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4 Data capture

4.1 Data input

4.2 Data preparation

4.3 Data quality

4 Data capture
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 1
Data input

Seven rules of data input

1. Know the user.


2. Know the use (the objective or purpose).
3. Avoid 'exotic' data sources.
4. Use the best, most accurate data available AND necessary for your task.
5. Remember the law of diminishing returns when considering
different accuracy levels.
6. Input multiple representations (object-class/ coverage)
from the same map sheet.
7. Each of them should be as specific as possible.

There are specific hardware and specific methods for:

4.1 Data input


• Raster data input

4 Data capture
• Vector data input

Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch


Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 2
Raster data input

Hardware for Raster data input


• Imaging Sensors collect primary data
• Scanner collect secondary data (by scanning maps)

Considerations and Methods in the context of Raster data input


- Image acquisition and image analysis

- Determine cell size


Should be based on minimum mapping unit or data accuracy
Getting too detailed invokes the law of diminishing returns

- Data encoding method


Compacting methods- such as run-length encoding or block encoding.
Select or understand which method will be used to determine
the attribute of a cell (see below)

4.1 Data input


4 Data capture
- Four basic methods of attribute determination in raster systems.
- Presence - absence
- Centroid-of-cell
- Dominant type
- Percent occurrence
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 3
Raster data input
Scanning Systems
For use in GIS, two types of documents are of prime importance. These are:
- photographs
- maps and plans.
Photographs may either be scanned from paper prints, dia-positives, or negatives. Maps
and plans may be scanned from the original medium (usually a plastic based material) or
from paper prints.
There is an extreme range to the cost of document scanning systems ranging from low-
end desktop scanners designed for general purpose use to high-end scanners specifically
designed for scanning photographs, maps, and plans. The prime difference between the
two is the geometric accuracy of the scanned image.
Scanners designed specifically for photogrammetric and map scanning applications
typically have very high accuracy and precision, which is necessary to preserve the exact
relationship in the digital version of the photograph that existed in the original. The cost
of achieving this is high.
The meaning of accuracy in this case is the difference between the position of a pixel in
the resulting scanned image compared to the image point's position in the original
photograph. Precision is a measure of how much variation in position of a single pixel
might be observed with repeated scanning of one image.

4.1 Data input


4 Data capture
Scanners may be of either flatbed, drum or continuous feed configuration. Flatbed
scanners have the limitation of material size (but see those with a camera), whereas
drum and continuous feed scanners can handle very large documents. Another
significant difference between them is how the scanning is done. Flatbed scanners
typically hold the document stationary and move the sensor, whilst the other scanners
move the document over the sensor. For large drum and continuous feed scanners, both
the sensor and the document may move.
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 4
Raster data input

Scanner:

• Flat-bed,
• Drum,
• Continuous feed

Flat-bed scanner
• typically a photosensitive pickup rides on a beam track
• sensor and beam are being moved contact-less transverse over
a plain (fix) surface with extreme accuracy
• reflected light mode (maps) and transmitted light mode (films)
• 2400 dots per inch up to 4000 dpi resolution, 32 … 48bit color

Drum scanner
• medium to scan is fixed on a rotating drum
• a sensor moves in one direction
• less accurate, but faster

Continuous feed scanner


• row of sensors
• less accurate and fast
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 5
Raster data input
Large format flat-bed scanner with a camera Omni-scan, Zeutschel company
(Germany)

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4 Data capture
Desktop flatbed
scanner

Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch


Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 6
Raster data input
Continuous feed
scanner

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Contex Scanning Technology
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 7
Raster data input
photogrammetric Scanner
Z/I Intergraph/Zeiss
Photo-scan

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Minolta DIMAGE
35mm format
film scanner
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 8
Raster data input
Photogrammetry is the technique of measuring objects (2D or 3D) from
photo-gramms. We say commonly photographs, but it may be also imagery stored
electronically on tape or disk taken by video or CCD cameras or radiation sensors
such as scanners.
The results can be:

• coordinates of the required object-points


• topographical and thematical maps
• and rectified photographs (orthophoto).

