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The main intention of this project is to control home appliances by using RF
technology, which helps to turn the electrical loads such as light, and fan ON and
OFF through an RF-controlled remote. This is an advanced technology for home
automation as it is used to make homes very smarter without requiring any
switches on the walls.
Nowadays conventional wall switches are located in different parts of a
house and, therefore, to switch on such switches someone has to go there and press
them to turn the loads on or off. It becomes very difficult for the elderly or
physically handicapped people. Hence, this project is proposed to control home
appliances through an RF. With this system, by pressing selected switch of a
remote its corresponding load can be controlled.
The proposed system uses a microcontroller of the 8051 family and a rectified
power supply. An RF transmitter is connected to the transmitter end with the help
of an encoder device. The push buttons are connected to the microcontroller as
input switches. The commands are sent by the push buttons to the receiver to
control the electrical loads.
An RF receiver is connected to the receiver end with the help of a decoder device.
The electrical loads are controlled by the TRIAC device which is connected to the
microcontroller with the help of an op-isolator to isolate it from the controlling

The electrical loads are controlled by the RF remote wherein the commands are
sent by the transmitter, and based on these commands- the receiver controls the
electrical loads when corresponding switches are pressed to turn ON and OFF.





In most of our electronic products or projects we need a power supply for
converting mains AC voltage to a regulated DC voltage. For making a power
supply designing of each and every component is essential. Here Im going to
discuss the designing of regulated 5V Power Supply.
Lets start with very basic things the choosing of components
Component List :
1. Step down transformer
2. Voltage regulator
3. Capacitors

4. Diodes
Voltage regulator :
As we require a 5V we need LM7805 Voltage Regulator IC.
7805 IC Rating :
Input voltage range 7V- 35V
Current rating Ic = 1A
Output voltage range VMax=5.2V ,VMin=4.8V

LM7805 Pin Diagram

Operation of Regulated Power Supply
Step Down Transformer
A step down transformer will step down the voltage from the ac mains to the
required voltage level. The turns ratio of the transformer is so adjusted such as to
obtain the required voltage value. The output of the transformer is given as an
input to the rectifier circuit.

Rectifier is an electronic circuit consisting of diodes which carries out the
rectification process. Rectification is the process of converting an alternating
voltage or current into corresponding direct (dc) quantity. The input to a rectifier is
ac whereas its output is unidirectional pulsating dc. Usually a full wave rectifier or
a bridge rectifier is used to rectify both the half cycles of the ac supply (full wave
rectification). Figure below shows a full wave bridge rectifier.

A bridge rectifier consists of four p-n junction diodes connected in the above
shown manner. In the positive half cycle of the supply the voltage induced across
the secondary of the electrical transformer i.e. VMN is positive. Therefore point E
is positive with respect to F. Hence, diodes D 3 and D2 are reversed biased and
diodes D1 and D4 are forward biased. The diode D3 and D2 will act as open
switches (practically there is some voltage drop) and diodes D1 andD4 will act as
closed switches and will start conducting. Hence a rectified waveform appears at
the output of the rectifier as shown in the first figure. When voltage induced in
secondary i.e. VMN is negative than D 3 and D2 are forward biased with the other
two reversed biased and a positive voltage appears at the input of the filter.

DC Filteration
The rectified voltage from the rectifier is a pulsating dc voltage having very high
ripple content. But this is not we want, we want a pure ripple free dc waveform.
Hence a filter is used. Different types of filters are used such as capacitor filter, LC
filter, Choke input filter, type filter. Figure below shows a capacitor filter
connected along the output of the rectifier and the resultant output waveform.



instantaneous voltage starts increasing the capacitor charges, it charges till the
waveform reaches its peak value. When the instantaneous value starts reducing the
capacitor starts discharging exponentially and slowly through the load (input of the
regulator in this case). Hence, an almost constant dc value having very less ripple
content is obtained.

This is the last block in a regulated DC power supply. The output voltage or current
will change or fluctuate when there is change in the input from ac mains or due to
change in load current at the output of the regulated power supply or due to other
factors like temperature changes. This problem can be eliminated by using a
regulator. A regulator will maintain the output constant even when changes at the
input or any other changes occur. Transistor series regulator, Fixed and variable IC
regulators or a zener diode operated in the zener region can be used depending on
their applications. ICs like 78XX and 79XX are used to obtained fixed values of
voltages at the output. With ICs like LM 317 and 723 etc we can adjust the output
voltage to a required constant value. Figure below shows the LM317 voltage
regulator. The output voltage can be adjusted with adjusting the values of
resistances R1 and R2. Usually coupling capacitors of values about 0.01F to 10F
needs to be connected at the output and input to address input noise and output

transients. Ideally the output voltage is given by

Figure below shows the complete circuit of a regulated +5V DC power

supply using transformer, bridge rectifier, filter (smoothing) and a fixed +5 V
voltage regulator. Here we can use IC 7803(for 3V),7809(for 9 V),7812(for 12V)

Application of Regulated Power Supply









electrical,electronics and as well as automation equipment.

Mobile phone charger, oscilator, amplifier are needed the
regulated power supply

Understanding 7805 IC Voltage Regulator

A regulated power supply is very much essential for several electronic devices due
to the semiconductor material employed in them have a fixed rate of current as
well as voltage. The device may get damaged if there is any deviation from the
fixed rate. The AC power supply gets converted into constant DC by this circuit.
By the help of a voltage regulator DC, unregulated output will be fixed to a
constant voltage. The circuit is made up of linear voltage regulator 7805 along with

capacitors and resistors with bridge rectifier made up from diodes. From giving an
unchanging voltage supply to building confident that output reaches uninterrupted
to the appliance, the diodes along with capacitors handle elevated efficient signal

As we have previously talked about that regulated power supply is a device that
mechanized on DC voltages and also it can uphold its output accurately at a fixed
voltage all the time although if there is a significant alteration in the DC input
ICs regulator is mainly used in the circuit to maintain the exact voltage which is
followed by the power supply. A regulator is mainly employed with the capacitor
connected in parallel to the input terminal and the output terminal of the IC
regulator. For the checking of gigantic alterations in the input as well as in the
output filter, capacitors are used. While the bypass capacitors are used to check the
small period spikes on the input and output level. Bypass capacitors are mainly of
small values that are used to bypass the small period pulses straightly into the
A circuit diagram having regulator IC and all the above discussed components
arrangement revealed in the figure below.

