Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 298

Z-MAP Plus

User Guide

Z-MAP Plus User Guide


2003 Landmark Graphics Corporation

Part No. 161332

October 2003

2003 Landmark Graphics Corporation


All Rights Reserved Worldwide
This publication has been provided pursuant to an agreement containing restrictions on its use. The publication is also
protected by Federal copyright law. No part of this publication may be copied or distributed, transmitted, transcribed,
stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any human or computer language, in any form or by any means,
electronic, magnetic, manual, or otherwise, or disclosed to third parties without the express written permission of:
Landmark Graphics Corporation
Building 1, Suite 200, 2101 CityWest, Houston, Texas 77042, USA
P.O. Box 42806, Houston, Texas 77242, USA
Phone: 713-839-2000
FAX: 713-839-2401
Web: www.lgc.com

Trademark Notice
3D Drill View, 3D Drill View KM, 3Dview, Active Field Surveillance, Active Reservoir Surveillance, ADC,
ARIES, Asset Development Center, Asset Development Centre, Automate, BLITZ, BLITZPAK, CasingSeat,
CDDM, COMPASS, Contouring Assistant, Corporate Data Archiver, Corporate Data Store, DataStar, DBPlot,
Decision Suite, Decisionarium, DecisionDesktop, DecisionSpace, DecisionSpace AssetPlanner, DecisionSpace
Atomic Meshing, DecisionSpace PowerModel, DecisionSpace PrecisionTarget, DecisionSpace TrackPlanner,
DecisionSpace Well Seismic Fusion, DepthTeam, DepthTeam Explorer, DepthTeam Express, DepthTeam Extreme,
DepthTeam Interpreter, DESKTOP-PVT, DESKTOP-VIP, DEX, DFW, DIMS, Discovery, Drillability Suite,
DrillModel, DrillVision, DSS, Dynamic Reservoir Management, Dynamic Surveillance System, EarthCube,
EdgeCa$h, eLandmark, Engineer's Desktop, EOS-PAK, EPM, Executive Assistant, FastTrack, FZAP!,
GeoDataLoad, GeoGraphix (stylized), GeoGraphix Exploration System, GeoLink, GES, GESXplorer, GMAplus,
GRIDGENR, Handheld Field Operator, I2 Enterprise, iDIMS, IsoMap, Landmark, Landmark and Design,
Landmark logo and Design, LandScape, Lattix, LeaseMap, LMK Resources, LogEdit, LogM, LogPrep,
Make Great Decisions, MathPack, MIRA, Model Builder, MultiWell, MyLandmark, MyWorkspace, OpenBooks,
OpenExplorer, OpenJournal, OpenOrigin, OpenSGM, OpenVision, OpenWells, OpenWire, OpenWorks,
OpenWorks Well File, PAL, Parallel-VIP, PetroBank, PetroWorks, PlotView, Point Gridding Plus,
Pointing Dispatcher, PostStack, PostStack ESP, PowerView, PRIZM, PROFILE, ProMAGIC, ProMAX,
ProMAX 2D, ProMAX 3D, ProMAX 3DPSDM, ProMAX MVA, ProMAX VSP, pSTAx, QUICKDIF,
QUIKCDP, QUIKDIG, QUIKRAY, QUIKSHOT, QUIKVSP, RAVE, RAYMAP, Real Freedom,
Real-Time Asset Management Center, Real-Time Asset Management Centre, Real Time Knowledge Company,
Reservoir Framework Builder, RESev, ResMap, RMS, SafeStart, SCAN, SeisCube, SeisMap, SeisModel, SeisSpace,
SeisVision, SeisWell, SeisWorks, SeisWorks MultiView, SeisWorks PowerSection, SeisXchange, Sierra,
Sierra (design), SigmaView, SimResults, SIVA, SpecDecomp, StrataMap, StrataModel, StrataAmp, StrataSim,
StratWorks, StressCheck, STRUCT, Surf & Connect, SynTool, SystemStart, SystemStart for Clients,
System Start for Servers, SystemStart for Storage, T2B, TDQ, Team Workspace, TeamView, TERAS,
Total Drilling Performance, TOW/cs The Oilfield Workstation, Trend Form Gridding, Turbo Synthetics, VIP,
VIP-COMP, VIP-CORE, VIP-DUAL, VIP-ENCORE, VIP-EXECUTIVE, VIP-Local Grid Refinement,
VIP-THERM, WavX, Web Editor, Web OpenWorks, Wellbase, Wellbore Planner, WELLCAT, WELLPLAN,
WellXchange, WOW, Xsection, Xsource, You're in Control. Experience the difference, ZAP!, and Z-MAP Plus
are trademarks, registered trademarks or service marks of Landmark Graphics Corporation.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

Note
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice and should not be construed as a
commitment by Landmark Graphics Corporation. Landmark Graphics Corporation assumes no responsibility for any
error that may appear in this manual. Some states or jurisdictions do not allow disclaimer of expressed or implied
warranties in certain transactions; therefore, this statement may not apply to you.

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Contents

Z-MAP Plus User Guide


Introduction
Overview ...........................................................................................................

User Guide Overview ......................................................................................

Data Access Modes .........................................................................................

Modeling and Mapping Capabilities ..............................................................

Modeling Features .....................................................................................

Mapping Features ......................................................................................

Mapping ............................................................................................................

Creating a Basemap ...................................................................................

Making a Grid-Based Map .........................................................................

Starting Z-MAP Plus ........................................................................................

Starting Z-MAP Plus from OpenWorks ....................................................

Starting Z-MAP Plus from the Z-MAP Plus Command Menu .................

10

Adding an Alias for the Start-up Command ............................................

10

Getting Started
Overview ...........................................................................................................

11

Z-MAP Plus Command Menu ..........................................................................

12

X Windows Manager ........................................................................................

13

Z-MAP Plus Windows ......................................................................................

14

Z-MAP Plus Xterm Window .......................................................................

14

Z-MAP Plus System Window .....................................................................

15

R2003.12.0

Contents

iii

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Getting Started: Z-MAP Plus Windows continued


Z-MAP Plus Main Window .........................................................................

16

Z-MAP Plus Menu Map ....................................................................................

20

Z-MAP Plus Dialog Boxes ...............................................................................

21

Types of Z-MAP Plus Dialog Boxes ..........................................................

21

Common Features of Dialog Boxes .........................................................

27

Conventions Used in This Guide ...................................................................

32

Z-MAP Plus Basics


Overview ...........................................................................................................

33

MFDs and ZGFs ...............................................................................................

34

Internal and External Files ........................................................................

34

Master File Directory (MFD) ......................................................................

35

Z-MAP Graphics Files (ZGFs) ...................................................................

40

File and Picture Internal Organization .....................................................

45

Directory Paths ................................................................................................

46

Input File Formats ...........................................................................................

47

Data File Format .........................................................................................

47

Format Groups ...........................................................................................

49

Managing Data .................................................................................................

51

File Manager ...............................................................................................

51

File Utilities .................................................................................................

51

To View a List of Files in an MFD or ZGF .................................................

52

Field Utilities ...............................................................................................

52

Project Organization .......................................................................................

53

Project Directory ........................................................................................

53

R2003.12.0

Contents

iv

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Z-MAP PLus Basics: Project Organization continued


Managing Project Files ..............................................................................

56

Managing Internal Files .............................................................................

57

Z-MAP Plus and OpenWorks ..........................................................................

58

Overview of OpenWorks ............................................................................

58

Using the Z-MAP Plus - OpenWorks Connection ....................................

60

Contour Map Workflow


Workflow Steps ................................................................................................

64

1. Start Z-MAP Plus ....................................................................................

64

2. Set Directory Paths ................................................................................

65

3. Attach a Master File ...............................................................................

65

4. Select the Data File ................................................................................

66

5. Create a Grid ...........................................................................................

67

6. Attach a Graphics File (ZGF) .................................................................

72

7. Create a Blank Basemap .......................................................................

73

8. Draw the Map ..........................................................................................

84

9. Display Data ............................................................................................

85

10. View the Contours ................................................................................

85

11. Exit from Z-MAP Plus ...........................................................................

85

Getting More Information ................................................................................

86

R2003.12.0

Contents

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

More About Grids


Overview ...........................................................................................................

87

Gridding Overview ...........................................................................................

88

Grid Terminology .......................................................................................

89

How Grids are Used in Z-MAP Plus ..........................................................

90

Gridding Methods ......................................................................................

90

Gridding Basics ...............................................................................................

94

1. Interactive Problem Description ...........................................................

94

2. Grid Initialization ....................................................................................

95

3. Post Processing .....................................................................................

99

Point Gridding Plus Workflow ........................................................................

102

1. Create a Basemap ..................................................................................

102

2. Select Input Data, Field, and Faults ......................................................

103

3. Enter Output File Names and Locations ..............................................

104

4. Select a Gridding Algorithm ..................................................................

104

5. Determine and Set the Final Grid Increment (GINCF) .........................

104

6. Determine and Set the Search Radius .................................................

109

7. Determine and Set the Number of Refinements ..................................

112

8. Smooth the grid ......................................................................................

116

9. Apply Point Gridding Plus .....................................................................

116

More Gridding Parameters .............................................................................

117

Extrapolation Distance ..............................................................................

117

Advanced Tab Parameters ........................................................................

117

Gridding Normal Faults ...................................................................................

125

Fault Terminology ......................................................................................

127

R2003.12.0

Contents

vi

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

More About Grids: Gridding Normal Faults continued


Gridding with Opaque Faults ....................................................................

128

Gridding with Non-Opaque Centerline Faults (Throw Gridding) ...........

130

Control Grids ...................................................................................................

137

Description of a Control Grid ....................................................................

137

Setting Control Grid Usage .......................................................................

140

Using Data Hulls ..............................................................................................

141

Description of Data Hulls ..........................................................................

141

Purpose and Use of a Data Hull ................................................................

142

Creating and Storing the Data Hull ...........................................................

143

Summary of Gridding Parameters .................................................................

146

Basic Tab Gridding Parameters ................................................................

146

Advanced Tab Parameters ........................................................................

147

Suggestions for Non-Default Gridding ....................................................

148

How To
Overview ...........................................................................................................

151

Display Coordinates on a Map .......................................................................

152

Measure Distances on a Map .........................................................................

153

Adjust the Colors in a Picture ........................................................................

154

Understanding the Z-MAP Plus Color Table ............................................

154

Change Color of a Feature on My Map .....................................................

155

Change the Background Color .................................................................

158

Disable Automatic Picture Display ................................................................

159

View the Contents of a Data File ....................................................................

160

R2003.12.0

Contents

vii

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

How To continued
Edit a Data File .................................................................................................

163

Edit ASCII Files ...........................................................................................

163

Edit Fields ...................................................................................................

163

Edit Fields ...................................................................................................

164

Edit a Picture and Regrid ................................................................................

169

Prepare to Work in Edit/Create Data ........................................................

169

Understanding Editor Buffers ...................................................................

170

Edit a Picture ..............................................................................................

172

View Maps in the ZGF Picture Viewer ............................................................

182

Displaying the ZGF Picture Viewer Window ............................................

183

Loading ZGFs .............................................................................................

184

Overlaying Picture Features .....................................................................

186

Saving Pictures as CGM Files ...................................................................

188

Change the AOI of a Grid or Picture ..............................................................

191

Change the AOI of a Picture ......................................................................

191

Change the AOI by Resampling a Grid ....................................................

194

Summary .....................................................................................................

197

Create an Isopach Map ...................................................................................

198

Using Data Operations ..............................................................................

199

Using Grid Operations ...............................................................................

200

Exchange Data with SeisWorks .....................................................................

201

Open SeisWorks Horizons as Grids .........................................................

201

Save Grids as Horizons .............................................................................

202

Make Z-MAP Plus Data Available in StratWorks ...........................................

203

Create a Fault File ............................................................................................

204

R2003.12.0

Contents

viii

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

How To continued
Print a Picture ..................................................................................................

209

Overlay Maps ...................................................................................................

212

Create a Trend Form Grid ...............................................................................

216

Viewing the Results ...................................................................................

219

Recommendations .....................................................................................

219

Post Specific Seismic Lines and Shot Points ...............................................

220

Appendix A. Glossary
Z-MAP Plus Glossary ......................................................................................

225

Appendix B: Using Color in the ZGF Picture Viewer


Overview of Editing Color Tables ..................................................................

241

Using the Color Editor ....................................................................................

242

Color Modes ...............................................................................................

243

Displaying Color Assignments ......................................................................

245

Editing Colors ..................................................................................................

246

Copying Colors ................................................................................................

247

Interpolating Color Ranges ............................................................................

249

Modes for Interpolating Color Ranges .....................................................

249

Steps for Interpolating Colors ..................................................................

250

Working with Color Table Files ......................................................................

252

Default Color Table File .............................................................................

252

Loading Color Tables ................................................................................

252

Saving Color Tables ...................................................................................

253

R2003.12.0

Contents

ix

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Appendix C. Unix Primer


Overview ...........................................................................................................

255

cat Command ...................................................................................................

256

cd Command ....................................................................................................

257

chmod Command ............................................................................................

258

cp Command ....................................................................................................

260

df Command .....................................................................................................

261

ls Command .....................................................................................................

262

mkdir Command ..............................................................................................

263

more Command ...............................................................................................

264

pwd Command .................................................................................................

265

rm Command ...................................................................................................

266

Appendix D. Unix Files


Default Unix Files ............................................................................................

267

Log Files .....................................................................................................

268

Appendix E. Applications and Utilities Menu Options


Applications Menu ...........................................................................................

270

Utilities Menu ...................................................................................................

271

System Menu ...................................................................................................

272

Help Menu ........................................................................................................

272

Index ....................................................................................................................

R2003.12.0

Contents

273

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Introduction

Overview
This section contains the following topics:
User Guide Overview
A summary of the contents of the guide.
Data Access Modes
A description of running Z-MAP Plus in standalone mode or with
OpenWorks.
Modeling and Mapping Capabilities
A comprehensive list of the available features.
Mapping
A high-level introduction to the types of maps you can make and
the steps each map type requires.
Starting Z-MAP Plus
How to start a Z-MAP Plus session in both modes: standalone and
connected to OpenWorks.

R2003.12.0

Introduction

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

User Guide Overview


Z-MAP Plus is an advanced software system for interpretive modeling
and mapping in petroleum exploration and production. This guide gives
you the basic information you need to understand and use program. The
following sections help you understand Z-MAP Plus.

Getting Started on page 11 describes the basic windows and


shows how to use the different types of dialog boxes you encounter
in Z-MAP Plus.

Z-MAP Plus Basics on page 33 describes the logic and basic


principles you need to work effectively with Z-MAP Plus
including MFDs, ZGFs, and data management and project
organization tips.

Contour Map Workflow on page 63 walks you through the most


commonly used steps for creating a contour map in Z-MAP Plus.

More About Grids on page 87 has more detail about the way the
program produces grids and how to adjust grids by using
parameters.

How To on page 151 covers step-by-step procedures for some of


the most common Z-MAP Plus tasks.

Appendixes contain useful information, including some basic


Unix commands, a glossary, and tables that describe the Unix files
the program creates automatically.

Two other valuable resources for new users are Landmark training
classes and the online documentation supplied with Z-MAP Plus. Once
you have a good understanding of the basics, these tools can help you
harness the enormous power of the program.

R2003.12.0

Introduction: User Guide Overview

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Data Access Modes


Z-MAP Plus builds maps based on data stored in ASCII files. These
data files store the x,y coordinate locations of each point, as well as
other information called attributes. Attributes can contain information
such as point depth, zone thickness, oil/water contact depth, and almost
anything else that can be stored mathematically. Attribute fields are
also known as Z fields. The source data files must contain x,y fields and
at least one Z field, but the data can have many Z fields.
You can run Z-MAP Plus in either standalone or OpenWorks mode.
The two modes determine the location for storing files you create and
determine how you gain access the input data you use to create maps.

Standalone Mode
If you run Z-MAP Plus in standalone mode, you have access to data
stored on your local computer or network, but not to data managed
through OpenWorks. To share information with others, you must save
the data so the files are accessible to other users.

OpenWorks Mode
Landmarks data management system is called OpenWorks. If you run
Z-MAP Plus as an OpenWorks application, you can share data
generated in other Landmark applications, such as SeisWorks,
StratWorks, or PetroWorks. OpenWorks also enables you to share files
you create in Z-MAP Plus with other applications.
OpenWorks contains hundreds of tables of information. You can save
much of your Z-MAP Plus work to OpenWorks, such as grid, contour,
fault, and data files. This connection is described in more detail in
Z-MAP Plus and OpenWorks on page 58.

R2003.12.0

Introduction: Data Access Modes

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Modeling and Mapping Capabilities


The modeling and mapping capabilities of Z-MAP Plus demonstrate its
growing interpretative value.

Modeling Features
Modeling features include:

gridding algorithms for surface modeling


Point Gridding Plus and fault macros for fault modeling
contouring
surface and data operations
cross sections
shaded relief displays
reservoir characterization tools such as contour-to-grid, water
saturation, and volumetrics

Optional geophysical operations include:

seismic mistie reduction


migration/reverse migration
time-to-depth conversion.

Mapping Features
Mapping features include the following elements:

R2003.12.0

map borders with x,y or lat/long coordinates, labels, and grid tics
English or metric units
extensive selection of map projections
posting of vertical and deviated wells
posting of seismic data with trackline, line name, shotpoint
number, and Z value
map annotation for title block, north arrow, scale, and color bars
utilities to overlay maps, assemble maps into a single display, and
copy maps

Introduction: Modeling and Mapping Capabilities

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Mapping
You can use Z-MAP Plus to create many types of maps. This overview
covers the basic steps for creating a map. In this context, maps can be
divided into two categories: Basemaps and Grid-based maps.

Creating a Basemap
Basemaps display geographic and cultural features (culture) and other
posted information, such as seismic lines, well names and locations,
and color-filled leases. You typically use basemaps as background
maps to define the project area scope and provide geographic
orientation. You can use the basemap as a backdrop for adding other
specialized items, such as color-filled contours of grids, well top picks,
and other geological information. In Z-MAP Plus, basemaps are
displayed and stored as pictures.
Creating a basemap involves three basic steps, although each step can
have many parts. The basic steps are:
1.

Attach the data you want mapped (MFD).

2.

Create a blank basemap. As you crete the basemap, you also define
the maps area of interest (AOI) and scale type.

3.

Add features to the map.

Making a Grid-Based Map


Grid-based maps model surfaces. Gridding is the most widely used
interpretive function in Z-MAP Plus. You can generate, refine, and edit
grids. Grids are required for the following Z-MAP Plus functions:

R2003.12.0

Generating map contours


Producing perspective (3D) displays
Drawing grid profiles (cross sections)
Performing grid operations, such as subtracting two surfaces to
calculate thickness
Volumetrics
Back interpolation (the ability to query the grid at any location and
determine a reasonable value)

Introduction: Mapping

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Grids are used to achieve an even distribution of points based on


randomly distributed control points. You can use any of a number of
gridding methods to achieve the optimum results (such as point, trend,
line, or contour).
The general steps for creating grid-based maps are:
1.

Import the source data for gridding. Data can be stored in master
files (MFDs) as data type files (DATA), other grid files (GRID
files), or contour files (CNTR files).

2.

Create a grid, based on the specified input data.

3.

Create a blank basemap.

4.

Optional: Add features to the basemap.

5.

View the map (as a contour map) or cross section.

Getting More Information


For more information, see the following topics:

R2003.12.0

For detailed instructions about creating a grid-based contour map,


see the section Contour Map Workflow, starting on page 63.

For information about refining and editing grids, see the section
More About Grids, starting on page 87.

For detailed descriptions of all the options, see the Z-MAP Plus
Reference Guide.

For information about adding basemap features, see the


browser-based help (accessible by clicking the Help button in the
Basemap Features dialog box).

Introduction: Mapping

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Starting Z-MAP Plus


Once Z-MAP Plus is properly installed and configured, you can start it
by using any of the following interfaces:

OpenWorks Command Menu


Z-MAP Plus Command Menu
an xterm window

This topic describes each approach. Determining which approach is


right for you depends on how your environment is defined. For
complete installation instructions, see the Z-MAP Plus Installation and
Configuration Guide.
Meaning of the Term <install_dir>
In the following discussion, <install_dir> refers to the pathname to your
Z-MAP Plus installation. For example, if you install Z-MAP Plus in the directory
/home/user/ZMAPPlus, <install_dir> indicates your unique pathname /home/user.
In this example, the full pathname to the ZMAPPlus start-up script is
/home/user/ZMAPPlus/sh/ZMAPPlus.

Starting Z-MAP Plus from OpenWorks


Your home directory contains a launcher.dat filecopied during your
account setup from the $OWHOME/templates/launcher.dat file. To
start the Z-MAP Plus Command Menu from the OpenWorks Command
Menu, your OpenWorks launcher.dat file must contain the following
entry:
"ZMAPPlus/PowerView"
"ZMAPPlus 2>$HOME/run/zmap.err 1>&2 &"

R2003.12.0

Introduction: Starting Z-MAP Plus

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

If you enter the startow command in an xterrm window, the


OpenWorks Command Menu appears (if OpenWorks is properly
installed and set up).

To display the Z-MAP Plus Command Menu, select Applications


Z-MAP Plus / PowerView from the OpenWorks Command Menu.
The Z-MAP Plus Command Menu is a convenient means of access to
the applications and utilities in the Z-MAP Plus suite.
If you have not already specified a project and interpreter for the current
OpenWorks session, dialog boxes appear and prompt you to specify
these settings.

R2003.12.0

Introduction: Starting Z-MAP Plus

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Interpreters have the access privileges assigned to them by the project


creator. Some interpreters have only read access for project files. Other
interpreters have write access, and can change the contents of project
files.
Once you select a project and interpreter, the Z-MAP Plus Command
Menu reflects these settings, as shown in the following example:

Name of the
OpenWorks database

Name of the
OpenWorks project

Current
interpreter

Select Z-MAP Plus or a related application from the Applications


menu in the Z-MAP Plus Command Menu.

Getting Information from Your System Administrator


Consult your system administrator if you need specific instructions for starting
Z-MAP Plus on your network. If you are not on a network, see the Z-MAP Plus
Installation and Configuration Guide for instructions about installing the software.

