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Professor Dr.

Waria Omar Amin


B.A, DP, M.A, M.Phil, PhD

ASPECTS OF THE VERBAL


CONSTRUCTION IN KURDISH

London University
1979

To my first Kurdish language teacher.


My Mother

III

IV

PREFACE
Generative grammar refers to a particular approach to the study of
syntax. It attempts to give a set of rules that will correctly predict which
combinations of words will form grammatical sentences. It aims at
describing a native speaker's tacit grammatical knowledge by a system of
rules that specify all of the well-formed, or grammatical, sentences of a
language. Generative grammar focuses primarily on the form of a
sentence. The rules also predict the morphology of a sentence.
The hypothesis of generative grammar is that, language is a structure
of the human mind. Its goal is to make a complete model of this inner
language Chomsky has argued that the properties of a generative
grammar arise from an "innate" universal grammar, it could be used to
describe all human languages.
Chomsky believed that there would be considerable similarities
between languages' deep structures, and that these structures would
reveal properties, common to all languages.
. Generative grammar has been under development since the late 1950s,
and has undergone numerous revisions and has had a profound influence
on linguistics and other fields of thought.
This work is the first attempt to deal with Kurdish language within
the ASPECTS 1965 model of Chomiskys theory which was then the trend
in Linguistic analysis by which the transformational generative grammar
theory and theoretical linguistics
were introduced to Kurdish
grammarians for the first time. It is a (D,M. Phil) thesis presented to the
University of London (SOAS) in 1979. Since then about 400 copies were
distributed to many libraries of Europe and Iraq and has been at the
disposal of linguistic students and grammarians. It will be published as
it was presented originally. An appendix is added it presents the
numerous revisions that TG theory has undergone since its inception.
Professor Dr. Waria Omar Amin
10 10 2010

Models of Generative Grammar


Professor Dr. Waria Omar Amin

The publication of the Chomskys Syntactic Structure in 1957


introduced the theory of Generative Grammar. It marked the start of a
great revolution in Linguistics. Generative grammar refers to a
particular approach to the study of syntax. It is an explicit description of
the ideal speaker hearers intuition. The theory centers on a very simple
but essential observation (the native speaker of any language is able to
produce and understand utterances he has never heard before).It attempts
to give a set of rules that will correctly predict which combinations of
words will form grammatical sentences. Generative Grammar aims at
describing the native speaker's tacit grammatical knowledge, which
reflects his infinite productive capacity, by a system of rules that specify
all of the well-formed or grammatical, sentences of a language .
The hypothesis of generative grammar is that, language is a structure
of the human mind. Its goal is to make a complete model of this inner
language Chomsky has argued that the properties of a generative
grammar arise from an "innate" universal grammar, it could be used to
describe all human languages.
Chomsky believed that there would be considerable similarities
between languages' deep structures, and that these structures would
reveal properties, common to all languages, which were concealed by
their surface structures.
Generative Grammar, since its inception in 1950s, has been
constantly and dynamically developing and has had a profound influence
on linguistics. Its tremendous effects are still being worked out.
Chomsky himself and so many linguists throughout the world have been
contributing in these developments. It has undergone numerous
revisions.

1 - Syntactic Structure (1957)


In 1957, Noam Chomsky published Syntactic Structures, in which he
developed the idea of Kernel sentences.
Kernel sentence is a basic irreducible set of simple structure produced by
the Phrase Structure Rules of a grammar. The output of these rules is a
Kernel string. The Syntactic Structure (SS) model contains obligatory
and optional transformational rules. Kernel sentence is derived from the
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string by a series of obligatory transformational rules. . Examples of


