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INDEX

1 The present of BE

30 What a/an - what - how

74

2 The present of HAVE

31 Can - could - to be able

76

3 There is - there are

32 Be with ages and measurements _ _ 78

4 A/an -the

33 Comparative and superlative


adjectives: comparison

5 The, an, a - Omission of articles

10

80

34 Good at, look like, what is ... like? _ 82

6 School/the school - Hospital /the


hospital

12

7 Some, any

14

35 Present perfect tense: for and


since

84

36 Verbs with two objects

86

8 To Have (Past tense) - To Be (Past


tense)

16

37 Question words as subjects

88

9 The plural of nouns

18

38 Reported or Indirect Speech

90

10 Personal pronouns as subjects and


objects
20

39 So am I - So do I - Neither/nor am I 92

11 Possessives: possessive 's and s' _ 24

40 Some and something in offers and


requests

94

12 Adjectives: Attributes - predicatives

26

41 Infinitive of Purpose

96

13 Interrogative and negative


sentences in present

42 Conditional Structures

98

28

14 Prepositions of place: on, in, at

30

15 Prepositions of time: on, in, at

36

16 Prepositions of time: for, during,


since, from

38

17 Prepositions of distance and


descriptions

40

18 The present continuous

42

19 The simple present tense

44

20 "Going to" form

46

21 The future simple

50

22 The imperative

52

23 Adverbs of frequency and degree _ 54


24 The past simple tense

58

25 Like - would you like?

62

26 When - clauses

64

27 Demonstratives: this/these,
that/those

66

28 Both and all

68

29 Say and tell

72

43 Structures with get

102

44 Still, yet, already, since, for, during 104


45 Questions tags

106

46 Passive voice

108

47 Interrogative pronouns

110

48 Relative pronouns

112

Appendix

115

UNIT

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

The present of Be
Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I am/I'm
You are/you're
He is/he's
She is/she's
It is/it's
We are/we're
You are/you're
They are/they're

I am not/I'm not
You are not/you're not/you aren't
He is not/he's not/he isn't
She is not/she's not/she isn't
It is not/it's not/it isn't
We are not/we're not/we aren't
You are not/you're not/you aren't
They are not/they're not/they aren't

Am I?
Are you?
Is he?
Is she?
Is it?
Are we?
Are you?
Are they?

Saludos
Hello/Hallo
Good morning
Good afternoon
Good evening
Good night
Goodbye
How are you?
Very well, thank you
How do you do?

Hola
Buenos dfas
Buenas tardes
Buenas tardes (a partir de las seis)
Buenas noches (se usa para despedirse)
Adios
^Como estas? ^Como esta usted?
Muy bien, gracias
Tanto gusto (solo para presentarse)
Recuerde
El pronombre "I" siempre se escribe con mayuscula.
Los objetos y los animates son, por regla general, neutros.
En ingles hay que poner siempre el sujeto en todas ias frases
(pero solo un sujeto, no dos).

Recuerde
You se puede traducir por tu o usted (en singular).
You tambien signified vosotros, vosotras y ustedes (en plural).

2
STANLEY

UNIT 2

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

The present of Have


Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I have/I've
You have/you've
He has/he's
She has/she's
It has/it's
We have/we've
You have/you've
They have/they've

I have not/haven't/don't have


You have not/haven't/don't have
He has not/hasn't/doesn't have
She has not/hasn't/doesn't have
It has not/hasn't/doesn't have
We have not/haven't/ don't have
You have not/haven't/don't have
They have not/haven't/don't have

Have l?/Do I have?


Have you?/Do you have?
Has he?/Does he have?
Has she?/Does she have?
Has it?/Does it have?
Have we?/Do we have?
Have you?/Do you have?
Have they?/Do they have?

A veces se dice "I have got" o "I've got", etc.


Es decir, se anade la palabra "got" sin que por
ello se altere el significado.

Se suele ahadir got al verbo have en presente. Es completamente opcional, aunque muy comun. Sin embargo, no se anade en respuestas
cortas o en las "coletillas":

El verbo TO HAVE puede ir seguido de un com"Have you got an ice-cream?" 'Yes, I


plemento para referirse a un gran numero de
have."
actividades diferentes. El significado depende
de la expresion: en algunos cases have se pue- Sin embargo, cuando el verbo have se puede
de reemplazar por eat o drink, en otros por reemplazar por otro verbo: eat, drink, take, etc.
entonces la forma negativa e interrogativa solo
take, receive, spend, etc:
I have tea at five o'clock.
se puede hacer de una manera:
He has coffee for breakfast.
She has a shower every day.
The boys have a swim every day in
summer.
Have a look at this book!
Jim, have a wash!

Cuando el verbo have significa "tener" la interrogacion y negation se pueden hacer de dos
formas:
Do you have many brothers? / Have
you got many brothers?
- Does he have a car? / Has he got a
car?

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STANLEY

"Do you have breakfast in the morning?"


"No, I don't usually have anything to eat
in the morning."
"Does she have a holiday?" "No, she
doesn't have a holiday."

En estos cases no se puede usar haven't got.


Notese tambien que en la forma afirmativa no
se anade "got".
I have breakfast / lunch / dinner.
You have a bath / a shower / a nap.

UNIT 3

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

There is - there are


En ingles, el presente del verbo impersonal
"haber", es decir, "hay", tiene dos formas: there
is, cuando la frase es singular; there are cuando la frases es plural:
There is a man.
There is a woman.
There is a sandwich.
There is se puede contraer a There's siempre que la frase continue:
There's a tall man in the sitting-room.
There's a little dog in the garden.

Ejemplos de frases en
singular
"Is there any tea in the teapot?" "Yes,
there is!"
"Is there anybody in the house?" "No,
there is not" (isn't)
"Is there any water in the glass?" "Yes,
there is!"
"Is there any time?" "No, there is not!"
(isn't)

Pero no se puede contraer cuando la frase


termina ahf.
Is there a dog? Yes, there is.

Usamos there are cuando la frase es plural:


There are many houses in this street.
There are some children playing in the
park.

Por regla general, usamos esta estructura


cuando nos referimos a algo que no conocemos todavfa:

En la forma interrogativa se cambia el orden:


Are there many flowers in this park?
Are there any glasses in the kitchen?

En forma interrogativa se cambia el orden.


Is there?

En cuanto a la forma negativa, la negacion se


pone en tercer lugar:
There are not many people at the
concert today.
There are not many things to do in this
place.

La negacion se pone en tercer lugar.


There is not.

Ejemplos de frases en plural


"Are there many trees in the park?"
"Yes, there are."
"Are there any lamps on the wall?" "Yes,
there are."
"Are there many cats in the house?"
"No, there are not." (aren't)
"Are there any glasses on the table?"
"No, there are not." (aren't)

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STANLEY

UNIT 4

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

A/an - the
Usamos a o an cuando es la primera vez que
hablamos de un objeto:
He had an apple in his bag.
She had a very nice dog.
Sin embargo, si los oyentes saben a que nos
referimos usamos el articulo determinado:
I left the books on the table, and the
apples in the fridge.
Asumimos que los que nos escuchan saben a
que libros y manzanas nos referimos:
Otros ejemplos:
There was a boy holding hands with a
girl in the park. The boy had short dark
hair, and the girl had long fair hair.
I saw a play last night. The play was
about a man who loved a woman but the
woman didn't love the man.
There are a carpet and a lamp in this
room. The carpet is new but the lamp is
old.
2. Usamos the cuando esta clara la situation
de la persona o cosa a que nos referimos:
The doctor came this morning to see
Grandpa, (su medico de cabecera)
The light was on all night, (la luz de esta
habitation)
The bank opens at nine, (este banco en
particular)
I took the train at the station, (este tren
en particular en la estacion de esta
ciudad):
Tambien con:
the navy
the army
- the police
the post office, etc.
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STANLEY

3. Usamos a/an cuando nuestro interlocutor no


sabe a que nos referimos:
I am looking for a book, (no nos dice que
libro)
He bought a car. (no sabemos que
coche)
Mary sat on a chair, (no sabemos cual)
We stayed at a nice hotel in Benidorm.
I had a meal in a restaurant.
4. Usamos el artfculo the con radio, cinema,
theatre... tambien con sun, earth, moon,
universe, etc:
I often listen to the radio.
I never go to the theatre.
A spaceship is going to the moon.
The earth goes round the sun.
5. No solemos usar el artfculo the con las comidas:
What time is dinner?
What are you going to have for
breakfast?
Are we going to have lunch?
Tampoco usamos the con watch, television:
She never watches television.
We always watch the news on TV.

UNIT 5

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

The, an, a - Omission of articles


1. Solemos omitir el uso de the antes de un
sustantivo cuando nos referimos a alguien o
algo en general:
Children are nice.
She is afraid of dogs.
Crime doesn't pay.
I love collecting stamps.
- She likes music.
Life is very difficult nowadays.
Doctors are very well paid.
Tambien suprimimos el articulo con most:
Most people like pop music.
Most dogs are faithful to their owners.
2. Generalmente ponemos an en vez de a cuando la palabra siguiente empieza por vocal:
- an elephant
- an idea
an airfield

Tambien nos referimos a los instrumentos musicales de esta manera:


I like playing the guitar.
He will play the trumpet tonight.

Usamos the con algunos adjetivos para refe Sin embargo, depende de la pronunciation de rirnos a clases de personas:
the rich
las palabras que siguen a los artfculos:
the dying
a uniform
the blind
a university
the English
an hour
anMP
an honest man
an heir
a unique vase
El articulo indefinido a/an se usa siempre con
sustantivos en singular, pero no con plurales:
- I have a cat
I have some cats /1 have cats
No se debe omitir el articulo delante de profesiones:
My daughter is studying to be a doctor.

10

Usamos el articulo the con ciencia y tecnologia:


I like the telephone.
Galileo invented the telescope.
The dolphin is a mammal.
- The whale is the biggest animal on earth.

STANLEY

UNIT 6

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

School/the school - Hospital/the hospital


1. Algunas palabras de uso frecuente suelen suprimir el artfculo cuando se usan para lo que
han sido disehadas.
Estudiemos esta situation:
- Mr Carter had an accident yesterday,
and he was taken to hospital.
- At the moment he is still in hospital.
- Mrs Carter went to the hospital to visit
him, and she is at the hospital now.

En otras palabras, si ingresas en el hospital


como paciente: you go to hospital o are taken
to hospital.

3. sea, home, work, town.


Se dice: go to sea as sailors. To be at sea.
They are joining the navy and soon will
go to sea.
They've been at sea for a week / I was
on my way to work.
These people are hard at work.

Se suele omitir el the con town cuando se


trata de la ciudad del que habla:
We often go to town to do some
shopping. We were in town last
Wednesday.

Si vas de visita: you go to the hospital o you La palabra home no lleva preposition con verbos de movimiento:
are at the hospital visiting somebody.
2. church, court, school, prison, university,
college, bed.
Suprimimos el artfculo delante de todos estos
sustantivos cuando les damos un sentido de
uso:
- I go to church on Sundays. / I am going
to bed, I'm tired.
She takes her children to school every
day.
He was sent to prison for robbery.
I'll take you to court if you don't pay.

De igual forma decimos:


The injured are in hospital.
My children are at school now.
The whole family were in/at church.
- He is studying at Bristol University.
He is in bed resting.

Usamos todas estas palabras con el artfculo


the cuando se visitan o se usan por otras razones:
I went to the church to see the new
altar.
He often goes to the prison to give
lectures.
Mr Kent went to the school to speak to
the maths teacher.

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Let's go home. They arrived home late.

Con los verbos be, stay, etc. se usa at:


The children are at home. Let's stay at
home.

UNIT 7

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

Some, any
Los artfculos partitives some y any se traducen por algo de, algun, un poco, unos, algunos, nada de, etc.
En general some se usa para frases afirmativas mientras que any se usa para frases interrogativas y negativas.
Frases afirmativas
There are some girls in the park.
I've got some books to read.
There is some beer in my glass.
He's got some papers to read.
I've got something to tell you.
He's got some interesting ideas.
My sister has got some coffee.
There is something on your plate.

Prases interrogativas

Frases negativas
They haven't got any children.
She hasn't got any tea.
There isn't any milk in the glass.
He hasn't got any paper.
You haven't got any good ideas.
We haven't got any beer.
I haven't got any books to read.
My sister hasn't got any friends.
There aren't any trees in this garden.
haven't got anything to do.

Have you got any wine?