R2003.12.0

Introduction: Starting Z-MAP Plus

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Starting Z-MAP Plus from the Z-MAP Plus Command Menu


If you operate in an X Windows environment, but do not use
OpenWorks, you can display the Z-MAP Plus Command Menu and
start Z-MAP Plus from an xterm window.
To display the Z-MAP Plus Command Menu from an xterm window,
enter the following command, where <install_dir> is the path to the
Z-MAP Plus installation directory:
<install_dir>/ZMAPPlus/sh/ZMAPPlus
The Z-MAP Plus Command Menu appears. Select Z-MAP Plus or a
related application from the Applications menu.
If you experience difficulty starting Z-MAP Plus

Delete the MappingLauncher.dat file from your home directory.


Delete the .mapinit file from your home directory.
Verify correct path to <install_dir>/ZMAPPlus/sh.
Verify that the lmgrd and licsrv LAM processes are active.
Verify that the appropriate Z-MAP Plus features are included in
the license.dat file (ZMAPPLUS, ZCL, and at least one of the
following: ZFULL, ZSEIS, or ZENG).

Adding an Alias for the Start-up Command


To make the start-up commands easier to remember and use, add them
as aliases to your .cshrc file.
Add the following line to your .cshrc file. (The change takes effect the
next time you log into your Unix account.)
alias ZMAPPlus <install_dir>/ZMAPPlus/sh/ZMAPPlus

You can now display the Z-MAP Plus Command Menu by entering:
ZMAPPlus

R2003.12.0

Introduction: Starting Z-MAP Plus

10

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Getting Started

Overview
This section overviews the interface elements you use in Z-MAP Plus.
Z-MAP Plus Command Menu outlines the major menu options on
the Z-MAP Plus Command Menu.
X Windows Manager introduces the X Windows window manager
that provides the shell and icons for Z-MAP Plus windows and dialog
boxes on a Sun or SGI system.
Z-MAP Plus Windows describes the function of all three
Z-MAP Plus windows: the xterm window, the Z-MAP Plus System
Window, and the Z-MAP Plus window.
Z-MAP Plus Menu Map presents a graphic map of the options in the
Z-MAP Plus menus.
Z-MAP Plus Dialog Boxes shows you how to select options and use
the parameter dialog boxes to customize commands.
Conventions Used in This Guide illustrates the text highlighting
conventions you will see as you work with this guide.
Although this is basic information, it saves you time to become familiar
with the tools.

R2003.12.0

Getting Started

11

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Z-MAP Plus Command Menu


When you start Z-MAP Plus, the Z-MAP Plus Command Menu
appears, as shown in the following example.

The Z-MAP Plus Command Menu contains the following menus:

Applications Start applications in the Z-MAP Plus suite.

Utilities Start utilities for setting up or enhancing your work in


Z-MAP Plus applications.

System Display an xterm window, which you can use for


checking which directory you used to startZ-MAP Plus or
OpenWorks. This directory is known as the working directory or
project directory. You can also use the xterm window to execute
system commands.

Help Display the online guides, release notes, and


browser-based help.
If you select one of the online guides, a PDF document appears
automatically in an Adobe Acrobat Reader window.
If you select the HTML-based help, a help system appears in a
browser-based window. The HTML-based help covers the
newest parts of Z-MAP Plus. If you select the Help button or
menu option in one of the newer Z-MAP Plus windows (for
example, File Manager), an appropriate topic appears, from
which you can enter the overall help system.

The Z-MAP Plus Command Menu remains open until you select
Applications Exit to close it.
Importance of Exiting Properly
Always close applications by using the File Exit option. If you close application
windows by using the X-Windows Close option, serious problems can occur.

For brief descriptions of the options in the Applications and Utilities


menus, see the appendix starting on page 269.
R2003.12.0

Getting Started: Z-MAP Plus Command Menu

12

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

X Windows Manager
Z-MAP Plus runs in an X Windows environment on Sun and SGI
workstations. X Windows provides the outer shell for Z-MAP Plus
windows and dialog boxes.You can resize and move windows. To learn
how to change the shape, size and placement of the window, move the
cursor around the window and observe the changes in the cursor.

Menu button

Minimize button
Maximize button

X Windows Buttons
The X Windows shell has three buttons (Menu, Maximize, and
Minimize), which you can use to perform some common window
operations.
Menu button

Use the Menu button to control the X Windows shell that surrounds
Z-MAP Plus windows and dialog boxes on Sun and SGI workstations.
This menu typically contains the following options: Restore, Move,
Size, Maximize, Minimize, Lower, Occupy Workspace, Occupy All
Workspaces, Unoccupy Workspace, and Close.
Never Use the X Windows Close Command to End a Session
The most important thing to remember about X Windows menu controls is never to
use the X Windows Close option to end a Z-MAP Plus session. If you use the
X Windows Close option, the Z-MAP Plus session continues to run, but you cannot
access it. Leaving a Z-MAP Plus session running prevents you from accessing
common files used each time you start Z-MAP Plus.

R2003.12.0

Getting Started: X Windows Manager

13

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

X Windows Maximize Button


The X Windows Maximize button is in the upper right corner of a
X Windows shell (on a Sun or SGI system). Click the Maximize button
to expand the window to fill up the monitor screen. You can also
expand a window by double-clicking its title bar, then toggle back to
normal size by double-clicking again.
X Windows Minimize Button
The X Windows Minimize button is also in the upper right corner of a
X Windows shell that contains a window. Click the Minimize button to
reduce the window to an icon, like the Z-MAP Plus Command Menu
icon shown at left.

Z-MAP Plus Windows


If you start the Z-MAP Plus application, the following three windows
appear (in the order listed):

Z-MAP Plus xterm window


Z-MAP Plus window
Z-MAP Plus System Window

If you have a dual monitor system, prompts appear and ask you to
select a monitor for displaying the Z-MAP Plus window and
Z-MAP Plus System Window.
== Z-MAP Plus Main Window ==
Move the cursor to the desired screen
and press button 1 to select it.
Press button 2 to cancel

Prompt for Selecting a Display Monitor


Do not close any of the three primary windows during an ongoing
Z-MAP Plus session. You can iconify the windows by clicking the
X Windows Minimize icon, but do not close them.

Z-MAP Plus Xterm Window


When you start Z-MAP Plus, the xterm window appears first. The
Z-MAP Plus xterm window displays messages or program errors that
affect the operating system. The xterm window is rarely used in
Z-MAP Plus operations, so it is automatically iconified.

R2003.12.0

Getting Started: Z-MAP Plus Windows

14

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Z-MAP Plus System Window


The system window displays program output and diagnostic messages.
As you execute an operation in Z-MAP Plus, the system window
displays a report about the progress of the operation and actions taken
during execution. Some types of messages displayed in the system
window include:

Gridding and contour reports


File directories, listings, and statistics
Error messages

Example System Window Report


You often need to check the system window in order to verify that a
process is complete, because there may be no visual indicators in the
Z-MAP Plus window. The PROCESSING FINISHED PLEASE
CONTINUE message appears only in the system window.

R2003.12.0

Getting Started: Z-MAP Plus Windows

15

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Z-MAP Plus Main Window


The Z-MAP Plus window contains a menu bar at the top and a display
area in the center. Icons on the left side of the window are shortcuts to
common tasks. Icons at the top of the window are arranged in workflow
order from left to right.
The Z-MAP Plus window has three major components:
Main Menu located at the top of the window contains the options
shown in the following illustration. Click any one of these options to
display a drop-down menu or submenu. A right arrow indicates that
submenus (or cascading menus) are available. An ellipsis (...) indicates
that a dialog box appears when you select the option.
Arrow indicates submenu options

Ellipsis indicates parameter


dialog automatically appears
.

Menu Option Legend


The display area is primary working area for graphics. All pictures
appear in this area.
The status area is located at the bottom of the window. Watch this area
for reports of major parameter values and for prompts as you work.

R2003.12.0

Getting Started: Z-MAP Plus Windows

16

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Menu Bar
Workflow
Icons

Shortcut
Icons

Display Area

Status Area

The next topic is an overview of the icons. The following topic


describes the menu options.

R2003.12.0

Getting Started: Z-MAP Plus Windows

17

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Shortcut Icons
The left side of the Z-MAP Plus window has a number of shortcut
icons for commonly used functions. The shortcut icons are briefly
described here.

Zoom In
Window
Zoom Out
Full Display
Re-display

Display List
Pan
Color Table
Color Indices
Raise System
Window
Toggle Bkgrnd
Color
Process
Interrupt
Undo Last
Feature
Redo Last
Feature

R2003.12.0

If you click an icon, the display reacts


immediately. Most icon buttons are equivalent
to options on the View menu, but some icons
correspond to options on other menus, as
shown at left and described below.
The Process Interrupt icon has no menu
equivalent. It interrupts an ongoing process,
such as a graphic display or gridding. The
icon is red when the action is available.
Edit menu operations:
Color Table Display the current Color
Table and Edit Color Table dialog box,
which you use to open, save, copy and edit
color tables.
Color Indices Display a list of graphic
elements and modify the associated colors
or color table cells.
Undo Last Feature Immediately
removes the most recent feature added
(such as text or contours), if no other
operation has been executed.
Redo Last Feature Restores the feature
just deleted with Undo Last Feature, if no
other operation was executed since
deletion.
Tools menu operations:
Raise System Window Displays the
system window in front.
Toggle Background Color Switches the
background color between black and white.

Getting Started: Z-MAP Plus Windows

18

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Workflow Icons
The icons in the workflow toolbar are shortcuts to some frequently used
functions. The icons are organized from left to right to roughly
approximate the order of use in a typical Z-MAP Plus workflow.
Attach ZGFs
View Zoom In
Attach
MFDs
View Window

Picture Open

View Zoom Out


Master File Directory
View Full Display
View Re-Display

Basemap
Features

File Manager

Point
Gridding Plus

Contouring

Calculator

Save to
SeisWorks

Open SeisWorks
Data

Each icon has a menu option counterpart:


Icon Name

Corresponding Menu Option

Attach MFDs

File Open MFD Open/Close

Attach ZGFs

File Open ZGF Open/Close

View Pan

Master File Directory

File Info Master File Directory

Edit Color Table

Picture Open

File Open Picture Open

File Manager

File Manager

Basemap Features

Features Basemap

Point Gridding Plus

Modeling Point Gridding Plus

Contouring

Features Contouring Contour

Calculator

Operations Calculator

Open SeisWorks Data

File Open SeisWorks

Save to SeisWorks

File Save As SeisWorks File

View Display List

Edit Color Indices


Tools
System Window
Raise
Tools
System Switches
No menu equivalent
Edit
Graphics Editor
Undo Last Feature
Edit
Graphics Editor
Redo Last Deleted
Feature

R2003.12.0

Getting Started: Z-MAP Plus Windows

19

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Z-MAP Plus Menu Map


The following illustration shows the menus from the Z-MAP Plus
menu bar expanded.

Some Options Appear Dimmed


Initially, some of the options on the Main Menu appear dimmed to indicate that the
option is not available. Most of these options control the graphics display. They are
inactive until you open or create a graphics file and display a picture.

R2003.12.0

Getting Started: Z-MAP Plus Menu Map

20

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Z-MAP Plus Dialog Boxes


When you select an option from the menu bar, a dialog box appears and
enables you to specify parameters for the option. This topic explains
how to use the many types of dialog boxes.

Types of Z-MAP Plus Dialog Boxes


This topic covers the various types of dialog boxes that appear in
Z-MAP Plus:

tabbed dialog boxes

menu options

parameter

list

ordered selection
Read this topic carefully to understand how the interface works.
Tabbed Dialog Boxes
As of the release of Z-MAP Plus 2001, the most frequently used dialog
boxes were redesigned to make it easier to use some of the most
complex features. Directory Paths is an example of a tabbed dialog
box:

Tabbed dialog boxes enable you to control how a process is carried out
by grouping the parameters that control the process on different pages
with tab titles across the top. To use a tabbed dialog, click the name of a
tab and that group of parameters jumps to the foreground. Required
field labels appear in red, italic font on Tabbed dialog boxes:
Red denotes
required field

R2003.12.0

Getting Started: Z-MAP Plus Dialog Boxes

21

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Each of the tabbed dialog boxes is covered in depth in the


browser-based help system. You will also find definitions for the many
buttons in the help system. Use the Help Help option to display
interactive help for the tabbed dialog boxes.
Menu Options Dialog Boxes
You use the menu structure (Main Menu options along with subsequent
drop-down and cascade menu options) to define which task you want to
perform.
When you have finished selecting what you want to do from the menu
structure, a Menu Options dialog box generally appears. These dialog
boxes provide options for defining how Z-MAP Plus accomplishes a
task.
The Volumetrics dialog box used to set
up a volumetric calculation.

Highlighted Buttons are Required Selections


Anytime you see a highlighted button with the option name in italics on a red field,
this means that there are no defaults for this option. You must select the button and
set the required parameters.

In general, you should work from top to bottom on a menu options


dialog box. As you click each button, additional dialog boxes appear so
you can set the related parameters.
To close the menu options dialog box without executing the process,
click the Save button.

R2003.12.0

Getting Started: Z-MAP Plus Dialog Boxes

22

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Using Parameter Dialog Boxes


Parameter dialog boxes come in all sizes and contain a variety of buttons
and/or fields. You use these buttons and fields to set parameters for the
task you perform.
Parameter Settings Saved Between Sessions
Parameter settings are saved in the LASPRM.ZCL and LASPRM.ZCL2 file in the
directory you used to start Z-MAP Plus. In most dialog boxes, the Save button saves
the current parameter values without executing the command.
.

The Parameter dialog


box used to define
general posting
parameters.

If you display a parameter dialog box, but do not want to execute the
command:

R2003.12.0

To save parameter settings, click the Save button. This closes the
parameter dialog box and saves your settings without applying
them.

If you changed settings, but do not want to save them, click the
Unlock Parameters button (if available) to reset the values to
their original settings. Next, use the Save button to close the
parameter dialog box.

Getting Started: Z-MAP Plus Dialog Boxes

23

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Using List Dialog Boxes


List dialog boxes contain lists of information; such as data, operations,
or files. Z-MAP Plus uses two kinds of List dialog boxes:

Single List These boxes have a Cancel button, but no OK


button. You select one item from the list and the box closes
automatically.

Multiple List These boxes have both an OK and a Cancel


button. You select one or more items from the list by highlighting
the item. This type of dialog box remains open until you click OK.

Processes utilizing the direct OpenWorks connection may contain a list


of available OpenWorks grids, pointsets, or faults.

Single List with an OpenWorks connection.


Multiple List without OpenWorks.

If you make a Single List dialog box selection in error, simply re-select
the option that brings up the list and choose again. With Multiple List
dialog boxes, either click the incorrectly highlighted item to clear it or
click the Cancel button to abort the action and close the dialog box.
Appearance of Selected Items
Selected options appear in list dialog boxes in reverse color. Sometimes, list dialog
boxes appear with options selected by default. In this case, you do not click them to
select them, but rather to clear them.

R2003.12.0

Getting Started: Z-MAP Plus Dialog Boxes

24

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Using Ordered Selection Dialog Boxes


Like list dialog boxes, ordered selection dialog boxes appear when you
need to construct a list. ordered selection dialog boxes also enable you
to set the list order.
For example, an ordered selection dialog box appears if you are
selecting fields to list in a file listing. The order of the list in the dialog
box controls the order of columns appearing in the listing.
Ordered selection dialog boxes use radio buttons, which are either
selected or cleared. Radio buttons appear highlighted when they are
selected.
You can use ordered selection dialog boxes to perform the following
actions:

append items to a list


delete items from a list
insert items into a list

Appending Items to a List


Step 1:
Click the Append radio button
Step 2:
Click an item in the
Source List to move it
into the Destination List.

Each new selection appears


at the bottom of the
Destination List.

R2003.12.0

Getting Started: Z-MAP Plus Dialog Boxes

25

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Deleting Items from a List


Step 1: Click the Delete radio button.
Step 2:
Click the item to be removed.

The item is removed from


the Destination List.

Inserting Items Into a List


Step 1:
Click the Insert radio button.
Step 2:
Click the item in the
Destination List that
you want to place the
new item above.

Step 3:
Select the insert item in the Source List.
New Item appears in
the Destination List.

R2003.12.0

Getting Started: Z-MAP Plus Dialog Boxes

26

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Common Features of Dialog Boxes


As you work with Z-MAP Plus, you encounter a number of common
features in dialog boxes, including:

arrow icons

check boxes

radio buttons

option menus

text and number editor fields

scroll bars

action buttons
Arrow Icons
Arrow icons appear on drop-down menus and in some dialog boxes.
These icons indicate that submenus or dialog boxes will appear if you
click the icon.
Check Boxes
Check boxes indicate options you use to make multiple choices. You
can toggle on as many check box options as you like. The example
below is a detail from the Data Selection Operation parameter dialog
box, which contains arrow buttons and check boxes.

Arrow
Button

ON
Check
Boxes
OFF

Radio Buttons
Radio buttons (diamonds) indicate an either/or choice. Click a radio
button to select that item and release all others.

ON

R2003.12.0

OFF

Getting Started: Z-MAP Plus Dialog Boxes

27

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Option Lists
Option lists are indicated by raised rectangles with a label and a flip
switch. These drop-down lists typically contain multiple options you
can select.
Use option lists in either of these ways:

Press Mouse Button 1 (MB1) with the cursor located on the option
menu rectangle, drag the cursor to an option, and release the
mouse button

Click the option button once. The drop-down list remains open.
Click an option to select it.

Option Menu
before clicking

Option Menu
after clicking

R2003.12.0

Getting Started: Z-MAP Plus Dialog Boxes

28

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Text and Number Editor Fields


Text and number editor fields are recessed rectangular fields you can use
to enter or change text or numbers.

To enter text or a number in a blank field, simply click in the field


and enter the appropriate value.

Number
Editor Field

Text Editor
Field

You can double-click a word or a number to highlight it. As you


enter a word or number, it overwrites the original one.

You can triple-click a field or drag the cursor across the entire
entry to highlight everything in the field. As you enter a word or
number, it overwrites the entire field.
Triple-Clicking
If you triple-click, all characters in the field are selected. Triple-click to be sure you
select and overwrite the entire entry in a text entry field. In some cases, the default
values in a number editor field are preceded by spaces. It may be important to
remove the preceding spaces if you enter a value that is longer than the original
value, or else some characters may not be visible in the fields display area.

R2003.12.0

Getting Started: Z-MAP Plus Dialog Boxes

29

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Scroll Bars
Occasionally, the data displayed in a window or dialog box exceeds the
window boundaries. When this happens, you use scroll bars located
along the side or bottom of the window to shift the focus of the display.
You can use scroll bars in several ways:

Place the cursor on the scroll bar, press MB1, and slide the scroll
bar up or down, right or left. This method moves the display in a
smooth motion.

Place the cursor in the scroll bar and click MB1to move the display
in small increments.

Place the cursor beside the scroll bar and click MB2 to jump-scroll
the display in greater increments.

If arrows are located above or below the scroll bar, click an arrow
to move the list one item at a time or press MB1 on an arrow to
scroll continuously.

Scroll
Bar

R2003.12.0

Getting Started: Z-MAP Plus Dialog Boxes

30

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Action Buttons
The following table describes common buttons used in Z-MAP Plus.
Button

Function

Apply

Accepts your selections and performs the process, but leaves the dialog
box open. This option enables you to see the results of the process
before the dialog box closes.

Cancel

Discards your selections, reverts to the original settings, and closes the
dialog box.

Delete

Removes selected (highlighted) information from a list or from the


display area.

Help

Offers either a link to the Table of Contents of the reference guide that
covers the topic or a browser HELP system with information about a
specific process or dialog.

OK

Performs the operation and closes the dialog box.

Reset

Discards your selections and reverts to the original settings, but leaves
the dialog box open.

Save

Preserves any changed settings in the LASPRM.ZCL or LASPRM.ZCL2


file and closes the dialog box, but does not execute the process.You
cannot undo a save. If you click Save, the changes are saved to the
session file immediately.
OK Executes and closes dialog box.
Apply Executes and leaves dialog box
open.
Save Saves parameters and closes dialog
box.
Cancel Cancels parameters and closes
dialog box.
Help Displays help.

Dialog Button Definitions

R2003.12.0

Getting Started: Z-MAP Plus Dialog Boxes

31

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Tabbed Dialog Boxes Use Additional Buttons


The tabbed dialog boxes use additional buttons to give you more control. For
example, the Basemap Features tabbed dialog also uses Reset All, Unlock All,
Save All and Apply All buttons that effect every tab on this large dialog. For each
tabbed dialog box, browser-based help is available. Click the Help button in the
dialog box to display the help system.

Conventions Used in This Guide


Throughout this guide, the following conventions are used to explain
how to use Z-MAP Plus features.
Menu Options

R2003.12.0

Menu options and button names are printed in boldface,


for example, the Apply button or the File menu.

enter:
redfault

Text that you are required to enter from the keyboard


appears in a different typeface (Courier). Enter exactly
what you see.

enter:
filename

A different typeface (Courier Italics) indicates


that you must supply information. At this instruction, for
example, enter the name of the file.

<key>

Press the indicated key on the keyboard.

Getting Started: Conventions Used in This Guide

32

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Z-MAP Plus Basics

Overview
This section describes the files and data the program uses to create
maps and explains how to manage them. This section contains the
following topics:
MFDs and ZGFs Describes the Master File Directories (MFDs)
and Z-MAP Graphics Files (ZGFs) unique to Z-MAP Plus. All the files
you create in Z-MAP Plus are stored in these two directories. It
explains what these special files contain, how to name the files, create
them and delete them.
Directory Paths Explains how to designate the paths where the
computer accesses and stores your files.
Input File Formats Describes the basic format of the flat ASCII
files used to import data, such as well or seismic data. Also included is
an introduction to the Format Group headers used to define the
structure of your data files to Z-MAP Plus.
Managing Data Offers tips to help you manage the many files
associated with any Z-MAP Plus session and the fields within those
files.
Project Organization Explains the project directory and offers
two models for organizing projects.
Z-MAP Plus and OpenWorks Explores the relationship of
Z-MAP Plus to OpenWorks in more detail.