such sentences are;
John
is
John
John
bought
The
cake
Marry bought the cake

a
the
is

teacher.
speaks
book.
nice

According to this model different types of sentences ,(Negative ,


Interrogative, Passive..etc.), simple and complex, were derived from
these kernels by successive optional transformational Rules.all the
following sentences are related in that they are derived from the same
underlying string.
1 - The girl bought a house. (simple active, declarative )
2 The girl did not buy a house.( Negative)
3 Did the girl buy a house? (Interrogative)
4 - Didnt the girl buy a house?( Interrogative Negative)
5 - The house was bought by the girl. (Passive)
6 The house was not bought by the girl.(Passive Negative)
7 Was the house bough by the girl? (Passive Interrogative)
8 - Wasnt the house bought by the girl?(Passive - interrogative
Negative)
the first of these sentences (a simple active, declarative sentence ) is
defined by Chomsky in Syntactic Structure as a kernel sentence.
Compound sentences in which two clauses are coordinated (The
student borrowed the book and went home) and complex sentence in
which one sentence is subordinated to another (The cake which Marry
bought is nice) are generated by means of conjoining and embedding
transformations respectively.
In Syntactic Structure model, syntax consisted of three kinds of
rules:
1 - The phrase structure rules created the deep structures of sentences.
ordered the parts of a sentence into linguistic categories and provided the
lexical forms for nouns, verbs, prepositions, and adjectives.
2 - Transformational rules operated on these deep structures to produce
the surface structures of the language. By these transformational rules
(Negative , Interrogative, Passive..etc.), simple and complex, were
derived from these kernels by successive optional transformational
Rules.
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3 - Morphophonemic rules changed lexical forms where necessary ( e.g.


go + past = went).
This diagram shows how the grammar outlined in syntactic structure:

2 - Standard Theory (1965)


In 1965 Chomsky published his Aspects of the theory of Syntax in which he
summarizes the development of TG theory from its beginning to 1965
and formalizes the version of the theory which is generally referred to as
the standard theory. The most radical changes are:
1 - The notion of Kernel is abandoned and identified the underlying
constituents of sentences as deep structure.
2 - Deep structures are generated by phrase-structure rules, and surface
structures are derived from deep structures by a series of transformations
3 Semantics is an integrated part of the theory.
4 The recursive property of the grammar is accounted for in the Phrase
Structure Rules.
The main difference between SS model and Aspect Model is the
insertion of (semantic component) into the theoretical framework of TG
grammar.
The core aspect of Standard Theory is the distinction between two
different levels of a sentence, called Deep structure and Surface
structure. The two representations are linked to each other by
transformational grammar.
Deep structure is an abstract level of structural organization in which
all the elements determining structural and semantic interpretation are
represented. Chomsky modifies his theory in such a way that deep
structures are generated in two stages:
First a simple set of Phrase Structure rules generate Phrase Markers
in which the terminal positions are empty slots for the lexical items to be
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inserted in the second stage . such PM are referred to as pre -lexical


structure. The following is an example for Phrase Markers:

In the second stage the empty places are filled with complex
symbols consisting of morphemes plus their syntactic and semantic
features by the rules of lexical transformations. The PS rules and lexical
transformations jointly constitute what is called the BASE component of
the grammar. For example a deep structure for the sentence (The girl
bought the bird) will be:

This diagram shows how the grammar outlined in the ASPECT theory:

3 - Extended Standard Theory (EST) (early 1970s).


By 1972 more revisions in the model took place and this led to a
renaming of the standard theory to The Extended Standard Theory.This
new insight generative grammar was presented by Ray Jackendoff. He
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proposed that( transformations should be applied without having to


mention semantic information such as referentiality within a table of
coreference, the use of index markers, etc. This could be done, by
changing the kind of information allowed in the deep structure in the
Standard Theory.)
This introduction of abstract elements into the deep structure of
sentences marked an important turning point in linguistic theory. It led to
the emergence of GB Theory.