Has she got any champagne?
Is there any tea in the tea-pot?
Are there any books on the table?
Have we got any coffee?
Have you got anything to tell me?
Have they got anything to do?

Importante
* A veces usamos some en preguntas cuando nos
referimos a algo rnuy concreto.
Do you want some wine?
- Can I have some sugar?
- Can you give me some water?
Can you cook some rice?
* Any a veces tiene el sentido de cualquiera.
Any dictionary will give you the meaning of this.
- Anybody can tetl you that.
Despues de if/whether signified alguna, alguien.
If there is any doubt let me know.
+1 don't know whether anybody will come or not.
14
STANLEY

UNIT 8

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

The past of Have and Be


Past tense of Have (tener)
Affirmative
I had
You had
He had
She had
It had
We had
You had
They had

Negative
I hadn't/I did not have
You hadn't/You did not have
He hadn't/He did not have
She hadn't/She did not have
It hadn't/It did not have
We hadn't/We did not have
You hadn't/You did not have
They hadn't/They did not have

Interrogative
Had l?/Did I have?
Had you?/Did you have?
Had he?/Did he have?
Had she?/Did she have?
Had it?/Did it have?
Had we?/Did we have?
Had you?/Did you have?
Had they?/Did they have?

Recuerde
El past tense ingles equivale al imperfecto y tambien al indefinido, asf pues:
lhad=Yotenia/tuve.
We had a house in the country many years ago.
I had a dog when I was a child.
Did you have to do that yesterday?
La forma interrogativa y negativa del have tambien se puede formar con la particula did.
"Did you have a storm last night?" "No, we didn't have a storm."

TO BE (past tense) SER o ESTAR


Affirmative
I was
You were
He was
She was
It was
We were
You were
They were

Negative
I was not (wasn't)
You were not (weren't)
He was not (wasn't)
She was not (wasn't)
It was not (wasn't)
We were not (weren't)
You were not (weren't)
They were not (weren't)

Interrogative
Was I?
Were you?
Was he?
Was she?
Was it?
Were we?
Were you?
Were they?

El past tense equivale al imperfecto y tambien al indefinido, asi pues:


I was = yo era / estaba / fui / estuve.
I was in London yesterday.
Little Jim was very good last week.
"Were you at the concert last night?" "No, I wasn't."
"Where were you yesterday afternoon?" "I was at the cinema."
16
STANLEY

UNIT 9

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

The plural of nouns


1. Generalmente se forma el plural de los
sustantivos ahadiendo una s al singular:
day, days cat, cats house, houses

2. Los nombres que terminen en o, ch, sh, ss,


o x forman el plural ahadiendo es:
potato
brush
box

potatoes
brushes
boxes

kiss
kisses
pouch - pouches

Sin embargo, las palabras de origen extranjero que terminan en o solamente ahaden una s:
kilo
kimono
piano
photo
soprano
solo

ladies
cities country

countries

toys
- boys
- monkeys

4. Hay doce sustantivos que terminan en f o fe,


cuyo plural cambia en ves. Estos sustantivos
son:
wolf
wife
thief

shelf
sheaf
self

shelf - shelves
calf
calves
wife
wives
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STANLEY

safes
cliffs

chief

chiefs

5. Algunos sustantivos forman el plural de


forma distinta al singular:
man
men
child
children
foot - feet
goose geese

cod
salmon
duck

Sin embargo, los sustantivos que terminan en


y despues de una vocal forman el plural anadiendo una s:
toy
boy
monkey

safe
cliff

woman
ox
tooth
mouse

women
oxen
teeth
mice

6. Algunos animales no cambian en plural:


sheep
deer
trout

kilos
kimonos
pianos
photos
sopranos
solos

3. Los sustantivos que terminan en y siguiendo


a una consonante forman el plural cambiando
la y por ies:
lady
city

Las demas palabras que terminan en f o fe


ahaden una s:

loaf
life
leaf

knife
half
calf

squid
carp
partridge.

mackarel
plaice

El plural de fish puede ser fishes, cuando se


trata de peces vivos, pero no es muy corriente.
There are a lot of fish in the sea.

7. Algunas otras palabras tampoco cambian:


quid
aircraft
counsel
hundredweight
o stone (con significado de peso).

8. Los nombres colectivos, police, crew, family,


team, etc., pueden llevar el verbo en singular o
en plural, segun el sentido que le demos a la
frase:
Our police is very efficient.
Our team is the best.
The police are looking for the thief.
> Our team are wearing the new shorts.

UNIT 10

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

Personal pronouns as subjects aand objects


FORMA
(sing.)

sujeto

objeto

1a persona

me

you

you

3 persona

he/she/it

him/her/it

(plural)

sujeto

objeto

we

us

2 persona

you

you

3a persona

they

them

2 persona

1 persona

It y you tienen la misma forma como sujetos


que como complementos:
"Did you see the bird?" "Yes, I saw it."
"Did it see you?" "Yes, it saw me."

Los pronombres personales I, he, she, we,


they son siempre sujetos de oracion:
I went to London. He knows Mary. They
live in Bristol.

0 complementos indirectos:
Jim gave me a book.
John found her a job.

Pueden ser complementos circunstanciales:


with her
for him
without us

to them

LA POSICION
El complemento indirecto se pone delante del
directo:
I sent her/Mary the letters.
She made him/John a cake.

Sin embargo, si el complemento directo es


un pronombre personal es mas usual colocarlo directamente detras del verbo seguido
de to o for:
I sent them to her.
She made it for him.

Excepto I que puede ser complemento del ver Esta regla no es aplicable a one, some, any,
bo to be:
"Who is it?" "It is I."
none, etc.:
Aunque es mas corriente usar el complemento:
"Who is it?" "It's me."
"Where's Jim?" 'That's him over there."

Si el pronombre va seguido de una oracion,


usamos el sujeto he:
Who, John? But it was he who told me
that!

Me, him, her, us, them, pueden ser complementos directos de un verbo:
I saw her.
Henry likes them.
20
STANLEY

He brought one for Mary/He brought


Mary one.

Con las expresiones it was me/I hay dos posibilidades: objeto directo + that (muy informal):
It was me that posted the letter.

UNIT 10(cont.)

Sujeto + who (muy formal).


It was I who posted the letter.
Se puede evitar el uso de cualquiera de estas
dos formas cambiando la estructura:
- I was the one (or the person) who
posted the letter.
Cuando as y than van seguidos de pronombres personales, se pueden usar tanto la forma
de sujeto como la de complemento:
He is not as clever as I/me.
She understands the question better
than I/me.
En ingles coloquial se usan mucho mas los
complementos (me, him, etc.).
Sin embargo, si despues del pronombre ponemos un verbo, entonces el pronombre debe
ser sujeto, por supuesto:
She's not as good as I am.
I'm not as bad as he is.

22
STANLEY

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

Usos de IT
It se usa generalmente para cosas, o un animal cuyo sexo no conocemos, tambien para
bebes:
Where's my book? I left It on the chair.
Look at that snake. It frightens me.
This is my baby. It is only two days old.
Al telefono se dice asi:
"Who is that/it?" "It is me, Robert / This
is Robert."
* "Is that Jerry?" "No, It's Frank."
It puede introducir frases:
It was Jim who came to see you.
It is today that she's coming, not
tomorrow.

UNIT 11

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Possessives: possessive ('s) and (')


Cuando un ser viviente (persona o animal)
posee algo, se usa lo que se llama el genitive
sajon o caso posesivo:
La manzana de Pedro (the apple of
Peter) se convierte en: Peter's apple.

A) Primero se traduce el poseedor: Peter,


B) despues la preposicion de bajo el
aspecto de's,
C) por ultimo la cosa posefda sin artfculo:
apple.
The house of Mary.
se convierte en - Mary's house.
- The legs of the dog.
se convierte en - The dog's legs.
- The kitchen of my mother.
se convierte en - My mother's kitchen.
This is Mary's house and that one is
Jane's, (la de Jane)
The dog's legs are black, and the cat's
are white, (las del gato)

I Recuerde
* Si el poseedor es plural y termina en s,
se aftade solamente el apostrofo:
The apples of the girls.
se convierte en * The girls' apples.

The house of the boys.


se convierte en

The boys' house.

The legs of the cats.


se convierte en The cats' legs.

The hobby of those families.


se convierte en - Those families' hobby.

Sin embargo, en caso de nombres propios o


apellidos que terminen es s hay dos opciones:
I live in St. James's Square;
St James' Square.
The Jones's dog is very noisy;
- The Jones' dog.
That is the Evans's house, on the
corner;
the Evans' house.
24
STANLEY

Si son extranjeros o clasicos, solo se anade el


apostrofo:
Cervantes' works are interesting.
This is Pythagoras' Theorem.

Con nombres compuestos o largos el apostrofo se pone al final:


My brother-in-law's guitar.
The Prince of Wales's country house.

Tambien se puede poner 's despues de iniciales:


The MP's secretary.
The VIP's bodyguard.

Con expresiones de tiempo tambien es admisible el uso del genitive sajon:


today's paper
a month's holiday
tomorrow's weather
twenty minutes' break o two hours'
delay o in two months' time

Es muy corriente usar el genitivo sajon con


tiendas (la palabra shop se sobreentiende):
My wife is at the hairdresser's.
Is there a butcher's near here?

Tambien hospitales, iglesias, catedrales y firmas comerciales se escriben con's:


Barclays' (bank)
St. John's (College)
St. Paul's (Cathedral)

Cuando hablamos con algun conocido a veces omitimos la palabra house:


We are going to Peter's.
She's staying at the Brown's.

UNIT 12

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Adjectives: Attributes - predicatives


Los adjetivos que se colocan delante de los
sustantivos se llaman atributos:
a beautiful song
- a tired expression
a typical meal

Con ciertos verbos, tales como: be, seem,


appear, look, sound, taste, feel, smell, a
menudo ponemos un adjetivo detras. Estos verbos se llaman verbos copulatives, y los adjetivos en esta posicion se llaman predicatives:
she is nice
- you look beautiful
he feels strong

Los verbos look, taste, feel, and smell pueden ir seguidos de un adjetivo predicative o de
un adverbio:
She looks angry, (adj.)
She is looking at you angrily, (adv.)
You must be careful, (adj.)
The doctor felt my leg carefully, (adv.)
She looked calm, (adj.)
She looked calmly at the two men.
(adv.)

Algunos verbos como sit, lie, stand, pueden


ir seguidos de adjetivos predicativos.
Algunos verbos se usan para mostrar como el
sujeto de la frase cambia:
People go pale, red, white with anger;
blue with cold; green with envy.

Turn se puede usar tambien con todas estas


expresiones:
She turned purple with rage.

Go tambien se usa con adjetivos en muchos


casos cuando las personas o las cosas cambian a peor:
& People go crazy, mad, deaf, bald, blind.
(Sin embargo go no se suele usar con
ill, tired y old).
- Meat goes bad, milk goes off, horses go
lame, bread goes stale, machines go
wrong, iron goes rusty.
The leaves of the book go yellow with
age.
26
STANLEY

El verbo come se suele usar con expresiones


que tienen un final feliz:
All my dreams have come true.
Everything will come out all right in the
end.

Los adjetivos principal, sheer, chief, main


son atributos que se ponen delante de los
sustantivos a los que califican:
The main road of the town is closed to
the traffic.
Sin embargo, afraid, upset, alive, alone,
asleep van siempre siguiendo al verbo, por lo
que son predicados:
She is still alive.
El significado de late y early depende de su
posicion.
We caught an early train.
The train arrived/was early.

Cuando poor significa "sin dinero" puede ser


atributo o predicado:
- He is a poor man.
This man is poor.

Cuando poor significa "desgraciado" debe ser


atributo:
The poor child had an accident.

UNIT 13

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Interrogative and negative sentences in the present


Affirmative
I play golf
You play golf
He/she/it plays golf
We play golf
You play golf
They play golf

Negative

Interrogative

I do not play golf


You do not play golf
He/she/it does not play golf
We do not play golf
You do not play golf
They do not play golf

Do I play golf?
Do you play golf?
Does he/she/it play golf?
Do we play golf?
Do you play golf?
Do they play golf?

I Recuerde
que para interrogar y negar, es decir, para formar frases interrogativas y negativas en
presente de indicative con la mayoria de los verbos (exceptuando to be y los defectives
can, could, may, might, must, ought to, should) se usan las particulas do y does,
que tambien se llaman auxiliary verbs.
Estas particulas no se traducen. Solo se usan
para indicar que la frase esta, o bien en forma
interrogativa o bien en forma negativa.
En forma negativa el do not se suele contraer en don't, y el does not en doesn't.
Does, o doesn't, solo se utiliza para la tercera persona singular.
Cuando se usa la particula does, el verbo se
pone en infinitive, es decir, sin s.
No se debe confundir el verbo to do (hacer)
con la particula do.