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus Basics

33

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

MFDs and ZGFs


The program stores the information and graphics used to create maps
and cross sections in two unique types of files: Master File Directories
(MFDs) and Z-MAP Graphics Files (ZGFs). These files are binary and
can only be read by specific applications and utilities.
MFDs and ZGFs work together to create a map or cross section. For
example, a single contour map uses many types of files to create the
finished product, which may include a grid file, a fault file, seismic line
interpretations (from a data file), and well interpretations (from another
data file). All of these files can be stored in a single MFD or in multiple
MFDs. The contour map itself is stored in a picture file that is part of a
ZGF. You use MFDs and ZGFs together in a Z-MAP Plus session.

Internal and External Files


You can list MFDs and ZGFs by entering an ls command at an xterm
prompt. These files are visible components of your systems file
system, so they are known as external files. You can use commands at
an xterm prompt to perform the following operations on MFDs and
ZGFs: open, move, copy, or locate a file name.
The files contained in MFDs and ZGFs are known as internal files.
To view the contents of an MFD or ZGF, use Z-MAP Plus or
OpenWorks. To view the contents of an MFD or ZGF in Z-MAP Plus,
perform one of the following tasks in the Z-MAP Plus window:

R2003.12.0

Select File Info Master File Directory or click the Master


File Directory icon. The FILE DIRECTORY dialog box appears,
which you use to set up and generate a report about the contents of
an MFD. The specified report appears in the system window and
displays information about the files in the MFD.

Click the Picture Open icon. In the dialog box that appears, view
a list of pictures in the attached ZGF.

Select File Manager or click the File Manager icon, and use
the File Manager dialog box to view the contents of MFDs and
ZGFs. (For more information, see page 51.)

Z-MAP Plus Basics: MFDs and ZGFs

34

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Master File Directory (MFD)


Z-MAP Plus uses MFDs to manage the large amounts of data needed to
create maps. The internal files in an MFD can store the following types
of data:
Type of
Information

MFD Internal
File Type

Stored in OpenWorks as:

Contour data

CNTR

Contour Set

Control points
(well picks,
seismic lines, etc.)

DATA

Pointset

Deviated well

DWEL

Pointset

Grids

GRID

Grid

Faults

FALT

Fault Centerline Set (for faults with dip


angle, heave, or throw fields)
Fault Polygon Set (for all other faults,
including vertical faults or unclosed
polygons)

Selected line
name file

LSLT

Pointset

Posted line name


file

LPST

Pointset

Seismic section

SSEC

Pointset

Text

TEXT

Pointset

Line data

VERT

Pointset

Well log data

WLOG

Pointset

Cross section data

XSEC

Pointset

As you can see, many of the files typically contained in an MFD can
also be stored in OpenWorks. OpenWorks stores the files generated in
Z-MAP Plus as pointsets, grids, or faults. MFDs cannot be stored in
OpenWorks.

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus Basics: MFDs and ZGFs

35

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

MFDs have the following important features:

You can attach a maximum of four MFDs to a Z-MAP Plus


session. By attaching an MFD, you make the MFD contents
available for use in Z-MAP Plus. Some lists in dialog boxes
represent the contents of the currently attached MFDs. The data
needed to create a map can be distributed among multiple MFDs.
Z-MAP Plus automatically provides an additional scratch MFD to
store temporary or intermediate files. The scratch MFD exists in
RAM only temporarily. The contents of the scratch MFD are
deleted if you create an MFD, attach or detach an existing MFD, or
exit from Z-MAP Plus.
A single MFD can store a maximum of 3,000 files in many
different file types. To improve performance, however, you should
limit the size of MFDs.
Each file in an MFD is composed of one or more fields.
Z-MAP Plus supports over 60 different types of MFD file fields.
The names of MFDs must follow Unix file naming conventions.
For example, an MFD name cannot contain empty spaces and is
case-sensitive.
File names in an MFD can contain a maximum of 24 characters
(including blank spaces). Field names in an MFD have a
20-character limit.
If you delete a file from an MFD, the program does not reclaim the
disk space the file occupied unless you compress the MFD. Use
the File Compress Master File (MFD) to compress MFDs.

Z-MAP Plus creates a lock file (named mfd_name.LCK) to prevent


multiple users from using the same MFD simultaneously. The
.LCK file is automatically deleted when you exit from Z-MAP Plus
or detach the MFD. (If you end the Z-MAP Plus session
improperly, you may need to delete the .LCK file at an xterm
prompt so you can regain access to the locked MFD.)

MFDs are external files, so you can use standard file access
commands to give other users read-only access to them. In this
case, other users can read the MFDs but cannot add files to them.
Lock files are not created for read-only MFDs. To create a
read-only MFD, use the chmod 444 mfd_name.MFD
command at an xterm prompt.
To familiarize yourself with common Unix commands, see Appendix
C. Unix Primer starting on page 255.

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus Basics: MFDs and ZGFs

36

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Attaching or Detaching MFDs


To make the contents of an MFD available for read and write
operations in the current Z-MAP Plus session, attach an MFD to the
session. For example, if a projects field data is stored in three MFDs
and you want to map the entire project, attach all three MFDs. You can
attach a maximum of four MFDs to a Z-MAP Plus session.
To attach or detach an MFD, follow these steps:
1.

Select File Open MFD Open/Close or click the Attach


MFDs icon in the Z-MAP Plus window.
The Open/Close MASTER FILES dialog box appears and lists the
MFDs in the currently specified MFD directory paths. (For
information about specifying directory paths, see page 46.)

2.

Click to select the names of the MFDs you want to attach. Select
no more than four MFDs.

3.

Click OK.
The selected MFD(s) are attached to the Z-MAP Plus session and
the dialog box closes. The names of attached MFDs appear in the
status area at the bottom of the window.

To detach an MFD, follow the same steps, but clear the highlighting
from the MFD names that you want to detach. Click OK to detach the
selected MFD(s) and close the dialog box.

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus Basics: MFDs and ZGFs

37

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Creating MFDs
To create an MFD, follow these steps:
1.

Select File New Master File (MFD) in the Z-MAP Plus


window. The CREATE MASTERFILE dialog box appears.

2.

Enter a name for the MFD in the Enter New MASTER FILE Name
dialog box. If you do not include the .MFD extension at the end of
the file name, it is added automatically.

3.

Click OK. The MFD is created and the CREATE MASTERFILE


dialog box closes.

Internal Master File Name


Do not use the current Internal MASTER FILE Name value as the name for the
new MFD. By default, the Internal MASTER FILE Name that is assigned is the
name specified in the New MASTER FILE Name box.

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus Basics: MFDs and ZGFs

38

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Deleting MFDs
To permanently remove an MFD from your file system, follow these
steps:
1.

To locate the directory that contains the MFD you want to delete,
enter the cd DirectoryName command from an xterm
prompt.

2.

Use the ls command to list the contents of the directory.

3.

To delete the MFD, use the rm mfd_name.MFD command. File


names are case-sensitive.

Be Careful When You Remove MFDs


The rm command is permanent. If you accidentally remove an MFD that
contains a file you need, you can restore the file only if you or your system
administrator have made a backup copy.

Managing Internal Files in MFDs


You can use the File Manager to move internal files between MFDs,
cut, copy, paste, and rename internal files. You can also compress and
rename MFDs in the File Manager.
To display the Z-MAP Plus File Manager dialog box, select File
Manager in the Z-MAP Plus window.
Reclaiming Disk Space by Using the Compress Command
If you delete files from an MFD, the space the files occupied is not reclaimed until
you run the Compress option.

To see step-by-step instructions for using the File Manager, click the
Help button in the Z-MAP Plus File Manager dialog box.

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus Basics: MFDs and ZGFs

39

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Z-MAP Graphics Files (ZGFs)


Z-MAP Graphics Files (ZGFs) can contain the following types of
picture files:

Basemaps

Cross sections

Presentation maps

Three-dimensional displays

ZGFs contain the graphic information needed to draw the features of


maps and cross sections. The features determine how the cross section
or map appears in the Z-MAP Plus window display area or in a
hardcopy plot. Features contain components (also called primitives),
which have attributes.
Contours
1. Line
A. Line Style
B. Color

Labels
1. Text
A. Text Font
B. Color
2. Line (Hash Marks)
A. Line Style
B. Color

Color Scale
1. Line
A. Line Style
B. Color
2. Text
A. Text Font
B. Color
3. Polygon
A. Line Style
B. Color

North Arrow
1. Line
A. Line Style
B. Color
2. Symbol
A. Color

Scale Bar
1. Line
A. Line Style
B. Color
2. Text
A. Text Font
B. Color

Title Block
1. Line
A. Color
B. Line Style
2. Text
A. Color
B. Text Font

Legend
Feature
1. Component/Primitive
A. Attribute
B. Attribute

R2003.12.0

ZGF Features, Components, and Attributes

Z-MAP Plus Basics: MFDs and ZGFs

40

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

ZGFs have the following important features:

You can have only one ZGF attached to a Z-MAP Plus session at a
time.

ZGFs have a hierarchal structure that facilitates graphic editing.


One ZGF can store multiple pictures (representations of maps
or cross sections).
Each picture consists of one or more features, such as a
border, border labels, contours, and posted control points.
Each feature consists of one or more graphical components.
The possible components are lines, text, symbols, and
polygons. For example, the contours feature has a line
component (contour lines) and a text component (contour
labels).
Each component has one or more attributes, such as line style,
text font, and color.

R2003.12.0

ZGFs have no size restriction. A ZGF automatically increases in


size if you add pictures to it or add features to existing pictures.
Picture files can become enormous, so it is best to perform regular
maintenance.

You typically create a ZGF to accompany the data in a particular


MFD, and you give the ZGF a name that is similar to the MFD
name. For example, you could create Sample1.ZGF to accompany
Sample1.MFD.

Z-MAP Plus Basics: MFDs and ZGFs

41

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Attaching or Detaching ZGFs


To make the pictures in a ZGF available for read and write operations,
attach the ZGF to the Z-MAP Plus session. You can have only one ZGF
attached to the session at any one time. If you attach another ZGF, the
previously attached ZGF is detached automatically.
When to Detach a ZGF
Detach a ZGF to make it safely available for write operations in another Z-MAP Plus
session or before you run an operation on one of the ZGFs maps in the Overpost
Resolution (New) utility.
If you fail to detach the parent ZGF before you perform overpost resolution on a map,
other Z-MAP Plus programs and users who have write access to the ZGF can try to
write to the file at the same time your write operation runs, which may corrupt the
ZGF.

To attach or detach a ZGF, follow these steps:


1.

In the Z-MAP Plus window, select File Open ZGF Open/


Close or click the Attach ZGFs icon (shown at left).
The Open a GRAPHICS FILE dialog box appears and displays a
list of all the ZGFs stored in the sessions currently specified
directory paths. (For information about specifying directory paths,
see page 46.)

2.

Click the fully qualified name of the ZGF you want to attach.
(Since you can attach only one ZGF to the session at a time, the
selection you make replaces any previous selection.)
The highlighted ZGF (if any) is attached and the dialog box closes
immediately. The name of the attached ZGF appears in the status
area at the bottom of the window, as shown in the following
example.

status area

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus Basics: MFDs and ZGFs

42

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Creating ZGFs
To create a ZGF, follow these steps:
1.

Select File New Graphics File (ZGF) in the Z-MAP Plus


window. The Specify New GRAPHICS FILE Name dialog
appears.

2.

Enter a name for the ZGF in the Enter New GRAPHICS FILE
Name box. If you do not include the .ZGF extension at the end of
the file name, the program adds it automatically.

3.

Click OK. The ZGF is created, the Specify New GRAPHICS


FILE Name dialog box closes, and the name of the attached ZGF
appears in the status area at the bottom of the Z-MAP Plus
window.

ZGF Access
OpenWorks does not store ZGFs. You can import ZGFs in several Landmark
applications, such as SeisWorks and StratWorks.

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus Basics: MFDs and ZGFs

43

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Deleting ZGFs
To permanently delete a ZGF from your file system, follow these steps:
1.

To locate the directory that contains the ZGF you want to delete,
enter the cd DirectoryName command at an xterm prompt.

2.

To list the contents of the directory, enter the ls command.

3.

To delete a ZGF, enter the rm zgf_name.ZGF command.


Capitalize the file name correctlyfile names are case sensitive.

Warning: The rm Command Removes Files Permanently


The rm command is permanent. If you accidentally remove a ZGF that contains a
file you need, you can restore the file only if you or your system administrator have
made a backup copy.

Managing Internal Files in a ZGF


You can use the File Manager to transfer pictures between ZGFs, cut,
copy, paste, and rename pictures. You can also compress and rename
ZGFs.
To display the Z-MAP Plus File Manager dialog box, select File
Manager in the Z-MAP Plus window.
Reclaiming Disk Space with the Compress Option
If you delete pictures from a ZGF, the space the picture files occupied is not
reclaimed until you run the Compress operation.

For step-by-step instructions about using the File Manager, click the
Help button in the Z-MAP Plus File Manager dialog box.

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus Basics: MFDs and ZGFs

44

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

File and Picture Internal Organization


Although file (MFD) and picture (ZGF) data are stored in separate
system-level files, the two share a similar hierarchy and work
hand-in-hand in Z-MAP Plus.
Z-MAP Plus File Organization

External Files
MFDs

ZGFs

INTERNAL
FILES

GRID

DATA

INTERNAL
FILES

CNTR

FALT VERT

PICTURE1

PICTURE2

FIELDS

LINE NAME

PICTUREn

PICTURE
FEATURES

SHOT #

BORDERS

LABELS

CONTOURS ...

TEXT FONT COLOR LINE STYLE


etc.
ATTRIBUTES

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus Basics: MFDs and ZGFs

45

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Directory Paths
The directory you use to start Z-MAP Plus or OpenWorks is the
working directory (by entering the ZMAPPlus or startow
command). The program saves files to the working directory by default.
To specify paths to other frequently used directories, use the File
Directory Paths option. The files in these paths are included in the
dialog box lists that you use to specify input data. Directory Paths
values also determine the default location for output files you create.

Tabs in the Directory Paths Dialog Box


The important points to remember about directory paths are

You can define directory paths for seven types of files:

R2003.12.0

Master files (.MFD)


Graphic files (.ZGF)
Data files (.DAT)
Session files (.ZCLPARMS)
Format files (.FMT)
Color table files (.TBL)
Macro files (.ZCLMAC)

Each tab has settings to specify a maximum of four input


directories and one output directory for a specific file type. The
program uses the input directories to build lists of accessible input
files. New files are saved in the specified output directory for each
file type. (If you leave the output directory blank, the program
writes output files to the working directory.)

Macro files are an exception. Macro files have four input


directories (to locate user-supplied macros) and no output
directory.

Specify the directory paths at the beginning of each session to


establish the location of your files.

Z-MAP Plus Basics: Directory Paths

46

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Input File Formats


Data File Format
The quality of the maps you create is greatly dependent on the correct
format of the input data files. This topic overviews data file format and
defines the difference between fields and records in data files.
Z-MAP Plus imports data from ASCII disk files, which store the data in
fixed columns called fields.
Example of a Three Field
layout for an ASCII Disk
File
NOTE: An input disk file
would not have titles or
field headers. The
headings are shown for
reference only in this
example.
One record

One field

To create a map from a data file, the file must contain x (easting), y
(northing), and Z field data. The x,y coordinates provide the areal data
used to locate the point; the Z-field(s) can be used to provide many
other types of measurements, such as depth, thickness, and oil/water
contact. Essentially, Z-fields contain any quantifiable information you
choose.

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus Basics: Input File Formats

47

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

When preparing or importing data, it is important to remember the


following guidelines.

The fields of information must be arranged in fixed-column


positions.

Each record in the file can contain up to 255 characters.

The file can have up to 10 physical lines per logical record.

As a general rule, records within a file should not contain blanks,


since the import process can confuse blanks with null or ZNON
data values.

All numeric values must contain a decimal value or be rightjustified in their column position.

What are Physical Lines and Logical Records?


A physical line is a single line of data in the input ASCII disk file. A
logical record is a collection of fields that may occupy more than one
physical line in the file, but that relates to one x,y location.
one physical line
A logical record
containing two
physical lines

one field

Two Logical Records Occupying Four Physical Lines


To learn more about the format of files you can import to Z-MAP Plus,
see Appendix D. Import/Export in the Z-MAP Plus Reference Guide.
This appendix lists the format of all types of files stored in MFDs (such
as DATA, FALT, and VERT)

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus Basics: Input File Formats

48

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Format Groups
Format definitions for ASCII data file are known as format groups. To
import an ASCII file into Z-MAP Plus, you must specify an existing
format group that describes the type of data in the file. If an appropriate
format group does not exist, you must build one.
Overview of Format Groups
Format groups describe file structures rather than specific files, so you
can use them to import more than one input ASCII disk file.
Each format group supplies information including the following
information types:

Type of internal file being imported

Names of fields on the file

Column position of the fields in the input file

ZNON values

Format information for file listing and exporting


What is a ZNON Value?
True indeterminate values, called ZNONs, are indicated by a special number that
should be well outside the range of your data values. The default ZNON
value is 0.1E+31.

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus Basics: Input File Formats

49

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Where is the Format Group Located?


The format group may not exist for the data structure of the ASCII file
you want to use. If the format group exists, it can be stored in one of two
places:

At the top of the input ASCII disk file

In a format file

Format files are ASCII disk files that can contain one or more format
groups. You can build or edit format files with a standard system text
editor (such as vi, or emacs). They are useful when multiple users access
different standardized format groups repeatedly, or when you re-use the
same format groups many times for different input ASCII disk files.
Following is an example of a format file containing two format groups.
Format group
describing
fault data

Format group
describing
seismic data

For more information about format groups and how to work with them,
see the Z-MAP Plus Reference Guide section File.

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus Basics: Input File Formats

50

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Managing Data
You can quickly generate a surprising number of data files (each with
multiple fields) in Z-MAP Plus. It is important to know how to manage
large volumes of data. Some of the files may have been useful as
intermediate steps toward a final output, but then become obsolete.
Other files may be mistakes. This topic briefly describes some utilities
you can use to manage files and the fields they contain.

File Manager
Select File Manager or click the File Manager icon to display the
Z-MAP Plus File Manager dialog box. You can use the File Manager to
cut, copy, move, delete, and rename virtually every type of file or
picture you use in Z-MAP Plus, whether it is stored in an MFD, ZGF,
or in OpenWorks. You can also compress and rename MFDs and ZGFs
on-the-fly. The File Manager dialog box does not completely replace
the functionality of the File menu options described in the following
topics, but it greatly simplifies many common file management tasks.
Step-by-step instructions for using File Manager are accessible by
clicking the Help button in the Z-MAP Plus File Manager dialog box.

File Utilities
The File menu contains the following options for managing internal
files on attached MFDs, the attached ZGF, the scratch MFD, and on
OpenWorks: files

R2003.12.0

Copy Copies any type of internal file (such as DATA, GRID,


FALT, or VERT) from an MFD or the scratch file into another
MFD. You can also copy a picture from one ZGF to another.

Rename Renames an existing internal file in a ZGF or MFD by


copying it to a new file with a unique name, then deleting the
original file.

Delete Removes internal files of any type from an attached


MFD, attached ZGF, or the scratch file. This option does not delete
files from OpenWorks. To delete OpenWorks files, use the Map
Data Manage utility supplied with OpenWorks.

Compress Deleting internal files from an MFD or pictures


from a ZGF does not automatically reduce the size of the MFD or
ZGF. The unused space is not reclaimed until you use the File
Compress option.

Z-MAP Plus Basics: Managing Data

51

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

To View a List of Files in an MFD or ZGF


To view the results of a Copy, Rename, or Delete operation, select
File Info Master File Directory, click the Master File
Directory icon, or the File/Picture Information option. The system
window displays a list of the files in the attached MFD(s) or ZGF.

Field Utilities
To manage file fields, use the utilities accessible by selecting
Operations Data Operations Fields in the Z-MAP Plus
window-. The four most commonly used utilities are:

Copy Only Selected Fields


Enables you to produce a new file that contains only selected
fields, modified as specified.

Copy Original Fields and Add Additional Fields


Produces a new file that contains all the input file fields, plus the
selected fields modified as specified.

Rename Fields
Enables you to rename an existing field in a file.

Delete Fields
Deletes fields from an existing file.

To View a List of Fields in a Data File


To view the results of any of these actions, use the File Info
File Listing option. This option displays a list of a files fields and their
values to the system window. As you can imagine, this tool is very
handy in many situations when you need to check the contents of a data
file.

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus Basics: Managing Data

52

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Project Organization
Proper project organization can make it easier for you to find and access
project data and easier for others to maneuver through the project.
However, before looking at project organization, you must understand
the concept of a project directory. This topic familiarizes you with the
concept of a project directory, includes a review of two models for
project organization, and discusses project files in more detail.

Project Directory
Every project has a base directory called the project directory. The
project directory is the directory on your system you used to start
Z-MAP Plus or OpenWorks. The project directory is also known as the
working directory.
All of the disk files for a project do not have to exist in the project
directory, but the parameter files for the project (most notably
LASPRM.ZCL) must exist in this directory. When you start Z-MAP Plus
from this directory, the LASPRM.ZCL file and other parameter files are
used to ensure that Z-MAP Plus is configured to match your most recent
session. If no LASPRM.ZCL file exists in the project directory, the
program copies a blank LASPRM.ZCL file into the directory.
Session or Parameter Files
Most commands enable you to set variables that define or control the way the
command is executed. These variables are also called parameters. To make working
with the program easier, the program automatically stores your parameter settings
for each Z-MAP Plus session in the LASPRM.ZCL file, located in your project
directory. Next time you start a Z-MAP Plus session, the settings in this file are
restored.
Some users save special parameter files to define settings for a project. This can be
an easy way to keep consistency across the entire project. The following options can
be used to manage parameter or session files:
File New Session Creates a session file with the specified name.
File Open Session Opens a session file you previously saved.
File Save Session As Saves the current settings to a new session file.

