I T Im

Rsh =

1 10 3 10

1 1 10 3

= 0.01001

The current range of d.c ammeter can be further extended by a number of shunts selected

by a range switch; such ammeter is called a multirange ammeter.

Rsh =

Im Rm

Ir Im

Ish3

Ish2

Ish1

Rsh3

Rsh2

Rsh1

Im

Rm

I range2

I range3

I range1

_

b) Indirect D.C Ammeter Method:

Ir Rm + R

=

Im

r

Where R=Ra+ Rb+ Rc

And

r = parallel resistors

branch with the meter

Ir1

Ra

Im

Ir2

+

Ir3

Rb

Rm

Rc

Seventh Lecture

Example (1):

Design a multirange ammeter by using direct method to give the following ranges 10mA,

100mA, 1A, 10A, and 100A. If dArsonval meter have internal resistance of 10 and full

scale current of 1mA.

Sol:

Rm=10 Im=1mA

Rsh =

Rsh2 =

Rsh 4 =

Im Rm

Ir Im

Rsh1 =

1 10 3 10

(100 10) 10 3

1 10 3 10

10 1 10 3

= 0.101

Rsh3 =

= 0.0011

1 10 3 10

(10 1) 10 3

1 10 3 10

1 10 10 3

Rsh5 =

= 1.11

= 0.0101

1 10 3 10

100 1 10 3

= 0.00011

+

Rsh4 Rsh3

Rsh5

Rsh2

Im

1mA

Rm

10

Rsh1

100mA

1A

10mA

100A

Example (2):

Design an Ayrton shunt by indirect method to provide an ammeter with current ranges

1A, 5A, and 10A, if PMMC meter have internal resistance of 50 and full scale current of 1mA.

Sol.:

Rm=50

IFSD=Im=1mA

Ir Rm + R

=

Im

r

1A

10A

Rm

Rb

Rc

For 1A Range:

I1 Rm + R

=

Im

R

Im

5A

And

r = parallel resistors

branch with the meter

1-

Ra

Seventh Lecture

2-

1A 50 + R

=

1mA

R

For 5A Range:

I 2 Rm + R

=

Im Rb + Rc

3-

R=0.05005

r =Rb+Rc

5 A 50 + 0.05005

=

1mA

Rb + Rc

Ra=R-(Rb+Rc)

For 10A Range:

Rb+Rc= 0.01001

Ra=0.05-0.01001=0.04004

I 3 Rm + R

r =Rc

=

Im

Rc

10 A 50 + 0.05005

Rc=5.005x10-3

=

Rc

1mA

Rb=0.01001-5.005x10-3= 5.005x10-3

2- D.C Voltmeter:

A voltmeter is always connect in parallel with the element being measured, and measures

the voltage between the points across which its connected. Most d.c voltmeter employ PMMC

meter with series resistor as shown. The series resistance should be much larger than the

impedance of the circuit being measured, and they are usually much larger than Rm.

Rs = RT Rm

Rs =

Vrange

Im

Rm

Im=IFSD

The ohm/volt sensitivity of a voltmeter

Is given by:

Rm

1

Sv =

=

= rating

V FSD I FSD V

S Range =

Rs

Im

VRange

Rm

Rm + Rs

1

=

=

V Range

I Range V

Rv= VFSD x sensitivity

Example:

We have a micro ammeter and we wish to adapted it so as to measure 1volt full scale, the meter

has internal resistance of 100 and IFSD of 100A.

Seventh Lecture

Sol.:

1

V

Rm

Rs =

100 = 9900 = 9.9 K

Im

0.0001

So we connect with PMMC meter a series resistance of 9.9K to convert it to voltmeter

Rs =

Voltage range of d.c voltmeter can be further extended by a number of series resistance

selected by a range switch; such a voltmeter is called multirange voltmeter.

In this method each series resistance of multirange voltmeter is connected in direct with

PMMC meter to give the desired range.

Rs1

V

Rs = Rm

Im

Im

V1

Rs2

Rm

V2

Rs3

V3

o/p of voltmeter

In this method one or more series resistances of multirange voltmeter is connected with

PMMC meter to give the desired range.

Rs1 =

Rs 2 =

Rs3 =

V1

Rm

Im

V 2 V1

Im

V3 V 2

Im

Rs1

Rs2

Rs3

Im

Rm

V2

V1

V3

+

_

O/P

Example (1):

A basic dArsonval movement with internal resistance of 100 and half scale current

deflection of 0.5 mA is to be converted by indirect method into a multirange d.c voltmeter with

voltages ranges of 10V, 50V, 250V, and 500V.

Sol:

IFSD = IHSD x 2

IFSD = 0.5mA x 2 =1mA

10

V1

Rs1 =

Rm

Rs1 =

100 = 9.9 K

Im

1mA

Seventh Lecture

Rs 2 =

Rs 2 =

Rs3 =

Rs 4 =

V 2 V1

Im

50 10

1 10 3

250 50

3

Rs1

= 40 K

= 200 K

1 10

500 250

1 10 3

Rs2

Rs4

Rs3

Im

50V

Rm

250V

10V

500V

+

_ O/P

= 250 K

Example (2):

Design d.c voltmeter by using direct method with dArsonval meter of 100 and full

scale deflection of 100A to give the following ranges: 10mV, 1V, and 100V.

Sol:

Rs1

V

Rs = Rm

Im

Rs1 =

V1

Rm

Im

Im

Rm

Rs2

Rs3

100mV

1V

100V

+

o/p of voltmeter

10mV

100 = 0

100 A

1

Rs 2 =

100 = 9.9 K

100 10 6

100

Rs3 =

100 = 99.9 K

100 10 6

Rs1 =

When a current of 1A flows through a circuit which has an impressed voltage of 1volt, the

circuit has a resistance of 1.

V

R=

I

There are several methods used to measure unknown resistance:

This method is inaccurate unless the ammeter has a small resistance and voltmeter have a

high resistance.

Seventh Lecture

b) Series Ohmmeter:

Rx is the unknown resistor to be measured, R2 is variable adjusted resistance so that

the pointer read zero at short circuit test. The scale of series ohmmeter is nonlinear with

zero at the right and infinity at extreme left. Series ohmmeter is the most generally used

meter for resistance measurement.

c) Shunt Ohmmeter:

Shunt ohmmeter are used to measure very low resistance values. The unknown

resistance Rx is now shunted across the meter, so portion of current will pass across this

resistor and drop the meter deflection proportionately. The switch is necessary in shunt

ohmmeter to disconnect the battery when the instrument is not used. The scale of shunt

ohmmeter is nonlinear with zero at the left and infinity at extreme right.