Ejemplos:
Do you come here every day? No, I
don't come every day.
Does he drink wine? No, he doesn't
drink wine.
What do you do on Sundays? I don't do
anything.
Does your brother work very hard? No,
my brother doesn't work very much. Yes,
he works quite a lot.
Do your children read many books? No,
they don't read books. Yes, they read a
lot of books.
28
STANLEY

Respuestas cortas
Es muy corriente en ingles usar respuestas
cortas usando las particulas do y does:
Do you go to the cinema very often?
Yes, I do. No, I don't.
Does Peter go swimming every day?
Yes, he does. No, he doesn't.
Do the children go to school by bus?
Yes, they do. No, they don't.

UNIT 14

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

Prepositions of place: on, in, at


At
Cuando consideramos un sitio como un punto
(sin tamano real), usamos at:
I live in Linster. (es importante para mf)
The trains don't stop at Linster. (es solo
un punto en el viaje)
At the two-mile mark, he was leading
the other runners.
We stopped for an hour at Orly airport.

A menudo usamos at con el nombre de un


lugar cuando estamos interesados en la actividad que se desarrolla alii, no en la forma exacta o dimensiones del lugar. Nos encontramos
con alguien at the station, no estamos interesados en el hecho de que sea fuera o dentro,
sino que consideramos a la estacion como un
sitio de encuentro. A menudo usamos at cuando hablamos de cafes, restaurantes, o sitios
donde se estudia o trabaja:
I'll be at the club at 8.
We'll eat at MacDonald's, in High Street.
He had a beer at that little pub round the
corner.
I was at the theatre last night.
I was at school from 1960 to 1971, and
at university from 1971 to 1974; after
that I worked at Barnard's Enterprises.

Tambien usamos at con nombres de actividades de grupo:


at a meeting/at the theatre/at a concert/
at a lecture/at a match/at the cinema

Fi'jese en la diferencia entre in Oxford


(en la ciudad) y at Oxford (en la universidad); y entre in the corner (rincon) y at/
on the corner (esquina).

30
STANLEY

On (lines)
Usamos on para decir que algo esta tocando
o cercano a una Ifnea, o algo parecido a una
li'nea. (no, frontera, carretera):
We have a house on the river.
Tijuana is on the frontier between
Mexico and the U.S.A.
Bath is on the road to Bristol.

On (surfaces)
Usamos on cuando algo esta tocando una
superficie:
The book is on the table.
They spend the morning in a boat on the
lake.
Put the picture on the other wall.
There's something on the sole of my
shoe.
There's a stain on the ceiling.

UNIT 14(Cont.)

In
Se usa cuando los alrededores son tridimensionales:
The table is in the room/in the shop/in
the kitchen.
The boys are in the garden/in the park/
in the building.
The money is in your bag/in your purse/
in your drawer.
She's swimming in the water/in the sea/
in the river.
She's in a field/in the car park, (pero on
the beach)

Con grandes superficies (pafses, regiones,


islas grandes) decimos in:
She lives in Yorkshire/ in the Sahara/in
the British Isles, (pero on a desert
island)

Parts of the body


Generalmente decimos on cuando se trata de
la superficie del cuerpo:
He had blood on his forehead/his
cheeks.

Usamos in en las cavidades:


He hit me in the eye/mouth/ribs/
stomach.

Hablando de heridas decimos in:


He was wounded in the shoulder/in his
head.

32
STANLEY

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

Means of transport
Usamos on con transportes publicos, caballos, motos y bicicletas:
I saw her on the plane/on the train/on
the bus.

Usamos in con coches, taxis, avionetas, etc.:


I saw him in a new Mercedes.

UNIT 14 (Cont.)

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

At church, in hospital, etc.

Addresses

Hay algunas expresiones que no usan artfculo, algunas con in, otras con at:

At se usa con el numero de la calle:


She lives at number 27,
pero... She lives in Boston Road.

in bed
in hospital
in court
in church/at church
in prison
in American English
in school
in college
in university
at school
at university
at work
at college

Si usamos el numero y el nombre de la calle


decimos at:
She lives at 27 London Avenue.

Con los pisos siempre decimos on:


I live on the third floor/on the ground
floor.

Recuerde
Decimos arrive in con pai'ses y ciudades:
When did you arrive in England/in London?

Decimos arrived at con iugares comunes:


He arrived late at school.
at work
at the hotel
at the park
No usamos preposicidn con verbos de movimiento y home:
He arrived home.

34
STANLEY

UNIT 15

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

Prepositions of time: on, in, at


In

At
Usamos at con:

Expresiones de tiempo:
at six
at the weekend
at present
at Christmas
at about/around

at the age of
at lunch time

Tambien empleamos at con las siguientes


expresiones:
at the beginning
at first

at the end
at last

On
Usamos on con:
Dfas de la semana:

on Monday
on Sundays
on Monday morning
Partes del dfa:
on Saturday nights
on Christmas Day
Festividades:
on New Year's Day
on his birthday
Aniversarios:
on her wedding day
Ocasiones especiales:
on that day
on that evening
Dfa + fecha:
on Tuesday, June 2nd
Fechas:
on June 16th, on 21st
April

Usamos in para:
Partes del dfa:
Meses:
Ahos:

in the morning
in the afternoon
in the evening
in April
in October
in 1992, in 1912, in 1885

Estaciones:

in (the) spring
in (the) winter)
Siglos:
in the 17th century
in the 19th century
Perfodos de tiempo:
in that era, in the Middle Ages

In
Usamos in en expresiones como:
I'll be there in ten minutes.
The book will be ready in ten days' time.
I can run a mile in five minutes.

No usamos ninguna preposition delante de


last y next:
- I went to Spain last year.
- I'll see you next Sunday.

On + gerundio (on arriving, on hearing,


etc.) se traduce por al llegar, al oi'r, etc.
On hearing that, she was suddenly
afraid.

On time, in time
Usamos on time cuando nos referimos a la
puntualidad, a menudo con horarios de trenes:
In this country trains always arrive on
time.

Decimos in time o in time for cuando se llega con un margen razonable de tiempo:
All passengers arrived in time for the
train.

36
STANLEY

UNIT 16

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Prepositions of time: for, during, since, from


During + sustantivo
Usamos esta formula para decir cuando sucede algo:
It must have rained during the night.
The ground is wet.
We came out for a drink during the
interval.
We met many people during our stay in
Paris.
He didn't feel well during the
examination.
Production stopped during the strike.

(Generalmente during va seguido del artfculo the o algun adjetivo posesivo.)


For
Tambien puede significar durante cuando va
seguido de un periodo de tiempo:
We have already been in Miami for a
week.
I haven't been home for a year.
He has worked here for six months.
We watched television for two hours.

From
Puede ser preposicion de lugar:
Where do you come from?

Pero tambien puede ser preposicion de


tiempo:
Many people work from nine to five.
Opening hours are from 9 to 1 and from
3 to 7.
The course goes on from June to
September.
Mother will be away from Monday to
Friday.
He studied the piano from the age of
five.

38
STANLEY

Since
Se usa siempre como preposicion de tiempo,
nunca como preposicion de lugar:
She has been here since Monday.
I haven't seen her since we quarrelled.
It has been raining since two o'clock.
- I haven't been feeling well since last
Saturday.
We've lived in four different places since
last year.

UNIT 17

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Prepositions of direction and manner


From
Indica procedencia:
The train is coming from Paris.
When are they coming back from South
America?
They are coming all the way from
Chicago.
It's 200 miles from London to Bristol.

To

Indica direction a o estado en:


I've been to Paris five times.
She's never been to a football match.
We are going to fly to New York.
Let's go to a concert tonight.

Into
Usamos into en vez de to cuando entramos
dentro de algun sitio:
They went into the room.
The dog ran into the house.
The old man walked into the shop.
A bird flew into the room.

By
Usamos by para decir como viajamos:
by train
by car
by rail
by bus

by road
by sea
by underground
by bicycle

by plane
by air
by ship
by land

I always go to Paris by plane.


He sometimes goes to work by bicycle.
We never go by air. We prefer to go by
train.

Si usamos by no podemos decir my car / the


bus / a taxi, etc. Decimos in my car, on the
train.

40
STANLEY

On
Usamos on para ir a pie y en transposes
publicos:
on the bus - on the 5.30 train - on a
plane - on foot
Get on the bus, quick! Let's get on the
train.
Usamos in para coches y taxis:
- in my car - in a car - in a taxi

UNIT 18

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

The present continuous


El presente continue se forma con el presente
del verbo auxiliar to be + el gerundio:
Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I am working
You are working
He is working
We are working
You are working
They are working

I am not working
You are not working
He is not working
We are not working
You are not working
They are not working

Am I working?
Are you working?
Is he working?
Are we working?
Are you working?
Are they working?

Usos del presente continuo


1. Para una accion que esta sucediendo actualmente:
It is raining.
We are sitting at the table for dinner.
What are you doing? I'm watching TV.

2. Para una accion actual pero que no necesariamente esta sucediendo en el momento en
que se habla:
I'm reading a very interesting book.
He's learning French.
The Smiths are building their own
house.

3. Una forma corriente de expresar las ideas


de future planeado:
He is taking me to the cinema tonight.
I'm meeting John at seven this evening.
"Are you doing anything tomorrow
morning?" "I'm playing tennis with
Janet."
I'm having dinner with your sister on
Saturday.
He's going to the doctor on Monday.

42
STANLEY

4. A menudo usamos el presente continuo cuando hablamos acerca de un perfodo presente,


por ejemplo: today, this season, this term,
etc.:
She is working very hard these days.
We are not studying maths this term.
Robert is not playing tennis this season.

5. Tambien usamos el presente continuo para


hablar sobre situaciones cambiantes:
The standard of living is rising in this
country.
Your French is definitely getting better.

UNIT 19

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

The present simple


La forma afirmativa del presente de indicative tiene la misma forma que
el infinitive, excepto que normalmente la tercera persona ahade una s.
I work
you work
he/she/it works
we work
you work
they work

I play
you play
he/she/it plays
we play
you play
they play

Los verbos que terminan en ss, sh, ch, x, o


ahaden es en la tercera persona del singular:
I kiss, he kisses
I watch, he watches
I rush, he rushes
I box, he boxes
I go, he goes
I do, he does
I fish, he fishes

Cuando un verbo termina en y detras de


una consonante, cambiamos la y en i, y
ahadimos es:
I copy, he copies
I try, he tries

Sin embargo, los verbos que terminan en y


detras de una vocal siguen la regla general:
I play, he plays
I obey, he obeys
I say, he says

El present simple se usa para expresar una


accion habitual. For regla general se suele usar
con adverbios o f rases adverbiales tales como:
always, never, often, occasionally, every day,
usually, on Sundays, in winter.
& I always go to Miami in summer.
She never tells me what to do.
We play football every day.
I often speak to her on the phone.
On Sunday afternoons we stay at home.
44
STANLEY

I watch
you watch
he/she/it watches
we watch
you watch
they watch
Con algunos verbos siempre se usa la forma
habitual, pues no admiten la continua:
I love you.
She likes me.
I believe you.
She feels very well.
I hear noises at night.
He hates you.
I want a little more.
She adores him.
He admires her.

Con verbos de actividad mental se suele usar


tambien la forma habitual:
know
mean
expect
assume
agree
feel
realize
suppose
recognize
remember
see
understand
think

UNIT 20

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Going to
La forma going to se usa:

2. El going to para prediction.

1. Cuando se tiene intention de hacer algo, y

Podemos expresar un sentimiento de seguridad del que habla.

2. Para predecir algo.


1. El going to expresa la intention del sujeto
para llevar a cabo una accion en el future. Esta
intention es siempre premeditada e indica una
cierta preparation. Una posibilidad de que se
lleve a cabo la accion aunque no de una forma
tan definitiva como el presente continue:
- I'm meeting Janet at the airport at five.
I'm going to meet Janet at the airport at
five.

I'm meeting Janet signified que ya ha hecho


los arreglos necesarios y ha quedado con ella.
Mientras que I'm going to meet significa que
no ha hecho ningun arreglo. Quiza Janet se lleve una sorpresa.
Going to se puede usar con expresiones de
tiempo:
I'm going to be a doctor when I
grow up.
When are you going to get married?
I'm going to think about your proposal.
I'm sure she is going to like it.