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus Basics: Project Organization

53

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Finding the Project Directory


If you plan to start Z-MAP Plus from an xterm prompt, first use the
command cd (change directories) to move to the directory you want to
use as the project directory, then start Z-MAP Plus. You can use the
Unix command pwd to determine the present working directory.
If you start Z-MAP Plus from the OpenWorks Command Menu, the
project directory (or working directory) is the directory you used to start
OpenWorks. This is typically your home login directory.
If you are currently running Z-MAP Plus, you can find the project
directory from the Z-MAP Plus Command Menu by selecting
System Unix Window. A new xterm window appears and shows
your current directory at the prompt.
If you are unsure of the location of your Z-MAP Plus project directory,
ask your system administrator.
Managing Project Directories
It may be desirable to have a separate project directory for every
Z-MAP Plus project. This way, each project retains its own session
(parameter) files in a unique directory. However, if you do run
Z-MAP Plus from the same project directory for every project, you can
use the File Save Session As option to save your parameter settings
to a unique file name. Then you can restore the session files with the
Open Session option.

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus Basics: Project Organization

54

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Two Models for Organizing Projects


Here are two models for organizing Z-MAP Plus projects:

The simple model, where


-

all external disk files related to the project are collected in the
project directory
the project uses a single MFD for data and a single ZGF for
pictures, possibly with an OpenWorks connection, if desired

The complex model, where


-

external disk files are spread across the computers file


systems
the project uses multiple MFDs and ZGFs for data and picture
storage, possibly with an OpenWorks connection, if desired
There are innumerable gradations between the simple and complex
models, and you have complete control over which model you use.
Generally, using the simple model is easiest to manage. However, if you
are using the complex model, consider the following suggestions:

R2003.12.0

With a very large project, you may wish to subdivide it so that


MFDs contain only data for sub-areas, so you could have an MFD
for DATA files, one for FALT files, one for GRID files, and so on.

You may have more than one ZGF. For example, you may wish to
have one ZGF for working pictures and one for final pictures.

You may only have read access to many of the data files you need
for your project. These files can be stored in common disk
locations and be accessed by other Z-MAP Plus users. When
external disk files are spread across different directories, use the
options in the Directory Paths dialog box to specify the directory
locations.

Z-MAP Plus Basics: Project Organization

55

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Managing Project Files


Besides the OpenWorks database, there are two types of project files:

External disk files

Internal member files or picture files

This topic offers suggestions for managing both of these file types.
Managing External Project Disk Files
The following table lists and describes the files associated with a
Z-MAP Plus project:
File Name

Purpose

<filename>.MFD

Manages all types of Z-MAP Plus datasets

<filename>.ZGF

Manages Z-MAP Plus pictures

<filename>.FMT

Contains descriptions of datasets to be imported into


Z-MAP Plus

<filename>.DAT

Contains an ASCII dataset to import into Z-MAP Plus

<filename>.TBL

Contains a Z-MAP Plus color table file

<filename>.ZCLPARM
S

Contains a Z-MAP Plus parameter file

LASPRM.ZCL

Contains the parameter file accessed at the start of


each session

POSMEM4_0

Remembers your window positions from


session-to-session

VOLUMES.OUT

Contains output from the Z-MAP Plus volumetrics


operation

When you manage these files, consider the following suggestions:

R2003.12.0

Name these files with standard Unix file naming conventions, such
as no spaces in the file name, case-sensitive titles, long file names.
Use descriptive file names, so that others can tell what these files
contain.
Flowchart your project ahead of time, and plan all file names,
including external and internal files.
Do not change MFD, ZGF, ZCLPARMS, ZCLMAC, DAT, FMT,
or TBL file extensions on disk files. These are standard file
extensions that enable the system to display proper lists in dialog
boxes.

Z-MAP Plus Basics: Project Organization

56

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Managing Internal Files


Internal files consist of MFD member files and ZGF pictures. When
working with these files, consider the following suggestions:

An internal file automatically receives a version number if you do


not supply a unique name for it. Use a unique, descriptive name for
each file and avoid version numbers.

The program never destroys old internal files unless you instruct it
to do so. You should regularly delete files (perhaps daily during an
intense project) by selecting File Delete or by using the
Z-MAP Plus File Manager dialog box.

The newest files always appear at the bottom of list dialog boxes.
You can tell the order in which files were generated their position
in the list.

Always write intermediate files to the SCRATCH FILE, so that


you do not have to delete them later. They are automatically
deleted when you exit Z-MAP Plus or when you attach or detach
an MFD.

As you add and delete features from ZGF pictures or you delete
entire pictures, the disk space occupied by the deleted data is not
reclaimed until you compress the graphics file. For this reason,
ZGFs can become quite large. To reclaim unused disk space from
ZGFs, select File Compress (or click the File Manager
Compress MFD/ZGF icon).

Similarly, MFDs do not get smaller automatically. When you


delete an internal member file from an MFD, the disk space
occupied by the MFD stays the same. Use File Compress to
remove unused disk space from MFDs.
File Manager
Use the Z-MAP Plus File Manager dialog box to delete files and pictures, and to
compress MFDs and ZGFs.

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus Basics: Project Organization

57

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Z-MAP Plus and OpenWorks


If you use OpenWorks with Z-MAP Plus, you are directly connected
with the OpenWorks project data. You do not need to perform special
import and export operations to retrieve and send data to OpenWorks.
This topic briefly overviews OpenWorks and the connection between
OpenWorks and Z-MAP Plus.

Overview of OpenWorks
OpenWorks manages project data in tables, and includes utilities for
importing, exporting, managing, and displaying the data.
An Oracle relational data structure is the foundation of OpenWorks. The
Oracle database is composed of tables that group related information.
You can join tables by common fields, extending the number of
relationships you can establish between datasets.
PDEN_HEADER
PDEN_HEADER - Associates production with
with object production
that reportedrecord
volume
Associates
with producer.
COLUMN NULL

DATA

PDEN_ID

NUM

CHAR

PDEN_TYPE

REFERENCE

The PDEN_HEADER table is the parent of:


PDEN_VOL_REC
PDEN_GAS_ANALYSIS
VC_ZONE

VC_ZONE

VC_ZONE
PDEN_GAS_ANALYSIS
PDEN_VOL_REC
Production volume record over a
specific time.

They share the PDEN_ID key field


which ties them together.

COLUMN

NULL

DATA

REFERENCE

PDEN_ID

NUM

PDN_HEADER

PERIOD_
TYPE

CHAR

VOL_END_
DATE

OpenWorks Tables Link Together with Key Fields

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus Basics: Z-MAP Plus and OpenWorks

58

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

OpenWorks stores four kinds of data that you can use in Z-MAP Plus:

Pointsets Contain X, Y, and Z-value fields. Pointsets are similar


to Z-MAP Plus DATA files. Z-MAP Plus VERT (digitized lines)
and DWEL (digitized well traces) files are also stored in
OpenWorks as pointsets.
Building a DWEL File from OpenWorks Wells
If you have an OpenWorks connection established in Z-MAP Plus, when you
select the Features Deviated Wells Select Data option, Z-MAP Plus
reads position logs from the OpenWorks database.

Grids Grids are evenly distributed points that are estimates of


an attribute (Z-value) over an area. Grids are similar to GRID files
in Z-MAP Plus.

Faults Faults define fault polygons or lines associated with a


Surface in OpenWorks. Faults are similar to FALT files in
Z-MAP Plus.

Contours Contours are digitized in a two-field format. Contour


files are similar to CNTR files in Z-MAP Plus.
CNTR Files and OpenWorks
In order to delete a CNTR file from OpenWorks, you must use SQL (the
database language) commands. For this reason, file management may be
difficult.
When you store CNTR files in OpenWorks, also remember that CNTR file
sizes expand when they are imported to OpenWorks.

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus Basics: Z-MAP Plus and OpenWorks

59

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Using the Z-MAP Plus - OpenWorks Connection


If you run Z-MAP Plus in conjunction with OpenWorks, Z-MAP Plus
and OpenWorks are interactive. This topic describes how to perform
these tasks:

Selecting input files from the current OpenWorks project

Saving files to the current OpenWorks project

For information about starting Z-MAP Plus from the OpenWorks


Command Menu, see page 7.
Selecting Input files from OpenWorks
In Z-MAP Plus, you can perform functions by using input pointsets,
grids, faults, and contours that are stored in MFDs or in the OpenWorks
project.

Z-MAP Plus
file listing

OpenWorks
file listing

The upper list contains data files stored in an MFD. The lower list
contains the available data in the current OpenWorks project. The
OpenWorks data is in a table with the key field name at the top of the
columns. Here is an explanation of some OpenWorks key field terms:

R2003.12.0

Geo Name Specification of the geological surface or


stratigraphic unit associated with the feature in OpenWorks.

Geo Type Indication of whether the Geo Name is a surface or


stratigraphic unit, or fault.

Data Set Name Name of the feature, analogous to an internal


file name in Z-MAP Plus.

Z-MAP Plus Basics: Z-MAP Plus and OpenWorks

60

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Attribute Descriptive field, which may be used in addition to


the Data Set Name. For grids, it represents the Z-field in a
Z-MAP Plus dataset that was used to generate the grid.

Type Internal file type of the feature.

Interp Assigned interpreter in the OpenWorks database.

SORT ORDER and MODE Hierarchal sort order for the


OpenWorks part of the input list. Default means the list is sorted
by Geo Name. To change the sort order, select Tools OW Sort
Order in the Z-MAP Plus window.

Saving Files to OpenWorks


You can create data (such as pointsets, grids, faults, and contours) and
store the data files in the OpenWorks project. The following example
shows the OpenWorks option being chosen as the destination for a file
created in Z-MAP Plus.

Once you select OpenWorks to store the output, the OW button next to
the Output File Name option becomes active. When you click the OW
button, an OpenWorks Output Specification dialog box appears:

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus Basics: Z-MAP Plus and OpenWorks

61

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

With this dialog box, you can fill out the information that OpenWorks
requires to properly store the grid, pointset, contour or fault data in the
database. Defaults are based on the input data. For example, the Map
Data Set Name defaults to a letter that represents the type of data output,
a time stamp, and the first part of the input data set name. Once stored
in the database, you have immediate access to the data. The previous
dialog box showed an example of storing a pointset in the OpenWorks
database. As you can see from the following picture, the pointset
becomes immediately available as potential input for another
Z-MAP Plus operation.

Managing OpenWorks Files in the File Manager


The File Manager is designed to make it simple and fast to manage OpenWorks
files. Use the File Manager to move, copy, cut, or delete files stored in OpenWorks.

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus Basics: Z-MAP Plus and OpenWorks

62

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Contour Map Workflow


This section describes the steps in the following example workflow:
Start Z-MAP Plus (pg 64).
Select File Directory Paths.
In the dialog box that appears, set the paths for master files (MFDs),
graphic files (ZGFs), and source data files (pg 65).
Create an MFD (File New Master File (MFD) or attach/detach up to 4
existing MFDs (File Open MFD Open/Close) (pg 65).
Select File Import ASCII Import.
If you are creating an MFD, import one or more source files. This is the
data used to create the map. If you attached an existing MFD, the data
files may already be available (pg 66).
Create a grid based on the data by using a gridding method from the
Modeling menu (pg 67).
Create a graphic file (File New Graphics File (ZGF) or attach an
existing graphics file (File Open ZGF Open/Close) (pg 72).
Select File New Basemap
to create a blank basemap (pg 73).
Select Features Basemap
to add features to the map, such as North Arrow and border (pg 84).
Display data by using Features menu options.
To see the well symbols, choose either X,Y,Z Point Data or Deviated Wells.
To see seismic lines, choose 2D or 3D Seismic (pg 85).
Select Features Contouring
to create and view the contour map of the grid (pg 85).
Exit Z-MAP Plus by selecting File Exit. (pg 85).

R2003.12.0

Contour Map Workflow

63

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Workflow Steps
1. Start Z-MAP Plus
You can run Z-MAP Plus in standalone mode (without running
OpenWorks) or in conjunction with OpenWorks:
Standalone

To run Z-MAP Plus in standalone mode, do not


display the OpenWorks Command Menu. Display the
Z-MAP Plus Command Menu and select
Applications Z-MAP Plus from the Z-MAP Plus
Command Menu. If you need more information about
this step, consult your system administrator.

OpenWorks

To use Z-MAP Plus with OpenWorks, select


Applications Z-MAP Plus/PowerView from the
OpenWorks Command Menu. The Z-MAP Plus
Command Menu appears.

If you run Z-MAP Plus with OpenWorks, dialog boxes appear and
prompt you to specify a project and interpreter (if you do not already
have these settings specified). Once these settings are made,
Z-MAP Plus opens. In each dialog box, highlight your choice, then
click OK:

R2003.12.0

Contour Map Workflow: Workflow Steps

64

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Managing Z-MAP Plus Files Stored in OpenWorks


Use OpenWorks file management commands to move or delete any Z-MAP Plus
files stored in OpenWorks. For more details, select File Management Map
Data Manager in OpenWorks.

2. Set Directory Paths


Before you begin a session, it is best to set directory paths so the
program can make the appropriate source files accessible and will know
where to store files you create.

To set directory paths for the various types of Z-MAP Plus files, select
File Directory Paths in the Z-MAP Plus window.

3. Attach a Master File


You can either create a master file (MFD) (File New Master file
(MFD)) or attach an existing MFD (File Open MFD Open/
Close). You can attach a maximum of four MFDs in a session. The
MFDs contain the information you need to construct a map.
To attach existing MFDs, follow these steps:
1.

Attach an existing MFD by selecting File Open


MFD Open/Close, or by clicking the Attach MFDs icon:
The Open/Close MASTER FILES dialog box appears.

R2003.12.0

Contour Map Workflow: Workflow Steps

65

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

2.

Highlight MFDs in the dialog box list (to a maximum of four). If


you select more than four MFDs, only the first four are used.

3.

Click OK to attach the MFDs and close the dialog box.

4.

The name of the attached MFDs appear in the status area.

Detaching MFDs
To detach an MFD, use the same steps, but click the highlighted file
name to detach it; then click OK to close the dialog box.

4. Select the Data File


Select the ASCII file that contains the data you want to map or model,
by selecting File Import ASCII (Import). In the IMPORT
FILES dialog box that appears, locate the file, specify its format, and
give it an internal name.

R2003.12.0

Contour Map Workflow: Workflow Steps

66

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

5. Create a Grid
This example uses Point Gridding Plus to create a grid. Select
Modeling Point Gridding Plus or click the Point Gridding Plus
icon to display the Point Gridding Plus dialog box.
You must grid x,y,z data to accomplish these tasks:

Draw a contour map

Compute volumes

Use surface-to-surface operations

Plot cross sections


In this example, we use the default settings for Point Gridding Plus
parameters. This should give you a good overview of the general
gridding process. More detailed explanations on customizing Point
Gridding Plus, gridding terminology, parameters, and gridding faults is
provided in More About Grids on page 87.
To generate a default grid in Point Gridding Plus, complete these steps:
1.

Select the input file. We will use a data file as our source, but Point
Gridding Plus can also use a control grid as an input grid.

2.

Select a Z-field to grid.

3.

Select a fault file, if the surface is faulted.

4.

Specify the output file names and destinations.

5.

Apply Point Gridding Plus to generate the grid.

To begin building a grid, select Modeling Point Gridding Plus in


the Z-MAP Plus window.

R2003.12.0

Contour Map Workflow: Workflow Steps

67

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

The Point Gridding Plus dialog box appears.


A. Select input file. Input
file can be a pointset or a
control grid.
B. Select
Z-field
C. Select fault file
(if needed).

D. Name output
grid and MFD to
store new file.

E. Apply to build the grid.

Point Gridding Plus Basic Steps


In Point Gridding Plus, you can grid either data point files or control
grid files. The following example grids a pointset file.

R2003.12.0

Contour Map Workflow: Workflow Steps

68

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

A. Select the Input File


You can use Point Gridding Plus to grid a pointset or to re-grid an
existing grid. This example uses a DATA (pointset) file as the source for
the control points in the output grid.
To select the file that contains the Z-field to grid, follow these steps:
1.

Click the Control Point File: Select button in the Basic tab of the
Point Gridding Plus dialog box. The Select Input File dialog box
appears.

2.

Select the name of a pointset file (DATA file) to use. You can select
one of the pointsets in the attached MFDs (from the top list) or an
available pointset from the OpenWorks project (from the bottom
list).
The dialog box closes automatically, and you return to the POINT
GRIDDING PLUS dialog box, which shows the name of the
selected file in the Control Point File box.
Using Control Grids
Control grids are used to filter node values for existing grids. To learn more
about them, see Control Grids on page 137.

R2003.12.0

Contour Map Workflow: Workflow Steps

69

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

B. Select the Z Field to Grid


You can create a grid of a single Z field. To select the Z-field to use,
click the Z-Field Name button in the Basics tab of the Point Gridding
Plus dialog box. Select a z field from the drop-down list. This list of Z
fields is automatically generated from the data file you attached in the
preceding step.

C. Select a Fault File


To include fault data in the grid, specify the file that contains the
digitized faults by following these steps:
1.

Click the Fault File Name: Select button.


The Select Input File dialog box appears.

2.

In the Select Input File dialog box, select the name of a fault file to
use. You can select a fault from from one of the attached MFDs
(top list) or a fault file from the OpenWorks project (bottom list).
The dialog box disappears immediately. You return to the Point
Gridding Plus dialog box, which display the specified fault file
name appears in the Fault File Name box.

R2003.12.0

Contour Map Workflow: Workflow Steps

70

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Point Gridding Plus handles faults as either opaque barriers to the


gridding process (expanded), or as non-opaque barriers
(fault-filled). The method Point Gridding Plus uses depends on the
data structure of the input fault file.
For this example, we assume that faults are opaque barriers to the
gridding process. For information about handling faulted surfaces,
including detail about treating faults as non-opaque, see Gridding
Normal Faults on page 125.

D. Enter an Output Internal File Name(s)


To save the new grid under a unique file name, follow these steps:
1.

Select the location for storing the new grid by clicking the Output
Location button and selecting an option from the drop-down list.

2.

Enter a name for the grid in the Output Grid Name box.

Other Outputs
You can use Point Gridding Plus to generate two other types of faulted
grids:

Expanded Fault Grid


Fault Filled Grid
Available Output Grid Types
The contents of the input fault file (Fault File Name) determine the types of output
grids you can create. If you select a fault file that contains only segment ID, x, and
y coordinate fields, you can create only a centerline fault in the output grid. If the
source grid file also contains throw, heave and dip values, you can produce
expanded and/or fault filled grids in addition to the centerline faulted grid.

This example covers generating a centerline fault grid. To generate


expanded and fault filled grids, use the Other Outputs tab. (For
information about these alternative fault grids, see Gridding Normal
Faults on page 125.)

R2003.12.0

Contour Map Workflow: Workflow Steps

71

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

E. Apply the Gridding Process


To generate your grid, click the Apply button at the bottom of the dialog
box. Watch the system window to see the PROCESSING FINISHED
PLEASE CONTINUE message when the gridding process is complete
:

6. Attach a Graphics File (ZGF)


Z-MAP Graphic Files (ZGFs) contain the pictures (maps and cross
sections) that have been created and stored in them. To make a ZGF
accessible for displaying or saving pictures, you must attach it to the
current Z-MAP Plus session.
To attach an existing ZGF, follow these steps:
1.

Select File Open ZGF Open/Close in the Z-MAP Plus


window or click the Attach ZGFs icon.
The Open a Graphics File dialog box appears.

2.

R2003.12.0

Highlight the name of a ZGF to attach.

Contour Map Workflow: Workflow Steps

72

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

As soon as you highlight an option, the dialog box closes


automatically, and the name of the attached ZGF appears in the
status area.

To attach a new, blank ZGF, follow the instructions on page 43.

7. Create a Blank Basemap


Before you can create a map, you must create a new, blank basemap. A
new basemap is like a blank canvasit defines the dimensions and scale
of the new map. Typically, you add a border to the map as soon as you
create it, to visually define the area of interest.
To create a basemap, complete three basic steps:
1.

Name the map, select the Area of Interest type (AOI type), and
scale type.

2.

Define the dimensions and size of the basemap.

3.

Generate the blank basemap.

Using the File New Basemap option, display a blank basemap in


the Z-MAP Plus window. The NEW MAP Creation dialog box appears.
(You will not see the basemap until you add features to it, as described
on page 84.)

All of the three basic steps are parameters to the NEW MAP Creation
dialog box. Notice that the first field is red, indicating that you must
supply values for this parameter.

R2003.12.0

Contour Map Workflow: Workflow Steps

73

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

1. Name the Map and Select AOI and Scale Type


As the first step in creating a map, specify three values:

Name the map.


Specify an AOI type.
Specify a scale type.

In the NEW MAP Creation dialog box, click the Picture Name, AOI
Types and Scale Types button.

The Picture NAME, AOI & Scale Type dialog box appears.

Naming the Map


In the Enter New Picture Name box, enter a name for the map. The
name can have a maximum of 64 characters and can include internal
blanks. Use a descriptive name for the picture, to help identify the map
contents.

R2003.12.0

Contour Map Workflow: Workflow Steps

74

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Specifying an AOI Type


The AOI Type parameter defines how the area of interest (AOI) on the
map is calculated. You define the specific coordinates of the AOI setting
in the next step.
Use the AOI Type parameter to indicate:

whether the AOI is projected, and

whether you plan to define the AOI in terms of x, y coordinates or


latitude and longitude.
Click the AOI Type button and choose an option from the drop-down
list:

XY (default setting) Define the AOI with northing/easting


values (x, y minimum and maximum coordinates). The AOI border
is parallel to northing and easting, so the map is rectangular or
square. This option does not store projection information with the
map.

XYPROJECTED Define the AOI relative to a Cartesian


coordinate system. The AOI border is parallel to northing and
easting, so the map is rectilinear. This option does store projection
information with the map.

LATLONGPROJECTED Define the AOI in terms of latitude


and longitude. The AOI border is parallel to latitude and longitude,
so the map has curved borders. This option stores projection
information with the map.
XY Maps
When you use an AOI Type of XY, it does not mean that your map is not defined
within a coordinate reference system (i.e. projection system). If you place data on
the map that is associated with x, y values, and if the x, y values lie within a
coordinate reference system, the map is projected. Z-MAP Plus, however, is not
aware of the projection system. Because of this, two limitations of the XY AOI
Type are:

You cannot have a curved border parallel to latitude/longitude.

You cannot add latitude/longitude labels around your map border.

R2003.12.0

Contour Map Workflow: Workflow Steps

75

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Specifying a Scale Type


You set a scale at which to draw your map so it corresponds
proportionally with real world distances. With the Scale Type option,
you specify how you are planning to set the scale. You define the actual
scale measurements in the next step.