As we have made the whole circuit till now to be operated on the 5V DC supply, so
we have to use an IC regulator for 5V DC. And the most generally used IC
regulators get into the market for 5V DC regulation use is 7805. So we are
connecting the similar IC in the circuit as U1.
IC 7805 is a DC regulated IC of 5V. This IC is very flexible and is widely
employed in all types of circuit like a voltage regulator. It is a three terminal device
and mainly called input , output and ground. Pin diagram of the IC 7805 is shown
in the diagram below.

The output generated from the unregulated DC output is susceptible to the

fluctuations of the input signal.IC voltage regulator is connected with bridge

rectifier in series in these project so to steady the DC output against the variations
in the input DC voltage.To obtain a stable output of 5V, IC 7805 is attached with 60-6V along with 500mA step down transformer as well as with rectifier.To
suppress the oscillation which might generate in the regulator IC, C2 capacitor of
0.1 uF value is used. When the power supply filter is far away from the regulated
IC capacitor C2 is used.Ripple rejection in the regulator is been improved by C4
capacitor(35uf) by avoiding the ripple voltage to be amplified at the regulator
output.The output voltage is strengthen and deduction of the output voltage is done
capacitor C3(0.1uF). To avoid the chance of the input get shorted D5 diode is used
to save the regulator. If D5 is not presented in the circuit, the output capacitor can
leave its charge immediately during low impedance course inside the regulators.

The LM78LXX series of three terminal positive regulators is available with
several fixed output voltages making them useful in a wide range of
applications.When used as a zener diode/resistor combination replacement, the
LM78LXX usually results in an effective output impedance improvement of two
orders of magnitude, and lower quiescent current. These regulators can provide
local on card regulation, eliminating the distribution problems associated with
single point regulation.The voltages available allow the LM78LXX to be used in
logic systems, instrumentation, HiFi, and other solid state electronic equipment.
The LM78LXX is available in the plastic TO-92 (Z) package, the plastic SO-8 (M)
package and a chip sized package (8-Bump micro SMD) using Nationals micro
SMD package technology.With adequate heat sinking the regulator can deliver 100

Ma output current. Current limiting is included to limit the peak output current to a
safe value. Safe area protection for the output transistors is provided to limit
internal power dissipation. If internal power dissipation becomes too high for the
heat sinking provided, the thermal shutdown circuit takes over preventing the IC
from overheating.

Circuit Diagram:

LM78L05 Electrical Characteristics

Limits in standard typeface are for TJ = 25C, Bold typeface applies over
0C to 125C for SO-8 package and 40C to 85C for micro SMD package.
Limits are guaranteed by production testing or correlation techniques using
standard Statistical Quality Control (SQC) methods.Unless otherwise specified:
IO= 40 mA, CI = 0.33 F, CO = 0.1 F.

Air Conditioner Wiring The figure 3.7.1 show how the connection of the air
conditioner is done.Firstly, this is how and where the wiring of the air conditioner
is done. It should be tested using the multi meter. The purpose of testing with the
multi meter is to identify which wires need to be bypassed at the switch.There are
two main devices that will be turned on during the switch-on air conditioner
operation. So the wiring needs to be connected in pairs to two single relays in the
RCCS. It needs two different relays because it will turn on two different devices
which the pair of wiring should not be connected together. The two devices are the
air conditioner fan and the compressor of the air conditioner. Both relays will
energize during the operation of turning on the air conditioner. At the same time it
will turn on the air conditioner. It will allow current to flow through and the air
conditioner will be turned on. Figure 7.3.1 shows how the complete connection of
the air conditioner. With this connection one channel is complete and ready to
Features of LM78L05:
i. LM78L05 in micro SMD package Output voltage tolerances of 5% over
the temperature range
ii. Output current of 100 Ma
iii. Internal thermal overload protection
iv. Output transistor safe area protection
v. Internal short circuit current limit
vi. Available in plastic TO-92 and plastic SO-8 low profile packages
vii. No external components

viii. Output voltages of 5.0V, 6.2V, 8.2V, 9.0V, 12V, 15V

A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers energy by inductive
coupling between its winding circuits. A varying current in the primary winding
creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying
magnetic flux through the secondary winding. This varying magnetic flux induces
a varying electromotive force (emf) or voltage in the secondary winding.
Transformers range in size from thumbnail-sized units hidden inside
microphones to units weighing hundreds of tons interconnecting the power grid. A
wide range of transformer designs are used in electronic and electric power
applications. Transformers are essential for the transmission, distribution, and
utilization of electrical energy.

The transformer is based on two principles: first, that an electric current can
produce a magnetic field and second that a changing magnetic field within a coil of
wire induces a voltage across the ends of the coil (electromagnetic induction).
Changing the current in the primary coil changes the magnetic flux that is
developed. The changing magnetic flux induces a voltage in the secondary coil.
Referring to the basic transformer in the figure below, current passing
through the primary coil creates a magnetic field. The primary and secondary coils
are wrapped around a core of very high magnetic permeability, such as iron, so that
most of the magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils.
If a load is connected to the secondary winding, the load current and voltage
will be in the directions indicated, given the primary current and voltage in the
directions indicated (each will be AC in practice).
The ideal transformer model assumes that all flux generated by the primary
winding links all the turns of every winding, including itself. In practice, some flux
traverses paths that take it outside the windings. [46] Such flux is termed leakage
flux, and results in leakage inductance in series with the mutually coupled
transformer windings. Leakage flux results in energy being alternately stored in
and discharged from the magnetic fields with each cycle of the power supply. It is
not directly a power loss (see Stray losses below), but results in inferior voltage
regulation, causing the secondary voltage to not be directly proportional to the
primary voltage, particularly under heavy load.

Transformers are therefore normally designed to have very low leakage

inductance. Nevertheless, it is impossible to eliminate all leakage flux because it
plays an essential part in the operation of the transformer. The combined effect of
the leakage flux and the electric field around the windings is what transfers energy
from the primary to the secondary.
In some applications increased leakage is desired, and long magnetic paths,
air gaps, or magnetic bypass shunts may deliberately be introduced in a
transformer design to limit the short-circuit current it will supply. Leaky
transformers may be used to supply loads that exhibit negative resistance, such as
electric arcs, mercury vapor lamps, and neon signs or for safely handling loads that
become periodically short-circuited such as electric arc welders.
Air gaps are also used to keep a transformer from saturating, especially
audio-frequency transformers in circuits that have a DC component flowing
through the windings.