46
STANLEY

El tiempo generalmente no se menciona, pero


la accion se espera que suceda en el future inmediato:
I think it is going to rain tonight.
We are going to have a nice trip.
I am afraid she is going to faint.
Be careful! You're going to fall into that
hole.

UNIT 20 (Cont.)

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

I Recuerde
* Comparemos ei going to (prediction) con will
usado para probable futuro.
Will es una manera comun de expresar lo que
piensa, cree, espera, etc. ei que habla:
it will probably be hot tomorrow.
Cereals will be expensive this year.

Will y going to son muy parecidos en este


tipo de frases y cualquiera de los dos se puede
usar:
It will take us a long time to get there.
- It is going to take us a long time to get
there.

Diferencias
1. Going to implica que hay sehales que sucedera algo. Will implica que el que habla cree
que sucedera.
2. Going to se usa con un futuro relativamente inmediato; will no implica ningun tiempo en
particular y podrfa referirse a un futuro remoto.
* This old car is going to break down,

significa que hace ruidos raros y que nos va


a dejar tirades en el camino.

48
STANLEY

This old car will break down,

significa que sucedera en algun tiempo en


el futuro (quiza tarde mucho en averiarse.)
De forma parecida:
My father is going to get better

significa que esta dando senates de mejorar.


My father will get better.

indica confianza y quiza una eventual recuperation, pero no da idea de que vaya a mejorar en el proximo futuro.

UNIT 21

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

The future simple


Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I shall/will play
You will play
He will play
We shall/will play
You will play
They will play

I shall/will not play


You will not play
He will not play
We shall/will not play
You will not play
They will not play

Shall/will I play?
Will you play?
Will he play?
Shall we play?
Will you play?
Will they play?

El shall tiene poco uso en practica. Solo se


usa para ofrecerse a hacer algo, o sugerir alguna cosa:
Shall we go for a picnic tomorrow?
(sugerencia)
Shall I open the window? (oferta)
<* Shall I carry that case for you, madam?
(oferta)
Shall we go to the disco, boys?
(sugerencia)

Shall not se abrevia a shan't y will not se


abrevia a won't.
En forma afirmativa se suele decir coloquialmente:
I'll
it'll

you'll
we'll

he'll
they'll

she'll

Usos del futuro


1. Para expresar opiniones, especulaciones
acerca del futuro. Se puede usar con verbos
tales como: think, know, suppose, wonder,
believe, be sure.
I am sure he'll pass his driving test.
I suppose they'll sell it. It's such an old
car!
I think they'll wait for us there.

50
STANLEY

2. El futuro se usa tambien para acciones habituales que suponemos tendran lugar:
Summer will come eventually.
Nations will get together in the end and
save humanity.
Others will come after these.

3. El futuro tambien se usa en frases que tengan idea de condition:


If you come early, we'll go to the cinema.
If you give me the letter, I'll post it.
I'll drink the milk if it is warm.
We'll go out if it doesn't rain.

UNIT 22

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

The imperative
El imperative suele tener el sentido de una
orden, aunque tambien podemos usar el imperative como sugerencia o consejo.
En ingles se conjugan todas las personas, incluyendo la primera, cosa que en espanol no
existe. Cuando traducimos let me come recurrimos a dejame venir.

Imperativo

ven tu
que venga el
que venga ella
que venga (ello)
vengamos
venid

let me come
come
let him come
let her come
let it come (animal)
let us (let's) come
come

que vengan ellos/ellas

let them come

Jesus said: "Let the children come to


me!".
Come on boys! Let's play a game of
football.
Sit down here and eat this!
> "Nelly is coming." "Okay, let her come."

El imperative negative se forma poniendo do


not (don't) delante de todas las personas:
& Don't let me play.
Don't let us play, (let us not play)
Don't play.
Don't play.
Don't let him/her/it play.
Don't let them play.
Don't let Peter go with you.
Don't make so much noise, the children
are sleeping.
Don't let them play with you.
Don't let me see you do that again.

Recuerde
que en la primera persona del plural se admiten dos formas
de negacion:
Don't let us go too early. / Let us not go too early.
Don't let's speak about that again / Let's not speak
about that again.

Fijese tambien, que da lo mismo decir let us que let's.


En el imperativo, no existe la forma interrogativa.
Normalmente, en el imperativo no se usa la palabra you.
Aunque cuando estudiemos las formas enfaticas veremos que
podemos hacerlo si queremos dar entasis a la frase.

52
STANLEY

UNIT 23

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

Adverbs of frequency and degree


Adverbios de frecuencia

Often

Los adverbios de frecuencia son los


siguientes:

A veces encontramos la palabra often al


final de una frase junto con very o quite:

Frases
afirmativas
often
always
once
twice
usually
continually
occasionally
frequently
sometimes
repeatedly
periodically

Frases
negativas
never
hardly
rarely
seldom
ever
hardly ever

Los adverbios de los dos grupos se colocan


normalmente:
1. Despues del verbo ser o de un verbo
defective:
- She is always late for work.
I can never understand these people.
My father is often wrong.
We must never criticize other people.

2. Entre el sujeto y el verbo, en los tiempos simples:


They never come to see us.
- We sometimes go to see them.
I always arrive on time for work.

3. Con los tiempos compuestos, el adverbio se


pone entre el auxiliar y el participio:
I have always done my duty.
You had never spoken like that before.

54
STANLEY

He comes to see us very often.


I have seen them in the park quite
often.

Tambien al final de una frase encontramos:


once, twice, frequently, repeatedly.
I've been there once.
They go to Italy very frequently.

UNIT 23 (Cont.)

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

Much - how + adjetivo o adverbio


Adverbs of degree

Much

Son:
- almost
extremely
only
far
- nearly
fairly
- absolutely
hardly
barely
- much
completely just
enough
quite
entirely
rather

En frases afirmativas much tiene un uso limitado. Se prefiere usar a lot o lots:

so
too

- really
- scarcely
very
etc.

1. Un adverbio de grado modifica a un adjetivo


o a otro adverbio. Generalmente se coloca delante:
You are quite right.
- We are almost ready.
Sin embargo, enough va a continuation:
This house is not big enough for us.
She doesn't walk fast enough.

2. Los siguientes adverbios de grado pueden


modificar a los verbos: almost, quite, rather,
really, scarcely, enough, just, hardly, a little,
much, nearly.
Todos, excepto much, se colocan entre el sujeto y el verbo:
I nearly fell into the river.
I really enjoyed the film.

Con el verbo ser y con los verbos defectives


se colocan detras:
- I am just going.
- She can hardly speak.

Con los tiempos compuestos se coloca entre


el auxiliar y el participio:
We have just arrived.
They have nearly finished.

56
STANLEY

Have you got much money? No, I


haven't got much. Yes, I have got a lot
of money / lots of money.

"How" para preguntar


How much se usa para cosas incontables (frases en singular).
How many se usa para cosas contables (frases en plural):
How much sugar do you want?
How many trees are there?

How + adjetivo o adverbio


How combina con gran variedad de adjetivos
y adverbios tales como: deep, big, far, long,
old, wide, etc.:
How far is it to the station?
How big is this town?
How often do you come here?
How wide is this road?
How long is this river?
How well can you swim?

How long?: time


La expresion how long se puede usar para
preguntar cuanto tiempo:
How long do you take to do this?
How long ago did he live?

UNIT 24

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

The past simple tense


En ingles el past tense comprende el imperfecto y el indefinido, por lo tanto hay que traducir segun el sentido de la frase.

Verbos regulares
Para formar el pasado de un verbo regular se
ahade ed:
I worked
you worked
he worked
we worked
you worked
they worked

Irregular verbs
Los verbos irregulares forman el pasado de
forma distinta. Por ejemplo el verbo go:
1 went
you went
he went
we went
you went
they went

Como se vera, la tercera persona del singular


no anade una s.

Si el verbo ya termina en e solo se ahade la d:


I lived.
Los verbos monosflabos, y los bisilabos que
terminan en consonante, con acento en la ultima silaba, duplican la consonante final:
stop
stopped
admit
prefer
confer

- admitted
preferred
conferred

Los verbos que terminan en y detras de una


consonante cambian la y por i al anadir la ed:
try
cry
carry
study
hurry

tried
cried
- carried
- studied
hurried

Recuerde
Que ios verbos regulares que terminan en
t o en d, como count, visit, add, collect,
want, pretend, accept, etc., al anadir la ed
se pronuncian como en castellano:
counted
visited
added
collected
wanted
pretended
accepted
Los demas verbos regulares que terminan
en otras letras, no pronuncian la e que se
anade:
seem
walk
play
live
wash

58
STANLEY

seemed
walked
played
lived
washed

[seemd]
[walkd]
[playd]
[livd]
[washd]

UNIT 24 (Cont.)

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Use of the past tense


Se usa para acciones que se completaron en
el pasado.
I met Peter yesterday.
We went to Paris last year.
I last saw him two years ago.
She phoned me last Sunday.

Formation de la interrogation y negacion:


Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

I went
You went
He went
We went
You went
They went

Did I go?
Did you go?
Did he go?
Did we go?
Did you go?
Did they go?

I did not (didn't) go


You did not (didn't) go
He did not (didn't) go
We did not (didn't) go
You did not (didn't) go
They did not (didn't) go

Cuando usamos una partfcula de interrogation o negacion (did, do, does), el verbo se
pone en infinitive:
"Did you phone Tony?" "No, I didn't."
"Did you invite Mary to the party?" "No, I
didn't invite her."
"Did you like the film?" "No, I didn't like
it."
"Did you see him?" "No, I didn't."
"Did you speak to my teacher?" "No, I
didn't."

Ei verbo have para interrogar y negar en pasado usa la partfcula auxiliar did:
"Did you have a dog when you were a
child?"
"No, I didn't have a dog. I had a cat."
"Did the children have school
yesterday?"
"No, they didn't have school." "They had
the day off."
"Did you have breakfast this morning?"
"No, I didn't have breakfast today." "I had
breakfast yesterday."

Para la formation del verbo to be en


pasado vease UNIT 7
60
STANLEY

UNIT 25

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Like - would you like?


En ingles el verbo like es exactamente igual
que los demas verbos en cuanto a la conjugation. Hay que olvidarse de la forma reflexiva a
mi me gusta, a ti te gusta, etc.:
"Do you like Marian?" "Yes, I like her
very much."
"Does she like fish?" "No, she doesn't
like it."
"Does Mark like running?" "Yes, he likes
it quite a lot."
"Does your mother like cooking?" "No,
she doesn't like it very much."

Verbs + gerund
El verbo like, junto con hate, enjoy, mind,
love, dislike, prefer, etc., va a menudo seguido del gerundio:
1 hate flying.
- She enjoys reading at night.
I don't like people smoking here.
She dislikes working with him.
I don't mind obeying orders.
- I prefer working alone.
De todas formas, tambien se acepta el infinitive
con like, love, prefer, hate:
I love walking in the country.
I love to walk in the country.
I prefer coming here.
I prefer to come here.

Like
Aunque normalmente aceptamos tanto el
gerundio como el infinitive detras del verbo like,
hay, sin embargo, una ligera diferencia entre los
dos usos.
Generalmente decimos: I like running cuando disfruto haciendolo:
Do you like cooking?
(iDisfrutas cocinando?)
I don't like driving.
(No disfruto conduciendo.)
62
STANLEY

Pero si usamos el verbo like, no en el sentido


de disfrutar, sino de preferir, entonces usamos el infinitive detras:
I like to wash the car on Saturdays.
(No necesariamente disfruto lavando el
coche.)
She likes to do the housework first thing
in the morning.

Would like
El condicional del verbo like va siempre seguido de infinitive:
I would like to be very tall.
I would like to be a champion.
Lo mismo ocurre con los verbos love, prefer,
hate:
- I'd love to accompany you on your
travels.
Tambien podemos usar would you like +
noun + gerund:
I would like these people to stop
smoking in my office.
El would like se puede usar seguido del
infinitive compuesto:
I would have liked to have been here
when that happened.

UNIT 26

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

When - clauses
1. A menudo se usa en castellano la conjuncion cuando para introducir oraciones de subjuntivo. Cuando vaya a Madrid...
En ingles este tipo de frases se pone en indicative. When I go to Madrid... ya que el subjuntivo ingles esta en desuso.
A menudo se usa este tipo de frases subordinadas de subjuntivo con una oracion de future:
- I will call you when I arrive.
- We will let you know when she comes.
- I'll send you a postcard when I am in
Benidorm.