ABSOLUTE indicates you plan to use a straight ratio. One unit


on the map equals a specified number of similar units on the
ground. For example, 1:100000.

UNITSPERINCH Indicates you plan to set the scale in both


the x and y directions so that one inch on your map is equal to a
number (n) of engineering units (i.e. units of the x, y values in your
data) on the ground. With this scale type, the x, y scales do not
have to be equal, but they usually are. If the Units parameter on the
Tools System Switches dialog box is set to Metric, this field is
the equivalent of UNITSPERCM.
Know the Value of the x, y Units
If you use the UNITSPERINCH Scale Type, Z-MAP Plus does not know the
length of your x, y units. You must know the value of the x or y engineering
unit to accurately determine the scale of your map. For example, if you set the
Scale Type to UNITSPERINCH, and specify a scale of 2000 units-per-inch,
the resulting scale would be:

Tools System Switches Units ENGLISH


one in. = 2000 ft. if the engineering units (x, y values) were one ft. in length,
one in. = 2000m. if the units were in meters.

Tools System Switches Units METRIC


one cm. = 2000 ft. if the engineering units (x, y values) were one ft. in length
one cm. = 2000m. if the units were in meters.
If you set the Scale Type to ABSOLUTE or MAPTOGROUND, you can
specify the value of an engineering unit.

R2003.12.0

MAPTOGROUND Indicates you plan to use a ratio, where a


specified number of map units are equal to a specified number of
ground units. You define the map units and the ground units. Use
MAPTOGROUND if you want a specific scale (such as
1 inch = 500 feet, for example), and your engineering units are not
consistent with the scale units (meters, for example). In this case,
you cannot use the UNITSPERINCH option. Instead, you can use
the MAPTOGROUND option, indicate a scale of 1 inch (map) =
500 feet (ground), and that your data units are feet.
Z-MAP Plus makes the necessary conversions.

Contour Map Workflow: Workflow Steps

76

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

2. Define Dimensions and Size


The settings for the AOI, offsets, and scales work together to determine
the dimension and size of your plot.

Area of interest (AOI) is the area actually taken up by your map.


For XY AOI Type, it is defined by two points located at
X Minimum, Y Minimum and X Maximum, Y Maximum.

Offset is the area surrounding the map where you would normally
put mapping marginalia, such as the map title and the North arrow.

Scale sizes the AOI in relation to real world units.

The AOI and map scale values combine to define the size of your map.
These two values combine with the offset values to determine the total
plot size of the picture.

R2003.12.0

Contour Map Workflow: Workflow Steps

77

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

The following picture illustrates these concepts.


Top
Offset = 1"
X Maximum, Y Maximum

AOI
Left
Offset = 1"

Right
Offset = 1"

X Minimum, Y Minimum
Cut-line
Bottom
Offset = 4"

Use the following procedure to calculate plot width (or height).

(X Maximum - X Minimum) x Map Scale = Map Width (width of


shaded area in the picture)

Map Width + Left Offset + Right Offset = Plot Width (width


between dashed cut lines in the picture)
Once Set, You Cannot Edit These Parameters
Once you set sizing parameters and OK New Map Creation, you cannot go back
and change them later. If you set a parameter incorrectly and have already clicked
OK in the New Map Creation dialog box, you must start over with a new picture.

R2003.12.0

Contour Map Workflow: Workflow Steps

78

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Define the Area of Interest


X and Y Minimums and Maximums define the AOI of a map as follows:

X Minimum, Y Minimum defines the bottom left corner of the


map.

X Maximum, Y Maximum defines the top right corner of the map.

There are two ways to define these AOI parameters for your picture:

setting them from an existing source


setting your own parameters

Setting AOI from an Existing Source


Setting the AOI from an existing source is an excellent way to make sure
the AOI is consistent with the range of your data. You can use existing
GRID, DATA, CNTR (contour) file types, or existing pictures, to
calculate X and Y Minimums and Maximums, and use these values for
the AOI of a new map. This method is particularly useful when you are
unsure of the x, y range of your data.
1.

To set the AOI from an existing source, click AOI from GRID,
DATA, PICTURE or CONTOURS in the NEW MAP Creation
dialog box.

2.

In the Select AOI Source TYPE dialog box that appears, click the
following buttons.
GRID Choose an existing GRID file from a list.
DATA Choose an existing DATA, FALT or VERT file from a
list.
PICTURE Choose a picture from an existing ZGF.
CONTOUR Choose an existing CNTR file from a list.
The dialog box closes automatically. To change the settings, repeat
the process and select another AOI Source Type before you click
OK to close the NEW MAP Creation dialog box.

R2003.12.0

Contour Map Workflow: Workflow Steps

79

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Specifying a Custom AOI


The second way to set up an AOI for a new basemap is to establish
custom Minimum and Maximum values. This method is very useful to
map a subset of the data file.
Click the AOI from user input: Offsets, and Scale button to display a
dialog box for specifying the AOI parameter values.
Like AOI minimums and maximums, you specify offsets in the
LIMITS, Offsets, and Scale dialog box.
Enter the desired
values in the
Minimum and
Maximum fields.

Special Notes for LATLONGPROJECTED AOI Type


If you selected an AOI Type of LATLONGPROJECTED (see page 75), consider
the following points when you define the AOI for your map:

If you also choose to set AOI from an existing source, the source file must
contain latitude and longitude fields.

R2003.12.0

The LIMITS, Offsets, and Scale dialog box asks you to specify the AOI
Minimums and Maximums in longitude and latitude, rather than x, y.

Contour Map Workflow: Workflow Steps

80

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Setting the Offsets


Offset values are measured in plotter units (inches or centimeters) and
they delineate the area of your map that is outside the border of the
map. This area is generally used for title blocks, map titles, scale bars,
north arrows, and other marginalia. The default offset values are four
inches on the bottom and one inch on all remaining sides. If the System
Switches Units are set to METRIC, the default offsets are 10cm on the
bottom and 2.5cm on all remaining sides.
Like AOI minimums and maximums, you specify offsets in the
LIMITS, Offsets, and Scale dialog box.

Set Top, Bottom,


Left, and Right
offsets here.

R2003.12.0

Contour Map Workflow: Workflow Steps

81

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Setting the Scale


The scaling parameter fields change according to which AOI Type and
Scale Type you chose when you named the picture.
Examples of the LIMITS, Offsets, and Scales dialog box showing
different scaling parameters appear in the following examples.

AOI Type = XY
Scale Type = UNITSPERINCH

AOI Type = XY
Scale Type =
MAPTOGROUND

AOI Type = XY
Scale Type = ABSOLUTE

R2003.12.0

Contour Map Workflow: Workflow Steps

82

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

The following table describes each of the scaling parameters that might
appear on the LIMITS, Offsets, and Scales dialog box.
Parameter

Description

Absolute Scale

A positive real number n in the equation, 1:n, where one map


unit is equal to n similar units on the ground.

X Scale

Used only with UNITSPERINCH AOI Type. A positive real


number n in the following equation: 1 plotter unit = n
engineering units.

Y Scale

Used only with UNITSPERINCH AOI Type. A positive real


number n in the following equation: 1 plotter unit = n
engineering units.

Data Units

The units of your x, y values in your data sets.

Ratio 1 map: n
Ground Units

A positive real number n in the equation, 1 map unit = n ground


units. Map Units and Ground Units must also be defined (see
next two rows of the table). This parameter is only used with an
AOI Type of MAPTOGROUND.

Ground Units

In the equation 1 map unit = n ground units, this defines what the
ground unit is (i.e. inches, feet, meters, etc.). This parameter is
only used with an AOI Type of MAPTOGROUND.

Map Units

In the equation 1 map unit = n ground units, this defines what the
map unit is (i.e. inches, feet, meters, etc.). This parameter is only
used with an AOI Type of MAPTOGROUND.

The next table shows AOI Type on the left, Scale Type on the right, and
resulting scaling parameters that appear in the LIMITS, Offsets, and
Scale dialog box.
Scale Type
AOI Type

R2003.12.0

ABSOLUTE

UNITSPERINCH

MAPTOGROUND

XY

Absolute Scale
Data Units

X Scale
Y Scale

Data Units
Ratio 1 Map: n Ground Units
Ground Units
Map Units

XYPROJECTED

Absolute Scale

X Scale
Y Scale

Ratio 1 Map: n Ground Units


Ground Units
Map Units

LATLONGPROJECTED

Absolute Scale

X Scale
Y Scale

Ratio 1 Map: n Ground Units


Ground Units
Map Units

Contour Map Workflow: Workflow Steps

83

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

3. Generate the Blank Basemap


Once you set the AOI type, scale type, AOI minimum and maximum
values, picture offset, and actual scale dimensions, you can generate a
blank basemap.
Click OK in the NEW MAP Creation dialog box to create the map. The
new map becomes the active picture. Since you can only have one active
picture at a time, any picture that was attached before you clicked OK
is no longer active.
To verify that the new picture is active, review the status area in the main
window, as shown in the following example.

The new picture name


appears here.

Automatically Displaying a New Picture


If the picture does not appear automatically, you can use the Tools System
Switches Display Picture When Opened option to automatically update the
display. Set the Display Picture When Opened option to YES.

8. Draw the Map


Select Features Basemap, and use the Basemap Features dialog box
that appears for adding features to the blank basemap. As you select
features in the Basemap Features dialog box, the features appear on the
map. You can add the following types of features: a border, north arrow,
northing/easting labels, title block, latitude/longitude labels, scale bars,
and index map.

In the Basemap Features dialog box, select the tab for the feature type
you want to add. The tab appears in front of the dialog box. To edit
feature settings, select the Post check box. The settings are activated so
you can make changes.
As you edit each feature type, an asterisk appears beside the feature
name on the tab label. If you click OK or Apply All at the bottom of
the dialog box, all features with asterisks are drawn on the map.

R2003.12.0

Contour Map Workflow: Workflow Steps

84

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

9. Display Data
To see well locations on the map, use one of the following menu
options.
Features XYZ Point Data

Displays the location of the wells


used to generate the map.

Features Deviated Wells

Displays the well symbols for


deviated wells on the map.

To view seismic lines on the map, use one of these menu options:
Features 2D Seismic

Displays the location of the seismic lines


used to generate the map.

Features 3D Seismic

Displays the lines from a 3D seismic


survey data file.

10. View the Contours


Now that you have added features to the basemap, add the contours. To
generate and display the contour map, select Features Contouring.
When the calculation is complete, the contour map appears in the
Z-MAP Plus window. You can edit features of the contour map to
better reflect your interpretation by using either the Edit Data
Editor option or the Edit Graphics Editor option.

11. Exit from Z-MAP Plus


To end a Z-MAP Plus session, always use the File Exit option. If
you end the session by closing the X Windows shell (on a Unix
system), Z-MAP Plus continues to run in the background. You will
have trouble starting the next Z-MAP Plus session.

R2003.12.0

Contour Map Workflow: Workflow Steps

85

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Getting More Information


This topic is an overview of the steps for creating a typical contour
map. Each step has many other potential controls. To learn more about
the subjects mentioned here, see the online documentation, including
these documents:
Document

Contents

Z-MAP Plus Reference


Guide

Contains extensive information about each option in the


Z-MAP Plus menus. The section titles match the main
menu options.
Select Help Online Manuals Reference
Manual in the Z-MAP Plus window.

Z-MAP Plus
Installation and
Configuration Guide

Designed for System Administrators, this guide


describes the details of installing, licensing, and
configuring Z-MAP Plus.
Select Help Installation and Configuration from
the Z-MAP Plus Command Menu.

ZMAP Plus Utilities


Reference Guide

Several utility programs accompany Z-MAP Plus to


help you get the most from the program. Each utility is
fully described in the utilities guide.
Select Help Mapping Launcher Utilities from the
Z-MAP Plus Command Menu.

Macro Reference
Manual for
Z-MAP Plus / ZCL

Most Z-MAP Plus functionality is driven by underlying


macros. This guide is an alphabetical listing of all the
supported macros. The parameter settings for each
macro are described in detail. This document is a
reference for advanced users who want to customize
Z-MAP Plus operations.
Select Help Online Manuals Macros Manual
in the Z-MAP Plus window.

R2003.12.0

Contour Map Workflow: Getting More Information

86

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

More About Grids

Overview
Gridding, or surface modeling, is the most widely used interpretive
function in Z-MAP Plus. Grids are generated, refined, and edited in
Z-MAP Plus. Grids are produced in order to achieve even distribution
of points which makes it possible for the computer to model data in a
variety of ways.
This section contains these topics:
Gridding Overview explains what grids are, basic grid terminology,
how the program uses grids, and gives you a brief introduction to the
gridding methods.
Gridding Basics describes the three steps the software uses to
calculate grid node values.
Point Gridding Plus Workflow is a step-by-step procedure to put the
concepts you learned in Gridding Overview and Gridding Basics into
a practical context.
More Gridding Parameters defines the different settings you can
make to control the creation of a grid.
Gridding Normal Faults explains the process of gridding opaque and
non-opaque faults within your map.
Control Grids shows how to use an existing grid to set up or control
an aspect of a new grid. For example, to ensure two grids share an
identical area of interest (AOI), you could use a control grid.
Using Data Hulls describes how to control the way nodes appear at
the grid edge. Edges are often far from the data points, and the
extrapolation used to assign values to those nodes is often useless. Data
hulls help eliminate extrapolated edge nodes.
Summary of Gridding Parameters brings together all the Point
Gridding Plus parameter definitions in a quick reference table format.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids

87

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Gridding Overview
A grid is a set of points that are regularly distributed and are estimates
of some attribute over an area.
Grids are usually generated from a control point data set. Control points
are a set of points that are randomly distributed and are samples of some
attribute over an area. Some examples of control point datasets include:

well top picks and other borehole-related data

2D and 3D seismic data

bathymetry data

gravity and magnetic surveys

existing contour maps


The following example shows six randomly located samples of an
attribute and 35 associated grid nodes with calculated values over the
area of interest (AOI).

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Gridding Overview

88

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Grid Terminology
The following terms are commonly used to describe grids:

grid nodes Individual estimated values that cumulatively make


up the entire grid. Nodes are evenly distributed on the x,y axis of
the map area. Node values are calculated based on a variety of
algorithms.

grid columns and rows Grid nodes are arranged in columns


and rows, and a specific grid node can be uniquely identified by
the column and row it resides in.

grid cells The region bounded by four grid nodes. Many


computer functions are performed on a cell by cell basis.

grid increment The spacing between columns (x-inc) and


rows (y-inc) of grid nodes. The grid increment is a parameter that
you can set. The size of the grid increment determines the size of
geologic feature that can be represented within the grid node
spacing.
Grid Node

Grid Row 2

Grid Cell

y-inc

x-inc
Grid Column 3

Grid Terminology

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Gridding Overview

89

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

How Grids are Used in Z-MAP Plus


Grids are used throughout Landmark products to perform many tasks.
Examples of Z-MAP Plus functionality that depend on grids include the
following tasks:

Generating contours on a map


Drawing grid profiles (cross sections)
Performing grid operations (such as subtracting two surfaces)
Volumetrics
Back interpolationthe ability to query the grid at any location
and determine a reasonable value

None of these functions work with randomly distributed control point


datasets. The datasets must always be gridded first.
To achieve the weighted distribution of values in a grid, estimated
values must be calculated from the randomly distributed control point
datasets. Z-MAP Plus provides advanced capabilities for calculating
these estimated values.

Gridding Methods
Z-MAP Plus has 13 different gridding methods, and gives you the ability
to create a custom grid for filtering existing grids. Each gridding method
has its strengths. The following topics offer a brief introduction to the
gridding methods. All gridding methods are accessible from the
Modeling menu.
Point Gridding Plus
Point Gridding Plus is a powerful gridding method for creating grids
from point data (x,y,z data). Point Gridding Plus offers enhanced
geologic accuracy of structure models while it honors your input fault
geometry to create more accurate horizon models. Used in combination
with Profile Contouring, Point Gridding Plus provides high quality maps
of faulted surfaces.
You can use Point Gridding Plus to perform these tasks:

R2003.12.0

grid randomly distributed point data (usually well or seismic data)


with or without faults

build extremely accurate models of faulted horizons, given fault


geometry data

model the fault faces cutting a horizon, given fault geometry data.

More About Grids: Gridding Overview

90

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

You can grid the following data types:

wells and drill holes

seismic surveys

depth soundings

gravity and aeromagnetic surveys

existing contour maps


Point Gridding Plus is used for all the gridding examples in this guide.
Point Gridding
The predecessor to Point Gridding Plus, Point Gridding uses nearby
x,y,z values to calculate values of nodes in a grid. Any data that has x,y
locations and would be reasonable to contour by hand can be gridded
with this option. In Point Gridding, faults can be used as barriers.
Contour Gridding
Contour Gridding is also known as Contour to Grid (CTOG). Contour
gridding builds a grid using digitized contours as input. Because it
expects digitized contours, this option takes advantage of the contour
information content to produce the grid faster and honor the contours
exactly. Faults can be used as barriers.
Trendform Gridding
Trendform Gridding creates a two-dimensional grid-based surface
model, and imposes geologic constraints on the models and the contour
maps produced from them. Other gridding options do not have the
ability to impose geologic constraints.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Gridding Overview

91

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Line Gridding Plus


Line Gridding Plus uses line data such as seismic, magnetic, or
bathymetric surveys to produce a grid that honors the input fault
geometry. Because it models faults, Line Gridding Plus enables you to
create more accurate horizon models. Used in combination with Profile
Contouring, Line Gridding Plus provides high quality maps of faulted
surfaces.
Line Gridding Plus enables you to accomplish these aims:

grid seismic line data with or without fault data

build extremely accurate models of faulted horizons, given fault


geometry data

model the fault faces cutting a horizon, given fault geometry data
Line Gridding
Line gridding builds a grid using data in line format such as seismic,
magnetic, bathymetric surveys. Line Gridding uses the knowledge that
adjacent points in the file, if they have the same line name, represent a
continuous profile along the surface. Faults can be used as barriers.
Trend Fit Gridding
Produces a grid of the regional components of a surface such as the
general dip or the major highs and lows. A trend grid can be built using
either data or another grid as the source file.
Trend Surface
Produces a pair of grids: a trend grid and a residual grid. Typically, you
would examine the map of the residuals and a map of the surface input
grid on which contours from the trend grid have been overlaid.
Alternatively, you can display the residuals as colorfill and overlay the
contours of the input surface grid and trend grids. Using either of these
methods, localized high or low residual features, which are geologically
regarded as anomalies, can be easily identified.
An example scenario would be to generate residuals and a trend surface
from a velocity grid. Upon examining the residuals, you could then
identify high velocity, pull-up areas.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Gridding Overview

92

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Boolean Grid
Boolean grids are designed to enable you to create a grid in which each
node value is either 1.0 or 0.0 to indicate where a formation lies in
relation to each node. For example, you can use a Boolean grid to map
the location of each node is relative to the Oil Water Contact (OWC)
level (above, below, or equal to).
Constant Grid
Constant grids assign user-defined values to each grid node. They are
often used in Volumetric and Grid Operations to adjust existing grids.
Polynomial Grid
A polynomial grid evaluates a polynomial function over a user-defined
area and creates a grid based on these calculations. Polynomial trends of
p to the 2nd order can be handled with the Polynomial Grid option. You
can control the AOI (area of interest) of the grid, as well as the x and y
grid increments. You can also input the coefficient for each of the
corresponding terms in the polynomial.
User-Defined Filter
You can change the values for the nodes on an existing grid using a filter
that you define.
Flexing
Flexing is sometimes called Filtering or Relaxation. Flexing enables you
to smooth small (high frequency) features on a grid. This smoothing
process can at the same time tie the surface to data points. You can
control which nodes are flexed, how much the data is honored, how
much smoothing is done, upper and lower limits for the output grid, and
whether a constraint band (limit surface) above or below the grid is used.
This section deals with point gridding, which is one method used to
create surface models. Other methods, such as line gridding, trend
gridding, and contour gridding are covered in more detail in the
Z-MAP Plus Reference Guide section titled Modeling.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Gridding Overview

93

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Gridding Basics
Before learning about the various parameters you use to control the
gridding process in the next topic, you need to understand the process
itself in more detail. This topic looks at the three phases involved in
creating a grid:
1.

Interactive Problem Description


Problem description includes the process of examining the data
and its distribution, determining which parameters are appropriate,
and setting the parameters.

2.

Grid Initialization
When you create a grid, an initial set of nodes are created and
assigned values. This process is called Grid Initialization.

3.

Post Processing
Post Processing brings the node values into closer alignment with
the data values and smooths the grid. These two steps are also
called filtering and flexing.

1. Interactive Problem Description


Interactive problem description entails the process of examining the
data and its distribution, determining a set of gridding parameters that
are appropriate, and setting them. There are two ways to handle this.
You can

Use all the default gridding parameter values, or

Specify any or all of the values yourself.


Using Default Parameter Values
When you generate a default grid like the one we created in the last
topic, you first select input and output file names, the type of AOI and
scale for the grid, and the dimensions; then Z-MAP Plus controls all
parameters of the gridding process.
Default grids work fairly well with evenly distributed, unfaulted data
sets. For example, if you are dealing with dense, evenly distributed wells
over a producing field and are modeling an unfaulted surface, default
gridding might work very well. On the other hand, if you are attempting
to make a regional structure map over an area that is severely faulted,
and you have clusters of well data with large data voids, default gridding
might not be the wisest choice.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Gridding Basics

94

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Set the Grid Parameters Yourself


Non-default point gridding occurs when you determine and set some or
all gridding parameters yourself. Non-default point gridding is covered
in the next major topic. But first, look at what occurs after you have
described the problem and applied the gridding process.

2. Grid Initialization
Once you apply point gridding, the program calculates an initial
estimate for the node values to model your surface. This grid is intended
to preserve the overall trend of the data but not necessarily to honor
every single data point.
Initial Grid Increment (GINCI)
In order to preserve trends, the initial grid is typically created at a larger
grid node spacing, called the initial grid increment (GINCI). During grid
post-processing (the next step), the grid increment is reduced to the final
grid increment (GINCF). This finer grid node spacing is better able to
honor individual data points. Grid increments are measured in map
units.
The following illustration shows an initial grid (GINCI = 200.0). Notice
that the initial grid preserves trend but does not honor data.
Initial Grid output from
Grid Initialization at
GINCI = 200.0.