The meter of voltage divider is voltmeter that reads voltage drop across Rs which

dependent on Rx. This meter will read from right to left like series ohmmeter with more

uniform calibration.

Eighth Lecture

Review on Alternating Signal:

The instantaneous values of electrical signals can be graphed as they vary with time. Such

graphs are known as the waveforms of the signal. If the value of waveform remains constant with

time, the signal is referred to as direct (d.c) signal; such as the voltage of a battery. If a signal is

time varying and has positive and negative instantaneous values, the waveform is known as

alternating (a.c) waveform. If the variation of a.c signal is continuously repeated then the signal

is known as periodic waveform.

The frequency of a.c signal is defined as the number of cycles traversed in one second. Thus

the time duration of one cycle per second for a.c signal is known as the period (T). Where the

complete variation of a.c signal before repeated itself is represent one cycle.

Average Values:

It is found by dividing the area under the curve of the waveform in one period (T) by the

time of the period.

Average value= Algebraic sum of the areas under the curve

Length of the curve

areas

.. (1)

Av =

T

or

1

Av =

T

f (t )dt

V

4

Vm

1

Av =

2

VmSind

-3

5 7 9 t

t

2

10

-2

1

1

3 6 + 4 ( 3)

2

Av = 2

9

2

0

.. (2)

Av =

4 2 + ( 2 ) 2 + 3 2

10

Vm

Av =

Cos 02

2

Vm

(1 1) = 0

Av =

2

The average value for the figure below by using equation (2) is:

Av =

1

T

f (t )dt

we use the tangent equation for (xo,yo)=(0,0), and (x1,y1)=(3,6) to find the

function of f(t)

Eighth Lecture

y y1 y 2 y1

=

x x1 x 2 x1

y0 60

y 6

= = 2 y = 2 x

=

x 0 3 0

x 3

f(t)

1

Av = (2t )dt

3

Av =

f (t ) = 2t

2 t 2 3

3 2 0

Av =

1

(3)2 (0)2 = 9 = 3

3

3

(3,6)

(0,0)

The r.m.s value of a waveform refers to its power capability. It is refer to the effective

value of a.c signal because the r.m.s value equal to the value of a d.c signal which would deliver

the same power if it replaced with a.c signal.

V

area(V ) 2

4

r.m.s =

( for square waveform only)

T

3

16 2 + 4 2 + 9 2

1- r.m.s =

t

10

6 8 10

2 4

In general form the r.m.s value has the following aqua.

-2

r.m.s= Average f(t)2

1

r.m.s =

T

2-

f (t )

V2

16

dt

9

4

2

f(t)

r.m.s =

1

(2t )2 dt

3

10

(3,6)

r.m.s =

3-

4 t 3 3

=

3 3 0

4

(3)3 (0)3 =

9

4 27

= 3.46

9

(0,0)

t

3

If f(t) = Vm Sind

r.m.s =

1

2

Vm 2

r.m.s =

4

Vm

Vm 2

r.m.s =

2

Sin d

1

2

2

2

d Cos 2d

0

0

r.m.s =

1 Cos 2

d

2

2

2

Vm 2

1

Sin 2

4 0 2

0

Eighth Lecture

Vm 2

Vm 2 Vm

[

]

=

r.m.s =

2 0 =

4

2

2

V

Vm

r.m.s

for Sine wave F.F=1.11 (F.W.R)

average

F.F=1.57 (H.W.R)

PeakValue

CrestFactor =

r.m.s

FormFactor =

Dynamometer:

This instrument is suitable for the measurement of direct and alternating current, voltage

and power. The deflecting torque in dynamometer is relies by the interaction of magnetic field

produced by a pair of fixed air cored coils and a third air cored coil capable of angular movement

and suspended within the fixed coil.

Non linear scale

FSD

pointer

Fixed

coil

moving

coil

Fixed

coil

FSD

FSD

0

N

B i f

average i2 , since

thus

T i i m i f A

Ti = N Bim A ,

so T i i 2

r.m.s = averagef (t ) 2

3

Eighth Lecture

The output scale is calibrated to give the r.m.s value of a.c signal by taking the square roots of

the inside measured value.

O/P scale = r.m.s = average(i ) 2 , for example if (average i2) = 16 inside the measuring device,

the output scale of the device will indicate (4)

4

d.c

d.c

dynamometer

a.c

dynamometer

1

r.m.s =

T

r.m.s

f (t )

dt

Meters

d.c meters

measure d.c or Av values

a.c meters

measure r.m.s values

PMMC

dynamometer

Ti

B constant

linear scale

i

T i2

B varied

non linear

scale

average i2

Average Responding

a.c meter

True Responding

a.c meter

Rectifier + PMMC

dynamometer

O/P (r.m.s) = Av x F.Fsine wave

(measured)

F.Fsine wave (H.W.R) = 1.57

(true)

(sine, square, or any thing)

a.c i/p

signal

Rectifier circuit

To remove the negative

part

PMMC

Measure

Av.

Scale calibrated by

O/P=Av x F.Fsine

Eighth Lecture

O/P (r.m.s) = Av x F.Ftrue

(true) = (measured)

I/P a.c

signal

O/P

r.m.s

Dynamometer

Example:

What will be the out put of the following meters, if an average responding a.c meter of halfwave rectifier read (4.71v), and true form factor of input waveform is (1.414).

DArsonval

meter

H.W.R

+

PMMC

meter

F.W.R

+

PMMC

meter

Dynamo.

meter

Sol:

4.71

Av =

= 3V

4.71 = 1.57 Av

1.57

1. DArsonval meter read Av = 3V

2. HWR+PMMC (Average responding of halve wave rectifier) meter = 4.71V

3. FWR+PMMC (Average responding of full wave rectifier) meter = 1.11 x 3 = 3.33V

4. Dynamometer =F.F(true) x Av

r.m.s(true)= 1.414 x 3 = 4.242V

DArsonval

meter

E=10V

H.W.R

+

PMMC

meter

F.W.R

+

PMMC

meter

Dynamo.

meter

4

5

Eighth Lecture

For small current measurement (5mA to 100mA), fixed and moving coils are connect in

series. While larger current measurement (up to 20A) , the moving coil is shunted by a small

resistance.

moving

Fixed

Fixed

moving

Fixed

Fixed

Rsh

To convert such an instrument to a voltmeter only a rather big series resistance is connected with

the moving coil.

moving

Fixed

Fixed

Rs

One application of average responding a.c meters is the clamp on meter which is used to

measured a.c current, voltage in a wire with out having to break the circuit being measured.