Por supuesto no podemos usar when en futuro: no podemos decir when I will arrive.
2. Se puede usar when en preterite perfecto
del subjuntivo espahol, que equivale al preterito perfecto del indicative ingles:
- I will give it to you when I have finished
it.

En este tipo de frases indicamos que la accion estara acabada antes de que tenga lugar
la segunda parte, es decir la oracion subordinada de subjuntivo:
You can post the letter when I have
written it.
You can phone your friend when we
have finished dinner.

Lo mismo sucede con while, after, before,


until, as soon as:
You can have it as soon as I finish with
it/have finished with it.
Before you leave you must come to
have dinner with us.
You will feel better after you have
something to drink.

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"When" y "as"
Se usa when cuando una accion ocurre al
mismo tiempo que otra o en el mismo perfodo
de tiempo que la otra:
When it rains the buses are crowded.

Tambien se usa cuando una accion sigue a


otra:
When he pressed the brake the car
stopped.

As se usa cuando la segunda accion ocurre


antes de que se haya acabado la primera:
As I left the house I remembered the
windows were open.

Esto significa que me acorde de las ventanas


antes de salir de la casa; probablemente estaba todavia en el umbral. Si decimos when I left
dan'a la impresion que el hecho de salir se habia ya completado y que la puerta estaba cerrada detras de mi.
Tambien usamos as para acciones paralelas:
He sang as he walked.

Para un desarrollo paralelo:


As the sun rose the clouds dispersed.

UNIT 27

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Demonstratives: this/these, that/those


Pueden ser adjetivos demostrativos y pronombres demostrativos.

Pronombres
THIS

Cuando se usan como adjetivos, concuerdan


con su sustantivo en numero. Son los unicos
adjetivos que hacen esto. Todos los demas adjetivos son invariables.
this man
these men
that woman
those women

Se traduce por este, esta, esto.

Adjetivos
THIS
Se traduce por este, esta, esto.

THAT
Se traduce por ese, esa, eso, aquel, aquella, aquello
THESE
Se traduce por estos, estas.
THOSE
Se traduce por esos, esas, aquellos, aquellas:
This is water, and that is milk.
This is bread, and that is butter.
These children are very clever, but
those are stupid.

THAT
Se traduce por ese, esa, eso, aquel, aquella. A menudo usamos one despues de this, o
that:
THESE
The picture I'm talking about is this one
Se traduce por estos, estas.
here, not that one.
THOSE
Pero no despues de these o those:
Se traduce por esos, esas, aquellos,
The photos I want are those.
aquellas.
This man here is very tall.
Recuerde
That woman there has a little dog.
There's a tree in this garden.
Que los demostrativos que se usan como
There's a table in that room there.
pronombres normalmente, se refieren a coThese boys here are very tall.
sas, no a gente:
Those girls there have nice dresses.
I found this inside the wallet,
These glasses here have beer in.
(pronombre)
Those glasses there have water in.
I know this boy (adjetivo).
Estan'a mal
I know this,
refiriendose a una persona.
Los pronombres demostrativos despues de
what se refieren a cosas:
What is that?
What are those?
Los pronombres demostrativos this y that
despues de who se refieren a personas:
Who is this?
Who's that?
66
STANLEY

UNIT 28

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

Both and all


1. All (pronombre) puede ir seguido de of +
the / this / these / that / those / posesivos y
sustantivos.
BOTH (pronombre) + of:
Se puede usar de la misma manera, pero solamente con formas en plural. El of aquf se omite
a menudo, especialmente con all + un sustantivo o pronombre en singular.
all the village
all (of) Peter's friends
all her life
both (of) the villages
all (of) these
both (of) his parents
2. Con all/both + of + pronombre personal,
el of no se puede omitir:

all of it
both of them

I Recuerde
que hay una construccion alternativa:
pronombre personal + all/both:
all of it
se reemplaza por it all
all of us
- we all (sujeto)
us all (objeto)
all of you
se reemplaza por you all
all of them
they all (sujeto)
them all (objeto)

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STANLEY

De la misma forma:
both of us
we both
- us both
both of them
- they both
- them both
All of them were there.
They were all there.
All/Both of us came.
We all/both came.
They drank all/both the bottles.
They drank all/both of them.
They drank them all/both.
Do you see those boys? Well, all of
them speak French.
This is my friend Jeff. We are both
volunteers.
All of us knew the answer to the
question.

UNIT 28 (Cont.)

"Both" y "both of"


Both se puede usar de dos maneras en la
misma frase:
- Both of the children have been to
Paris.
- The children have both been to
Paris.
Both con una frase sustantivada:
Both (of) the bikes broke down soon
after the start.
Both (of) my sons are very tall.
I bought both (of) these vases in
Greece.
Both puede usarse como adjetivo:
She had burns on both hands.
Si both se refiere al sujeto de la frase, se
puede poner en la misma position que los
adverbios de tiempo, es decir, entre el sujeto y el verbo:
We both like beer.
The girls both looked English.
o detras del verbo ser:
You are both too young.
The girls were both very pretty.
En preterite perfecto se pone entre el auxiliar y el participio:
We have both been to the same
school.
My parents have both been invited to
the party.

70
STANLEY

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

Hay varias construcciones posibles con both:


Both dogs were asleep.
Both the dogs were asleep.
Both of the dogs were asleep.
The dogs were both asleep.
"Both" como pronombre
We'll buy both, please.
Both looked the same to me.
Give me both.
Both are very similar.

UNIT 29

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Say and tell


Tell

Say

Significa "decir", igual que say; la diferencia


radica en el uso. El verbo tell se usa generalmente cuando detras hay un complemento indirecto, es decir, una persona que recibe la accion del verbo:

Se usa generalmente cuando no hay un complemento indirecto detras del verbo, es decir,
no hay nadie que reciba la accion del verbo:

Tell me something about that.


Don't tell her anything yet.
She didn't tell her mother what she had
seen.
John told his father that he was going
to do it.
I will tell you the truth tomorrow
morning.
Did the girls tell you what they intend to
do?
They never told us the whole truth.
What did he tell the children?

What did you say? I didn't say anything.


What did Peter say last night?
He said that it is going to rain today.
Mary said that she is going to get
married.
Did she say that, really?
Say what you want, nobody is listening
to you.
Don't say that! It is terrible!

En algunos casos tell signified contar, relatar, narrar un cuento. En estos casos el verbo
tell puede no llevar complemento indirecto:
He told a story. He told me a story.
Mum, tell a story, please. Mum, tell us a
story, please.

Lo mismo ocurre con las palabras truth y lie:


He told a lie. He told me a lie.
He told the truth. He told me the truth.

Recuerde
que en algunos casos tell equivaie
a say to.
They told him that it was very
difficult.
They said to him that it was very
difficult.
She told us that she was coming.
She said to us that she was
coming.

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STANLEY

UNIT 30

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

Exclamations: What a/an - what - how


What a/an

How

Se usa con sustantivos en singular:


> What a girl!
What a beautiful girl!
What a boy!
What a silly boy!
What a house!
What a strange house!
What a book!
What an interesting book!
What a face he has!
What an attractive face he has!

Se usa con adjetivos y adverbios:


How big!
How big this house is!
How dark!
How dark that tunnel is!
How wonderful!
How wonderful she is!
How stupid!
How stupid I was to lose my ticket!
How difficult!
How difficult that is!
How wide!
How wide this river is!

En la columna de mano derecha hemos anadido un adjetivo calificativo. Como sabemos, un


adjetivo calificativo es un adorno que se le anade al sustantivo para que sepa el oyente como
es el sustantivo. Esto, por lo tanto, no altera la
formation de la oration: what a/an + sustantivo (con o sin adjetivo).

What
Se usa con sustantivos en plural y con cosas
incontables:
What houses!
What strange houses!
What coffee!
What terrible coffee!
What weather!
What awful weather!
What girls!
What beautiful girls!
What nonsense!
What silly nonsense!
What men!
What horrible men!

74
STANLEY

No confundas:
What a long road this is!
jQue carretera tan larga es esta!

con:
How long this road is!
!Que larga es esta carretera!
Observa que decimos:
What a long road this is y no is this,
puesto que no es una pregunta.

I Recuerde
que how long signified que largo/cuanto
mide de largo, pero tambien signified cuanto tiempo.
How long are you going to stay here?

UNIT 31

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Can - could - be able


Can es un verbo defective. La conjugation
completa de este verbo se da en la pagina 126.
1. El infinitive del verbo poder es to be able:
They long to be able to live in freedom.

2. Can solamente se usa para el presente de


indicative:
She can do it alone.
I can go tonight.

7. Could se usa para el pasado y el conditional:


I could do it alone, but I didn't want to.
(podia)
I could do it for you, I suppose, (podria)

Para todos los demas tiempos se usa la locution be able (ser capaz, vease pag. 126).

Future

3. No anade una s en la tercera persona del


singular:
He can come with you.
She can do it tomorrow.

I'll be able to go tonight.


Will he be able to come in time?

Preterite perfecto

4. No admite la partfcula to ni delante ni detras:

I have been able to finish it in time.

We can go tonight.
They can come at any time.

5. No admite la particula do ni para interrogar


ni para negar:
Can you come?
Can they do it?
They cannot do it alone.
You cannot go there tonight.

6. La forma negativa se puede contraer:


I can't, you can't, he can't, we can't, they
can't.
I couldn't, you couldn't, he couldn't, we
couldn't, they couldn't.

Recuerde
* Can-Could se pueden traducir a veces por saber cuando expresamos una habilidad de hacer algo:
I can swim very well.
She could speak four languages.
* La forma impersonal se puede generalmente se traduce por you
can aunque tambien se puede usar la voz pasiva:
You can't do that here/That can't be done here.
Eso no se puede hacer aqui.

76
STANLEY

UNIT 32

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Be - with ages and measurements


Para preguntar la edad se usa la formula how
old are you?, es decir, se usa el verbo to be, y
se responde I am fifteen years old.
Opcionalmente se pueden suprimir las palabras years old, asi se puede decir, I am twenty,
she is eighteen.
Tambien se puede usar years of age, o at

the age of:


How old are you? I am fifteen years old.
How old is she? She is twenty-two.
How old was David? He was twenty-one.
How old is your mother? She is forty.
How old was she when she died? She
was ninety-one.
She died at the age of ninety-one.
Para traducir cumplir ahos tambien se usa
el verbo to be:
Little Jimmy is five today.
Alice was ten yesterday.
How old will you be tomorrow?
Tomorrow I will be fourteen.

Measurements
Tambien se usa el verbo to be para medidas.
Asi se dice:
How tall?
How big?
How long?
How wide?
How small?
How high?
How deep is the ...?
Para responder tambien se usa el verbo ser,
asi: I am very tall, it is very long, etc.
How tall are you? I am six feet tall.
How big is the town? It is quite big.
78
STANLEY

How wide is the river? It is 200 yards


wide.
How small is an atom? It is very small.
How high is Everest? It is 8,848 metres
high.
Tambien se puede decir:
What is the height?
What is the colour of...?
What colour are his eyes?
She is the same age as me.
I am the same weight as you.
What shoe size are you?
What is the length of...?
What is the width of...?
"What's the colour of her eyes?" "Her
eyes are blue."
"What's the height of the building?"
"What size is it?" "It is size 8."
What is the length of the river?
It is about 1,000 kms long.
What's the width of this cloth?
It is two yards wide.

UNIT 33

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

Comparative and superlative adjectives; comparison


Adjetivos cortos

Adjetivos irregulares

Para formar el grade comparative de los adjetivos y adverbios cortos (monosilabos y


bisflabos), se afiade er, y para el superlative se
anade est:
tall
- taller
small - smaller

- tallest
smallest

good
bad
far

- better
worse
farther
further
- older
elder

- old

- best
worst
farthest
further
oldest
- eldest

El que de comparacion se escribe con n


(than).

Comparativos
Peter is taller than Andrew.
Our house is bigger than yours.

Superlatives
- She is the tallest girl in her class.
- This is the smallest diamond.

Adjetivos largos
Para la formation del grado comparativo de
un adjetivo largo se antepone el adverbio more,
igual que en castellano. Para formar el superlative se antepone the most:
difficult - more difficult
- the most difficult

Comparativo
This lesson is more difficult than that
one.

Superlative
- This is the most comfortable chair that
I have ever seen.

Para adverbios que terminan en ly usamos


more:
You must drive more slowly.