4 - X-bar theory (1970)


X-bar theory was developed by R. Jackendoff and Chomsky
in1970. It is a theory about the internal structure of syntactic constituents
proposed as an alternative system to traditional account of Phrase
Structure and Lexical categories. The theory claims that there are certain
structural similarities among all phrasal categories of all languages. It
attempts to identify universal syntactic features common to all human
languages presupposed in (1965) model.
When Chomsky developed his model of transformational grammar
he argued that all languages should have similar parts of speech and
there are universal phrase structure rules that operate across all
languages. The universal parts of speech in the earliest model of his
grammar were few in number (N, Det, AUX, V.) but with the passage of
time they were expanded to include other lexical and phrasal categories
as follows.
Lexical Categories (N- V- Aux
Adj

Adv

Det

DEG

Conj

Phrasal Categories ( S NP VP AP PP ADVP QP)

PRO

Q)

In the Aspect framework the most basic point was that a sentence
consisted of a NP and a VP, (S --- NP VP). Each element could be
further rewritten as following:
A noun phrase consists of a determiner such as (a) or (our), an
adjective, and the head noun our small room (NP --- Det Adj N).
A verb phrase consisted of a verb and other elements, some optional,
some depending on the nature of the verb: such as went or play chess or
gave her a flower. (VP ---- V NP).
Linguists noticed that other kinds of categories were needed
between lexical and phrasal categories. Intermediate categories such as
Very beautiful or very beautiful girl in the phrase the very beautiful girl have no
status in Aspects PSR. This new proposed level is called the X-Bar
category.
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In this theory three levels of categories are specified(Phrasal


category XP), (X-bar category X bar) , and (Lexical category X). XP
dominates a specifier and X-bar.
XP
/ \
/ \
Spec X
X-bar, in turn, dominates the head of the projection (XP - X-bar - X) X
and one or more complements of X. The subject is usually assigned to
the specifier position.
XP
/ \
/ \
Spec X'
/
/
X

\
\
Comp

In X-Bar Theory branching is always binary. So the top-level XP


branches into X' and the specifier. The lowest X' branches into X and
something else, which is called the complement. This gives the
following basic structure:
The last rule in X-Bar Syntax is the recursive rule that allows X-Bar
to duplicate itself. The recursiveness of constituents within a phrase
marker is a fact about natural language and the theory must account for
this generative capacity within the grammar.
The XP consists of the X plus its various qualifiers, and the XP is
semantically of the same nature as its head X: for example, my little red
book is like book, and slept well all night is like slept. The XP is called a
projection of its head.
174

5 - Revised Extended Standard Theory (REST) (1973-1976)


The Revised Extended Standard Theory was formulated between 1973
and 1976. It contains:
2 - Restrictions upon X-bar theory.
2 - Assumption of the COMP position.
This diagram shows how the grammar outlined in the Revised Extended
Standard Theory:

6 - Generative Smantics (late 1960s).


Generative semantics is an approach within the generative grammar
initiated in late 1960s, by John Ross, Paul Postal, James McCawley. and
George Lakoff.
GS proposes that the deep structure of a sentence is equivalent and
sole input to semantic representation , from which the surface structure
can be derived using only one set of rules that relate underlying meaning

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and surface form rather than separate sets of semantic and syntactic
rules.
This approach necessitated more complex underlying structures than
those proposed by Chomsky, and more complex transformations as a
consequence. the approach was appealing in several respects.
1 - it offered a clear insight for explaining synonymity.
2 - the theory had a pleasingly intuitive structure: the form of a
sentence was quite literally derived from its meaning via
transformations.
This diagram shows how the grammar outlined in the Revised Extended
Standard Theory:
Generative semantics approach is outlined in the following diagram

7 - Government and binding (1980)


Government and binding is a theory of syntax developed by Chomsky in
the 1980s. It assumes that sentences have three levels: D Structure , S
Structure and Logical form. S structure is derived from D Structure
and logical form from S Structure by a single transformation called
MOVE ALPHA. Many subtheories overlap with itnamly X Bar,
THETA, CASE, BINDING,CONTROL and GOVERNMENT theory
The name refers to two central of these subtheories
1) - government, which is an abstract syntactic relation. The main
application of the government relation concerns the assignment of case.
Abstract case is taken to be universal. Some languages have rich
morphological case marking and others show very limited morphological
case marking, , all these presumed to have full systems of abstract case
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that differ only in the morphological realization. In GB, abstract case is