The meter having use the transformer principle to detect the current. That is, the clamp on device

of the meter serves as the core of a transformer. The current carrying wire is the primary winding

of the transformer, while the secondary winding is in the meter. The alternating current in the

primary is coupled to the secondary winding by the core, and after being rectified the current is

sensed by a dArsonval meter.

Eighth Lecture

Core

Current carrying

conductor

As primary

winding

Mechanism

For opening

clamp on meter

Secondary

Winding

Rectifier

PMMC

Example:

The symmetrical square wave voltage is applied to an average responding a.c voltmeter with a

scale calibrated in term of the r.m.s value of a sine wave. Calculate:

1. The form factor of square wave voltage.

2. The error in the meter indication.

Sol:

V(t)

Vm

1

Vrms(True) =

V (t ) 2 dt = Vm

T

T

2

-Vm

2

Vaverage(True) = V (t )dt = Vm

T

Vrms Vm

F .F(True) =

=

=1

Vav. Vm

Vrms( measured ) = 1.11 Av. = 1.11 Vm = 1.11Vm

Error =

Error =

Vrms(True)

100%

Vm 1.11Vm

100%

Vm

Exer.:

Repeat the above example for saw tooth waveform shown

Sol:

V(t)=25t

Vav.=50V

Vrms(True)=57.75V

Vrms(Measured)=55.5V

F.F(True)=1.154

Error=0.0389%

V(t)

100

t

-100

4Sec

Ninth Lecture

Bridge circuit are extensively used for measuring component values, such as resistance,

inductance, capacitance, and other circuit parameters directly derived from component values

such as frequency, phase angle, and temperature. Bridge accuracy measurements are very high

because their circuit merely compares the value of an unknown component to that of an

accurately known component (a standard).

1- D.c Bridges:

The basic d.c bridges consist of four resistive arms with a source of emf (a battery) and a

null detector usually galvanometer or other sensitive current meter. D.c bridges are generally

used for the measurement of resistance values.

a) Wheatstone Bridge:

This is the best and commonest method of measuring medium resistance values in the

range of 1 to the low megohm. The current through the galvanometer depends on potential

difference between point (c) and (d). The bridge is said to be balance when potential

difference across the galvanometer is zero volts, so there is no current through the

galvanometer (Ig=0). This condition occurs when Vca=Vda

or Vcb=Vdb hence the

bridge is balance when

V 1 = V 2 .. (1) Since I g = 0 so by voltage divider rule

R1

.. (2) and

R1 + R3

R2

.. (3)

V2 = E

R2 + R4

Substitute equations (2) & (3) in equ. (1)

R1

R2

=

R1 + R3 R2 + R4

V1 = E

I2

I1

R1

R2

I3

I4

R3

R4

b

So, if three of resistance values are known, the fourth unknown ones can be determined.

R R

R4 = 3 2

R1

R3 are called the standard arm of the bridge and resistors R2 and R1 are called the ratio

arms.

To determine whether or not the galvanometer has the required sensitivity to detect an

unbalance condition, it is necessary to calculate the galvanometer current for small unbalance

condition. The solution is approached by converting the Wheatstone bridge to its thevenin

equivalent. Since we are interested in the current through the galvanometer, the thevenin

equivalent circuit is determined by looking into galvanometer terminals (c) and (d).

Ninth Lecture

a

R1

when

R2

R4

R3

Rth

E=0

RR

R2 R 4

Rth = 1 3 +

R1 + R3 R2 + R4

Eth = V1 V2

E0

ER1

ER2

Eth =

R1 + R3 R2 + R4

Eth

Rth + Rg

and galvanometer deflection (d) is:

Rth

c

Ig

G Rg

Eth

d

Ig =

b) Kelvin Bridge:

Kelvin bridge is a modification of the Wheatstone bridge and provides greatly increased

accuracy in the measurement of low value resistance, generally below (1). It is eliminate

errors due to contact and leads resistance. (Ry) represent the resistance of the connecting

lead from R3 to R4. Two galvanometer connections are possible, to point (m) or to point

(n).

1- If the galvanometer connect to point (m) then

R4 = R x + R y therefore unknown resistance will be higher than its actual value by Ry

R4 = R3 + R y

Ninth Lecture

Rnp

Rmp

R1

R2

. (1)

R2

At balance condition

R2 R x + Rnp = R1 R3 + Rmp

R1

.. (2)

R1

R2

R

R y = 1 R3 +

R y

R x +

+

+

R

R

R

R

R

2

2

2

1

1

R3

R4

m

n

p

Ry

R

This reduces to R x = 1 R3

R2

So the effect of the resistance of the connecting lead from point (m) to point (n) has be

eliminated by connecting the galvanometer to the intermediate position (p).

Kelvin double bridge is used for measuring very low resistance values from approximately

(1 to as low as 1x10-5). The term double bridge is used because the circuit contains a second

set of ratio arms labelled Ra and Rb. If the galvanometer is connect to point (p) to eliminates

the effect of (yoke resistance Ry).

Ra

R

= 1

Rb R2

At balance V2 = V3 + Vb . (1)

R2

.. (2)

V2 = E

R1 + R2

V3 = I 3 R3 and Vb = I b Rb .. (3)

Ry

(4)

Ib = I3

(Ra + Rb ) + R y

(Ra + Rb )R y

+ R4 (5)

E = I 3 R3 +

(Ra + Rb ) + R y

into equ.(3) then substitute the result in

equ.(1), we get

K

R2

R1

I2

L

I3

Rb

Ib

R3

Ra

n R4

m

Ry

(Ra + Rb )R y

Ry

R2

+ R4

I 3 R3 +

= I 3 R3 + I 3

R

(Ra + Rb ) + R y b

(Ra + Rb ) + R y

R1 + R2

Ninth Lecture

Rx =

R y Rb

R3 R1

+

R2

Ra + Rb + R y

Rx =

R y Rb

R1 Ra

R3 R1

+

R2

Ra + Rb + R y R2 Rb

If

R1

Ra

+11

Rb

R2

R R

Ra

R

= 1 then R x = 3 1

R2

Rb R2

The ac bridge is a natural outgrowth of the dc bridge and in its basic form consists of four

bridge arms, a source of excitation, and a null ac detector. For measurements at low

frequencies, the power line may serve as the source of excitation; but at higher frequencies an

oscillator generally supplies the excitation voltage. The null ac detector in its cheapest

effective form consists of a pair of headphones or may be oscilloscope.