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STANLEY

Con comparativos se puede poner much o a


bit.
This is much bigger than that,
(mucho mas grande)
- This is a bit smaller than that,
(un poco mas pequeno)

Comparativos de igualdad
as

as (tan

come)

He is as rich as his brother.


My watch is as good as yours.

Para frases negativas se puede usar so o as


en la primera parte de la comparacion:
not so/as

as (no tan

como)

This car is not as/so fast as mine.

UNIT 34

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

Good at / look like / what is ... like?


Good at

What is like?

La expresion good at puede ir seguida de un


sustantivo, o de un gerundio:
Peter is very good at maths.
Those boys are very good at playing
games.

Esta expresion se usa para preguntar como


es fulano, no como esta de salud.
"What is the new teacher like?" "I think
he's very strict."
"What is your boyfriend like?" "Oh, he is
very nice."
"What are the new boys like?" "Well,
they look very fit."
"What are the recruits like?" 'They don't
look very clever to me."

Look like
Esta expresion se puede traducir por parecer, tener el aspecto de. Puede ir seguida de
un sustantivo o una frase sustantivada:
He looks like a boy of spirit.
It looks like rain.
That looks like cheese to me.
The picture doesn't look like him.
He looks like his brother.
She looks like her mother.
Tambien puede ir seguido de gerundio:
The festival looks like being lively.
He looked like biting.
It looks like being wet all day.
He looked like beating the champion.

Look + adjetivo
Generalmente usamos esta expresion cuando queremos decir que alguien o algo tiene un
aspecto triste, cansado, alegre, etc:
> You look very tired today.
A sad-looking little boy stood in front of
him.
The countryside looked beautiful in the
sunshine.
Pauline looks very excited today.
Con el mismo sentido se puede usar el presente progresivo:
You are looking very unhappy today.
What's the matter?
She is looking very happy today.

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STANLEY

Nota bien la diferencia entre: What is he like?

y How is he?
What is he like?
iComo es?
"How is he?" "Very well, thank you."
"I Que tal esta?" "Muy bien gracias."

UNIT 35

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Present perfect tense: "for" and "since"


El preterite perfecto de indicative se forma igual que en espahol:

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

I have played
You have played
He has played
We have played
You have played
They have played

Have I played?
Have you played?
Has he played?
Have we played?
Have you played?
Have they played?

I have not played


You have not played
He has not played
We have not played
You have not played
They have not played

A menudo usamos el preterito perfecto para


hablar de situaciones o acciones que continuan
hasta el momento en que hablamos (o poco
antes):
I have lived in this country for many
years.
I have always liked English people.

El preterito perfecto se usa a menudo con


since y for.
Since (desde)
Se usa para decir cuando empezo algo:
She has worked there since 1990.
I have been reading since five o'clock.
I have studied the piano since I was
five.
It has been raining since Monday.

For (durante)
Se usa para decir durante cuanto tiempo se
ha estado haciendo algo; va seguido de una
referencia de tiempo (por ejemplo, two
months):
She has worked here for twenty years,
o I've been waiting for hours.

84
STANLEY

Este tipo de frases se puede traducir al castellano de dos formas: Ha estado trabajando
aqui durante 20 anos (literal). Lleva 20 ahos
trabajando aqui (libre).

How long + for


Esto se emplea para preguntar durante cuanto tiempo:
How long have you been waiting for?

En este tipo de preguntas a menudo suprimimos el for:


How long have you been living in Los
Angeles (for)?

How long + since


Se emplea para preguntar cuanto tiempo hace
desde que ocurrio algo:
- How long is it since you came to live
here?
How long is it since you last saw her?

UNIT 36

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

Verbs with two objects


Complemento directo se refiere a una persona o cosa que recibe la accion del verbo:
They ate the cake.
Don't annoy me.
He threw the ball.
- She dropped the paper.

El complemento indirecto se refiere generalmente a la persona que se beneficia de la


accion expresada por el verbo:
Throw me the ball.

Buy your sister a present.

Se llama verbo transitive el que lleva complemento directo. La mejor forma de averiguar
si un verbo es transitive es hacerse la pregunta
i,a quien? o ^que? Si se puede responder, el
verbo es transitive.
I met Peter this morning.
,A quien encontraste? - Peter
I am reading the paper.
i,Que estas leyendo? - the paper

Posicion de los complementos


El complemento indirecto a menudo se refiere a una persona y se suele poner delante del
directo:
I gave Peter the book, o detras con to
I gave the book to Peter.
I sent Jane the letter.
I sent the letter to Jane.
He gave me the knife.
He gave the knife to me.
Give me it.
Give it to me.
I showed Fred the letter.
I showed the letter to Fred.

De la misma forma I'll find a job for Tom


podria expresarse I'll findTom a job. Esta construction es posible con los verbos: build, buy,
cook, book, find, get, keep, leave, make, order,
reserve, etc:
- I'll get you a drink.
I'll get a drink for you.
I bought him a book.
I bought a book for him.
I'll cook you something.
I'll cook something for you.

Los verbos transitivos se pueden poner en voz


La construction sin preposition se prefiere
pasiva:
cuando el objeto directo es una oration:
The dog eats the meat.
The meat is eaten by the dog.

Se llama verbo intransitivo el que no lleva


complemento directo y no se puede poner
en voz pasiva:
- The plane landed in New York.
The girl runs very fast.

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STANLEY

Tell me the whole story.


Show me what you've got in your
pocket.

UNIT 37

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

Question words as subjects


Who puede hacer el of icio de sujeto y de complemento del verbo.
Cuando hace el oficio de sujeto el verbo se
pone en forma afirmativa, es decir, sin partfculas de interrogation:
Who came yesterday? (sujeto)
o Who spoke at the meeting? (sujeto)
Who pays the bills? (sujeto)
Who, whom como complementos del verbo:
Ingles coloquial:
Who did you see? Who did she talk to?
Ingles gramatical:
Whom did you see? Whom did she talk
to?
Whose como sujeto:
Whose car broke down?
Whose horse arrived first?
Whose ship sank?
Whose como complemento de un verbo:
Whose book did you borrow?
Whose pen did you use?
Whose umbrella did you lose?
Which como sujeto:
Which finger hurts you?
Which car won the race?
Which horse broke its leg?
Which como complemento:
Which hand do you use?
o Which of these books do you prefer?
Which horse do you think will win?

88
STANLEY

What como sujeto:


What caused the fire?
What happened last night?
What como complemento:
What paper do you read?
What did he say?
What do you want?
How many + sustantivo puede ser sujeto de
oracion y por lo tanto ir sin partfculas de interrogacion:
How many dogs ran in the race?
How many cars crashed on the bridge?
How many people went to Madrid?
How many como complemento:
How many things did you buy?
How many people did you see?
How many children did they have?

UNIT 38

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Reported or Indirect Speech


Hay dos formas de relatar lo que dice una persona: la forma directa e indirecta.
En la forma directa repetimos las palabras
exactas del que habla:
He said, "I went to London last week".

Cuando convertimos el estilo directo en indirecto tenemos que hacer algunos cambios. La
tabla que va a continuation indica estos cambios.

En forma indirecta se da el sentido exacto de


lo que se dice pero sin necesidad de usar las
palabras exactas del que habla:
He said (that) he had gone to London
the previous week.

Direct speech

Indirect speech

Presente
"I never go there", he said.
Pasado
"I went there yesterday", he said.
Future
"I will go tomorrow", he said.
Condicional
"I would like to go", he said.
Preterite perfecto
"I have done if, he said.

Pasado
He said (that) he never went there.
Pluscuamperfecto
He said (that) he had gone there the day before.
Condicional
He said (that) he would go the next day.
Condicional
He said (that) he would like to go.
Pluscuamperfecto
He said (that) he had done it.

Hay que tener en cuenta que al pasar a estilo indirecto algunas expresiones
de tiempo cambian:

Direct
today
yesterday
the day before yesterday
tomorrow
the day after tomorrow
next week/month/year
last week/month/year
a week ago
90
STANLEY

Indirect
that day
the day before
two days before
the next/following day
in two days' time
the following week/month/year
the previous week/month/year
the week before/the previous week

UNIT 39

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

So am I - So do I - Neither/nor am
Cuando queremos anadir una adicion afirmativa, yo tambien etc., en ingles hay varias posibilidades.
En caso de que haya un verbo auxiliar en la
frase, este verbo se repite:
"I am a man." "So am I!"
"We are going to school." "So are we!"
"I have a dog." "So have I!"
"She has a nice house." "So have I!"
Si el que usamos es un verbo defectivo, tambien se repite este verbo:
"I can speak French." "So can I!"
"I could drive a car when I was 14."
"So could I!"
"My mother can cook very well."
"So can mine!"
En los demas casos usamos las particulas
do, does, did, will, would:
"I come every day." "So do I!"
"She speaks French." "So does he!"
"I will go tomorrow." "So will I!"
"I would like to go." "So would I!"
'They went to England last summer."
"So did we!"
En caso que la frase sea negativa y queramos anadir, yo tampoco, usamos neither o

nor:
"I am not a man." "Neither/Nor am I!"
"She is not a woman." "Neither/Nor am I!"
'They are not very tall."
"Neither/Nor are we!"
"I haven't got a dog."
"Neither/Nor have I!"
Lo mismo ocurre con los verbos defectives:
"I can't speak French." "Neither/Nor can I!"
"He couldn't come in time."
"Neither/nor could we!"

92
STANLEY

Con los demas verbos usamos las particulas


do, does, did, will, would:
"I don't speak French." "Neither/Nor do I!"
"I don't want any more, thanks."
"Neither/Nor do we!"
"He didn't buy the book."
"Neither/Nor did she!"
"She didn't come in time."
"Neither/Nor did I!"
"She won't speak to us."
"Neither/Nor will he!"
'They won't do it tomorrow."
"Neither/Nor will I!"
"I wouldn't like to go."
"Neither/Nor would I!"
"She wouldn't tell me anything."
"Neither/Nor would he!"

UNIT 40

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Some and something in offers and requests


Normalmente some se usa con verbos afirmativos:
They bought some cakes.
Pero tambien se suele usar some en frases
interrogativas cuando la frase indica una oferta, sugerencia, o peticion, y se espera que la
respuesta sea afirmativa:
^ Would you like some wine?
Could you do something for me?
Can I have some of those sweets?
Have you got some glasses you can
lend me?
Why don't you give her some flowers?
Didn't you borrow some books from the
library?
Would you like some more milk?
Why don't you give him something to
drink?

Linking words both ... and


Either ... or
Neither... nor ...
Las tres estructuras sirven de union. Both....
and... se traduce por tanto... como...:
Both Jim and Jane were late.
I like both John and Peter.
They were both hungry and thirsty.
He loved both Susan and Sandra.
La estructura either... or... se traduce por o
...o...:
* You can have either biscuits or cakes.
She is either French or Italian.
We'll go there either on Saturday or on
Sunday.
We can go either by plane or by train.

94
STANLEY

La estructura neither... nor... se traduce por


ni... ni...:
She can speak neither French nor
Spanish.
The room was neither large nor bright.
The girl was neither pretty nor
intelligent.
The woman on the phone was neither
Rose nor her mother.
Las frases negativas como Ese hombre no
era ni Pedro ni Juan se pueden traducir de
dos formas:
The man on the phone wasn't either
Peter or John.
The man on the phone was neither
Peter nor John.

UNIT 41

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

Infinitive of Purpose
La idea de proposito generalmente se expresa con el infinitive. Es decir, usamos to +
infinitive para hablar acerca del proposito de
hacer algo (para + infinitive):
She went to Paris to learn French.
He shouted to warn us of the danger.
Mary telephoned to invite us to her
wedding.
The secretary went out to post the
letters.

Tambien usamos to + infinitivo cuando nos


referimos acerca del proposito de alguna cosa,
o el porque alguien necesita o quiere algo:
I need something to open this tin.
The rich Arab had six bodyguards to
protect him.
This fence is to keep people out of my
property.
This generator is here to produce
electricity.

Tambien podemos usar in order to/so as +


to + infinitivo con un infinitivo negativo:
He pulled out his knife in order/so as to
frighten them.
- She walked on tiptoe in order/so as not
to wake her children.

Con to be y to have:
She gave up her job in order/so as to
have more time for her family.
She got up early in order/so as to have
a big breakfast.
She left work at four in order/so as to
be home early.

Con can y could se usa el so that... (para


poder):
She is learning French so that she can
study in Paris.
He moved to Boston so that he could
see his girlfriend more often.