Knowledge of leakage inductance is for example useful when transformers

are operated in parallel. It can be shown that if the percent impedance (Z) and
associated winding leakage reactance-to-resistance (X/R) ratio of two transformers
were hypothetically exactly the same, the transformers would share power in
proportion to their respective volt-ampere ratings (e.g. 500 kVA unit in parallel
with 1,000 kVA unit, the larger unit would carry twice the current). However, the
impedance tolerances of commercial transformers are significant.
Cicuit Diagram:

The ideal condition assumptions are:

The windings of the transformer have negligible resistance thus there is no
copper loss in the winding, no voltage drop
Flux is confined within the core. Therefore, it is the same flux that links both
the windings
Permeability of the core is infinitely high which implies that a very small
mmf (current) is required to set up the flux

The core does not incur any hysteresis or eddy current loss. Hence, no core
Consider the ideal, lossless, perfectly-coupled transformer shown in the circuit
diagram at right having primary and secondary windings with NP and NS turns,
Energy losses:
An ideal transformer would have no energy losses, and would be 100% efficient.
In practical transformers, energy is dissipated in the windings, core, and
surrounding structures. Larger transformers are generally more efficient, and those
rated for electricity distribution usually perform better than 98%.
Transformer losses arise from:
Winding joule losses
Current flowing through winding conductors causes joule heating. As
frequency increases, skin effect and proximity effect causes winding
resistance and, hence, losses to increase.
Core losses
1. Hysteresis losses
Each time the magnetic field is reversed, a small amount of energy is lost
due to hysteresis within the core. According to Steinmetz's formula, the heat
energy due to hysteresis is given by
, and,
hysteresis loss is thus given by

where, f is the frequency, is the hysteresis coefficient and max is the

maximum flux density, the empirical exponent of which varies from about
1.4 to 1 .8 but is often given as 1.6 for iron.
2. Eddy current losses
Ferromagnetic materials are also good conductors and a core made from
such a material also constitutes a single short-circuited turn throughout its
entire length. Eddy currents therefore circulate within the core in a plane
normal to the flux, and are responsible for resistive heating of the core
material. The eddy current loss is a complex function of the square of supply
frequency and inverse square of the material thickness. [31] Eddy current
losses can be reduced by making the core of a stack of plates electrically
insulated from each other, rather than a solid block; all transformers
operating at low frequencies use laminated or similar cores.
3. Stray losses
Leakage inductance is by itself largely lossless, since energy supplied to its
magnetic fields is returned to the supply with the next half-cycle. However,
any leakage flux that intercepts nearby conductive materials such as the
transformer's support structure will give rise to eddy currents and be
converted to heat. There are also radiative losses due to the oscillating
magnetic field but these are usually small.
4. Mechanical vibration and audible noise transmission
In addition to magnetostriction, the alternating magnetic field causes
fluctuating forces between the primary and secondary windings. This energy

incites vibration transmission in interconnected metalwork, thus amplifying

audible transformer hum.
Core form and shell form transformers:

Closed-core transformers are constructed in 'core form' or 'shell form'. When

windings surround the core, the transformer is core form; when windings are
surrounded by the core, the transformer is shell form. Shell form design may be
more prevalent than core form design for distribution transformer applications due
to the relative ease in stacking the core around winding coils. Core form design
tends to, as a general rule, be more economical, and therefore more prevalent, than
shell form design for high voltage power transformer applications at the lower end
of their voltage and power rating ranges (less than or equal to, nominally, 230 kV
or 75 MVA). At higher voltage and power ratings, shell form transformers tend to
be more prevalent. Shell form design tends to be preferred for extra high voltage
and higher MVA applications because, though more labor intensive to manufacture,
shell form transformers are characterized as having inherently better kVA-toweight ratio, better short-circuit strength characteristics and higher immunity to
transit damage.

1. Autotransformer: Transformer in which part of the winding is common to
both primary and secondary circuits.
2. Capacitor voltage transformer: Transformer in which capacitor divider is
used to reduce high voltage before application to the primary winding.
3. Distribution transformer, power transformer: International standards
make a distinction in terms of distribution transformers being used to
distribute energy from transmission lines and networks for local
consumption and power transformers being used to transfer electric
energy between the generator and distribution primary circuits.
4. Phase angle regulating transformer: A specialised transformer used to
control the flow of real power on three-phase electricity transmission
5. Scott-T transformer: Transformer used for phase transformation from
three-phase to two-phase and vice versa.
6. Polyphase transformer: Any transformer with more than one phase.
7. Grounding transformer: Transformer used for grounding three-phase
circuits to create a neutral in a three wire system, using a wye-delta
transformer, or more commonly, a zigzag grounding winding.
8. Leakage transformer: Transformer that has loosely coupled windings.
9. Resonant transformer: Transformer that uses resonance to generate a
high secondary voltage.
10.Audio transformer: Transformer used in audio equipment.
11.Output transformer: Transformer used to match the output of a valve
amplifier to its load.
12.Instrument transformer: Potential or current transformer used to
accurately and safely represent voltage, current or phase position of high
voltage or high power circuits.

Diode is a rectifying device which conducts only from anode to cathode.
Diode behaves open circuited for the current flow from cathode to anode. 1N4001
is a 1A diode with low forward voltage drop and high surge current capability. It
comprises of diffused PN junction and has low reverse leakage current of 5A. Its
DC blocking voltage is 50V.
The cathode (n) is identified by a bar on diode case. The other terminal is the
anode (p).

Pin Diagram:

A diode allows electricity to flow in one direction only and blocks the flow
in the opposite direction. They may be regarded as one-way valves and they are

used in various circuits, usually as a form of protection. There are different types of
diode but their basic functions are the same. These are noted below along with
examples of diodes in use.
The most common type of diode is a silicon diode. It is enclosed in a glass
cylinder with the dark band marking the cathode terminal. This line points towards
the positive of a circuit. The opposite terminal is called the anode.
Generally, diodes do not conduct until the voltage reaches approximately .6 volts,
this is called the threshold point. If the current becomes too high the diode may
crack or melt.
Normally a current does not flow through a diode in the reverse direction. The
Zener Diode is specifically designed to begin conducting in the opposite direction
when the reverse voltage reaches a voltage threshold. Zener diodes are sometimes
used as a voltage sensitive switch.

