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Services & maintenance of the building

In order to guarantee greatest utilize, escalators should be located where it can be easily seen,
and should be possible to see over a wide area of the floors so as to encourage sales.
There are two types of arrangement proposed to establish in our hyper market, which are double
bank in two travel direction and multi-level parallel arrangement with interrupted traffic in two
travel direction. Parallel used mainly in department stores and public transportation buildings
with heavy traffic flow.

Figure1: Escalators in double bank with interrupted traffic

in two travel direction

Figure 2: Double bank in two travel direction

Figure 2: Multi-level parallel arrangement with

interrupted traffic in two travel direction

Escalators have the advantage of being reversible to suit the main flow of traffic during peak
times and, unlike lifts, they may be used when stationary.
The speeds of the escalators is between 0.5 m/s and 0.6 m/s. Step width is about 1000mm, which
allow two people to stand side by side or to pass on the step.


Travellators also known as moving pavements, provides horizontal movement of pedestrians,

wheelchairs, trolleys and small vehicles up to the practical limitation of about 300m distance.
Normally travellators are slower compared to elevator and escalator. The proposal made up to
place at the ground floor to the first floor (Hypermarket), and first floor to second floor (food
court) of the mall. The main purpose of these travellators is to easier the customers to carry their
stuff with trolley and travel from one floor to another floor.
The speeds of the travellators is 0.8 m/s. The step width is about 1200mm, which allow two
people to stand side by side, or to allow adequate room for customers to pass easily with the

Figure 4: Travellators.

Ventilation and Air Conditioning

Ventilation can be classified into natural or mechanical ventilation. Both natural and mechanical
systems of ventilation are propose to implement in the hyper store.
Natural Ventilation
Natural ventilation relies on wind direction or the stack effect of warm air rising within a
building while cooler air exists outside. It works without the aid of mechanical system, just
depends on the openings and building layout. Unfortunately, natural ventilation cannot ensure a
specified air change.
During our estimation, we found 5 or 6 openings of windows have to provide for get maximum
natural ventilation. These openings will retain oxygen content and remove carbon dioxide. It also
helps to prevent heat concentrations from lighting and people, prevent condensation. At the same

time, it also will be to disperse concentrations of bacteria and disposal of contaminants like
smoke, duct, gases and others.

Mechanical Ventilation
These systems employ an electrically driven fan or fans to provide the necessary air movement.
They have advantage over natural ventilation in providing positive ventilation at all times,
irrespective of outside condition Fans and air-conditioning are use in mechanical ventilation
system to ensure a specified air change in an enclose space.
Proposed hyper store is a large area of building which requires a large amount of cooling load.
Air-conditioning system is used as the cooling strategy for the building to increase sales due to
customers and staff being able to enjoy greater comfort. Due to the requirements, centralized
chilled air system is chosen to serve the entire building.
Lifts (Vertical transportation)
In Building Services, technology and Design, Greeno R. stated that, lifts are considered a
requirement in all buildings over three stores, less if access for the disabled is in the design brief.
During the estimations, we found proposed building need 3 passenger lifts and one life to
transport trolleys according to design specifications. There two types of lifts available in
worldwide, electrical and hydraulic
Based on our research the Hydraulic lifts use the principles of hydraulics to pressurize an above
ground or in-ground piston to raise and lower heavy things. Hydraulic lifts are cheaper but
usually slower, for buildings higher than seven stores electric lifts must be employed instead.
Advantages of hydraulic lift include capacity for very heavy loads, accuracy in floor leveling,
smooth ride characteristics, with the considaration of above matters selected hydraulic lift system
to sreve our hyper store.

Figure 5: Passenger Hydraulic elevators

Figure 6: Goods Hydraulic elevators


Hall, F., 1976, Building Services and Equipment Volume 1, 3rd edition)

Greeno, R., 1997, Building Services, technology and Design