96
STANLEY

Para que el pueda...:


Give him my phone number so that he
can phone me.
He wears glasses so that nobody can
recognize him.

Infinitivo + sustantivo + preposicion:


He wants a case to keep his tapes and
records in.
I need a tin opener to open this tin of
asparagus with.

Esto es cuando hablamos de algo en particular, pero si nos referimos a algo con un sentido
en general usamos for + gerundio:
This is a box for keeping old books in.
- This is a tool for cutting wood.

UNIT 42

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

Conditional Structures
El condicional se forma igual que el future,
anteponiendo al infinitive las particulas would
o should.

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

I should/would go

should/would I go?

I should/would not go

you would go

would you go?

you would not go

he would go

would he go?

he would not go

we should/would go

should/would we go?

we should/would go

you would go

would you go?

you would not go

they would go

would they go?

they would not go

La particula should solo se usa en ingles muy


formal:
I thought they would give me a diploma.
They expected that the plane would
arrive on time.
She hoped they would come to the
party.

El condicional se suele abreviar, sobre todo


en conversacion: I'd, you'd, he'd, she'd, it'd,
we'd, you'd, they'd.
I'd go if I could.
I'd go to Paris if I spoke French.
She'd buy the house if she had money.
I'd speak louder if I had to.

El condicional negative tambien se puede


abreviar: I wouldn't, you wouldn't, he
wouldn't, etc.
I wouldn't go if I were you.

98
STANLEY

Condicional compuesto
Affirmative
I would have gone.
You would have gone.
He would have gone.
We would have gone.
You would have gone.
They would have gone.

Interrogative
Would I have gone?
Would you have gone?
Would he have gone?

Negative
I wouldn't have gone.
You wouldn't have gone, etc.

UNIT 42 (Cont.)

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Types of conditional sentences


Las frases condicionales en ingles moderno
se suelen dividir en tres tipos:
Type 1:

Type 2:

What will you do if it rains?


if + present + future
If it rains,
we will stay at home.

What would you do if it rained?


if + past
+ simple conditional
If it rained,
we would stay at home.

Type 3:
What would you have done if it had rained?
if + past perfect + perfect conditional
If
it had rained,
we would stayed at home.

Con las frases condicionales del tipo 1, el


verbo principal se pone en futuro simple, y
la frase subordinada en presente. No importa el orden:
If you run, you will catch the train.
They will go without you if you don't
hurry.
- If the weather is good, we will go for a
picnic.
The boys will play football if the teacher
lets them.

Con las frases del tipo 2, el verbo principal se


pone en condicional simple, y la frase subordinada en pasado:
If you ran, you would catch the train.
- They would go without you if you didn't
hurry.
If the weather was good, we would go
for a picnic.
The boys would play football if the
teacher let them.

100
STANLEY

Con las frases del tipo 3, el verbo principal se


pone en condicional compuesto, y la frase
subordinada en pluscuamperfecto.
If you had run, you would have caught
the train.
They would have gone without you if
you hadn't hurried.
If the weather had been good, we
would have gone for a picnic.
The boys would have played football if
the teacher had let them.

UNIT 43

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Structures with Get


Get es, quiza, el verbo que mas se usa en el
lenguaje coloquial ingles. Se usa, sin embargo,
mucho menos en el lenguaje escrito, y algunos
profesores opinan que el usar get en el lenguaje escrito es "mat ingles". Get tiene cuatro significados.

Cuando el get va seguido de un participio, a


menudo tiene el mismo sentido que to be:

1. Cuando se usa con un complemento directo,


significa algo asf como recibir, obtener, conseguir, coger. El significado exacto depende
de la frase:

3. Cuando detras del get hay un complemento


directo seguido de un adjetivo, infinitive, participio, preposicion o adverbio, el significado es
"causar un cambio":

Did you get the parcel?


Can you get the tickets for tonight's
concert?
Can you get a pound of sugar and a
sack of potatoes in the supermarket?
I'll come and get you at the airport
tomorrow.
He got a punch on his nose.

2. Cuando se usa con cualquier otra cosa (adjetivo, infinitive, participio, preposicion, adverbio), get generalmente sugiere algun cambio o
movimiento. De nuevo, el sentido exacto depende del resto de la frase.
Cuando lo que sigue a get es cualquier cosa
menos un simple complemento directo, casi
siempre se refiere a un cambio de estado: las
cosas o las personas que se hacen diferentes,
se mueven de sitio, comienzan otras actividades, etc. El significado exacto depende de la
clase de palabra que vaya detras del get, y del
resto de la frase. Con un adjetivo, get tiene un
significado parecido a become:
- That woman is getting old.
He got a punch on his nose.

102
STANLEY

The goods got damaged in transit,


(were damaged)
The thief got caught by the police, (was
caught)
He gets invited to all parties, (is invited)

Get him to stop doing that.


You can get your hands warm in front
of the fire.
I can't get Peter to arrive on time.

4. El participio got se usa con algunas formas


habladas con el verbo have, cuando se refiere
a posesion, relaciones u obligation:
I've got a friend who lives in Paris.
What have you got in your hand?
We haven't got any news yet.

Hay que observar, no obstante, que esto solamente ocurre en presente de indicative.

UNIT 44

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

Still, yet, already, since, for, during


Always - never

Since (desde)

Los adverbios always y never se pueden usar


en los comienzos de frase con oraciones de imperative:
Always pay the money you owe.
- Never say that again.
- Always tell me the truth.
- Never throw stones at people.
Always ask for advice.
Never go jogging alone.

A menudo se usa para expresiones de tiempo


con preterito perfecto o pluscuamperfecto:
I haven't seen him.
I met her last week. I hadn't seen her
since 1990.

Still (todavia)
Se usa para frases afirmativas e interrogativas. Su posicion es la misma que los adverbios
de frecuencia:
Mr Evans is still in bed.
Are you still waiting for an answer?
Jimmy still works for that company.

Yet (todavi'a)
Se usa para frases con sentido negative, a
menudo en preterite perfecto. Generalmente lo
solemos poner al final de la frase:
I haven't finished the job yet.
She hasn't written the letter yet.
Have you finished washing the car yet?

Already (ya)
Su posicion es la misma que los adverbios de
frecuencia, aunque tambien puede ir al final:
This machine is already too old.
I've already read the newspaper.
He already knows the truth. He knows it
already.

Ago (hace)
Se pone al final de la frase. Se refiere a algo
que sucedio algun tiempo atras sin idea de continuidad. Normalmente se usa un verbo en pasado (past tense):
I went to London six months ago.
I studied Latin years ago.

For (durante)
Se usa para marcar la duration de un periodo
de tiempo. Suele ir seguido del artfculo indeterminado a, o de un numeral. A menudo se usa
con preterites perfectos o pluscuamperfectos:
I haven't seen her for six months, o
She has been on the phone for an hour.

During (durante)
Suele ir seguido del artfculo determinado the,
o un adjetivo posesivo:
- It was very cold during the winter, o
I spoke to him during the interval.
I learned a lot during my stay with you.

Nota:
Con la expresion the last se usa for:
I haven't seen him for the last two
weeks.
We haven't done anything for the last
three hours.

104
STANLEY

UNIT 45

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

Question Tags
Las coletillas o question tags son preguntas
que se ponen al final de una frase afirmativa:
,verdad?
1 . Las frases con verbos auxiliares o defectives
forman la coletilla con el mismo verbo. Si la frase es afirmativa la coletilla ira en forma interrogativa/negativa. Si la frase es negativa, la coletilla ira en forma interrogativa solamente:
You are a man, aren't you?
She is a woman, isn't she?
He isn't a boy, is he?
She isn't a girl, is she?
He has a dog, hasn't he?
We have a son, haven't we?
He hasn't got a dog, has he?
We haven't got a son, have we?
You can speak French, can't you?
She couldn't run fast, could she?
She could cook, couldn't she?
He can't speak Italian, can he?
2. Con los demas verbos se usan las particulas
do, does, en presente:
You come every day, don't you?
She plays tennis very well, doesn't
she?
You don't speak Chinese, do you?
She doesn't cook very well, does she?
3. En pasado se usa did:
You went to Madrid, didn't you?
She spoke at the meeting, didn't she?
4. En futuro se usa la parti'cula will. Recuerda
que will not = won't:
You will go tomorrow, won't you?
They won't come tomorrow, will they?
5. En condicional se usa would:
They would come if they could, wouldn't
they?
She wouldn't tell you, would she?

106
STANLEY

Con el verbo impersonal there is/there are:


There is a lot of money, isn't there?
There are many people, aren't there?
There isn't much time, is there?
There aren't many trees, are there?
There wasn't anny coffee, was there?

UNIT 46

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

Passive Voice
La voz pasiva inglesa, igual que en castellano, se
forma con el auxiliar to be, y el participio del verbo
que se conjuga.
La preposicion espanola por se traduce por by.

Activa

Pasiva

Presente

The dog eats the bread.


These boys study this
book.

The bread is eaten by the dog.


This book is studied by these
boys.

Pasado

The cat drank the milk.


The player threw the ball.

The milk was drunk by the cat.


The ball was thrown by the
player.

Future

Susan will read the book.


Alice will wash the dishes.

The book will be read by Susan.


The dishes will be washed by
Alice.

Condicionai

My mother would do
it better.
They would eat the cake.

It would be done better by my


mother.
The cake would be eaten by
them.

Preterite perfecto

I have broken the jar.


He has written two books
this year.

The jar has been broken by me.


Two books have been written
by him this year.

Pluscuamperfecto

She had made a delicious


cake.
This artist had painted
the picture.

A delicious cake had been


made by her.
The picture had been painted
by this artist.

Future perfecto

They will have stolen


the money.
She will have taken
the medicine.

The money will have been


stolen by them.
The medicine will have been
taken by her.

Condicionai compuesto

would have broken that.

That would have been broken


by me.

Recuerde
La voz pasiva en ingles se usa mucho mas que en castellano. Se usa a
menudo para traducir formas impersonales: se dice, se piensa...
It is said...
It is thought...

108
STANLEY

UNIT 47

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Interrogative Pronouns
Who (quien)

Which (cual)

El pronombre interrogative who es sujeto de


oracion:
Who was that woman?
Who is going to do it?

Se usa para cosas y personas y es mas selectivo que what:


Which is the cheapest?
Which is the best?
We have two Susans here. Which one
do you want to see?

Whom (a quien)
Es complemento indirecto o circunstancial, y
a menudo va acompahado por una preposicion:
Whom did you see last night?
A quien viste ayer noche?
Whom did you speak to?
,A quien hablaste?
Whom did they go with?
iCon quien/quienes fueron?
Whom are you talking about?
iDe quien estais hablando? (acerca de)
Whom did he tell?
iA quien se lo dijo?
Ffjese que colocamos la preposicion al final
de la frase. Antiguamente se colocaba al principio - With whom are you going? pero eso ha
caido en desuso.

Why (por que?)


"Why was he late?" "Because he missed
the train."
When (cuando)
"When do you come here?" "I come here
every day."
Where (donde)
"Where do you live?" "I live in New York."
How (como)
"How did you come?" "I came by train."

En ingles coloquial a veces se suprime la m


de whom:
Who are you going with?
Who were you talking to?
Whose (de quien)
Es un complemento determinative. Indica posesion:
Whose is this car/Whose car is this?
quien es este coche?
What (que)
Se usa para cosas:
What did you say last night?
iQue dijiste ayer noche?

110
STANLEY

I Recuerde

que cuando los pronombres who y what son


sujetos de oracion no se usan particulas de
interrogacion:
Who came yesterday?
Who told you that?
Who ate all the bread?
Who spoke at the meeting?
What happened last night?
What caused the fire?

UNIT 48

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

Relative Pronouns
Who (quien, que, el cual)
Es el sujeto de la frase subordinada de relative. Se usa para personas:
This is the man who came.
Those are the boys who said that.

That
Puede ser sujeto de una frase de relative detras de all, everyone, everybody, no one,
nobody and those:
& Everybody who/that knew her liked her.
Nobody who/that saw the accident will
forget it.

Whom (a quien)
Es complemento indirect o circunstancial, se
usa para personas:
This is the man whom I saw.
This is the girl with whom he fell in love.

Sin embargo, en ingles coloquial, a menudo


ponemos la preposicion detras del verbo en la
oracion de relative. Cuando hacemos esto generalmente usamos who en vez de whom:
This is Mr Carter, who I was telling you
about.

Whose (cuyo)
This is the man whose son is so tall.