An encoder is a device, circuit, transducer, software program, algorithm or
person that converts information from one format or code to another, for the
purposes of standardization, speed, secrecy, security or compressions.
A decoder is a device which does the reverse operation of an encoder, undoing the
encoding so that the original information can be retrieved. The same method used
to encode is usually just reversed in order to decode. It is a combinational circuit
that converts binary information from n input lines to a maximum of 2 n unique
output lines.

A 2-to-4 line single-bit decoder

In digital electronics, a decoder can take the form of a multiple-input, multipleoutput logic circuit that converts coded inputs into coded outputs, where the input
and output codes are different. e.g. n-to-2 n, binary-coded decimal decoders. Enable
inputs must be on for the decoder to function, otherwise its outputs assume a single
"disabled" output code word. Decoding is necessary in applications such as
data multiplexing, 7 segment display and memory address decoding.
The example decoder circuit would be an AND gate because the output of an AND
gate is "High" (1) only when all its inputs are "High." Such output is called as
"active High output". If instead of AND gate, the NAND gate is connected the
output will be "Low" (0) only when all its inputs are "High". Such output is called
as "active low output". A slightly more complex decoder would be the n-to2n type binary decoders. These type of decoders are combinational circuits that
convert binary information from 'n' coded inputs to a maximum of 2 n unique
outputs. We say a maximum of 2n outputs because in case the 'n' bit coded
information has unused bit combinations, the decoder may have less than
2n outputs. We can have 2-to-4 decoder, 3-to-8 decoder or 4-to-16 decoder. We can
form a 3-to-8 decoder from two 2-to-4 decoders (with enable signals).
Similarly, we can also form a 4-to-16 decoder by combining two 3-to-8 decoders.
In this type of circuit design, the enable inputs of both 3-to-8 decoders originate
from a 4th input, which acts as a selector between the two 3-to-8 decoders. This

allows the 4th input to enable either the top or bottom decoder, which produces
outputs of D(0) through D(7) for the first decoder, and D(8) through D(15) for the
second decoder.
A decoder that contains enable inputs is also known as a decoder-demultiplexer.
Thus, we have a 4-to-16 decoder produced by adding a 4th input shared among
both decoders, producing 16 outputs.

Encoders and decoders are essentially the opposites of each other. An encoder is a
device or entity that will encode information in a particular way; compressing,
converting or securing it into a different format. A decoder is the device or entity
that will remove the information from its previously encoded state and return it to

original format.

Encoding is a popular way of securing data and information; changing

theformat so that it can only be read by someone with the appropriate decoding
equipment or software. The encoding process essentially scrambles all the pieces
of the data up and they are then put back together at the other end by the decoder.


Multiplexing is defined as the process of feeding several independent signals to a
common load, one at a time. The device or switching circuitry used to select and
connect one of these several signals to the load at any one time is known as
a multiplexer.
The reverse function of multiplexing, known as demultiplexing, pertains to the
process of feeding several independent loads with signals coming from a common
signal source, one at a time. A device used for demultiplexing is known as








of common circuits to feed a common load with signals from several signal
sources, and to feed several loads from a single, common signal source,
In digital circuits, the term 'multiplexing' is also sometimes used to refer to the
process of encoding, which is basically the generation of a digital code to indicate
which of several input lines is active. An encoder or multiplexer is therefore a
digital IC that outputs a digital code based on which of its several digital inputs is

On the other hand, the term 'demultiplexing' in digital electronics is also used to
refer to 'decoding', which is the process of activating one of several mutuallyexclusive output lines, based on the digital code present at the binary-weighted
inputs of the decoding circuit, or decoder. A decoder or demultiplexer is therefore
a digital IC that accepts a digital code consisting of two or more bits at its inputs,
and activates or enables one of its several digital output lines depending on the
value of the code.
Multiplexing and demultiplexing are used in digital electronics to allow several
chips to share common signal buses. In demultiplexers, for instance, the output
lines may be used to enable memory chips that share a common data bus, ensuring
that only one memory chip is enabled at a time in order to prevent data clashes
between the chips.
If a demultiplexer or decoder has 2N output lines, then it has N input lines. A
common example of a decoder/demultiplexer IC is the 74LS138, which is a LowPower Schottky TTL device that has 3 input lines and 8 output lines. Of course, a
decoder IC such as the 74LS138 also has chip control lines that need to be
'enabled' for the decoding function to take place.
In the case of the 74LS138, these control lines consist of one active high control
line (G1, pin 6) and two active-low control lines (G2A, pin 4 and G2B, pin 5).
Thus, the 74LS138 will only be in its 'decoding' mode if G1 is at logic '1' and G2A
and G2B are at logic '0'. The 74LS138, whose generic product name is '3-to-8 Line
Decoder/Multiplexer', obeys the truth table shown in Table 1. The outputs of the
74LS138 are 'active-low', i.e., the enabled output goes to logic '0' while all the
other outputs are at logic '1'.

In the case of the 74LS138, these control lines consist of one active high control
line (G1, pin 6) and two active-low control lines (G2A, pin 4 and G2B, pin 5).
Thus, the 74LS138 will only be in its 'decoding' mode if G1 is at logic '1' and G2A
and G2B are at logic '0'. The 74LS138, whose generic product name is '3-to-8 Line
Decoder/Multiplexer', obeys the truth table shown in Table 1. The outputs of the
74LS138 are 'active-low', i.e., the enabled output goes to logic '0' while all the
other outputs are at logic '1'.
Table 1. Truth Table for the 74LS138, a 3-to-8 Line Decoder
G1 G2a G2b A2 A1 A0 Y0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6 Y7
0 X X X X X 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

If a multiplexer or encoder has N output lines, then it has 2N input lines. A

common example of a decoder/demultiplexer IC is the 74LS148, which is a LowPower Schottky TTL device that has 8 input lines and 3 output lines. The
74LS148 is a priority encoder, which means that if more than one of its inputs are
active, then the active input line with the highest binary weight will be given

priority, and the output of the encoder will depend on this prioritized input. Table 2
shows the truth table for the 74LS148. Note that E0 and GS are output pins while
E1 is a control pin (input).
Table 2. Truth Table for the 74LS148, an 8-to-3 Line Priority Encoder
E1 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 A2 A1 A0 E0 GS
1 X X X X X X X X 1 1 1 1 1

X X X X X X X 0

X X X X X X 0

X X X X X 0

X X X X 0

X X X 1

X X 1

X 1

Light-Emitting Diode (LED):

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor device that emits visible
light when an electric current passes through it. The light is not particularly bright,
but in most LEDs it is monochromatic, occurring at a single wavelength. The
output from an LED can range from red (at a wavelength of approximately 700
nanometers) to blue-violet (about 400 nanometers). Some LEDs emit infrared (IR)
energy (830 nanometers or longer); such a device is known as an infrared-emitting
diode (IRED).