Z1

i2

Z Z2

C

i4

Z3

i3

Z

B

i1

Z

the detector response is zero or indicates

null. Then VAC = 0 and VZ1 = VZ2

Z1

VZ 1 = Vin

Z1 + Z 3

Z2

Vin

thus

VZ 2 = Vin

Z2 + Z4

Z4

Or Y1Y4 = Y2Y3

D

The balance equation can be written in complex form as:

(Z11 )(Z 4 4 ) = (Z 2 2 )(Z 3 3 )

And (Z1Z 4 1 + 4 ) = (Z 2 Z 3 2 + 3 )

So two conditions must be met simultaneously when balancing an ac bridge

1- Z1Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3

2- 1 + 4 = 2 + 4

jXL

Review on Ac Impedance:

ZL

a) In series connection

R

Impedance = resistance j reactance

Z L = R + jXL

and Z L = R + jL

1

-jXC

and Z C = R j

Z C = R jXC

C

Conversion from polar to rectangular

R= Z Cos

X= Z Sin become Z = R jX

Z in polar form

Conversion from rectangular to polar

X

X

Z = R jX in rectangular form

Z = R2 + X 2

= tan 1

tan =

R

R

4

Ninth Lecture

b) In parallel connection

Admittance = conductance j susceptance

1

1

YL = G jB L and YL = j

R

L

1

YC = G + jBC and

YC = + jC

R

1

B

C

tan = C = Xc =

= RC

1

1

G

R

R

Example (1):

The impedance of the basic a.c bridge are given as follows:

Z 4 = unknown

Sol:

Z4 =

Z 2 Z3

Z1

Z4 =

250 400

= 1k

100

Z 2 = 250

jBC

YC

G

YL

-jBL

4 = 0 + 30 80 = 50 o

4 = 2 + 3 1

B

Z

30

0.

45

0

Example (2):

For the following bridge find Zx?

Z1

The balance equation Z1Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3

Z1 = R = 450

Vin

A

j

1

Z2 = R +

= R

1V

j C

C

1KHz

Z 2 = 300 j 600

Z3

Z 3 = R + j L

Z 3 = 200 + j100

Z 4 = Z x = unknown

Z Z

(300 j 600)(200 + j100)

Z4 = 2 3

Z4 =

= 266.6 j 200

450

Z1

1

R = 266.6

C=

= 0.79F

2F 200

5

26

F

0

20

H

m

.9

15

a) Comparison Bridges:

A.c comparison bridges are used to measure unknown inductance or capacitance by

comparing it with a known inductance or capacitance.

1- Capacitive Comparison Bridge:

In capacitive comparison bridge R1 & R2 are ratio arms, Rs in series with Cs are

standard known arm, and Cx represent unknown capacitance with its leakage resistance Rx.

j

j

Z1 = R1

Z 2 = R2

Z 3 = Rs

Z 4 = Rx

C s

C x

At balance

Z1 Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3

Ninth Lecture

B

Z

Z1

R2

R1

Vin

C

Rs

Rx

Cs Cx

j

j

= R2 Rs

R1 R x

C

C

x

s

jR1

jR2

= R2 R s

R1 R x

C x

C s

By equating the real term with the real

and imaginary term with imaginary we get:

R R

Rx= 2 s

R1 R x = R2 Rs

R1

Z3

RC

jR1 jR2

Cx = 1 s

=

R2

C x

C s

D

We can note that the bridge is independent

on frequency of applied source.

2- Inductive Comparison Bridge:

The unknown inductance is determined by comparing it with a known standard inductor.

At balance we get

R R

B

R x = 2 s represent resistive balance equation

R1

Z

Z1

2

R2

R1

C

Rs

Rx

Z3

Ls

Lx

Vin

R L

L x = 2 s inductive balance equation

R1

b) Maxwell bridge:

This bridge measure unknown inductance in terms of a known capacitance, at balance:

1

thus

Z1 Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3

Z1 =

Y1

B

Z 3 = R3 Y1 =

Z 4 = R x + jL x

So

Y1

1

+ jC1

R1

R2

R1

Vin

C

Rx

R3

Z3

+ jC1

R x + jL x = R2 R3

R1

R R

Rx = 2 3

R1

L x = R2 R3C1

C1

Lx

Z 2 = R2

where

Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3Y1

D

6

Ninth Lecture

Maxwell bridge is limited to the measurement of medium quality factor (Q) coil with range

between 1<Q10

1

L4 Bc1 XC1

tan 1 = tan 4 =

=

=

= R1C1 = Q

1

R4

G1

R1

c) Hay Bridge:

Hay bridge convening for measuring high Q coils

j

Z 2 = R2

Z1 = R1

Z 3 = R3

C1

Z 4 = R x + j L x

At balance

Z1 Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3

R2

R1

C1

Lx

Rx

R3

Vin

C12 R1 R2 R3

Rx =

1 + 2 C12 R12

Lx =

Z1

Z3

j

R1

(R + jL x ) = R 2 R3

C1 x

L

jR

R1 R x + x x + jR1 L x = R2 R3

C1 C1

Separating the real and imaginary terms

L

R1 R x + x = R2 R3 .. (1)

C1

Rx

= R1 L x (2)

C1

Solving equ.(1) and (2) yields

R2 R3C1

1 + 2 C12 R12

1 = 4 because 2 = 3 = zero

1

L4 XC1 C1

1

=

=

=

=Q

tan 1 = tan 4 =

R4

R1

R1

C1 R1

1

Thus Q =

.. (3)

R1C1

Submitted equ.(3) in to equ. (2) yield

Lx =

R2 R3C 1

1

1 +

Q

1

For Q> 10, then << 1 and can be neglected, then

Q

L x = R2 R3C1

Ninth Lecture

d) Schering Bridge:

Schering bridge used extensively for capacitive measurement, (C3) is standard high mica

capacitor for general measurement work, or (C3) may be an air capacitor for insulation

1 + 4 = 2 + 3 but 1 + 4 = 90

measurements. The balance condition require that

Thus 2 + 3 must equal (-90) to get balance

At balance Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3Y1

1

j

+ jC1 Z 2 = R2

Y1 =

Z3 =

C 3

R1

j

Z 4 = Rx

B

C x

(1)

Vin

C1

R2

R1

A

C3

Z3

R

C x = C3 1 (2)

R2

The power factor (pf):

R

pf = Cos c = x

Zx

The dissipation factor (D):

R

1

D = Cot c = x = = R x C x (3)

XC x Q

Substitute equs. (1) & (2) into (3), we get

D = R1C1

C

Rx

Cx

4

C

R x = R2 1

C3

Y1

j 1

= R2

+ jC1

C x

C3 R1

R C

jR2

j

Rx

= 2 1

C x

C2

C3 R1

Rx

e) Wien Bridge:

This bridge is used to measured unknown frequency

1

j

Z 2 = R2

Y3 =

+ j C 3

Z1 = R1

C1

R3

Z

Z1 Z 4 = 2

Y3

Z 2 = Z1Z 4Y3

Z 4 = R4

j 1

R4

R2 = R1

+ jC3

C1 R3

R1 R4 R4 C 3

R2 =

+

R3

C1

Dividing by R4 we get

R2 R1 C 3

. (1)

=

+

R4 R3 C1

8

Ninth Lecture

R4

Since = 2F

C3 R1 R4 =

C1 R3

1

if R1 = R3

Thus F =

2 C1C3 R1 R3

And

F=

R2

= 2 in equ.(1)

R4

and C1 = C3 then

1

this is the general equation for Wien bridge

2RC

B

Z

Z1 R 1

R2

C1

A

3

C

R

Vin

R4

4

Y3

Variable Resistors:

Load

Load

The variable resistance usually have three leads, two fixed and one movable. If the contacts

are made to only two leads of the resistor (stationary lead and moving lead), the variable

resistance is being employed as a rheostat which limit the current flowing in circuit branches.

If all three contacts are used in a circuit, it is termed a potentiometer or pot and often used as

voltage dividers to control or vary voltage across a circuit branch.

Tenth Lecture

Oscilloscope

Oscilloscope

The cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO) is a device that allows the amplitude of electrical

signals, whether they are voltage, current; power, etc., to be displayed primarily as a function of

time. The oscilloscope depends on the movement of an electron beam, which is then made visible

by allowing the beam to impinge on a phosphor surface, which produces a visible spot

General oscilloscope consists of the following parts:

1. Cathode ray tube (CRT)

2. Vertical deflection stage

3. Horizontal deflection stage

4. Power supply

Volt /Div

Vin

Vertical

Amplifier

Delay

Line

To CRT

CRT

H.V

supply

Screen

Electron Gun

L.V

supply

To All

Circuits

Trigger

Circuit

Time Base

Generator

Horizontal

Amplifier

Time/Div

Cathode ray tube is the heart of oscilloscope which generates the electron beam,

accelerates the beam to high velocity, deflects the beam to create the image, and contains the

phosphor screen where the electron beam eventually become visible. There are two standard type

of CRT electromagnetic and electrostatic. Each CRT contains:

a) One or more electron guns.

b) Electrostatic deflection plates.

c) Phosphoresce screen.

1

Tenth Lecture

Oscilloscope

A heated cathode emits electrons, which are accelerated to the first accelerating anode,

through a small hole in the control grid. The amount of cathode current, which governs the

intensity of the spot, can be controlled with the control grid. The preaccelerating anode is a

hollow cylinder that is at potential a few hundred volts more positive than the cathode so that the

electron beam will be accelerated in the electric field. A focusing anode is mounted just a head of

the preaccelerating anode and is also a cylinder. Following the focusing anode is the accelerating

anode, which gives the electron beam its last addition of energy before its journey to the

deflecting plates. The focusing and accelerating anodes form an electrostatic lens, which bring

the electron beam into spot focus on the screen. Three controls are associated with the operating

voltages of the CRT; intensity, focus, and astigmatism

1- The intensity control varies the potential between the cathode and the control grid

and simply adjusts the beam current in the tube.

2- The focus control adjusts the focal length of the electrostatic lens.

3- The astigmatism control adjusts the potential between the deflection plates and

the first accelerating electrode and is used to produce a round spot.

cathode

gride

Preaccelerating

anode

Accelerating

anode

Electron

beam

+

heater

Focusing

anode

-1500V

Intensity

control

focusing

control

+300V

Astigmatism

control

The electrostatic deflection system consists of two sets of plates for each electron gun. The

vertical plates move the beam up and down, while horizontal plates move it right and left. The

two sets of plates are physically separated to prevent interaction of the field. The position of the

spot at any instant is a resultant of potentials on the two set of plates at that instant.

The viewing screen is created by phosphor coating inside front of the tube. When

electron beam strikes the screen of CRT with considerable energy, the phosphor absorbs the

kinetic energy of bombarding electrons and reemits energy at a lower frequency range in visible

spectrum. Thus a spot of light is produced in outside front of the screen. In addition to light, heat

as well as secondary electrons of low energy is generating. Aquadag coating of graphite material

is cover the inside surface of CRT nearly up the screen to remove these secondary electrons.

The property of some crystalline materials such as phosphor or zinc oxide to emit light when

stimulates by radiation is called fluorescence.

Phosphorescence refers to the property of material to continue light emission even after the

source of excitation is cut off.

Persistence is the length of time that the intensity of spot is taken to decrease to 10% of its

original brightness.

Finally, the working parts of a CRT are enclosed in a high vacuum glass envelope to

permit the electron beam moves freely from one end to other with out collision.

2

Tenth Lecture

Oscilloscope

Graticules is a set of horizontal and vertical lines permanently scribed on CRT face to allow

easily measured the waveform values.