Contours (and
grid) do not honor
the data.

GINCI = 200.0

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Gridding Basics

95

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Compare this initial grid to a final grid (GINCF = 50.0) of the same
data set:

Final Grid output from


post processing at a
smaller grid increment
(GINCF = 50.0)

GINCF = 50.0
Because the surface model contains more grid nodes, it is able to retain
higher frequency detail inherent in the data samples; the grid honors the
data points.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Gridding Basics

96

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Calculating Initial Grid Node Values


Each initial grid node is calculated according to a two step process:

collection of data samples


calculation of node value

Collection of Data Samples


During the data collection process, a data collection circle is
constructed around the grid node. The circle is divided into 8 sectors,
and data points are collected on a sector-by-sector basis.

Data Collection Circle


When you allow Point Gridding Plus to calculate node values, the
following default criteria are used,

at least one point must exist in the data collection circle,


a maximum of 4 points per sector is collected, and
at least one sector must contain a point.

You can control all aspects of the data collection process by adjusting
the value of the gridding parameters. These parameters are covered in
detail in Summary of Gridding Parameters on page 146.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Gridding Basics

97

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Calculating the Node Value


Once the data collection circle has been established at a node location,
initial grid nodes are calculated according to the following flow.

Is there a data
point within
.01*GINCF of
the node?

YES

Set node to
data point
value

NO

Have the
minimum
number of
points been
collected?

NO

NO

YES

At least
one data point
in each of the
minimum number
of sectors?

YES

Set node to
ZNON
Set node to
ZNON

NO

Calculate node
using gridding
algorithm

Is there a data
point within
extrapolation
distance?

YES

As you can see, grid nodes values are either

R2003.12.0

snapped from the nearest data point,


set to ZNON, or
estimated using a mathematical gridding algorithm.

More About Grids: Gridding Basics

98

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

3. Post Processing
Once the initial grid is calculated, it is passed to the post processing
phase. The post processing phase of gridding is designed to serve
two purposes:

bring the grid into alignment with data values (honor the data)

smooth the grid


Initial Grid (GINCI)

Automatic First Filter

Post Processing Cycle


Refinement

Filter

Final Grid (GINCF)

Two operations are performed in post processing, refinements and


filtering. The initial grid is always passed through a filter step first. Next,
a series of paired refinement/filter steps occur. The number of times this
happens depends on the number of refinements specified by the
Refinements value. For example, if you choose to refine a grid twice, it
passes through three filter steps: once for the initial grid, and once after
each refinement.
No GINCI Parameter
You do not set a numerical value for the GINCI value (initial grid node interval
value). The GINCI is calculated by Z-MAP Plus, based on the GINCF value you
specify and on the number of refinements you specify.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Gridding Basics

99

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Refinements
Refining a grid is the process of dividing the grid increment in half,
introducing new grid nodes at the smaller grid increment, and
calculating new values at the nodes. Refinements increase the density of
nodes. The following picture shows a grid with an initial grid increment
of 200 (GINCI = 200.0) that was refined once to a final grid increment
of 100 (GINCF = 100.0).

The black circles


represent initial grid
nodes. The x symbols
denote grid nodes
introduced in the
refinement process.

200
Refinement Divides the Grid Increment in Half
New node values are calculated using a process called back
interpolation where previously existing grid node values are used to
interpolate values at the new grid node locations.
The original control points are not used during the grid refinement
process. This is why a refinement step is followed by a filter step: it
enables the newly calculated node values to be adjusted to fit the control
points.
Refinements are explored in more detail in the workflow on page 112.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Gridding Basics

100

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Filter Steps
In general, filter steps alter the node values to simultaneously smooth
the grid and adjust it to honor the data. They occur after refinements
because the grid can then be adjusted to include more surface detail (it
has a denser grid node spacing).
Each filter step is composed of a number of iterations, called flexing
passes. During each flexing pass, two new values for each grid node are
calculated:

a data-dependent value (forces grid to honor the data)

a smoothing value

REFINEMENT

FILTER
Flexing Pass
Honor Data

Smoothing

Post-processing
A weighted average is then performed on the two new values to form a
single new grid node value. The weighting assigned to the two
calculated node values prior to averaging them depends on the level of
smoothness you set in the Smoothing Modulus parameter field.
After each flexing pass, a rate of change is calculated for the modified
grid. By default, the filter step terminates when the rate of change gets
very small.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Gridding Basics

101

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Point Gridding Plus Workflow


You now have enough knowledge of point gridding to take interpretive
control of the process, setting optimal parameters that affect the
character of the final grid. This topic describes each basic step of the
procedure, explaining how to set the most important point gridding
parameters. A later topic, Summary of Point Gridding Parameters,
summarizes all the gridding parameters and provides hints for setting
their values.
To create a map with Point Gridding Plus, follow these basic steps:
1.

Create a basemap (next topic).

2.

Select input data, fields, and faults (page 103).

3.

Specify the output file names (page 104).

4.

Select a gridding algorithm (page 104).

5.

Determine and set the final grid increment (page 104).

6.

Determine and set the search radius (page 109).

7.

Determine and set the number of refinements (page 112).

8.

Smooth the grid (page 116).

9.

Execute the Point Gridding Plus operation (page 116).

1. Create a Basemap
A basemap covers the AOI of the grid you plan to create and contains
the posted control points and faults that you want to model.
The basemap helps you determine the following types of information:

data patterns and density


faulting patterns and density

You use this knowledge to help determine and set various gridding
parameters later in the process.
To create a basemap, begin by selecting File New Basemap in the
Z-MAP Plus window. Use the NEW MAP Creation dialog box that
appears for specifying the map name, AOI, scale, and projection values
(as described on page 73). Add features to the map (as described on
page 84).

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Point Gridding Plus Workflow

102

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

2. Select Input Data, Field, and Faults


Select Modeling Point Gridding Plus in the Z-MAP Plus window.

The Point Gridding Plus dialog box appears with the Basic tab displayed
in front.
Specify the control point input file, Z-field name, fault file name, and
fault file fields in the Point Gridding Plus dialog box Basic tab. This step
is identical to the procedure you follow for default point gridding,
described on page 69.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Point Gridding Plus Workflow

103

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

3. Enter Output File Names and Locations


Specify the output grid name and destination in the Point Gridding Plus
dialog box Basic tab. This step is identical to the procedure you follow
for default point gridding, described on page 71.

4. Select a Gridding Algorithm


LEAST SQUARES is the default gridding algorithm and is the most
commonly used algorithm. To select a different gridding algorithm,
click the Algorithm button in the Point Gridding Plus dialog box Basic
tab. Select an option from the drop-down list.

Each algorithm is described in detail in the Modeling section of the


Z-MAP Plus Reference Guide.

5. Determine and Set the Final Grid Increment (GINCF)


The final grid increment is the distance between grid nodes in your final
grid. It is the most important gridding parameter, because it controls
the level of detail retained in the surface model.
To help you understand this important parameter, this step contains the
following subtopics:

Effect of the Final Grid Increment

How Z-MAP Plus Determines the Default GINCF

Hints for Determining a Final Grid Increment

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Point Gridding Plus Workflow

104

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Set the final grid increment in the Xinc and Yinc boxes in the Point
Gridding Plus dialog box Basic tab.

Effect of the Final Grid Increment


A large final grid increment (relative to the data point density) averages
data values and produces a trend grid. As the relative grid node spacing
gets smaller, the grid is able to retain higher frequency detail inherent in
the samples. As the relative grid increment gets too small, the surface
model is unable to retain an overall trend between the samples, creating
localized closures around the data points.
The following pictures show final grid increments of 200, 50, and 25,
respectively for the same data set.
This grid:
establishes trend
does not honor data
averages data values
over large area

GINCF = 200

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Point Gridding Plus Workflow

105

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

This grid
has the default grid
increment for this
data set
honors individual
data points
preserves trend

GINCF = 50
This grid
honors individual
data points very well
loses trend in void
data areas
forms artificial
closures around
data points

GINCF = 25
A paradoxical situation exists: a large grid spacing preserves trend, but
does not honor the data; a small spacing honors the data, but does not
preserve the trend. This means that, if you wish to honor the data and
preserve the trend, you must carefully select a final grid increment that
is based on the distribution and density of the data points.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Point Gridding Plus Workflow

106

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

How Z-MAP Plus Determines the Default GINCF


The program calculates the final grid increment default according to the
density of the data, by using the following formula:
Final Grid Increment =

(XMAX - XMIN)(YMAX - YMIN)


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Number of Data Points

When the range between the MIN or MAX for X or Y gets large with
respect to the number of data points, the grid increment becomes larger.
In contrast, if the number of data points becomes large, and the X- and
Y-RANGE gets smaller, the final grid increment becomes smaller.
This method for calculating a default final grid increment works well
with evenly distributed data points. If the data is clustered or faulted, it
is best to determine the final grid increment yourself and replace the
default value with a custom value.
Making Measurements in the Basemap
See Measure Distances on a Map on page 153. This feature helps you determine
many parameter settings.

Hints for Determining a Final Grid Increment


The criteria you use to determine your final grid increment depends on
what size feature you are interested in seeing in your surface model.
Essentially, you want to preserve either:

detail above a minimum size, or

all detail inherent in the data samples.


Preserving Detail Above a Minimum Size
To make sure that your grid retains all detail above a minimum size,
choose an increment that is half the distance across the smallest feature
you wish to preserve.

Half distance
between closest
points

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Point Gridding Plus Workflow

107

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

This method does not necessarily honor all data points. If the grid
increment is large (relative to the data point density), data point values
are averaged.
Preserving All Detail Inherent in the Data Samples
If you are not sure what size feature you are interested in, or if you want
to resolve all individual data points, choose an increment half the
distance between the closest points to be resolved
For seismic data, since the data is usually clustered heavily along lines,
a spacing slightly smaller than the average shotpoint spacing works
well.
Special Consideration with Faults
If you are modeling faulted data, make sure that your final grid increment is small
enough to fit into fault blocks where you have data and wish to have the grid
defined.
Half distance
between the
fault segments

Setting GINCF
To specify the GINCF value in the X and Y directions independently,
enter values in the Xinc and Yinc boxes.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Point Gridding Plus Workflow

108

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

6. Determine and Set the Search Radius


Search radius is the radius of the data collection circle referred to on
page 95. Search radius controls how far a data point can be from a grid
node and still be used in estimating the value at the node.
Effect of the Search Radius
The search radius value affects these aspects of gridding:

extrapolation of trends into void data areas and

the speed of the gridding process


When the search radius is large, data points may be used in calculating
distant grid nodes, so that trends can be extrapolated over large
distances. Search radius should always span distances between data
clusters so that trend can be established in these void data areas.
Although a large search radius has the advantage of extrapolation into
void data areas, it also has the disadvantage of slowing down the
gridding process. When the data collection circle is larger, more data
points have to be processed at each grid node location, and this directly
affects the efficiency of the grid initialization phase.
How Z-MAP Plus Determines the Default Search Radius
The program sets a large default search radius, 1/2 the diagonal of the
grid AOI.

Default Search
Radius

When it calculates the center node in the grid, the default data collection
circle covers the entire grid and every data point in the data set.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Point Gridding Plus Workflow

109

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Hints for Setting a Search Radius


For clustered datathe search radius must span between the data
clusters.
If the data are point-oriented (such as wells), measure the longest
distance between groups of data points:

Measure the distance between


data clusters

Measuring Search Radius for Wells


If the data are line-oriented (such as 2D seismic data), measure the
distance across the largest data loop. (The loop does not have to be
closed):

Measure the distance across


the largest data loop.

Measuring Search Radius for 2D Seismic

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Point Gridding Plus Workflow

110

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

For evenly distributed data, the search radius should be no more than
four or five times the average data point spacing.
When the data are evenly distributed, you do not have to worry about
extrapolation across void data areas. Your concern is speed. A search
radius of 4 or 5 times the average point spacing provides plenty of
control at every node to properly initialize it.
A good example is evenly distributed 3D seismic data. When you leave
the search radius to default, the grid may take a very long time to
initialize. However, if you reduce the search radius to 4 times the sample
point spacing, the grid will initialize very quickly, and it will be of good
quality.
Set the Search Radius
To specify a custom search radius, enter a value in the Search Radius
box (located in the Point Gridding Plus dialog box Basic tab).

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Point Gridding Plus Workflow

111

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

7. Determine and Set the Number of Refinements


Refinements were defined earlier as the process of dividing the grid
increment in half. Refinements are performed during post processing
and their purpose is to bring the grid down from its initial grid increment
(GINCI) to the final grid increment (GINCF).
importance of Refinements
Refinements serve a very important function in the gridding process:
they allow the surface model to retain an overall trend, but still honor
individual data points.
You have already discovered the paradoxical situation that exists with
the final grid increment: a large increment is able to preserve trend in a
grid, whereas a small increment is able to honor individual data values.
Often, and especially when data are clustered, it is difficult to initialize
a grid at a small enough grid increment to honor the data without losing
the trend between the data points.
Refining a grid during the post processing phase (and pairing
refinements with filter steps) establishes the surface trend by beginning
with a larger increment (GINCI). Refining allows the grid to honor data
by ending with a smaller increment (GINCF).

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Point Gridding Plus Workflow

112

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Consider the following example:

Three Grid Profiles Through Identical Data Sets


Notice that the grid initialized at a grid increment of 25 with no
refinements loses trend between the data points, but honors the data.
Conversely, the grid initialized at an increment of 50 with no
refinements preserves trend (better), but does not honor the data.
Looking more closely at the right-most data point:

Close-Up of Right-Most Data Point


You can see that the grid initialized at 50 and refined to 25 (bold solid
line), while retaining the trend of the surface, is also able to honor the
data point.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Point Gridding Plus Workflow

113

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Determine the Number of Refinements


Before you can properly understand how to set number of refinements,
you must understand the relationship between GINCI, GINCF, and
refinements:
GINC F 2

( REF )

GINC I

You do not set GINCI. You do set GINCF (X increment and Y


increment), and the number of refinements. For example, if you set a
final grid increment of 50, and choose 2 refinements, your grid is created
with an initial grid increment of 200.
To determine the number of refinements, you must first decide what you
want the initial and final grid increments to be. The general procedure is
to:

decide on a final grid increment

determine an initial grid increment

use the equation above to determine maximum number of


refinements
You already know how to determine final grid increment, so we will
look at choosing an initial grid increment and then at how to use the
equation to determine refinements.
Determine an Initial Grid Increment
The initial grid increment should retain the trend of your surface model.
Use the following guidelines for selecting a maximum initial grid
increment:

For point-oriented data (like wells):


find an area of sparse point density in your AOI
measure 1/2 the distance between nearby points (or point
clusters)

R2003.12.0

For line-oriented data (like 2D seismic):


measure half the distance across the largest data loop

For evenly-distributed data (like 3D seismic),


refinements are not necessary to preserve trend, but using
them will speed the gridding process. Use one or two
refinements as a rule-of-thumb.

More About Grids: Point Gridding Plus Workflow

114

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

For any data type,


the initial grid increment should always provide at least 16
grid nodes in the initial grid.
If the data are faulted, the initial grid increment should not be
larger than the average distance between faults (where you
have data).

Using the Equation to Find the Number of Refinements


To decide on an appropriate number of refinements, plug your initial
and final grid increments into this equation (a modified version of the
earlier equation):
GINC F 2

( REF )

GINC I

Choose the maximum number of refinements possible using this


equation. For example, if you determine that GINCF should be 25 and
GINCI should be 175, the number of refinements should be set to 2.
Specify the Number of Refinements
To specify the number of refinements, enter a numeric value in the
Refinements box located in the Point Gridding Plus dialog box Basic
tab.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Point Gridding Plus Workflow

115

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

8. Smooth the grid


In the Point Gridding Plus dialog box Basic tab, specify a Smoothness
Modulus value between 0 and 1. The value you set controls the trade-off
between node values that more accurately honor the data and node
values that produce a smoother surface.

closer to 0 grid more accurately honors the data

closer to 1 emphasis on a smooth surface

This parameter affects nodes up to 5 or 6 grid increments from the data.


The default setting is 0.2, which is a good setting for data that contains
a minimum of high frequency noise (such as well top picks).
For seismic data, or other types of data that tend to contain some high
frequency noise, the value is usually set between 0.5 and 0.7.
How the Smoothness Modulus Works
Data close to the grid node being modified (about half a grid increment from it) are
used to produce a new node value adjusted to that data. To do this:
1.
2.
3.

the node to be modified is thrown away,


a smooth mathematical surface is fit to the eight nodes around that node and
the data point
a value is determined from the mathematical equation at the X-Y location of
the node to be modified.

This process returns a Z-value at the grid node based on the control points. This
node value is averaged with the node value returned from the Flexing process. The
Smoothness Modulus controls how the two values are averaged. The smoothness
Modulus is used to get a weighting value from a lookup table. That value is then
used in the following equation:

Z = ( Zf + W Zc ) ( 1 + W )
Where:
Z = final node value
Zf = modified node value from flexing
Zc = modified node value from control points
W = weight from lookup table and Smoothness Modulus

9. Apply Point Gridding Plus


Click Apply in the Point Gridding Plus dialog box Basic tab to generate
the grid. Large grids can take a long time to generate. When the grid is
complete, the following message appears in the system window.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Point Gridding Plus Workflow

116

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

More Gridding Parameters


This topic introduces some of the other useful parameters in Point
Gridding Plus.

Extrapolation Distance
Extrapolation Distance is the distance beyond the perimeter of your
data within which grid node values are calculated. The default for
Extrapolation Distance is equal to the default Search Radius. Set
Extrapolation Distance on the Basic tab of the Point Gridding Plus
dialog box.
If Search Radius, Minimum Number of Points, Number of Sectors,
or any other parameter restricts node calculation to less than the distance
set for Extrapolation Distance, those parameters are overridden by this
setting. Overridden means that node values will be calculated even if
those other parameters would normally prevent this from happening. To
prevent this override, set the Extrapolation Distance to zero.

Advanced Tab Parameters


To give you a glimpse of the power and flexibility of the program, here
is a brief introduction to three more parameters set on the Advanced tab
within Point Gridding Plus. These parameters build on gridding
concepts already introduced.
X and Y Expand
The X and Y Expand fields default to zero. When set to a positive real
number, these options tell the data collection process to look outside the
AOI of the grid (for data points) during grid creation. Set these values to
approximately four times the final grid increment (GINCF) when the
AOI of your grid is smaller than the AOI of your data.
Weighting
Weighting enables you to control the level of smoothing that occurs
during grid creation. Set the Weighting parameter on the Advanced tab.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: More Gridding Parameters

117

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

The options for Weighting are SHARP, SMOOTH, and UNIFORM.


When you want your grid to honor data points, use a SHARP weighting
function. (This is the default). Use the SMOOTH setting when you wish
to average data values together over an area, and UNIFORM when
honoring the data is not important (when you want a trend surface).
Minimum Total Points, Desired Points Per Sector,
and Minimum Number of Sectors
Use these three parameters to control how points are collected inside the
data collection circle (described on page 97). By default, Point Gridding
Plus requires that there be at least one point in the data collection circle,
at least one sector that contains a data point, with a desired number of
four points in each sector. These values are generally set for optimal
gridding performance, and you normally do not want to change them.
Increasing Minimum Total Points Can Generate Additional ZNONs
With an understanding of the LEAST SQUARES gridding algorithm, which
performs a least squares fit of a plane to the data points, a common mistake is to
increase the Minimum Total Points to 3, since it takes 3 points to define a plane.
This has the effect of increasing the number of ZNONs in the initial grid. Since grid
initializations purpose is to produce an initial estimate of the surface. It is generally
better to allow a minimum of 1 point, reducing the number of ZNONs to a
minimum.

More Filtering Parameters


Earlier, you learned that the purpose for filter steps is to adjust grid node
values to:

honor the data, and

to smooth the grid.


Again, this is a paradoxical task. Surface models that perfectly honor
every data point may often contain high frequency noise, but smoothing
a grid often adjusts it so that it does not perfectly honor the data.
In setting parameters for the filter steps, you must decide how important
it is to honor the data versus achieving a smooth surface. Parameters you
can set include:

Type of Flexing (Filtering Algorithm)

Cut Off

Number of Flex Passes

Control of Passes

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: More Gridding Parameters

118

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

To set these parameters, set the values in the Smoothing parameters


panel of the Advanced tab.

Smoothing Parameters
Flexing Type
Point Gridding Plus has four types of flexing:

Each type uses a template to calculate new node values during the
flexing pass.
Biharmonic
Biharmonic filtering causes the gridded surface to behave in the
following ways:

vary smoothly from point to point

extrapolate above or below actual data values

continue trends beyond the data and into void data areas
Biharmonic is the most commonly used filtering algorithm in the
geosciences because of its smoothly varying nature and its ability to
extrapolate trends.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: More Gridding Parameters

119

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

The following example shows a profile through a flat grid filtered to five
data points by using a biharmonic filter:

Laplacian
Laplacian filtering causes the gridded surface to behave in the following
ways:

peak at each data point

vary in a more linear fashion between data points

flatten out to a regional average beyond the data and in void data
areas
Laplacian filtering is often used when modeling data that varies
logarithmically near data values or that peaks near data points. For
example, this filter might be used when modeling a pinnacle reef trend.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: More Gridding Parameters

120

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

The following example shows a profile through a flat grid filtered to five
data points by using the Laplacian algorithm.