Which or that (el cual)


Generalmente se usa para cosas, pero a veces tambien para personas:
The car (which/that) I bought last week,
broke down yesterday.

Which no se suele usar detras de all,


everything, little, much, none, no, o despues
de superlatives. Solemos usar that o lo omitimos:
Everything (that) you say will be taken

La forma whom se considera muy formal. En


down.
ingles coloquial generalmente usamos who o
This is the best hotel (that) I know.
that, y todavia es mas corriente omitir el proWhat (lo que)
nombre:
The girl whom I asked, told me to come
back today.
The girl who I asked, told me to come
back today.
The girl that I asked, told me to come
back today.
The girl I asked, told me to come back
today.

En las oraciones que proporcionamos una informacion extra se puede usar la preposicion
antes de whom (para personas) y which (para
cosas). Asf que se puede decir to whom, with
whom, about whom, for which, etc.:
Mr Jones, to whom I spoke on the
phone last night, is interested in your
plan.

112
STANLEY

And this is what he said.


Is that what you wanted?

Cuando el sujeto es una mezcla de personas


y cosas usamos that:
Those are the men and the carts that
we saw on the way.

Appendix

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

Irregu lar verl)S


Infinitive

Past

Past participle

Infinitive

Past

Past participle

to be
to begin
bo blow
to break
to bring
to build
to buy
to catch

was/were
began
blew
broke
brought
built
bought
caught

been
begun
blown
broken
brought
built
bought
caught

to lie
to make
to meet

lay

lain

made

made

-hacer

met

met

-encontrarse

to pay
to put
to read
to ring

paid

paid

-pagar

put

put

-poner

read

read

-leer

rang

rung

-llamar
(al timbre)

to come
to cost
to cut
to do
to draw
to drink
to eat
to fall
to feel
to find
to get
to give
to go
to grow
to have

came
cost

to run
to say
to see
to sell
to send
to shine
to show

ran

run

-correr

to hear
to keep
to know
to lead
to leave
to let

116
STANLEY

cut
did
drew
drank

ate
fell
felt
found

got
gave
went
grew

had
heard
kept
knew

led
left

let

-ser, ester
-empezar
-soplar
-romper
-traer
-construir
-comprar
-coger,
atrapar
come -venir
cost
-coster
cut
-cortar
done
-hacer
drawn -dibujar
drunk -beber
eaten -comer
fallen -caer
felt
-sentir
found -encontrar
got
-conseguir
given -dar
gone
-ir
grown -crecer
had
-tener,
tomar
heard -oir
kept
-guardar
known, -saber,
conocer
led
-conducir
left
-salir, dejar
let
-dejar,
permitir

-yacer

said

said

-decir

saw

seen

-ver

sold

sold

-vender

sent

sent

-enviar

shone

shone -brillar

showed

shown -mostrar

to shut

shut

shut

-cerrar

to sit
to sleep
to speak
to spend
to stand
to swim
to take
to tell
to think

sat

sat

-sentarse

slept

slept

-dormir

spoke

spoken -hablar

spent

spent

-gastar, pasar

stood

stood

-ester de pie

swam

swum -nadar

took

taken

-coger, tomar

told

told

-decir, contar

thought

thought -pensar,
creer

to understand understood

understood -entender

to wake

woke

woken -despertarse

to wear

wore

worn

-llevar puesto

to win

won

won

-ganar

to write

wrote

written -escribir

Appendix

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

The days of the week


Sunday
- Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday

domingo
lunes
martes
miercoles
jueves
viernes
sabado

my
your
his
her

enero
febrero
marzo
abril
mayo
junio

mine
yours
his
hers

its
our
your
their

its
ours
yours
theirs

Personal pronouns (object forms)


me
you

- July
August
September
October
November
December

it
us

him
her

Months of the year


January
February
March
April
May
June

Possessive Pron.

Possessive Adj.

Julio
agosto
septiembre
octubre
noviembre
diciembre

you
them

Relative
Pron.

Interrog.
Pron.
who?
whom?
whose?
which?
what?

when?
where?
how?
why?

who
whom
whose
which
that
what

Numbers
Cardinals

6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

one
21
two
22
three
23
four
30
40
five
six
50
seven
60
eight
70
nine
80
ten
90
eleven
100
twelve
101
thirteen
200
fourteen
500
fifteen
1.000
sixteen
seventeen
eighteen
nineteen
twenty

Ordinals
twenty-one
twenty-two
twenty-three
thirty
forty
fifty
sixty
seventy
eighty
ninety
a hundred
a hundred and one
two hundred
five hundred
a thousand

1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th
9th
10th
11th
12th
13th
14th
15th
16th
17th

first
second
third
fourth
fifth
sixth
seventh
eighth
ninth
tenth
eleventh
twelfth
thirteenth
fourteenth
fifteenth
sixteenth
seventeenth

18th
19th
20th
21st
22nd
23rd
30th
40th
50th
60th
70th
80th
90th
100th
101st
200th
500th

eighteenth
nineteenth
twentieth
twenty-first
twenty-second
twenty-third
thirtieth
fortieth
fiftieth
sixtieth
seventieth
eightieth
ninetieth
a hundredth
a hundred and first
two hundredth
five hundredth

1,000th a thousandth
2,000th two thousandth
1,000,000th a millionth
117
STANLEY

Appendix

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

Verbo to be
Indicative

Subjuntive

Present

Present perfect tense

Past tense

1 am
you are
he is
we are
you are
they are

1 have been
you have been
he has been
we have been
you have been
they have been

if
if
if
if
if
if

Past tense

Past perfect tense

1 was
you were
he was
we were
you were
they were

1 had been
you had been
he had been
we had been
you had been
they had been

Future

Future perfect tense

1 shall/will be
you will be
he will be
we shall/will be
you will be
they will be

1 shall/will have been


you will have been
he will have been
we shall/will have been
you will have been
they will have been

Nota:
El imperfecto de subjuntivo del verbo
SER (TO BE) es el unico que se usa en
la practica.
Ej: "si yo fuera rico" -If I were rich.

Conditional

Imperative

Present

let me be!
be!
let him be!
let us (let's) be!
be!
let them be!

I should/would be
you would be
he would be
we should/would be
you would be
they would be

I were
you were
he were
we were
you were
they were

Past conditional
I should/would have been
you would have been
he would have been
We should/would have been
you would have been
they would have been

Infinitive Gerund

Participle

Past participle

to be

been

have been

being

119
STANLEY

Appendix

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

Verb to have
Indicative
Present
I have
you have
he has
we have
you have
they have

Past tense

I had
you had
he had
we had
you had
they had
Future

Present perfect tense


I have had
you have had
he has had
we have had
you have had
they have had
Past perfect tense
I had had
you had had
he had had
we had had
you had had
they had had
Future perfect tense

I shall/will have
you will have
he will have
we shall/will have
you will have
they will have

I shall/will have had


you will have had
he will have had
we shall/will have had
you will have had
they will have had

Conditional

Imperative

Present

let me have!
have!
let him have!
let us (let's) have!
have!
let them have!

I should/would have
you would have
he would have
we should/would have
you would have
they would have

Past conditional
I should/would have had
you would have had
he would have had
we should/would have had
you would have had
they would have had

Infinitive Gerund
To have

Having

Participle

Past participle

Had

Have had
121
STANLEY

Appendix

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Verb to love
Indicative
Present
I love
you love
he loves
we love
you love
they love

Past tense

I loved
you loved
he loved
we loved
you loved
they loved
Future

Present perfect tense


I have loved
you have loved
he has loved
we have loved
you have loved
they have loved
Past perfect tense
I had loved
you had loved
he had loved
we had loved
you had loved
they had loved
Future perfect tense

I shall/will love
you will love
he will love
we shall/will love
you will love
they will love

I shall/will have loved


you will have loved
he will have loved
we shall/will have loved
you will have loved
they will have loved

Conditional

Imperative

Present

let me love!
love!
let him love!
let us (let's) love!
love!
let them love!

1 should/would love
you would love
he would love
we should/would love
you would love
they would love

Past conditional
I should/would have loved
you would have loved
he would have loved
we should/would have loved
you would have loved
they would have loved

Infinitive Gerund Participle Past participle


To love

Loving

Loved

Have loved

123
STANLEY

Appendix

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Verb to love
Indicative

Subjuntive

Present
Interrogative

Present perfect tense

do 1 love?
do you love?
does he love?
do we love?
do you love?
do they love?

have I loved?
have you loved?
has he loved?
have we loved?
have you loved?
have they loved?

Negative

Negative

Present
Interrogative

I do not love
you do not love
he does not love
we do not love
you do not love
they do not love

I have not loved


you have not loved
he has not loved
we have not loved
you have not loved
they have not loved

should/would I love?
would you love?
would he love?
should/would we love?
would you love?
would they love?

Past tense
interrogative

Past perfect tense

Negative

Interrogative

did I love?
did you love?
did he love?
did we love?
did you love?
did they love?

had I loved?
had you loved?
had he loved?
had we loved?
had you loved?
had they loved?

I should/would not love


you would not love
he would not love
we should/would not love
you would not love
they would not love

Negative

Negative

I did not love


you did not love
he did not love
we did not love
you did not love
they did not love

I had not loved


you had not loved
he had not loved
we had not loved
you had not loved
they had not loved

Future
Interrogative

Future perfect tense

Interrogative

shall/will I love?
will you love?
will he love?
shall we love?
will you love?
will they love?

shall/will I have loved?


will you have loved?
will he have loved?
shall we have loved?
will you have loved?
will they have loved?

Negative

Negative

I shall/will not love


you will not love
he will not love
we shall/will not love
you will not love
they will not love

I shall/will not have loved


you will not have loved
he will not have loved
we shall/will not have loved
you will not have loved
they will not have loved

124
STANLEY

Interrogative

Nota.- Salvo muy raras excepciones, el


modo subjuntivo no se usa en ingles.
For regla general se usa el mismo
tiempo que en indicative. Ej.: "Cuando
yo vaya"-When I go.

Conditional

Past conditional
Interrogative
should/would I have loved?
would you have loved?
would he have loved?
should/would we have loved?
would you have loved?
would they have loved?

Negative
I should/would not have loved
you would not have loved
he would not have loved
we should/would not have loved
you would not have loved
they would not have loved

Imperative
Negative
do
do
do
do
do
do

not
not
not
not
not
not

let me love!
love!
let him love!
let us love! (let's not love!)
love
let them love!

Appendix

ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Verbo "there to be" - haber (impersonal)


Indicative
Present
there is
there are
hay

Present perfect tense


there has been
there have been
ha habido

Past tense

Past perfect tense

there was
there were
habia/hubo

there had been


habia/hubo habido

Future

Future perfect tense


there will have been

there will be
habra

Conditional
Present
There would be
Habria

habra habido

Imperative
Let there be!
jHaya!

Past conditional
There would have been
Habria habido

Infinitive Gerund
There to be
Haber

Participle Past participle

There being
Habiendo
125
STANLEY

Appendix

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
1

"to be able"- poder


Indicative

Verbo

Presente
1 can/I am able
you can/you are able
he can/he is able
we can/we are able
you can/you are able
they can/they are able

Preterite perfecto
yo puedo
tu puedes
el puede
nos. podemos
vos. podeis
ellos pueden

Pasado
I could/l was able
you could/you were able
he could/he was able
we could/we were able
you could/you were able
they could/they were able

he podido
has podido
ha podido
hemos podido
habeis podido
han podido

Pluscuamperfecto
podia, pude
podias, pudiste
podia, pudo
podiamos, pudimos
podiais, pudisteis
podian, pudieron

I had been able


you had been able
he had been able
we had been able
you had been able
they had been able

habfa podido
habias podido
habia podido
habiamos podido
habiais podido
habian podido

Futuro perfecto

Futuro
I shall/will be able
you will be able
he will be able
we shall/will be able
you will be able
they will be able

I have been able


you have been able
he has been able
we have been able
you have been able
they have been able

podre
podras
podra
podremos
podreis
podran

I shall/will have been able


you will have been able
he will have been able
we shall/will have been able
you will have been able
they will have been able

habre podido
habras podido
habra podido
habremos podido
habreis podido
habran podido

Conditional
Condicional
I could/would be able
you could/would be able
he could/would be able
we could/would be able
you could/would be able
they could/would be able

126
STANLEY

Condicional compuesto
podria
podrias
podria
podriamos
podriais
podrian

I should/would have been able


you would have been able
he would have been able
we should/would have been able
you would have been able
they would have been able

habria podido
habrias podido
habria podido
habriamos podido
habriais podido
habrian podido

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