LED Discription:

An LED or IRED consists of two elements of processed material called Ptype semiconductors and N-type semiconductors. These two elements are placed in
direct contact, forming a region called the P-N junction. In this respect, the LED or
IRED resembles most other diode types, but there are important differences. The
LED or IRED has a transparent package, allowing visible or IR energy to pass
through. Also, the LED or IRED has a large PN-junction area whose shape is
tailored to the application.

Benefits of LEDs and IREDs, compared with incandescent and fluorescent

illuminating devices, include:
Low power requirement: Most types can be operated with battery power
High efficiency: Most of the power supplied to an LED or IRED is
converted into radiation in the desired form, with minimal heat production.
Long life: When properly installed, an LED or IRED can function for
Typical applications include:
Indicator lights: These can be two-state (i.e., on/off), bar-graph, or
alphabetic-numeric readouts.
LCD panel backlighting: Specialized white LEDs are used in flat-panel
computer displays.
Fiber optic data transmission: Ease of modulation allows wide
communications bandwidth with minimal noise, resulting in high speed and
Remote control: Most home-entertainment "remotes" use IREDs to transmit
data to the main unit.
Optoisolator: Stages in an electronic system can be connected together
without unwanted interaction.

A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet
to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are
also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power
signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits),
or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were
used in long distance telegraph circuits, repeating the signal coming in from one
circuit and re-transmitting it to another. Relays were used extensively in telephone
exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations.
A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an
electric motor or other loads is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control power
circuits with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform
switching. Relays with calibrated operating characteristics and sometimes multiple
operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or faults; in
modern electric power systems these functions are performed by digital
instruments still called "protective relays".

Basic Design and Operation:

A simple electromagnetic relay consists of a coil of wire wrapped around a

soft iron core, an iron yoke which provides a low reluctance path for magnetic
flux, a movable iron armature, and one or more sets of contacts (there are two in
the relay pictured). The armature is hinged to the yoke and mechanically linked to
one or more sets of moving contacts.

It is held in place by a spring so that when the relay is de-energized there is

an air gap in the magnetic circuit. In this condition, one of the two sets of contacts
in the relay pictured is closed, and the other set is open. Other relays may have
more or fewer sets of contacts depending on their function. The relay in the picture
also has a wire connecting the armature to the yoke. This ensures continuity of the
circuit between the moving contacts on the armature, and the circuit track on the
printed circuit board (PCB) via the yoke, which is soldered to the PCB.

When an electric current is passed through the coil it generates a magnetic

field that activates the armature, and the consequent movement of the movable
contact(s) either makes or breaks (depending upon construction) a connection with
a fixed contact. If the set of contacts was closed when the relay was de-energized,

then the movement opens the contacts and breaks the connection, and vice versa if
the contacts were open. When the current to the coil is switched off, the armature is
returned by a force, approximately half as strong as the magnetic force, to its
relaxed position. Usually this force is provided by a spring, but gravity is also used
commonly in industrial motor starters. Most relays are manufactured to operate
quickly. In a low-voltage application this reduces noise; in a high voltage or
current application it reduces arcing.
When the coil is energized with direct current, a diode is often placed across
the coil to dissipate the energy from the collapsing magnetic field at deactivation,
which would otherwise generate a voltage spike dangerous to semiconductor
circuit components. Some automotive relays include a diode inside the relay case.

Alternatively, a contact protection network consisting of a capacitor and

resistor in series (snubber circuit) may absorb the surge. If the coil is designed to
be energized with alternating current (AC), a small copper "shading ring" can be
crimped to the end of the solenoid, creating a small out-of-phase current which
increases the minimum pull on the armature during the AC cycle.[1]
A solid-state relay uses a thyristor or other solid-state switching device,
activated by the control signal, to switch the controlled load, instead of a solenoid.
An optocoupler (a light-emitting diode (LED) coupled with a photo transistor) can
be used to isolate control and controlled circuits.
Types of Relay:

Latching relay
Read relay
Mercury-wetted relay
Mercury relay
Polarized relay
Machine tool relay

Ratchet relay

Coaxial relay
Solid state relay
Solid state contactor relay
Overload protection relay
Vacuum relay

Pole and Throw:

Since relays are switches, the terminology applied to switches is also applied to
relays; a relay switches one or more poles, each of whose contacts can be thrown
by energizing the coil in one of three ways:
Normally-open (NO) contacts connect the circuit when the relay is
activated; the circuit is disconnected when the relay is inactive. It is also
called a Form A contact or "make" contact. NO contacts may also be

distinguished as "early-make" or NOEM, which means that the contacts

close before the button or switch is fully engaged.
Normally-closed (NC) contacts disconnect the circuit when the relay is
activated; the circuit is connected when the relay is inactive. It is also called
a Form B contact or "break" contact. NC contacts may also be distinguished
as "late-break" or NCLB, which means that the contacts stay closed until the
button or switch is fully disengaged.
Change-over (CO), or double-throw (DT), contacts control two circuits: one
normally-open contact and one normally-closed contact with a common
terminal. It is also called a Form C contact or "transfer" contact ("break
before make"). If this type of contact utilizes a "make before break"
functionality, then it is called a Form D contact.
The following designations are commonly encountered:
SPST Single Pole Single Throw. These have two terminals which can be
connected or disconnected. Including two for the coil, such a relay has four
terminals in total. It is ambiguous whether the pole is normally open or
normally closed. The terminology "SPNO" and "SPNC" is sometimes used
to resolve the ambiguity.
SPDT Single Pole Double Throw. A common terminal connects to either
of two others. Including two for the coil, such a relay has five terminals in
DPST Double Pole Single Throw. These have two pairs of terminals.
Equivalent to two SPST switches or relays actuated by a single coil.