Its most important feature is the fact, that the objects are
measured without being touched. Therefore, the term
„remote sensing“ is used by some authors instead of
„Photogrammetry“. „Remote sensing“ is a rather young term,
which was originally confined to working with aerial
photographs and satellite images. Today, it includes also
Photogrammetry, although it is still associated rather with
„image interpretation“.

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The applications of Photogrammetry are widely spread. Principally, it is utilized for object
interpretation (What is it? Type? Quality? Quantity) and object measurement (Where is it?
Form? Size?).
Aerial Photogrammetry is mainly used to produce topographical or thematical maps and digital
terrain models. Among the users of close-range Photogrammetry are architects and civil
engineers (to supervise buildings, document their current state, deformations or damages).
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 9
Raster data input
Photogrammetry Perspective projection

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Scale for a point A’
on the datum

Average scale

Relief displacement
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 10
Raster data input
Photogrammetry

In the context of GIS


mostly used

- Aerial Photographs
(scanned analog or digital)
- Datasets for
photo interpretation
(image interpretation)

Special topics:
• Central projection/
orthogonal projection
transformation
• Focal and

4.1 Data input


radiometric distortion

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• Products:
• Maps,
• Digital elevation models,
(DEM)
• Ortho-images
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 11
Raster data input

Photogrammetry

Different used films:

pan infrared color false color

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Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 12
Raster data input
Analog Airborne Photogrammetry and digital analysis

Analog
photographs

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Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 13
Raster data input

Analog Airborne Photogrammetry and digital analysis

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DEM – Digital Elevation Model
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 14
Raster data input
Digital Airborne Photogrammetry

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Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 15
Raster data input
Digital Airborne and Satellite
Photogrammetry

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GSD = ground sample distance, or size of each
pixel on the ground
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 16
Raster data input
Satellite Digital Photogrammetry
IKONOS from Space
Imaging
(ground resolution ≅ 1m)

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In 2006 Space Imaging was taken
over by Orb-image. The new
company name is Geo-Eye.
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 17
Raster data input
Satellite Digital Photogrammetry

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World Trade Center IKONOS - images
30. June 2000 (left)
and 15. September 2001 (right)
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 18
Raster data input
Satellite Digital Photogrammetry

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Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 19
Raster data input
Satellite Digital Photogrammetry

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Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 20
Raster data input
Satellite Digital Photogrammetry

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Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 21
Raster data input
Airborne Scanner
(ALS)
Airborne Laser Scanning is a remote sensing
technology, which allows closely spaced co-
ordinates of ground and non-ground points to
be obtained from a fixed or rotary wing
aircraft. A highly detailed definition of the
ground, together with features on or above it
can be gathered.

A series of discrete laser light points is directed


towards the ground approximately at right
angles to the aircraft's line of flight. The time
taken for each reflected light point to return to
the aircraft is accurately measured. From this,
the distance can be calculated.
The attitude (dislevelment) and velocity of the aircraft are measured using an

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Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The position of the aircraft is computed
using GPS instruments placed on the ground and in the aircraft. Using data
from all three sources, the absolute position of each laser point can be
computed to accuracies as high as 0.1 meter. The system configuration is
shown in the figure.
Mostly ALS is used to derive digital terrain models.
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 22
Raster data input

Airborne Scanner

Part of
the island
Sylt,
North Sea,
Germany

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4 Data capture
Pseudo-color shaded relief
image image
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 23
Raster data input
Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS)

Because ALS records both ground and non-ground data in a single pass, it is
ideally suited for the survey of existing power lines.
Coordinates of the conductors, towers,
vegetation and terrain shape can all be
obtained from the ALS.
Point spacing can be varied as required.

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Profile showing wires, ground and
vegetation growing beneath the wires

Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch


Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 24
Raster data input
Remote Sensing

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Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 25
Raster data input
Remote Sensing

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Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 26
Raster data input

Remote Sensing
Digital image analysis

Space-borne sensors and airborne


sensors

Passive sensors: reflected light (emitted radiation, e.g. thermal) detection


Active sensors: transmission and reflection analysis of radiation

One important consideration in selecting the wavelength range in which a


remote sensor will detect is the atmospheric transmittance. Earth’s atmosphere
itself selectively scatters and absorbs energy in a certain spectral range, allowing
the rest of the solar energy to transmit through it.