P

Vin

Ed

Av

e

l

Electron

gun

l/2

d (0,0)

Vox

Ea

fy

Vin

Ed = Vin. Av

-X

Ex = Ez = 0

Ed

y =

(1)

y: electrical field in Y direction

d

x= z=0

fy = e .y

Fy: force generate by electrical field effect

e: electron charge (1.6x10-19 C)

ay =

fy

me

Screen

l/2

Y

X

Z

-Y

fx = fz = 0

ax = az = 0

Vz = 0

Vy = Voy + ayt

Since

Voy = 0

Vy: velocity in Y direction at any time

fy

e

y t

Voy: initial velocity in Y direction

Vy = ayt =

t=

me

me

Y = Yo + Voy +

1

ayt 2

2

Since

Yo = 0

Voy = 0

Y: distance in Y direction

Tenth Lecture

Y =

Y =

Oscilloscope

1 e

1

y t 2

ayt 2 =

2

2 me

1 e

y t 2 . (2)

2 me

Vx = Vox + axt

Vx = Vox

Since

ax = 0

1

Since

axt 2

2

X = Voxt .. (3)

X

(4)

t=

Vox

Substitute equ. (4) into equ.(2) give

X = Xo + Voxt +

Y =

1

axt 2 = 0

2

Relation of X with time

Xo = 0

1 e

X2

y

.. (5) The parabolic equation of electron beam

2 me

Vox 2

1

where (Ea) is the acceleration voltage (potential)

mVox 2 = eEa

2

2eEa

Vox =

.. (6)

m

By substituting equs.(6) & (1) into equ.(5) we get

1 Ed 2

Y =

Relation of Y with X

. X ... (7)

4d Ea

When the electrons leaves the region of deflecting plates, the deflecting force no longer exist, and

the electrons travels in a straight line toward point P. The slope of parabolic curve at distance

(x=l) is:

dy

el

y

=

tan =

dx mVox 2

Or

1 Ed

tan =

l .. (8)

2d Ea

D

The deflection on the screen (D) is

y

D = L tan . (9)

x

Substitute equ.(9) into (8) give

L

lLEd

D=

... (10)

2dEa

By similarity

The deflection sensitivity (S) of CRT is:

D

y D

S=

=

. (11)

Ed

x L

The deflection factor (G) of CRT is:

1 Ed 2dEa

(12)

G= =

=

S

D

lL

Eleventh Lecture

Oscilloscope (2)

The amount of light given off by the phosphor depends on the amount of energy that is

transferred to the phosphor by the electron beam. For fast oscilloscope (of high frequency

response greater than 100MHz), the velocity of electron beam must be great to respond to fast

occurring events; otherwise, the light output will be drop off. This is done by increasing the

acceleration potential but it will be difficult to deflected the fast electron beam by the deflection

plates because this would required a higher deflection voltage and a higher deflection current to

charge the capacitance of the plates.

Modern CRTs use a two step acceleration to eliminate this problem. First, the electron

beam is accelerated to a relatively low velocity through a potential of a few thousand volts. The

beam is then deflected and after deflection is further accelerated to the desired final velocity.

The deflection sensitivity of the CRT depends on the acceleration voltage before the deflection

plates, which is usually regulated and does not depends on the post acceleration voltage after the

deflection plates.

+25 KV

Post deflection

Accelerating voltage

CRT

Screen

Electron Gun

The vertical deflection system provides an amplified signal of the proper level to derive

the vertical deflection plates with out introducing any appreciable distortion into the system. This

system is consists of the following elements:

1- Input coupling selector.

2- Input attenuator.

3- Preamplifier.

4- Main vertical amplifier.

5- Delay line.

Coupling

Selector

Vin

Screen

a.c

Input

Attenuator

GND

Vertical

Amplifier

Vertical

Amplifier

Delay Line

d.c

to Trigger

Circuit

Eleventh Lecture

Oscilloscope (2)

Its purpose is to allow the oscilloscope more flexibility in the display of certain types of

signals. For example, an input signal may be a d.c signal, an a.c signal, or a.c component

superimposed on a d.c component. There are three positions switch in the coupling selector

(d.c, a.c, and GND). If an a.c position is chosen, the capacitor appears as an open circuit to

the d.c components and hence block them from entering. While the GND position ground the

internal circuitry of the amplifier to remove any stored charge and recenter the electron beam.

The combine operation of the attenuator, preamplifier and main amplifier together make up

the amplifying portion of the system.

The function of the attenuator is to reduce the amplitude of the input signal by a selected

factor and verse varies amplifier function.

5- Delay Line:

Since part of the input signal is picked off and fed to the horizontal deflection system to

initiate a sweep waveform that is synchronized with the leading edge of the input signal. So the

purpose of delay is to delay the vertical amplified signal from reaching the vertical plates until

the horizontal signal reach the horizontal plates to begin together at the same time on CRT

screen.

The horizontal deflection system of OSC consist of :

1- Trigger circuit.

2- Time base generator.

3- Horizontal amplifier.

CRT

From Vertical

Amplifier

Screen

Electron Gun

V

Trigger

Circuit

Time Base

Generator

Horizontal

Amplifier

Time/Div

The most common application of an oscilloscope is the display of voltage variation versus

time. To generate this type of display a saw tooth waveform is applied to horizontal plates. The

electron beam being bent towards the more positive plate and deflected the luminous spot from

left to right of the screen at constant velocity whilst the return or fly back is at a speed in excess

of the maximum writing speed and hence invisible. The saw tooth or time base signal must be

repetitively applied to the horizontal plates so that; the beam can retrace the same path rapidly

enough to make the moving spot of light appear to be a solid line.

2

Eleventh Lecture

Oscilloscope (2)

To synchronous the time base signal applied to (X-plates) with input voltage to be

measured which applied to vertical or (Y-plates) a triggering circuit is used. This circuit is

sensitive to the level of voltage applied to it, so that when a predetermined level of voltage is

reached a pulse is passed from the trigger circuit to initiate one sweep of the time base. In a

practical oscilloscope the time base will be adjustable from the front panel control of scope.

Horizontal Amplifier:

The horizontal amplifier is used to amplify the sweep waveform to the required level of

horizontal plates operation.

Twelveth Lecture

Transducers

Transducers

The input quantity for most instrumentation system is nonelectrical. In order to use electrical

methods and techniques for measurement, manipulation, or control the nonelectrical quantity is

converted into an electrical signal by a device called electrical transducer.

Transducers are broadly defined as devices that convert energy or information from one form

to another. This energy may be electrical, mechanical, chemical, optical (radiant), or thermal. Such as,

for example, mechanical force or displacement, liner and angular velocity heat, light intensity,

humidity, temperature variation, sound time, pressure, all are converted into electrical energy by

means of electrical transducers.