Including two for the coil, such a relay has six terminals in total. The poles
may be Form A or Form B (or one of each).
DPDT Double Pole Double Throw. These have two rows of change-over
terminals. Equivalent to two SPDT switches or relays actuated by a single
coil. Such a relay has eight terminals, including the coil.

Relays are used for:
Amplifying a digital signal, switching a large amount of power with a small
operating power. Some special cases are:
o A telegraph relay, repeating a weak signal received at the end of a
long wire

o Controlling a high-voltage circuit with a low-voltage signal, as in

some types of modems or audio amplifiers,
o Controlling a high-current circuit with a low-current signal, as in the
starter solenoid of an automobile.
Detecting and isolating faults on transmission and distribution lines by
opening and closing circuit breakers (protection relays),Switching to a
standby power supply.

RF Transmitter:
A radio transmitter is an electronic device which, when connected to
an antenna,


an electromagnetic signal such


in radio and

television broadcasting, two way communications or radar. Heating devices, such

as a microwave oven, although of similar design, are not usually called
transmitters, in that they use the electromagnetic energy locally rather than
transmitting it to another location. A radio transmitter design has to meet certain
requirements. These include the frequency of operation, the type of modulation, the
stability and purity of the resulting signal, the efficiency of power use, and the
power level required to meet the system design objectives.[1] High-power
transmitters may have additional constraints with respect to radiation safety,
generation of X-rays, and protection from high voltages.
Typically a transmitter design includes generation of a carrier signal, which
is normally sinusoidal, optionally one or more frequency multiplication stages, a
modulator, a power amplifier, and a filter and matching network to connect to an
antenna. A very simple transmitter might contain only a continuously running
oscillator coupled to some antenna system. More elaborate transmitters allow
better control over the modulation of the emitted signal and improve the stability of
the transmitted frequency. For example the Master Oscillator-Power Amplifier
(MOPA) configuration inserts an amplifier stage between the oscillator and the
antenna. This prevents changes in the loading presented by the antenna from
altering the frequency of the oscillator.

Mode of Frequency:
Fixed frequency systems:
For a fixed frequency transmitter one commonly used method is to use
a resonant quartz crystal in a Crystal oscillator to fix the frequency. Where the
frequency has to be variable, several options can be used.
Variable frequency systems:

An array of crystals used to enable a transmitter to be used on several

different frequencies; rather than being a truly variable frequency system, it is a
system which is fixed to several different frequencies (a subset of the above).

Variable-frequency oscillator (VFO)

Phase-locked loop frequency synthesizer

Direct digital synthesis

Frequency multiplication:


doubler Frequency


A push-push frequency doubler. The A push-pull frequency tripler The output

output is tuned to two times the input is tuned to three times the input


While modern frequency synthesizers can output a clean stable signal up through
UHF, for many years, especially at higher frequencies, it was not practical to

operate the oscillator at the final output frequency. For better frequency stability, it
was common to multiply the frequency of the oscillator up to the final, required
frequency. This was accommodated by allocating the short wave amateur and
marine bands in harmonically related frequencies such as 3.5, 7, 14 and 28 MHz.
Thus one crystal or VFO could cover several bands. In simple equipment this
approach is still used occasionally.
If the output of an amplifier stage is simply tuned to a multiple of the frequency
with which the stage is driven, the stage will give a large harmonic output. Many
transmitters have used this simple approach successfully. However these more
complex circuits will do a better job. In a push-push stage, the output will only
contain even harmonics. This is because the currents which would generate the
fundamental and the odd harmonics in this circuit are canceled by the second
device. In a push-pull stage, the output will contain only odd harmonics because of
the canceling effect.
The task of a transmitter is to convey some form of information using a radio
signal (carrier wave) which has been modulated to carry the intelligence. The RF
generator in a microwave oven, electro surgery, and induction heating are similar
in design to transmitters, but usually not considered as such in that they do not
intentionally produce a signal that will travel to a distant point. Such RF devices
are required by law to operate in an ISM band where interference to radio
communications will not occur. Where communications is the object, one or more
of the following methods of incorporating the desired signal into the radio wave is

AM modes:
When the amplitude of a radio frequency wave is varied in amplitude in a manner
which follows the modulating signal, usually voice, video or data, we
have Amplitude modulation (AM).
Low level and high level:
In low level modulation a small audio stage is used to modulate a low power stage.
The output of this stage is then amplified using a linear RF amplifier. The great
disadvantage of this system is that the amplifier chain is less efficient, because it
has to be linear to preserve the modulation. Hence high efficiency class C
amplifiers cannot be employed, unless a Doherty amplifier, EER (Envelope
Elimination and Restoration) or other methods of predistortion or negative
feedback are used. High level modulation uses class C amplifiers in a broadcast
AM transmitter and only the final stage or final two stages are modulated, and all
the earlier stages can be driven at a constant level. When modulation is applied to
the plate of the final tube, a large audio amplifier is needed for the modulation
stage, equal to 1/2 of the DC input power of the modulated stage. Traditionally the
modulation is applied using a large audio transformer. However many different
circuits have been used for high level AM modulation. See Amplitude Modulation.
Types of AM modulators:
A wide range of different circuits have been used for AM. While it is perfectly
possible to create good designs using solid-state electronics, valved (tube) circuits
are shown here. In general, valves are able to easily yield RF powers far in excess
of what can be achieved using solid state. Most high-power broadcast stations

below 3 MHz use solid state circuits, but higher power stations above 3 MHz still
use valves.
Plate AM modulators:

Anode modulation using a transformer. The valve anode sees the vector sum of
anode volts and audio voltage.