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Areas of the spectrum where specific wavelengths can pass relatively unimpeded
through the atmosphere are called transmission bands, or atmospheric windows,
whereas absorption bands, or atmospheric blinds, define those areas where
specific wavelengths are totally or partially blocked. For a remote sensor that is
capable of 'seeing' objects on the ground, the detectors must use the
transmission bands (see next figure).
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 27
Raster data input
Remote Sensing Spectral
characteristics

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Spectral characteristics of energy sources, atmospheric effects and
remote sensing systems [after Lillesand and Kiefer, 1994]
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 28
Spectral characteristics
The spectral responses that a remote sensor can “see” are
dependent upon the spectral bands that the sensor detects. In
remote sensing, the spectral range is usually composed of a
number of spectral bands (which fall within the 'atmospheric
windows'), ranging from a single band image (panchromatic
image) to several hundred images (hyper spectral image).
Usually, the term "multi-spectral” is applied to the images
that are composed of several spectral bands. The spectral
characteristics of commonly used space-borne sensors, their
spectral bands and primary use are listed in the next table.

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Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 29
Spectral characteristics

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Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 30
Remote Sensing for gas detection

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Example of signal generated in
case of detection of gas. An
alarm is generated as soon as
multiple signal peaks exceed
the relevant threshold.
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 31
Raster data input
Space-borne Radar Sensor
RADARSAT-1 provides synoptic
coverage - up to 500 km by 500 km
per image (resolution 8m). This broad
view is useful to highlight and map the
dramatic changes and damage to
coastlines due to impact of the
tsunamis. In addition to supporting
aid efforts, environmental agencies
can use this data to understand the
extent of destruction to the mangrove
swamps and coral reefs that act as
protective barriers to coastlines from
wave erosion.
Equipped with Synthetic Aperture
Radar (SAR), RADARSAT-1 is collecting
information over areas currently
experiencing monsoon conditions (the

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sensor images through rain/clouds or
darkness). This data is used to monitor
and map flooding as well as to locate Tsunami in Sri Lanka
areas of standing water - potential
breeding grounds for mosquitoes
carrying malaria.
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 32
Spaceborne Radarinterferometry

The Shuttle L-band main antenna


Radar
Topography
C-band main
Mission (SRTM) antenna

obtained elevation X-band main antenna


data on a near-
global scale to
generate the most
complete high-
resolution digital
topographic
database of Earth.
SRTM consisted of a
specially modified
radar system that X-band
outboard antenna
flew onboard the
Space Shuttle
Endeavour during

4.1 Data input


an 11-day mission C-band outboard antenna

4 Data capture
in February of
2000.
To get two images from different vantage points, a main antenna was installed in Space
Shuttle Endeavour's cargo bay. The main antenna both transmitted and received radar
signals. Once the shuttle was in space, a mast was deployed from a canister that was
attached to the main antenna truss. The mast extended out 60 meters. At the end of the mast,
an outboard antenna acted as the second vantage point and received radar signals.
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 33
Raster data input
Spaceborne
Radarinterferometry

SRTM - Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

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Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 34
Raster data input
SRTM - Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

The right figure shows the Interferogram of two scenes.


Note, that the visible topographic fringe pattern directly
corresponds to lines of equal heights. The height
difference between fringes can be determined from the
antenna separation at acquisition time and the
wavelength. Therefore, it is not difficult to derive a
three-dimensional terrain model from this fringe
pattern. The figure below shows the construction of
such a model.

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Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 35
Raster data input
Radarinterferometry
SRTM - Shuttle Radar Topography Mission 11. February - 22. February 2000

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River Elbe in Saxony / Germany
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch Digital Relief Model
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 36
Raster data input
Radarinterferometry

Oil and Gas companies need subsidence or heave information to ensure


proper management of critical equipment and resources. Point based
measurement techniques are used, however, high resolution InSAR derived
deformation measurements are becoming an option. C-band SAR data are
used operationally by customers from gas and oil fields around the globe.
SERVICE PERFORMANCE:
Land subsidence measurement accuracy: 3mm - 2 cm
Positional accuracy: 2 - 30m
SCALE / RESOLUTION: 1:10,000 - 1: 50,000 is the typical scale range
INPUT DATA SOURCES:
Radarsat-1, ERS 1/2, Envisat ASAR, JERS, TerraSar-X