Transducers may be classified according to their application, method of energy conversion,

nature of output signal, and so on.

Transducers, on the basis of methods of applications, may be classified into primary and

secondary transducers. Transducer that converts energy from any form to electrical form is called

primary transducer, such as a photovoltaic cell, while transducer that converts energy from any

form to another form but not electrical energy or signal is called secondary transducer, such as

displacement transducer (which converts force or pressure to displacement).

Transducers, on the basis of methods of energy conversion used, may be classified into active

and passive transducers.

Active (self generating) transducers develop their output in the form of electrical voltage or current

without any source of electrical excitation, such as thermocouples, tacho generator.

While, if the transducer is capable of producing an output signal only when it is in connection

with electrical power source is called passive transducers, such as a potentiometer, thermistor (thermal

resistance). Passive transducer producing a variation in some electrical parameter, such as a resistance,

capacitance, inductance and so on, which can be measured as voltage or current variation in the circuit.

Transducers, on the basis of nature of output signal, may be classified into analog and digital

transducer.

Analog transducer converts input signal into output signal, which is a continuous function of

time, while digital transducer converts input signal into output signal in a discrete forms.

Strain Gauges

The strain gauge is an example of a primary passive analog transducer that converts force or

small displacement into a change of resistance. Since many other quantities such as torque,

pressure, weight, and tension also involve force or displacement effects, they can also be measured

by strain gauges.

Strain gauges are so named because when they undergo a strain (defined to be a fractional change

in linear dimension tension or compression caused by an applied force); they also undergo a

change in electrical resistance. The strain takes the form of a lengthening of the special wire from

which the gauge is constructed. The change in resistance is proportional to the applied strain and is

measured with a specially adopted Wheatstone bridge.

The gauge factor (k) is given by:

R R

l

l

l

k=

, where R =

and R =

since the strain ( ) =

thus

2

l l

A

l

( 4)d

1

Twelveth Lecture

k=

R R

Transducers

and R = kR

Displacement transducers

The mechanical elements that are used to convert the applied force into a displacement are

called force summing devices. The force summing members generally used the following:

a) Diaphragm, flat or corrugated

b) Bellows

c) Bourdon tube, circular or twisted

d) Straight tube

e) Mass cantilever, single or double suspension

f) Pivot torque

The displacement created by the action of the force summing device is converted into a change of

some electrical parameter and measured by one of the following electrical principle:

1) Capacitive

2) Inductive

3) Differential transformer

4) Photoelectrical

5) Potentiometer

6) Ionization

7) Oscillation

8) Piezoelectric 9) Velocity

1- Capacitive Transducer:

The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor is given by

A

C= o r

d

, where

o = 8.85 10 12 F/m

A force applied to a diaphragm that function as one plate of a simple capacitor, change the distance

between the diaphragm and static plate.

Deflected

The resulting change in capacitance could be measured with

diaphragm

an ac bridge, but it is usually measured with an oscillator circuit.

The transducer as a part of oscillator circuit will causes

a change in oscillator frequency which proportional

Pressure

to the applied force.

Static plate

2- Inductive Transducer:

In the inductive transducer the measurement of force is accomplished by the change in the

inductance ratio of a pair of coils or by the change of inductance in a single coil. The ferromagnetic

armature is displaced by the force being measured, varying the reluctance of the magnetic circuit. The

air gap is varied by a change in position of the armature; the resulting change in inductance is a

measure of applied force.

forcedisplacementair gap changepermaebility() = l A

= mmf = NI L = N

i

Diaphragm

or mass

E-core

Bourdon

tube

armature

Coil

winding

air gaps

Double coil

Single coil

Twelveth Lecture

Transducers

It is produces an electrical signal that is linearly proportional to mechanical displacement. The

displacements detectable by LVDTs are relatively large compared to those detectable by strain gauges.

LVDT consists of a single primary winding and two secondary windings which are placed on

either side of the primary. The secondary windings have an equal number of turns but they are

connected in series opposition so that the emf induced in the coil oppose each other. The position of the

moveable core determines the flux linkage between the ac excited primary winding and each of the two

secondary winding.

a) With the core in the centre, or reference position, the induced emfs in the secondaries are equal,

and since they oppose each other, the output voltage will be zero.

b) When the core is forced to move to the left, more flux links the left hand coil than the right hand

coil, the induced emf of the left coil is therefore larger than the induced emf of the right coil. The

magnitude of the output voltage is than equal to the difference between the two secondary voltages,

and it is in phase with the voltage of the left hand coil.

c) Similarly, when the core is force to move to the right, more flux links the right hand coil than the

left hand coil and the result output is now in phase with the emf of the right hand coil, while its

magnitude again equals the difference between the two induced emfs.

Secondary

winding (2)

Ac supply

voltage

Primary

wind

C

Vo

Phase of

coil (2)

Secondary

winding (1)

tA

Phase of

coil (1)

Vo=V1-V2

Core at A

B

0

Core at B

Core at 0

4- Oscillator Transducer:

This class of oscillator uses the force summing member to change

the capacitance or inductance in an (LC) oscillator circuit, which

C

change the frequency of the circuit in proportional to the applied L

Mechanical

force.

linkage

FM o/p

Oscillator

Force summing

member

Pressure

Twelveth Lecture

Transducers

5- Photoelectric Transducer:

The photoelectric transducer makes use of the properties of photo emissive cell or phototube. The

phototube is a radiant energy device that controls its electron emission when exposed to incident light.

The large semicircular element is the photosensitive cathode and the thin wire down the centre of the

tube is the anode. Both elements are place in a high vacuum glass envelope. When a constant voltage is

applied between cathode and anode, the current is directly proportional to the amount of light falling on

the cathode. The output current is extremely small in (A) and for a voltage approximately above 20V,

the output current is nearly independent of the applied anode voltage but depends entirely on the

amount of the incident light.

light

cathode

phototube

Anode

volt

Ia

(A)

20

15

Light flux(lumen)

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

10

5

Va

(volt)

20 40 60 100 120

6- Piezoelectric transducer:

A symmetrical crystalline material, such as quartz,

Rochelle salt, and barium titanate, produce an emf

when they are placed under stress. This property is used

in piezoelectric transducer.