A series modulated stage. In modern transmitters the series regulator will

use PWM switching for high efficiency. Historically the series regulator would
have been a tube in analog mode.
High level plate modulation consists of varying the voltage on the plate (anode) of
the valve so that it swings from nearly zero to double the resting value. This will
produce 100% modulation and can be done by inserting a transformer in series
with the high voltage supply to the anode so that the vector sum of the two sources,

(DC and audio) will be applied. A disadvantage is the size, weight and cost of the
transformer as well as its limited audio frequency response, especially for very
powerful transmitters.
Alternatively a series regulator can be inserted between the DC supply and the
anode. The DC supply provides twice the normal voltage the anode sees. The
regulator can allow none or all of the voltage to pass, or any intermediate value.
The audio input operates the regulator in such a way as to produce the
instantaneous anode voltage needed to reproduce the modulation envelope. An
advantage of the series regulator is that it can set the anode voltage to any desired
value. Thus the power output of the transmitter can be easily adjusted, allowing the
use of Dynamic Carrier Control. The use of PDM switching regulators makes this
system very efficient, whereas the original analog regulators were very inefficient
and also non linear. Series PDM modulators are used in solid state transmitters
also, but the circuits are somewhat more complex, using push pull or bridge
circuits for the RF section.
These simplified diagrams omit such details as filament, screen and grid bias
supplies, and the screen and cathode connections to RF ground.
Screen AM modulators:

Screen AM modulator. Grid bias not shown

Under carrier conditions (no audio) the stage will be a simple RF amplifier where
the screen voltage is set lower than normal to limit the RF output to about 25% of
full power. When the stage is modulated the screen potential changes and so alters
the gain of the stage. It takes much less audio power to modulate the screen, but
final stage efficiency is only about 40%, compared to 80% with plate modulation.
For this reason screen modulation was used only in low power transmitters and is
now effectively obsolete.
AM related modes:
Single-sideband modulation:
SSB, or SSB-AM single-sideband full carrier modulation, is very similar to singlesideband suppressed carrier modulation (SSB-SC)It is used where it is necessary to
receive the audio on an AM receiver, while using less bandwidth than with double
sideband AM. Due to high distortion, it is seldom used. Either SSB-AM or SSBSC are produced by the following methods.
Filter method:
Using a balanced mixer a double side band signal is generated, this is then passed
through a very narrow bandpass filter to leave only one side-band. [5] By convention
it is normal to use the upper sideband (USB) in communication systems, except for
amateur radio when the carrier frequency is below 10 MHz. There the lower side
band (LSB) is normally used.

Phasing method:

Phasing method of SSB generation

The phasing method for the generation of single sideband signals uses a network
which imposes a constant 90 phase shift on audio signals over the audio range of
interest. This was difficult with analog methods but with DSP is very simple.
These audio outputs are each mixed in a linear balanced mixer with a carrier. The
carrier drive for one of these mixers is also shifted by 90. The outputs of these
mixers are added in a linear circuit to give the SSB signal by phase cancellation of
one of the sidebands. Connecting the 90 delayed signal from either the audio or
the carrier (but not both) to the other mixer will reverse the sideband, so either
USB or LSB is available with a simple DPDT switch.
Vestigial-sideband modulation:
Vestigial-sideband modulation (VSB, or VSB-AM) is a type of modulation system
commonly used in analogue TV systems. It is normal AM which has been passed
through a filter which reduces one of the sidebands. Typically, components of the
lower sideband more than 0.75 MHz or 1.25 MHz below the carrier will be heavily

Morse code is usually sent using on-off keying of an unmodulated carrier
(Continuous wave). No special modulator is required.
This interrupted carrier may be analyzed as an AM-modulated carrier. On-off
keying produces sidebands, as expected, but they are referred to as "key-clicks".
Shaping circuits are used to turn the transmitter on and off smoothly instead of
instantly in order to limit the bandwidth of these sidebands and reduce interference
to adjacent channels.
FM modes:
Angle modulation is the proper term for modulation by changing the instantaneous
frequency or phase of the carrier signal. True FM and phase modulation are the
most commonly employed forms of analogue angle modulation.
Direct FM:
Direct FM (true Frequency modulation) is where the frequency of an oscillator is
altered to impose the modulation upon the carrier wave. This can be done by using
a voltage-controlled capacitor (Varicap diode) in a crystal-controlled oscillator
or frequency synthesiser. The frequency of the oscillator is then multiplied up
using a frequency multiplier stage, or is translated upwards using a mixing stage, to
the output frequency of the transmitter. The amount of modulation is referred to as
the deviation, being the amount that the frequency of the carrier instantaneously
deviates from the centre carrier frequency.

Indirect FM:

Indirect FM solid state circuit.

Indirect FM employs a varicap diode to impose a phase shift (which is voltagecontrolled) in a tuned circuit that is fed with a plain carrier. This is termedphase
modulation. In some indirect FM solid state circuits, an RF drive is applied to the
base of a transistor. The tank circuit (LC), connected to the collector via a
capacitor, contains a pair of varicap diodes. As the voltage applied to the varicaps
is changed, the phase shift of the output will change.
Phase modulation is mathematically equivalent to direct Frequency modulation
with a 6dB/octave high-pass filter applied to the modulating signal. This high-pass
effect can be exploited or compensated for using suitable frequency-shaping
circuitry in the audio stages ahead of the modulator. For example, many FM
systems will employ pre-emphasis and de-emphasis for noise reduction, in which
case the high-pass equivalency of phase modulation automatically provides for the
pre-emphasis. Phase modulators are typically only capable of relatively small
amounts of deviation while remaining linear, but any frequency multiplier stages
also multiply the deviation in proportion.

Digital modes:
Transmission of digital data is becoming more and more important. Digital
information can be transmitted by AM and FM modulation, but often digital
modulation consists of complex forms of modulation using aspects of both AM and
FM. COFDM is used for DRM broadcasts. The transmitted signal consists of
multiple carriers each modulated in both amplitude and phase. This allows very
high bit rates and makes very efficient use of bandwidth. Digital or pulse methods
also are used to transmit voice as in cell phones, or video as in terrestrial TV
broadcasting. Early text messaging such as RTTY allowed the use of class C
amplifiers, but modern digital modes require linear amplification.