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METHOD: Differential InSAR

Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch


Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 37
Raster data input
Radarinterferometry
Based on InSAR, a new technique called Differential InSAR (DInSAR) allows
for the measurement of small deformations of the terrain (down to the
millimetre level) that have occurred between two different image
acquisitions. In DInSAR analysis, the topographic contribution to the phase
difference is carefully removed using a DEM. Atmospheric disturbances can
be either accounted for using independent observations such as GPS, or
neglected if the tropospheric delay is considered to be homogeneous at
the time of the radar image acquisition. The DInSAR-based technique will
complement current ground survey techniques and can be adopted and
implemented on an operational basis to a wide range of applications such
as the monitoring of:
1. mine-induced subsidence,
2. oil/gas field subsidence,
3. urban subsidence due to tunnel construction and/or groundwater extraction,
4. ice flow in the polar regions,
5. seismic deformation,

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6. volcanic activity,
7. landslide/mass movement,
8. organic soil subsidence, and
9. beach/coast erosion.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch


Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 38
Raster data input
Radarinterferometry

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Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 39
Raster data input
Radarinterferometry

Belfridge oil field. Differential interferogram generated


from ERS-1 data.
Differential interferogram generated from ERS-1 data. An ERS tandem
mode pair was used to generate a reference DEM for correction of the

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elevation phase. Two areas where subsidence occurred are visible. The
small area in the northern part of the image is the Lost Hills oil field,
the long shaped area in the middle is the Belridge oil field. The area is
occupied by agricultural fields and scrublands. The deformation
ranges from 1 cm (blue) to 6 cm (red). Courtesy of ASI
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 40
CO2 Storage Monitoring
The evaluation of TerraSAR-X StripMap Acquisitions of an area near In Salah in Algeria
demonstrate the strong potential of using TerraSAR-X data for the assessment and
monitoring of displacements related to CO2 storage and Enhanced Gas Recovery
Applications.
In the monitored area the companies BP, Sonatrach and Statoil jointly operate a CO2
storage project. Between March and September 2008 a total of 11 TerraSAR-X StripMap
Acquisitions were recorded of the area.
A displacement map was generated by the integration of subsequent short term
interferograms derived from the acquired scenes. Uplift related to locations of CO2
injection wells as well as subsidence induced by several gas production wells are clearly
visible in the map.
Infoterra: http://www.infoterra.de/image-gallery/images.html

Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch


Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 41
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 42
Vorlesungsende 6.1.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch


Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 43
Vector data input

Raster data Raster and


vector data

4.1 Data input


4 Data capture
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 44
Vector data input

Methods of Vector data input

- Data from photogrammetric mapping


• Using a stereo plotter to view two overlapping aerial photographs
(taken from different positions in accurate orientation)
this forms a 3D-image
• Moving a floating point around the operator can draw in vector
data (lines etc.)
• The movement and drawing can be numerically encoded and
stored

In the close to 100 years history of analytical stereo plotters they are
now replaced more and more by digital devices.
Digital photogrammetric workstations now uses digital or
scanned images to polarized overlay on the same screen.

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• photogrammetric instruments collect primary data

Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch


Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 45
Vector data input
More Methods of Vector data input

- Data from surveying


• Measurement of angles and distances
• Determination of coordinates
• Polar – rectangular coordinate transformation
• 3D-coordinate determination by Differential GPS
• Height detection by leveling and inclination measurement
(vertical deflection and Geoid determination)

• Surveying instruments collect primary data

- Data from digitizing


• Digitizers tablets collect secondary data

- Data from vectorisation of raster data, line tracer and on-screen digitizing
• collect also secondary data

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- External database access and query.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch


Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 46
Vector data input

Hardware for Vector data input

Surveying instruments

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Electronic tachymeters (Total stations)

• Global Navigation Satellite Systems: GPS/ GLONASS … GALILEO


• Auto-optical and digital levels
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 47
Vector data input
Surveying instruments: Electronic tacheometer (Total station)
Electronic tacheometry is a measuring method, which consists of angular and
distance measurements (polar coordinates) by using a Total station (a
combination of an electronic Theodolite (transit) and an electronic distance
meter) to calculate the 3D Cartesian coordinates of points.