Combination
The Combination filter is a compromise between the Biharmonic and
Laplacian algorithms. During the filter step, filtering (flexing) passes
use the Biharmonic and Laplacian algorithms alternately.
Combination filtering does not overshoot the data as much as
Biharmonic filtering, and it does not exhibit as much sharp peaking near
data points as Laplacian filtering. However, the results of Combination
filtering are somewhat unpredictable, since the final character of the
grid depends heavily on the algorithm used in the last flexing pass.
None
If you specify NONE as the Type of Flexing value, no filtering occurs
after grid initialization or after each refinement.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: More Gridding Parameters

121

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

The two types of Flexing templates and their assigned weights are
shown below surrounding the grid node whose value is being calculated.
TEMPLATES AND WEIGHTS
BIHARMONIC

LAPLACIAN

(1)
o

(1)
o

(2)
o

(-8)
o

(2)
o

(-8)
o

(20)x

(-8)
o

(2)
o

(-8)
o

(2)
o

(-.25)
o
(1)
o

(-.25)
o

(1)
x

(-.25)
o

(-.25)
o

(1)
o

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: More Gridding Parameters

122

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Flexing
Flexing, sometimes called Filtering or Relaxation, enables you to smooth small
(high frequency) features on a grid. This smoothing process can at the same time
tie the surface to data points. Controls are provided for which nodes are flexed, how
much the data is honored, and how much smoothing is done, upper and lower limits
for the output grid, and whether a constraint band (limit surface) above and below
the flexed grid is used.
How Flexing Works
Flexing moves a template over the grid and calculates a new value for the node at
the center of this template based on values of that node and the other nodes covered
by the template. Two standard templates are used: Biharmonic and Laplacian.
The template is moved over the grid, stopping at each node and adjusting it. At each
template position, all nodes under the template are multiplied by the weight at that
location of the template. The results are summed. If that sum equals zero then the
surface perfectly fits the Biharmonic or Laplacian equation, and no modifications
are needed. If not zero in error, then the center value is adjusted up or down to
reduce this error. This method for reduction is called Successive Over Relaxation
(Young, 1973). This is a mathematical procedure that trivially adjusts the center
value until it acceptably satisfies the equations.
When part of the template covers ZNONs, or is outside the grid, then the weights
of the template must be adjusted. This adjustment process is done at the start of the
flexing with the adjusted weights stored temporarily until needed. If the grid is
large, and the ZNON areas complex, this weight adjustment process may take a
considerable amount of time.
The grid that results from one pass of the template will not perfectly satisfy the
Biharmonic or Laplacian equation. This is because, even though the center point of
the template is adjusted to an optimum value, the other nodes that were used to
adjust that one were also adjusted. More passes of the filter are required to
progressively bring the entire surface closer to desirable form. How close the
surface gets to this form before it stops is controlled by you.
Effect of Flexing on Surface Form
Biharmonic flexing creates a surface that resembles a rigid surface, like a hand-saw
(metal plate), which bends slowly and smoothly from one inflection point to
another. This is sometimes called a minimum curvature or minimum tension
surface.
Laplacian flexing creates a surface that resembles a balloon or soap bubble which
comes quickly back to the average surface position away from inflection points.
Sticking your finger into a balloon would cause the surface to peak at your finger
and quickly return to its original form away from your finger. This is sometimes
called a high tension surface.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: More Gridding Parameters

123

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Cut Off
After each flexing pass within a filter step, a rate of change is calculated.
The Cut Off parameter is set so that when the rate of change for a
flexing pass falls below this value, the filter step is terminated. The
purpose of the Cut Off is to accomplish the appropriate number of
flexing passes while preventing unnecessary ones that would slow down
the gridding process.
Cut Off defaults to 0.25. When the rate of change is this small, it means
that the grid is honoring the data fairly well. When you increase the
Cut Off, you may speed up the gridding process, but you also give the
filter steps more freedom to smooth through the data.
Number of Flex Passes
Like Cut Off, Number of Flex Passes lets you control (more directly)
how many iterations of the filter occur in a filter step. The program
defaults to 10.
During the filter step, grids usually approach their lowest rate of change
within the first 5 or 6 flexing passes. One way to speed up the gridding
process without compromising the quality of the surface model is to
reduce Number of Flex Passes to either 5 or 6.
Control of Passes
You can set Control of Passes so that the Cut Off parameter is either
used or not used. The options are

FLEX <= NUMPASS (default)


FLEX = NUMPASS

When the setting is FLEX <= NUMPASS, the Cut Off parameter is
used. Flexing stops as soon as the rate of change drops below the
Cut Off value, or when the number of iterations reaches Number of
Flex Passes, whichever occurs first.
When the setting is FLEX = NUMPASS, the Cut Off parameter is not
used. Flexing iterations continue until the defined Number of Flex
Passes is reached.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: More Gridding Parameters

124

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Gridding Normal Faults


If you specify an input fault file (.FALT file) for gridding, Point
Gridding Plus incorporates the fault data into the grid node values. To
accurately incorporate fault geometry data, the fault definition data file
may contain the following fields:

x,y coordinates Locate the fault in relation to the rest of the


map.
SegID Identifies the segments of the fault.
HEAVE Represents the displacement in map units (optional)
THROW Represents vertical separations in map units
(optional)
DIPANGLE Represents the angle of the fault (optional)

Using a FALT file, Point Gridding Plus can create three types of fault
grids:

Centerline Grid

Expanded Fault Grid (traditionally known as a Blanked Grid)

Fault Filled Grid


The program generates the centerline grid by default. If the FALT source
file contains Heave, Throw and Dip Angle fields, you can also create
other types of fault files with Point Gridding Plus. When you supply an
output file name for either of the other types of grids in the Other
Outputs tab, the program generates the Expanded Fault Grid and/or the
Fault Filled grid. You can generate all three grids if you choose.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Gridding Normal Faults

125

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Point Gridding Plus also generates FALT file(s) for you if you designate
an output file name for either Expanded Fault or Fault Filled grids.

Traditional computer mapping methods treat faults as opaque


line-of-sight barriers in the gridding process. Data points on the opposite
side of a fault from a grid node cannot be used in calculating a value for
that node. This method of handling faults is available in Z-MAP Plus.
However, with the proper fault data structure, data points can be
adjusted by the faults displacement and then used in the gridding
process; the faults become non-opaque.
This topic reviews terminology associated with faults and covers both
the opaque and non-opaque methods for handling them.
Reverse Faults are Not Covered
Handling reverse faults in the computer mapping environment is an advanced topic
which is not covered in this guide.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Gridding Normal Faults

126

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Fault Terminology
For the purposes of computer mapping, normal faults are simple lines,
digitized in map view, which represent the intersection of a fault plane
and the surface you are modeling. On a mapped surface, normal faults
are accurately represented as a polygon, and are generally referred to as
expanded faults.
-3000
-3050
-2950

-2900

Normal Fault Represented as a Polygon (Expanded Fault)


When accuracy is not essential or when mapping on a regional scale, the
same normal fault might be represented as a line constructed down the
center of the polygon. This type of fault is called a centerline fault.
-3000
-3050
-2950

-2900

Normal Fault Represented by a Centerline


In either case, when the fault is used as a barrier in the gridding process,
it is referred to as opaque. Expanded faults are always treated as opaque.
When you include additional information about the faults geometry
(vertical separation) with centerline fault information, it is classified as
non-opaque, and Point Gridding Plus is able to make a more accurate
model of your surface.
In summary, you can use three types of faults:

Opaque expanded faults

Opaque centerline faults

Non-opaque centerline faults

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Gridding Normal Faults

127

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Gridding with Opaque Faults


When gridding with opaque faults, none of the major steps in the
gridding process are able to look across a fault. This includes grid
initialization, filtering, and refining.
For example, consider a grid node between the two faults in the
following picture:
-3000
-3050
-2950

-2900

Opaque Faults in Grid Initialization


Only the data value -2950 is used in initializing this grid node, because
in each other case, faults lie between the node the data value. Thus, the
values across faults are opaque during grid node initialization.
Gridding with opaque faults (whether centerline or expanded) can
lead to:

poor extrapolation of trend across a fault

throw reversals along the fault

ZNON grid nodes in fault blocks without data

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Gridding Normal Faults

128

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

The following is an example of a simple faulted anticline gridded with


sparse well control data and an opaque centerline fault:

Faulted Anticline Generated with Opaque Fault


Point Gridding Plus functionality enables you to overcome these
limitations if you have the necessary information (vertical separation)
associated with the fault data.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Gridding Normal Faults

129

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Gridding with Non-Opaque Centerline Faults (Throw Gridding)


When you grid with non-opaque centerline faults (often referred to as
throw gridding) in Point Gridding Plus, all of the previously mentioned
limitations to gridding with faults are overcome. The surface model can
exhibit

good extrapolation of trend across faults

consistent modeling of throw

initialized nodes in fault blocks without data


The following picture shows contours drawn on the same faulted
anticline, except that vertical separation information at the faults has
also been used:
Vertical
separation values
are posted along
the fault
centerline.

Faulted Anticline Generated with Non-Opaque Fault


In order to perform throw gridding, the fault file must contain a vertical
separation field (DELTA Z-THROW) in addition to the X(EASTING),
Y(NORTHING), and SEG ID fields.
The file may also contain HEAVE and DIP ANGLE fields. These fields
are not required to perform throw gridding, but they can be used with
Point Gridding Plus to automatically expand centerline faults into
expanded fault polygons.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Gridding Normal Faults

130

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Description of Vertical Separation, Heave, and Dip Angle


Vertical Separation, Heave, and Dip Angle are each measured in a plane
perpendicular to the strike of the fault. In the following diagram, this
page is a plane perpendicular to the fault strike:
Dip Angle
Heave
Faulted Horizon
Vertical Separation

Normal Fault

Throw

Faulted Horizon

Terminology Associated with a Normal Fault


Although the term throw gridding is used to refer to gridding with
vertical separation data, you can see that throw is only an approximation
to vertical separation when the faulted horizon is dipping.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Gridding Normal Faults

131

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

How Throw Gridding Works


If a fault file contains vertical separation data, throw gridding augments
the grid initialization process in the following way:

A line connecting the grid node and the data point is established.
An intersection point between the line and the fault is located.
Vertical separation at the intersection is calculated.
The data value is adjusted by the vertical separation value.
The grid node is initialized.

Consider the previous example:


0
-3000(-2955)
-3050(-2998)
40

-2950

70
0
60

0
V. Sep. = 63

-2900(-2963)

Non-Opaque Faults in Grid Initialization


In the case of the data value -2900, a vertical separation value of 63 is
calculated by linear interpolation between 60 and 70. 63 is then
subtracted from the original -2900 before grid initialization begins.
The post processing phase of point gridding is modified in a similar
fashion: filter steps and refinements use the adjusted data values as well
as adjusted grid node values to improve the processes.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Gridding Normal Faults

132

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Output When Performing Throw Gridding


Initial output from throw gridding is a centerline grid. When you use
non-opaque centerline faults to construct your grid, the grid is still
referred to as a centerline grid, although the modeling near the faults is
much improved.
You can generate two additional grids and associated fault files when
gridding with non-opaque centerline faults, depending on your fault data
structure:

expanded fault grid and expanded fault file


fault filled grid and fault profile data

The Expanded Fault (Blanked) Grid and Expanded Fault File


You can expand the input centerline faults into polygons (expanded
faults) if the fault file includes a HEAVE or DIP ANGLE field.
When the file contains a HEAVE field, the input faults centerlines are
simply expanded by the HEAVE values to form the polygons. If the file
contains a DIP ANGLE field, a trigonometric calculation is used to
determine a heave value, and then the expansion is performed
X, Y, and Z Units of Measure Must be the Same
If you are using a DIP ANGLE field along with vertical separation to calculate a
heave, the units of vertical separation must be the same as the x, y units for your
map. For example, if you are generating a time-structure grid, and your x, y values
are in feet, you must convert your time values to depth (feet) before performing fault
expansion.

A third alternative is to provide your own digitized expanded faults.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Gridding Normal Faults

133

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Once the expanded fault file is generated, the original centerline grid is
blanked inside the fault polygons, forming the traditional blanked grid.

Expanded Fault Grid with Expanded Faults


The Fault Filled Grid and Fault Profile Data
Provided you have the fault data necessary to create expanded faults and
a blanked grid, you can also choose to create fault profile data and build
a fault filled grid.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Gridding Normal Faults

134

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

The fault filled grid is similar to the expanded fault grid, except that grid
nodes lying within the expanded fault polygons are re-initialized to lie
within the plane of the fault.

Fault Filled Grid with Expanded Faults

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Gridding Normal Faults

135

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

After expanded faults and the expanded fault grid have been created, the
fault filled grid is created in the following fashion:

Z-values representing the horizon/fault plane intersection are


calculated along the expanded fault polygon lines by
back-interpolating to the original centerline grid.

Fault Profile Data with Fault/Horizon Intersection Values

A copy of the expanded fault file containing these z-values is


generated (fault profile data).

ZNON nodes within the expanded fault grid are re-initialized by


using the new fault profile data. These node values now lie within
the fault plane.

Because fault-filled grids do not contain ZNONs in the area of the fault
polygons, they can be used to generate more accurate isochore maps in
areas around faults, and can also be used to more accurately generate
volumetrics results.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Gridding Normal Faults

136

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Control Grids
You can use control grids to streamline the building of several surface
models over the same project area. This topic defines a control grid,
discusses the various ways you can use them, and shows you how to
select one.

Description of a Control Grid


A control grid is a grid that already existsone that you use in some
way to influence the construction of a new grid.
You can choose among several options to determine how the control
grid is used. These include:

None

Flex Only

Grid Non-Znons

Grid Znons

Faults Only

Default AOI
Designate the control grid method and the grid file with the Control
grid usage field on the Basic tab.
Flex Only
If you select FLEX ONLY, the control grid is simply passed directly to
the post-processing phase of the gridding process as if it were the initial
grid. This allows you to accomplish the following aims:

filter an existing grid to a set of control points,

refine an existing grid to a smaller grid increment, or

a combination of both of these.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Control Grids

137

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Grid Non-Znons
If you use the Grid Non-Znons option, the output grid maintains all the
ZNON grid nodes from the control grid. Nodes in the output grid are
initialized only if the same node in the control grid is defined. Consider
the following control grid (generated from dataset A) and output grid
(generated from dataset B).
Control Grid

Output Grid

In the control grid, nodes A have defined values and nodes Z are
ZNONs. If you use this grid as a control grid to grid a dataset B by using
Grid Non-Znons, ZNONs exist in identical areas.
You typically use this form of control gridding to pass the same blanked
area from one surface model to one or more other grids.
Grid Znons
If you set control grid use to Grid Znons, grid nodes are initialized only
where the control grid contains ZNONs. Defined grid nodes from the
control grid pass through to the new grid. Consider the following control
grid, generated from dataset A, and output grid, generated from
dataset B:
Control Grid

Output Grid

You typically use this type of control grid to update an area that contains
ZNONs with data added to the original dataset.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Control Grids

138

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Faults Only
You learned in a previous topic that Point Gridding Plus enables you to
generate additional grid and fault files if your input data structures can
support it (see page 125).
Faults Only control gridding enables you to input a centerline fault grid
file (as the control grid) and a fault file, and produces additional Point
Gridding Plus output, including:

Znon Filled Center Line Fault File


Blanked Grid
Expanded Fault File
Fault Filled Grid
Fault Profile Data

When you perform Faults Only control gridding, a new centerline grid
is not generated. Thus, any Z-value field selected for gridding is not
used, and neither are any of the primary, secondary, and flexing gridding
parameters.
Default AOI
Default AOI is the most common form of control grid usage. When you
set a control grid to Default AOI, the following primary parameters from
the control grid are passed to the output grid:

X Minimum, X Maximum

Y Minimum, Y Maximum

X Increment, Y Increment

Search Radius
Secondary and Flexing parameters are not taken from the control grid.
Usage of Default AOI is particularly useful when you need to maintain
the same AOI over a project area, so that output from grid operations
maintain the same areal extent.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Control Grids

139

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Setting Control Grid Usage


To set control grid usage, follow these steps:
1
2

When you choose a type of


control grid usage, the
Select CONTROL Grid file
selection dialog appears.

1.

Select a Control grid usage method from the drop-down list. The
Select CONTROL Grid file selection dialog box appears.

2.

In the dialog box, highlight the name of the grid to use as the
control grid. The dialog box closes immediately, and the selected
usage method appears in the Control grid usage box.

Control Grid as Input for Point Gridding Plus


You can use a control grid as the only input file for Point Gridding Plus.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Control Grids

140

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Using Data Hulls


Data sets employed in producing grids are generally not of a rectangular
distribution. Grids, however, are required to conform to a rectangular
shape. Because of this, edge effects often occur in areas (especially
corners) that are large distances from the data points.
Data hulls can be used to overcome this problem. This topic defines a
data hull and its purpose, and demonstrates how to create, use and store
them.

Description of Data Hulls


A data hull is a line that is drawn around the data points to be used in the
gridding process. During gridding, data points outside the line are not
used in creating the grid, and grid nodes outside the line are not
initialized.
You can use two types of data hulls in Point Gridding Plus:

CONCAVE

CONVEX
A third option, DATA DISTRIBUTION, is the default value, which sets
the program to not use a data hull.
Convex Hulls
A convex hull is analogous to a rubber band stretched around all of
your data points, as shown in the following example:

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Using Data Hulls

141

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Concave Hulls
Concave hulls are essentially convex hulls modified so the line around
the data is allowed to make concavities into the data. With this type of
hull, it is actually possible to exclude some data points from the gridding
process by placing them outside the hull.
You can choose from two different algorithms to build concave hulls:
CONCAVE HULLI and CONCAVE HULLII. Although results are
similar, type II concave hulls are generally more severe.
Concave Hull II

Concave Hull I

Purpose and Use of a Data Hull


By not allowing grid nodes to be initialized outside their bounds, data
hulls have the following characteristics:

speed gridding time by not considering nodes away from data


eliminate edge effects seen at the extremities of the grid and in
void data areas

A data hull can also be saved to a VERT internal file. There are many
ways you can use this VERT polygon file. Some examples include
using it

R2003.12.0

as a contouring constraint, providing a smoother line around


color-filled contour areas
to blank other grids or data sets inside or outside the hull line
as a location-edit polygon in the Data Selection operation

More About Grids: Using Data Hulls

142

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Creating and Storing the Data Hull


To create and store a data hull, you must

specify the data hull algorithm,


specify a radius (for concave hulls only),
provide an Output Data Hull File Name and select an MFD for
writing it, and
set the extrapolation distance.

Specifying the Data Hull Algorithm


You can designate a data hull function to eliminate extrapolated ZNON
node values from your grid with the Advanced tab Other Controls
panel Data Hull setting. From this drop-down menu, select the Data Hull
option of your choice:

The option DATA DISTRIBUTION means that you do not want to use
a data hull. It is the default setting.
Setting a Radius for Concave Hulls
Concave hulls are generated by starting with the convex hull, and rolling
a circle of a specified radius around the perimeter of the data. In
general, when the circle can fit between two data points, a concavity
is made into the convex hull. You can control the severity of the
concavities by increasing or decreasing the radius of the circle.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Using Data Hulls

143

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

If you choose a Data Hull algorithm other than DATA


DISTRIBUTION, the Data Hull Parameters dialog box appears:

Set a Radius (in mapping units) here. Remember, the smaller the radius,
the more severe the concavities.
Saving the Output Data Hull
You do not have to save your data hull in order to use it in the gridding
process. However, if you wish to use it in future tasks (grid blanking, for
example), you will need to fill in the Output Data Hull File Name field
and select an Output Data Hull File (MFD) before clicking OK in the
Data Hull Parameters dialog box.
Setting Extrapolation Distance
Extrapolation Distance is a secondary gridding parameter, which is
typically not used during the default gridding process. If you choose to
construct a data hull, however, you can push the hull away from the
data by setting an Extrapolation Distance value. This setting enables the
gridding process to extrapolate away from the data at the specified
distance.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Using Data Hulls

144

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

The following illustration shows convex hulls constructed at 0 and


300.0 extrapolation distances.

300 Ft.

Data Hull Boundary Tolerance


Strictly speaking, a data hull is a straight line between the outermost data points.
Point Gridding Plus expands the data hull boundary by a small amount to ensure
that grid nodes that are in close proximity to a data point are not assigned a null
value. For this reason, this data hull will not appear directly on a point unless that
point is directly on a node.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Using Data Hulls

145

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Summary of Gridding Parameters


This topic contains a summary of the gridding parameters and hints
about how to set them.

Basic Tab Gridding Parameters


Parameter

Default

Algorithm

LEAST SQUARES

Control Grid Usage

NONE

You can run Point Gridding Plus with only an input


Control Grid. See the discussion of Control grids
earlier in this section.

ZNON Value

1.000000e+30

Dont change it or be very careful this value is far


outside the Z-values you are gridding.

Search Radius

1/2 diagonal of the grid


AOI

Span the data clusters.

Refinements

0 or 1, depending on
gridding algorithm

Set so that GINCI is large enough to preserve trend


in the data.

Extrapolation Distance

Search Radius

Used either (A) if you increase Minimum Number


of Sectors or (B) if you select a data hull.

Smoothness Modulus

0.2

.2 for well data,.7 for seismic data.

Z Min, Z Max

Calculated to data
z-range +/- 10%

Rarely a need to change this parameter.

Xinc,Yinc

Varies with density of


data

1/2 distance between the closest data points to


resolve, or 1/2 distance across the smallest feature
to preserve.

R2003.12.0

Hint

More About Grids: Summary of Gridding Parameters

146

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Advanced Tab Parameters


Parameter

Default

Hint

Smoothing Parameters
BIHARMONIC

Use LAPLACIAN if you want to accentuate


peaks at the data points.

Control of Passes

FLEX <= NUMPASS

Generally, dont change.

Number of Flexing Passes

10

Reducing to 6 will speed the post processing phase


of gridding without affecting the quality of the final
grid.

Cut Off

0.25

Fewer flexing passes if you raise this value; grid


may not honor data, though.

Flexing Type

Other Controls
DATA
DISTRIBUTION

Use to remove extrapolated node values from your


grid. See the topic on Data Hulls on page 141.

0.0

Set if AOI of grid is smaller than AOI of data,


(4 * GINCF).

Trend or Bias Ratio

1.0

Used to effect a biased trend in the gridding process


(along the Bias Angle). 1.0000 means no bias.

Trend or Bias Angle

0.0

Measured clockwise from North.

Trend or Bias Angle Unit

DEGREES

Describes the units of the Trend or Bias Angle


(DEGREES or RADIANS).

Fault Dip angle unit

DEGREES

Choose the measurement units for the dip angle:


DEGREES or RADIANS.

Maximum Number of Fault


Crossings

An interpretive decision

Minimum Total Points

Leave it alone. Default is set for optimal gridding.

Desired Points Per Sector

Leave it alone. Default is set for optimal gridding.

Minimum Number of Sectors

Increase to 2 or 3 if you wish to use in conjunction


with Extrapolation Distance to limit extrapolation.

Weighting Function

SHARP

Set to SMOOTH only if honoring data is not


important.