RF module (radio frequency module) is a (usually) small electronic device used
to transmit and/or receive radio signals between two devices. In an embedded
system it is often desirable to communicate with another device wirelessly. This
wireless communication may be accomplished through optical communication or
through radio frequency (RF) communication. For many applications the medium
of choice is RF since it does not require line of sight. RF communications
incorporate a transmitter and/or receiver.
RF modules are widely used in electronic design owing to the difficulty of
designing radio circuitry. Good electronic radio design is notoriously complex
because of the sensitivity of radio circuits and the accuracy of components and
layouts required to achieve operation on a specific frequency. In addition, reliable
RF communication circuit requires careful monitoring of the manufacturing

process to ensure that the RF performance is not adversely affected. Finally, radio










require Conformance testing and certification by a standardization organization

such as ETSI or the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC). For these
reasons, design engineers will often design a circuit for an application which
requires radio communication and then "drop in" a pre-made radio module rather
than attempt a discrete design, saving time and money on development.
RF modules are most often used in medium and low volume products for









systems, industrial remote controls, smart sensor applications, and wireless home








older infra

red communication designs as they have the advantage of not requiring line-ofsight operation.
Several carrier frequencies are commonly used in commercially-available
RF modules, including those in the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio
bands such as 433.92 MHz, 915 MHz, and 2400 MHz. These frequencies are used
because of national and international regulations governing the used of radio for
communication. Short Range Devices may also use frequencies available for
unlicensed such as 315 MHz and 868 MHz.
The RF module, as the name suggests, operates at Radio Frequency. The
corresponding frequency range varies between 30 kHz & 300 GHz. In this RF
system, the digital data is represented as variations in the amplitude of carrier
wave. This kind of modulation is known as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK).

Transmission through RF is better than IR (infrared) because of many reasons.

Firstly, signals through RF can travel through larger distances making it suitable
for long range applications. Also, while IR mostly operates in line-of-sight mode,
RF signals can travel even when there is an obstruction between transmitter &
receiver. Next, RF transmission is more strong and reliable than IR transmission.
RF communication uses a specific frequency unlike IR signals which are affected
by other IR emitting sources.
This RF module comprises of an RF Transmitter and an RF Receiver. The
transmitter/receiver (Tx/Rx) pair operates at a frequency of434 MHz. An RF
transmitter receives serial data and transmits it wirelessly through RF through its
antenna connected at pin4. The transmission occurs at the rate of 1Kbps 10Kbps.The transmitted data is received by an RF receiver operating at the same
frequency as that of the transmitter.
The RF module is often used along with a pair of encoder/decoder. The
encoder is used for encoding parallel data for transmission feed while reception is
decoded by a decoder. HT12E-HT12D, HT640-HT648, etc. are some commonly
used encoder/decoder pair ICs.

Pin Diagram:

A wireless radio frequency (RF) transmitter and receiver can be easily made
using HT12D Decoder, HT12E Encoder






transmission can be done by using 433Mhz or 315MHz ASK RF Transmitter and

Receiver modules. In these modules digital data is represented by different
amplitudes of the carrier wave, hence this modulation is known as Amplitude Shift
Keying (ASK). Radio Frequency (RF) transmission is more strong and reliable
than Infrared (IR) transmission due to following reasons :

Radio Frequency signals can travel longer distances than Infrared.

Only line of sight communication is possible through Infrared while radio
frequency signals can be transmitted even when there is obstacles.
Infrared signals will get interfeared by other IR sources but signals on one
frequency band in RF will not interfeared by other frequency RF signals.
Transmitter Circuit Diagram

ASK RF Transmitter
HT12E Encoder IC will convert the 4 bit parallel data given to pins D0 D3 to
serial data and will be available at DOUT. This output serial data is given to ASK
RF Transmitter. Address inputs A0 A7 can be used to provide data security
and can be connected to GND (Logic ZERO) or left open (Logic ONE). Status of
these Address pins should match with status of address pins in the receiver for the
transmission of the data. Data will be transmitted only when the Transmit Enable
pin (TE) is LOW. 1.1M resistor will provide the necessary external resistance for
the operation of the internal oscillator of HT12E.
Receiver Circuit Diagram

ASK RF Receiver
ASK RF Receiver receives the data transmitted using ASK RF Transmitter. HT12D
decoder will convert the received serial data to 4 bit parallel data D0 D3. The

status of these address pins A0-A7 should match with status of address pin in the
HT12E at the transmitter for the transmission of data. The LED connected to the
above circuit glows when valid data transmission occurs from transmitter to
receiver. 51K resistor will provide the necessary resistance required for the
internal oscillator of the HT12D.


Input Power supply - 5 Volts

Compatible for Both RF 433/ 315 Mhz

Renesas controller Based

Rdy to Interface upto 8 Bit Data

UART TTL o/p - Baud Rate - 4800

Package Includes with RF Tx Rx

Types of RF module
The term RF module can be applied to many different types, shapes and sizes of
small electronic sub assembly circuit board. It can also be applied to modules
across a huge variation of functionality and capability. RF modules typically
incorporate a printed circuit board, transmit or receive circuit, antenna, and serial
interface for communication to the host processor.
Most standard, well known types are covered here:

Transmitter module

Receiver module

Transceiver module

System on a chip module

Transmitter modules
An RF transmitter module is a small PCB sub-assembly capable of transmitting a
radio wave and modulating that wave to carry data. Transmitter modules are
usually implemented alongside a micro controller which will provide data to the
module which can be transmitted. RF transmitters are usually subject to regulatory
requirements which




output, harmonics, and band edge requirements.

allowable transmitter


Receiver modules
An RF receiver module receives the modulated RF signal, and demodulates it.
There are two types of RF receiver modules: superheterodyne receivers and superregenerative receivers. Super-regenerative modules are usually low cost and low
power designs using a series of amplifiers to extract modulated data from a carrier
wave. Super-regenerative modules are generally imprecise as their frequency of








voltage. Superheterodyne receivers have a performance advantage over superregenerative; they offer increased accuracy and stability over a largevoltage and
temperature range. This stability comes from a fixed crystal design which in turn
leads to a comparatively more expensive product.
Transceiver modules
An RF transceiver module incorporates both a transmitter and receiver. The circuit
is typically designed for half-duplex operation, although full-duplex modules are
available, typically at a higher cost due to the added

typical applications

Vehicle monitoring

Remote control


Small-range wireless network

Wireless meter reading

Access control systems

Wireless home security systems

Area paging

Industrial data acquisition system

Radio tags reading

RF contactless smart cards

Wireless data terminals

Wireless fire protection systems

Biological signal acquisition

Hydrological and meteorological monitoring

Robot remote control

Wireless data transmissions

Digital video/audio transmission

Digital home automation, such as remote light/switch

Industrial remote control, telemetry and remote sensing

Alarm systems and wireless transmission for various types of low-rate

digital signal

Remote control for various types of household appliances and electronics


Many other applications field related to RF wireless controlling

Mobile web server for elderly people monitoring

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