When a crystal is placed between a solid base and the

force summing member, an externally applied force,

entering the transducer through its pressure port,

applies pressure to the top of a crystal; this will produce

a small emf proportional to the applied force or pressure.

pressure

Vo

crystal

7- Potentiometric Transducer:

A Potentiometric transducer is an electromechanical device

containing a resistance element that is contacted by a

movable slider. Motion of the slider results in a resistance

change that may be linear, logarithmic, exponential, and so

on, depending on the manner in which the resistance wire is

wound.

base

Vo

Potentiometer

The velocity transducer essentially consists of a moving coil

suspended in the magnetic field of a permanent magnet. A

voltage is generated by the motion of the coil in the field which

is proportional to the velocity of the moving coil. It is used for

velocity measurement.

Moving coil

Vo

Thirteenth Lecture

Least Square Approximations Method

Suppose we wish to fit a curve to an approximate set of data such as from the determination of

the effects of temperature on resistance, we want to suitably determine the constants (a) and (b) in the

equation relating resistance R and temperature T, we shall assume that the error of reading the

temperature is negligible, so that all the errors are in the resistance measurements, and use vertical

distance.

R=aT+b

Yi

o

T(C ) R()

R ()

20.5 765

-e

32.7 826

51.0 873

+e

73.2 942

T (Co)

95.7 1032

Xi

We want to minimize the deviations of the points from the line (errors). The deviations are measured by

the distances from the point to the line. The deviation could be minimizing by making their sum

minimum, but this is not an adequate criterion.

Let (Yi) represent an experimental value, and let (yi) represent the theoretical value which get by

y i = aX i + b

where (Xi) is a particular value of the variable assumed free from

this equation

error. We wish to determine the best values for (a) and (b), so that (yi) predict the function values that

correspond to x-values.

Since

error= measured- theoretical

thus

e i = Yi y i

Least squares method criterion requires that the sum of errors in the reading (S) must be minimized, so

S = e12 + e 22 + e 32 + e 42 + + e 2N = min

S=

i =1

e i2 =

(Yi y i )

i =1

(Yi aX i b )2 = min

i =1

S

S

choice of parameters (a) and (b). When S be a minimum, the two partial derivatives

and

a

b

will be zero. Thus

N

= 2(Yi aX i b )( X i ) = 0 (1)

a i = 1

N

b i = 1

Dividing each of these equations by (-2) and expanding the summation, we get

(Yi X i aX i2 bX i ) = Yi X i a X i2 b X i = 0

N

i =1

i =1

i =1

i =1

Thirteenth Lecture

(Yi aX i b ) = Yi a X i b = 0

i =1

i =1

i =1

note that:

b = Nb

i =1

i =1

N

i =1

N

i =1

a X i2 + b X i =

a X i + bN =

i =1

Yi X i . (1)

i =1

Yi . (2)

i =1

Solving these equations simultaneously gives the values for the slope and intercept (a) and (b).

For the data of previous example, we find that

N=5

Ti= Xi=273.1

Ti 2 =18607.27

Ri=Yi=4438

Ti Ri =YiXi=2549325

18607.27 a + 273.1 b = 254932.5 . (1)

273.1 a + 5 b = 4438 . (2)

By solving these equations we obtain

And hence the equation

a=3.395

R=aT+b will be

b=702.17

R= 3.39T + 702.17

To find R at T=70 is

R(70)=3.39x70+702.17=939.3

The measured and theoretical values are then

T(Co)

Rmeasured

Rtheoretical

20.5

765

772

32.7

826

813

51.0

873

875

73.2

942

950

95.7

1032

1026

Exercise:

Find the theoretical values for linear equation (y) from the given data

Xi

Yi

yi

6

3.8

8

3.7

10

4

12

3.9

14

4.3

16

4.2

18

4.2

20

4.4

22

4.5

24

4.5

a=0.0445

b=3.48

In many cases, of course, data from experimental test are not linear, so we need to fit other function

than a first degree polynomial, popular forms that are tried are the exponential forms such as

y = ax b

y = ae bX

or

The exponential forms are usually linearized by taking logarithms before determining the

, then let ln y=z , ln a= A,

ln X=w

parameters, so for the first equ.

ln y = ln a + b ln X

Thus

z=A+bw

is a linear equation

2

Thirteenth Lecture

Curve Fitting and Approximation by LSA

Solving this equation to find the values of (A) and (b) then find the value of (a)

ei = Z i zi

N

S=

e i2 =

i =1

i =1

i =1

(Z i z i )2 = (Z i A bw i )2 = min

= 2( Z i A bw i )( 1) = 0 .. (1)

A i = 1

N

= 2( Z i A bw i )( w i ) = 0 .. (2)

b i = 1

Dividing each of these equations by (-2) and expanding the summation, we get

N

i =1

N

i =1

i =1

i =1

N

(Z i A bw i ) = Z i A b w i

= 0 . (1)

(Z i w i Aw i bw i2 ) = Z i w i A w i b w i2 = 0 (2)

N

i =1

i =1

i =1

i =1

N

i =1

N

i =1

b w i2 + A w i =

b w i + AN =

i =1

Z i w i . (1)

i =1

Z i . (2)

i =1

Solving these equations simultaneously gives the values of (A) and( b) and by taking the inverse ln of

(A) we can get the value of (a).

Home work:

Derive the normalized equations for y = ae bX

Example:

The results obtained for some experimental measurement is:

Xi

Yi

1

7

2

11

3

17

4

27

The variable is varied according the function y = ae bX fit the curve by LSA method.

Sol:

Taking the logarithms for above equ.

ln y= ln a + bx ln e , since ln e =1 , so ln y= ln a + bx , let ln y=z , ln a =A thus

z=A+bx

Thirteenth Lecture

i =1

i =1

b x i2 + A x i =

N

b x i + AN =

i =1

N=4,

Z i xi

(1)

i =1

Zi

. (2)

i =1

Zixi=28.42

30 b+ 10 A =28.42 .. (1)

10 b + 4 A =10.471 .. (2)

Solving these equs.

10.471 10b

A=

= 2.61775 2.5b

4

30b + 10[2.61775 2.5b] = 28.42 30b + 26.1775 25b = 28.42

b = 0.4485

a = ln 1 A = 4.466

A = 1.4965

, thus

z = 1.4965 + 0.448 x

y = 4.466e 0.448 X

Xi

Yi

lnYi

yi

1

7

1.946

6.99

2

11

2.397

10.94

3

17

2.833

17.12

4

27

3.295

26.8

and

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