assigned to NP's by case assigners, namely verbs, prepositions, and
INFL. Verbs and prepositions are said to assign accusative case to NP's
that they govern, and INFL assigns nominative case to NP's that it
governs. The government relation makes case assignment unambiguous..
2) - binding, deals with the referents of anaphors, pronouns, and
referential expressions. GB distinguishes three types of NP.The
applicable rules are called Binding Principle A, Binding Principle B, and
Binding Principle C.
Principle A: .. reciprocal and reflexive NPs, whose reference is bound by

a preceding NP in the same clause, e.g. John bought himself a new car,
where himself refers to John, or The girl washes herself, where herself
refers to the girl.
Anaphors are bound within a specific syntactic domain, they have a
local antecedent which c-commands them within their governing
category.
Principle B: Personal pronouns, which can be interpreted anaphorically

or deictically . e.g. Kate still thinks she was right where she can refer
either to Kate or another person not mentioned in the sentence.
Personal pronouns are not bound within their governing categories;
they can be bound only by elements outside of the governing category
Principle C: All NPs which do not fall into (A) or (B), e.g. proper

nouns, labels, traces.

8 - Principles and Parameters approach (1979)


The Principles and Parameters( P &P) approach is a theoretical
framework within generative linguistics presented by Chomsky in his
paper Lectures on Government and Binding in 1979. According to this
theory the syntax of a language is described in accordance with general
principles (i.e. abstract rules or grammars) and specific parameters (i.e.
markers, switches) .This theory stresses on the point that the
grammatical principles underlying languages are innate and fixed, and
the differences among the languages are characterized in terms of
parameter settings in the brain. This indicates the fact that a child
learning a language needs only acquire the necessary lexical items
(words, grammatical morphemes, and idioms), and( the appropriate
parameter settings),

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The central idea of principles and parameters is that a person's


syntactic knowledge consist of two aspects:
1 - A finite set of fundamental principles that are common to all
languages;
2 - A finite set of parameters that determine syntactic variability amongst
languages.
Within this framework, the goal of linguistics is to identify all of the
principles and parameters that are universal to human language
(Universal Grammar). As such, any attempt to explain the syntax of a
particular language using a principle or parameter is cross-examined
with the evidence available in other languages.

9 - Minimalist Program (1993)


The "Minimalist Program ( MP)", has been developing inside Generative
Grammar since the early nineties. It started in 1993 with the publication
of a paper by Chomsky entitled (A minimalist program for linguistic
theory) . It aims at the further development of ideas involving economy
of derivation and economy of representation. Chomsky presents MP as a
program, and not as a theory, the Minimalist Program works on the
assumption that Universal Grammar constitutes a perfect design in the
sense that it contains only what is necessary to meet our conceptual,
physical and biological needs. This approach proposes the existence of a
fixed set of principles valid for all languages.

178

References
Akmajian, A. and F. Heny (An Introduction to the principles of transformational
syntax. MIT Press. Cambridge Mass.
Bierwisch, B. (1971) Modern Linguistics Its Development, Methods and
Problems.Mouton.
Chomsky, N. (1957) Syntactic Structures). Mouton
-----------------. (1965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. MIT Press.
----------------- (1995). The Minimalist Program. MIT Press.
Crystal, D. (2003) A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics.Blackwell
Huddleston, R. ( 1976) An introduction to English Transformational Syntax.
Longman.
Jackendoff, R.S. (1972) Semantic interpretation in enerative Grammar. MIT Press.
Cambridge.
------------------- (1977). X Syntax: a Study of Phrase Structure. Cambridge, Mass:
MIT Press.
Jacobsen, B (1978) Transformational Generative Grammar. NORTH - HOLAND
Lyons, J.(1977) Chomsky. Fontana. Collins. Glasgow.
Radford, A. (1981). Transformational syntax: a students guide to Chomskys Extended
Standard Theory. Cambridge.
Radford, A. (1997) Syntax A minimalist Introduction. Cambridge University
Press.
Reinhart, T. 1983. Anaphora and semantic interpretation. London.
Smith, N. and d. Wilson (1979) Modern Linguistics The results of Chomskys
Revolution. Penguin Books.
*Thanks are due to Mr. Faisal Ghazi Muhammad of the Kurdish Department
University of Baghdad for his help.

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