A 1

Horizontal projection Vertical projection


B
Zi

SA1

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A t

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β1 1
SA1 i
1 A
HA H1

Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch


Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 48
Vector data input
Surveying instruments
Total stations
Relationship of horizontal angle, zenith angle,
distance, horizontal (grid) bearing and the 3D
coordinates (x, y and height z)

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Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 49
Vector data input
Surveying instruments
Total stations
Bidirectional data flow between field and office
Now it is possible to seamlessly extend the GIS environment into the field, with
direct interfaces to Total Stations and Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors.
Processing functions are available and thus data acquisition and revision cycles
are significantly simplified.

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Wireless sensor
communication between
Total Station and Tablet PC
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 50
Vector data input
Surveying instruments

Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS)

3D point clouds

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Scanning Oil Platforms
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 51
Vector data input

Surveying instruments

• Satellite based surveying methods (radio-navigation by satellite)

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4 Data capture
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 52
Vector data input
Surveying instruments
Satellite based surveying methods (radio-navigation by satellite)
• NAVigation System with Time And Ranging –
Global Positioning System NAVSTAR-GPS (US), since 1994
• GLObalnaya NAvigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema GLONASS (RU),
since 1995
• GALILEO (EU), full operational capability in 2013 (?)

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Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 53
Vector data input
Surveying instruments: GPS
Principle
GPS determines distance between
a GPS satellite and a GPS receiver
by measuring the amount of time
it takes a radio signal to travel
from the satellite to the receiver.
Radio waves travel at the speed of light, which is about 300,000 kilometer per second. So, if the
amount of time it takes for the signal to travel from the satellite to the receiver is known, the distance
from the satellite to the receiver (distance = speed x time) can be determined. If the exact time when
the signal was transmitted and the exact time when it was received are known, the signal's travel
time can be determined.
If the distances between the receiver and three satellites
are known, then the intersection of three spheres (with
the measured radii) from the three satellites will give two
points. In the case of GPS it is useful to know that one
position will lie on or near the earth‘s surface and the
second may in in outer space.

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Because the clocks in the satellites have a much more
better accuracy as the clock in the receiver used for time
(distance) measurement you need a measurement to a
fourth satellite to calculate the unknown clock bias Cb
(see figure above).
(4 equations to solve the 4 unknown XU, YU, ZU, Cb)
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 54
Vector data input
Surveying instruments: GPS

GPS consists of three segments

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Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 55
Vector data input
Surveying instruments: GPS
GPS consists of three segments:
(1) the Space Segment, (2) the User Segment and (3) the Control Segment.

GPS Space Segment consists of at least four equally-spaced GPS satellites in a


constellation of six orbiting planes at an altitude of 26,567.5 km. GPS satellites orbit at
a 55 degree inclination to the equatorial plane.
GPS satellites orbit the earth in 12 hours and provide the exact time using an atomic
clock.

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Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 56
Vector data input
Surveying instruments: GPS
GPS consists of three segments:
(1) the Space Segment, (2) the User Segment and (3) the Control Segment.

GPS Control Segment


It is important to launch and arrange GPS satellites properly in space to provide
an optimal GPS system for safety applications. An accurate ground control system
is imperative to handle unexpected accidents and to provide exact information in
different situations.
The GPS system has a satellite control station composed of 5 monitoring stations,
4 ground antenna upload stations and an operational control segment.

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4 Data capture
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 57
Vector data input
Surveying instruments: GPS
GPS consists of three segments:
(1) the Space Segment, (2) the User Segment and (3) the Control Segment.

GPS User Segment consists of antenna for receiving satellite signals, a GPS
receiver for collecting navigation data and for calculating time and location, and
other specialized equipment for special purposes.

Geodetic receivers

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4 Data capture
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 58
Vector data input

Surveying instruments: GPS

GPS position accuracy


depends upon a number of issues:
Available satellite geometry
Atmospheric error
Receiver errors
Multi-Path error
Satellite position error
Clock error

GPS Limitations
Several conditions reduce the operation of GPS receivers:

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– TERRAIN & OBSTRUCTIONS
– SIGNAL ATTENUATION
– SIGNAL JAMMING (Airports, Powerful
transmitters)
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 59
Vector data input
Surveying instruments: Differential GPS (DGPS)
Relative or Differential GPS carries the triangulation principles one step further,
with a second receiver at a known reference point. To further facilitate
determination of a point's position, relative to the known earth surface point, this
configuration demands collection of an error-correcting message from the
reference receiver.
Differential-mode positioning relies upon an
established control point. The reference
station is placed on the control point, a
triangulated position, the control point
coordinate. This allows for a correction factor
to be calculated and applied to other roving
GPS units used in the same area and in the
same time series. Inaccuracies in the control
point's coordinate are directly additive to
errors inherent in the satellite positioning
process. Error corrections derived by the
reference station vary rapidly, as the factors

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propagating position errors are not static over
time. This error correction allows for a
considerable amount of error of error to be
negated, potentially as much as 90 percent.

Geodetic GPS receivers using the DGPS method and some special post-processing
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
calculations achieve high accuracies
at the centimeter level. Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 60
Vector data input
Surveying instruments: GPS / DGPS Measuring methods

Continuous Kinematic
After initialization, or resolution of the ambiguities, one receiver is
allowed to roam. You must however keep track of the satellites so that
lock is not lost, and only few cycle slips occur.

Pseudo Kinematic
This allows you to compute the coordinates of a large number of points
without observing a static network. You set up for approximately one
minute twice on each of the points you wish to be coordinated. The two
occupations of a point must be separated by at least one hour in time.

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4 Data capture
Semi Kinematic/Stop and Go
Here you spend a few minutes on each point. When moving
between points you must still keep lock on the satellites,
although positions are not computed.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch


Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 61
Vector data input

Methods of Vector data input

- Data from Digitizing

• using Digitizer tablets,


• on-screen digitizing or
• automatic conversion of raster to vector data

Resulting data are not only the coordinates


but all information about the objects (geometry, attribute).

4.1 Data input


4 Data capture
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 62
Vector data input
Digitizers

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4 Data capture
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 63
Vector data input
Digitizers

• flat non-conducting surface with embedded wire grid


• electric currents excite electromagnetic fields forming a pattern surface
• a small handheld magnifying glass with a crosshair and sensor coil
detects position on that surface
• position is entered continuously or by keystroke, a keypad and connected
microprocessor allows to store additional information along
with collected coordinates
• available up to ISO A0 size, 0.02 mm resolution (repetitive accuracy
close to that) and the best with absolute accuracy of 0.075 mm
• special light table design

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4 Data capture
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 64
Vector data input

Screen digitizing

• digital raster data obtained from scanning devices or raster data sets
can be digitized directly on a computer screen
using the pointing device (mouse, trackball)

• accuracy depends on
• cell/ pixel size of the source
• comfortable display options (zoom etc.)
• stereographic projection and 3D digitizing

• build in functionality:

4.1 Data input


• use of (semi-) automatic line tracing software

4 Data capture
• edge matching
• (advanced) pattern recognition
• constant curvature, snapping etc.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch


Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 65
Vector data input
On-Screen digitizing with a GIS

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4 Data capture
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 66
Vector data input

Screen digitizing build in functionality:

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4 Data capture
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 67
Vector data input

Automated
raster to vector conversion:

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4 Data capture
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 68
Vector data input
Digitizing method
Digitizing a map causes a transformation
from a map with projection and coordinate system depicted
to a simple Cartesian reference system

Therefore we must add projection information to data and transformation


capabilities to the GIS.

Coordinate Transformations
Translation Change in location, movement of part or of all graphic objects
Scale Change in scale and display size
Rotation Change in orientation

• Digitizers and the visualization for screen digitizing as well


have there own internal coordinate system;
• this is related to terrain coordinates by cross-registering checkpoints
with known terrain coordinates

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4 Data capture
Digitizing methods for
• single point digitizing, line digitizing or stream digitizing,
• automatic assignment of unique system ID to objects and the adding
of attribute information
• (semi-) automatic adding of topological information
Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Busch
Basic Geo-Information Systems
Institute of Geotechnical Engineering and Mine Surveying 69