Report Type

COMPLETE

Includes the grid file name, file type, MFD name,


AOI, the range, minimum and maximum, and mean
of Z, gridding increments, null value and more.
Other options are NONE or PARTIAL

Data Hull
X Expand and Y Expand

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Summary of Gridding Parameters

147

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Suggestions for Non-Default Gridding


InitialGinc FinalGinc 2 ( Refinements )
Initial Grid Increment
This parameter is back-calculated from values the user specifies for
Final GINC and Refinements. The user does not enter a value for Initial
GINC on any parameter menu.
Initial Grid Increment is a value that does not require great precision,
however the initial grid must contain at least 16 grid nodes. A value for
Initial Grid Increment in a dataset comprised of wells or seismic would
normally be estimated to the nearest 50 or 100 feet.
Unfaulted Data (or data with non-opaque faults)
2D Seismic Data approximately the average line spacing.
3D Seismic Data large enough to contain 4 - 8 shotpoints.
Well Data no constraint other than the 16 grid node
minimum.
Faulted Data (with opaque faults)
Any Data Type focus on the areas of the map where opaque
faults merge and where precision of the contouring in the merge
areas is critical. Ultimately select the merge area where well or
interpreted seismic data is closest to the merge point of the
faults. Measure a north/south or east/west interval (whichever
direction is appropriate) between the fault traces and over the
data, and use this smallest distance between fault traces as the
Initial Grid Increment.
In the event you have opaque faults that merge but the precision
of the contouring in the merge areas is not crucial, or you have
faults that do not merge, use either the average distance between
faults, or the criterion for unfaulted data, to approximate the
Initial Grid Increment.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Summary of Gridding Parameters

148

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Final Grid Increment


This parameter is found on the Basic tab, and is entered as two
parameters: X Increment and Y Increment.
Unfaulted Data (or data with non-opaque faults)
2D Seismic Data slightly smaller than the spacing between
picked shotpoints, or half the distance across the sharpest arc in
contour you wish to have drawn on your map.
3D Seismic Data the distance between shotpoints. You can
double or triple this distance to get a smoother map at the
expense of accuracy.
Well Data half the distance between the two closest wells you
wish to honor with your contours, or half the distance across the
sharpest arc in contour you wish to have drawn on your map.
Faulted Data (with opaque faults)
The above rules are appropriate for faulted data with one added
criteria: the Final Grid Increment should fit within fault merge
zones or closed fault blocks that have one or more data points.
Failure to meet the criteria will result in a lack of contours in
areas where faults merge and in closed fault blocks.
Search Radius
This parameter is found on the Basic tab.
Well Data the longest distance between wells or groups
of wells.
Seismic Data The lesser of the two dimensions measured
within the biggest open space that exists between the lines.
Flexing (also known as Filtering)
This operation smooths the grid and adjusts the grid to tie back to the
control points. While 10 passes is the default, five to six passes are
usually adequate. Flexing type and control over the number of passes are
set on the Advanced tab.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Summary of Gridding Parameters

149

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Refinements
This operation adds in grid nodes half way between existing grid nodes.
The newly added grid nodes are assigned values based on
back-interpolation of the existing grid. Control points are not referenced
in refinements. (That is done in the Flexing operation.) You seldom use
more than three refinements, and a typical setting is one refinement.
(With opaque faults, the application sets refinements at zero
automatically.)
Smoothness Modulus
A setting close to zero (0) honors the data precisely. A setting of one (1)
allows for a smoother contour map.

R2003.12.0

More About Grids: Summary of Gridding Parameters

150

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

How To

Overview
This section how to perform the following frequently used tasks:

R2003.12.0

Display Coordinates on a Map page 152

Measure Distances on a Map page 153

Adjust the Colors in a Picture page 154

Change the Background Color page 158

Disable Automatic Picture Display page 159

View the Contents of a Data File page 160

Edit a Data File (ASCII and Binary) page 163

Edit Fields page 164

Edit a Picture and Regrid page 169

View Maps in the ZGF Picture Viewer page 182

Change the AOI of a Grid or Picture page 191

Create an Isopach Map page 198

Exchange Data with SeisWorks page 201

Make Z-MAP Plus Data Available in StratWorks


page 203

Create a Fault File page 204

Print a Picture page 209

Overlay Maps page 212

Create a Trend Form Grid page 216

Post Specific Seismic Lines and Shot Points page 220

How To

151

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Display Coordinates on a Map


To identify the coordinates of a point on a map, locate the cursor over
the area of interest and press Mouse Button 2 (MB2). The Coordinates
Display appears in the display area.
If you drag the cursor over the map with mouse Button 2 depressed, the
x,y coordinates for the point underneath the cursor appear in the
coordinates display box.
To get x,y coordinate values for any point on the map, click MB2 on a
point in the map, as shown in the following example.
Coordinates
Display

R2003.12.0

How To: Display Coordinates on a Map

152

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Measure Distances on a Map


To measure the distance between two points on a map, follow these
steps:
1.

Move the cursor over the starting point.

2.

Press Button 3 (MB3).

3.

Drag the cursor the distance you want to measure. A temporary


line from the original point to the furthest point of your
measurement appears. Also, a distance display box appears near
the top of the display area.

To measure distances on a map, click MB3 on a point and drag to


another point, as shown in the following example.
Distance Display
(in map units)

Click
Here

R2003.12.0

Drag to
Here

How To: Measure Distances on a Map

153

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Adjust the Colors in a Picture


This topic describes how to perform the following tasks:

Change colors of a feature in an existing picture (page 155)

Change the background color of an existing picture (page 158)

Understanding the Z-MAP Plus Color Table


As described in the topic on page 40, every feature of a picture is
composed of components (also called primitives): lines, text, polygons,
symbols. In turn, each of these components have attributes. Color is an
attribute of a component.
All colors used are stored in the pictures color table.

Default Colors in the Color Table Display


The color table has 256 cells. An index number is assigned to each cell
in the table. Each component points to a cell in this table and derives its
color from this cell.
You can edit or change color assignments for each component in two
ways:

Change the color within the cell assigned to the component with
the Edit Color Table dialog box

Change the color table cell number assigned to the component


with the Color Indices icon.

R2003.12.0

How To: Adjust the Colors in a Picture

154

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Color Table Cells Remember Last Setting


Each time you begin a new picture, the color table remembers your most recent
settings. Once you display and change the color table settings, the default colors
may never appear again until you start a new LASPRM.ZCL file and a new ZGF.
The exception to this rule is cell 0 (background) and 1 (foreground). It is best to
leave the values in these two cells unchanged.

To learn more about the Color Indices option, see the Edit section in
the Z-MAP Plus Reference Guide or see the browser-based help
system.

Change Color of a Feature on My Map


To change the color assigned to a cell in the color table, follow these
steps:
1.

Status &
Prompt
Actions

Click the Color Table icon or select Edit Color Table from the
menu. The Color Table display and the Edit Color Table dialog
box appear.

Color Mode

Sample New Color

Sliders

In this example, you edit the color assigned to cell 2. Cell 2 is


associated with the contours on the example map by default.

R2003.12.0

How To: Adjust the Colors in a Picture

155

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

2.

Choose an action to perform. For this example, select Edit.


Selecting an Action
Each action item in this dialog box has a check box that appears to the left
when the action is selected. To select an action, click its name or click the
invisible check box to its left. A check box and check mark appear next to the
selected action.

In the Edit Color Table dialog box, you can edit, display, copy,
interpolate, read or write a color table. Each aspect is covered in
detail in the Edit section of the Z-MAP Plus Reference Guide.
The Status field at the top of the dialog box gives a brief
description of the action you have chosen.
The Prompt field points you to the steps you need to take.
3.

Choose the type of color mode: RGB or HLS.


RGB creates colors by combining the three primary colors of light:
red, green and blue.
HLS mixes colors based on hue, lightness, and saturation. Hue is
determined by the wave length of light reflected from a surface.
Lightness is the amount of color reflected from a surface, and
saturation is the intensity of the color.
Because it is most common, use RGB for the example. Select the
radio button next to RGB to put the Edit Color Table dialog box
into RGB color mode.

4.

Optional: To update the map display dynamically, select the


Update picture dynamically check box.
If you select this option, the map colors change as you move the
sliders. For a large map, this may affect performance. If you do not
choose to update the picture dynamically, you see the effect of
color changes only if you click the Apply or OK button.

R2003.12.0

How To: Adjust the Colors in a Picture

156

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

5.

Move the red, green and blue sliders until the sample color box
shows the color you want.
Originally, contours are green.
After the edit, they are red.

Notice that the tiny labels on the contours are still green on the
edited map. This is because the labels are tied to cell 9 on the color
table you havent changed.
6.

R2003.12.0

Click OK to close the Color Table display and Edit Color Table
dialog box.

How To: Adjust the Colors in a Picture

157

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Change the Background Color


You can select either black or white as the display background color.
Whichever one you choose, the foreground color automatically appears
in the opposite color.
The default display background color is black because it is easier to
read on monitors. To change the background color of the map from
black to white, complete the following steps:
1.

Select Tools System Switches or click the Toggle Background


icon:
The System Switches dialog box appears.

2.

From the Graphics Background Mode list, select WHITE.

3.

Click OK.
The cell color assignments for cells 0 switch to either black or
white. This may help you remember why the option is in the
System Switches dialog box rather than the Edit Color Table
dialog box.
White Background Always Used for Printing
Regardless of the background setting used for display purposes, Z-MAP Plus
always uses a white background for printing maps.

R2003.12.0

How To: Adjust the Colors in a Picture

158

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Disable Automatic Picture Display


When you start a Z-MAP Plus session, the picture from your most
recent session appears automatically. The program retrieves the picture
information from the LASPRM.ZCL file. The feature that controls this
behavior also automatically displays any picture as you open it. To
inactivate this feature, follow these steps:
1.

Select Tools System Switches in the Z-MAP Plus window. The


SYSTEM SWITCHES dialog box appears:

2.

Click the Display Picture When Opened button and select NO


from the drop-down list. The NO setting disables automatic picture
display.

3.

Click OK to save your settings and close the dialog box.


The System Switches dialog box sets several display options. To
familiarize yourself with other settings in this dialog box, see the
Tools section in the Z-MAP Plus Reference Guide.

R2003.12.0

How To: Disable Automatic Picture Display

159

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

View the Contents of a Data File


To view the fields in a data file, follow these steps:
1.

Select File Info File Listing. The FILE LISTING dialog


box appears:

As with most Z-MAP Plus dialog boxes, the settings in this dialog
box are organized to be completed from top to bottom. The only
required setting is the Input File value.
2.

Click the Input File button. A dialog box appears that lists the
names of all files in the attached MFDs.

Highlight the name of the file whose fields you want to display.
The dialog box closes immediately.

R2003.12.0

How To: View the Contents of a Data File

160

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

3.

Click the Fields to List button to designate the fields you want to
see.The Ordered Selection dialog box appears:

4.

To display all fields, click OK. To display selected fields, move the
field names you want to view into the Destination List:
Highlight the Append radio button.
Click each field name you want to see. The field names appear
in the Destination List area as you click them.
To reorder the fields, delete incorrectly ordered items from the
Destination List and reinsert them, as described below.
Click the Delete radio button.
Highlight an item in the Destination List. It disappears from the
list.
Select the Insert radio button.
Highlight the field name below the target location for the new
entry.
Click the name of the new field in the Source List. The field is
inserted above the field name you selected in the Destination
List.

R2003.12.0

How To: View the Contents of a Data File

161

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

5.

Once the Destination List contains all the fields you want to check,
click OK.
The list of fields in the file and values for each well name appear in
the system window.

Limitation on Number of Words Displayed

The File Listing option displays no more than 100 words that match the input
criteria. If more than 100 words are available, an error message in the system
window informs you of the number of words left out.

R2003.12.0

How To: View the Contents of a Data File

162

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Edit a Data File


Data files are ASCII, flat files arranged in fixed columns until you
import them into an MFD. Once data files are in the MFD, they become
binary files.
It is important to be familiar with your data because anomalies in data
can affect maps and grids. You can view the contents of a data file by
selecting File Info File Listing (described on page 160). The
data appears in the system window. To review data file format, see
Data File Format on page 47.

Edit ASCII Files


Z-MAP Plus does not supply any tools to edit ASCII flat files. To edit
ASCII files, use a text editor such as vi or emacs. Text editors are
primitive compared to word processors, but they accomplish similar
tasks, such as deleting or replacing characters. Your operating system
may provide a simple interface to make editing text files easier.

Edit Fields
Binary (MFD) Data Files
The Edit Data Editor Points View Edit option enables you
to click a visible point on a map and edit the values for that point. The
illustration show the dialog for editing a seismic shot point, which
eliminates the need to scroll through rows of numbers to find the exact
data record you want to change.

Saving While Editing


Save your work often when you use the Data Editor.

R2003.12.0

How To: Edit a Data File

163

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Edit Fields
You can copy, rename, and delete entire fields by using the features
accessible by selecting the Operations Data Operations Fields
option. You can also create a new field by performing a mathematical
operation that involves one or two fields in a file by using the
Operations Calculator option.
Rename a Field
To illustrate how the Fields options work, the following example
renames a field.
1.

Select Operations Data Operations Fields


Rename Fields. The RENAME FIELDS dialog box appears.

2.

You must specify an input file.


When you click the Input File button, a dialog box appears.
Highlight the name of the data file that contains the fields you want
to rename. The dialog box closes automatically. The status area
reports the name of the specified input file and output file.

3.

R2003.12.0

Optional: To save the data file under a new name, use the Output
File Name and MASTER FILE parameter. Otherwise the
program saves a version of the file by using the original file name
with a new version number.

How To: Edit a Data File

164

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

4.

Designate the fields you want to rename with the Fields to


Rename parameter button. The following dialog box appears:

This dialog box lists all field names found inside the data file you
attached with the Input File parameter. The RENAME FIELD
dialog is a multiple list dialog. Highlight the names of the fields
you want to rename, and click OK.
5.

Use the Output Field Names parameter to assign new names to the
fields you designated in the previous step.

For this example we renamed the TOP, POROSITY, WATERSAT


fields to TOP2, POROSITY2, WATERSAT2.
6.

R2003.12.0

Click Apply to rename the field and leave the dialog box open, or
click Save to rename the field and close the dialog box.

How To: Edit a Data File

165

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

7.

To view the renamed files, select File Info File Listing. The
system window displays the fields in the file.

To learn more about File Listing, see View the Contents of a Data
File on page 160.

Use the Calculator to Change the Value of Field Entries


If you want to change the value of every entry in a field, you use
Calculator from the Operations menu. For this example, we will add
50 to every item in a field to correct an inaccurate elevation.
1.

Select Operations Calculator. The Calculator dialog box


appears.

Input File
(Grid or Data)
Input
Panel

Equations
Panel

Operations

Output

Move Buttons

R2003.12.0

How To: Edit a Data File

166

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

2.

Beside the first field under Input Files and Grids, click the
Select File button to display a list of all the files in the attached
MFDs. The Select INPUT File single list dialog appears. Highlight
the name of the file that contains the field to be changed.
The dialog disappears when you make your choice, and the name
of the file appears in the file name field on the Calculator. Also
notice that the names of the fields within the file have activated the
Field A and Field B options. The Calculator knows you want to
perform a data operation because of the type of file you chose.

3.

Designate the Z-field you want to change in the Select Field A.


This field uses a drop-down menu to help you select an appropriate
field name.
In our example, we choose the P_ASPER_TOP. We do not need to
fill in the Field B option because we are only adding 50 to the
values in the P_ASPER_TOP.

4.

In the Operations area of the Input panel, select ADD from the
drop-down list under Single. The panel reconfigures each time it
receives more information. Thus you are only presented with
appropriate choices. The Input panel now looks like this:

50

5.

R2003.12.0

Enter the value of the constant that you want to add to each entry
in the P_ASPER_TOP field. For our example, we place 50 in the
Constant field.

How To: Edit a Data File

167

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

6.

Optional: Enter a new name for the field in Output Field Name
box. NEW FIELD is the default name. The drop-down list
contains all the existing field names. To overwrite an existing field,
select an existing field name.

7.

The Calculator defaults the new file name to D/scratch _out_#


where # is the version number of the new file and D stands for
data. If you want to save the file to a new name, enter the new
name in the Output File Name box.

8.

The Calculator defaults to save the new file into the Scratch MFD.
If you want to save the file to another MFD, select the name of an
attached MFD from the drop-down menu in the Location field.
Scratch MFD Discarded on Exit from Z-MAP Plus
Remember that the Scratch MFD is erased whenever you exit Z-MAP Plus or
attach or detach other MFD(s). The scratch file is the default MFD used in the
Calculator because many results from Calculator operations are intermediary
steps that do not need to be saved permanently.

9.

Use the highlighted right arrow button to move your equation onto
the Equations panel.

10. Click OK to execute the calculation and close the Calculator


dialog box or click Apply to execute the calculation and leave the
Calculator dialog box open.
Use the File Listing option to see the results of the operation.

R2003.12.0

How To: Edit a Data File

168

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Edit a Picture and Regrid


When you have created a picture, you can edit it to fit your
interpretation using the Edit/Create Data menu option. For the
example, we edit the 7900 contours in the Triangle contour picture to
eliminate the saddle effect, then we regrid to save the changes to a new
grid.

Prepare to Work in Edit/Create Data


Before you begin to work in Edit/Create Data, you must:

Open the MFD (or OpenWorks project) containing the member


files you want to modify before you begin.

Have an active picture whose AOI encompasses the data in the


MFD. You use the active picture as a graphical aid in the editing
process. Pictures have three basic qualities that lend themselves to
assisting your work in the Edit/Create Data:

They can graphically display the data you want to edit.


They have an AOI that enables the calculation of x, y
coordinates at any location.
They contain header information that relates features on the
picture to data and grids in the MFD.
Preferably, the picture displays data-related features that were drawn
using the member files you want to edit.

R2003.12.0

How To: Edit a Picture and Regrid

169

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Understanding Editor Buffers


Before you start using the Data Editor, it is important to understand
how the program uses buffers during editing. This topic shows how the
default behavior for managing files. You can change the default
settings, but that procedure is beyond the scope of this topic. (For more
information about the Data Editor, see the Z-MAP Plus Reference
Guide.)
When you enter the editor, it does two things:
1.

Establishes connections between features on the active picture and


member files in attached MFDs or in OpenWorks.

2.

Creates a temporary workspace, similar to a SCRATCH FILE,


called the Editors Buffer. For the moment, it remains empty.

Consider the following example. Before clicking Data Editor, the


active picture is TRIANGLE MAP and the attached MFD is
NEW-TRIANGLE.MFD. The following picture and captions explain
what happens after you click Data Editor.

R2003.12.0

How To: Edit a Picture and Regrid

170

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

The active picture,


TRIANGLE MAP, is
still displayed. It now
becomes a graphical
aid for the editing
process.

TRIANGLE MAP
features
BORDER
POSTED WELLS
FAULT LINES
CONTOURED GRID

NEW-TRIANGLE.MFD
member files
TRIANGLE WELLS
TRIANGLE FAULTS
TRIANGLE GRID

EDITORS BUFFER

R2003.12.0

Next, the editor


establishes
connections between
member files in the
MFD and related
features on the map.

Finally, the editor


establishes a buffer,
similar to a SCRATCH
MFD. It remains
empty for now.

How To: Edit a Picture and Regrid

171

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Edit a Picture
1.

Enter the editor by selecting Edit


Data Editor. Choose the Contour,
Faults, Lines option. The Line Edit
dialog box appears. The object of this
exercise is to connect the 7900 saddle, as
it appears in the preceding picture.

2.

The Break & extend option is a good


choice since you have to break existing
contour lines, extend them, then
reconnect the ends of edited lines to
existing lines.
Click Break & extend. The
Individually Break Lines dialog box
appears. The following prompt appears
in the status area: SELECT BREAK
POINT ON LINE.

R2003.12.0

How To: Edit a Picture and Regrid

172

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Click the -7900 contour, as shown below.

Notice that two labels appear on the contour line because it is cut
in two pieces. The Add To Line dialog box has appeared along
with a new prompt to add points. The program is now in extend
mode.

R2003.12.0

How To: Edit a Picture and Regrid

173

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Add points along the line until it looks about like the following
picture. Be careful not too add too many points. The editor
smooths the line for you, so add as few points as needed to
establish the shape of the contour.

Only a few added points are needed


to detail the shape of the edited
contour line.

You want to end the line, break the existing -7900 contour, and
attach the edited line to one of the broken pieces. To do this, click
Break/Connect in the Add To Line dialog box. The edited line
is connected automatically to the correct segment of the existing
-7900 contour, and the line is smoothed.

R2003.12.0

How To: Edit a Picture and Regrid

174

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

3.

You are again prompted to SELECT BREAK POINT ON LINE.


Edit the lower part of the saddle in the same way.

To end the line, choose the Delete Extra Break/Connect


option, so that extra line segments are deleted. The result should
look like the example on page 177.
4.

Click OK in the Individually Break Lines dialog box.

5.

Optional: To adjust the existing lines, use the Reshape Contours


option in the Line Edit dialog box.

6.

Click OK in the Line Edit dialog box.


Review the status area. Notice that the data selected for editing
includes CNTRS OF TRIANGLE GRID (EDITED). This is the
edited file you just created, which is in the editors buffer.
Do Not Click OK Yet!
The editor currently has a memory of your work, and you want to retain this
memory (stay in the current session) until you are ready to regrid. This helps
the editor determine which files are needed for the regridding process. You
use the edited contours to make a modified version of the TRIANGLE GRID.

R2003.12.0

How To: Edit a Picture and Regrid

175

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

7.

Now that the TRIANGLE GRID contours are edited, update the
grid with your interpretation. The Edit/Create Data dialog box
should still be open.
Click Regrid in the Edit/Create Data dialog box. The Regrid
dialog box appears.

8.

R2003.12.0

Optional: To limit the area over which the existing grid can
change, click Set Limits. The Set Limits dialog box appears.

How To: Edit a Picture and Regrid

176

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Click Create Polygon. When the Draw Polygon dialog box


appears, digitize a polygon around the edited area on the map.
Use the End and Close option to complete the polygon.
Hachures should appear on the inside of the polygon, as shown
below, and you are returned to the Set Limits dialog box. Click
OK.

Review the status area, which should look like the following
example.

Files to be used in the


regridding process.

If you regrid at this time, the files listed in the status area are used
in the regridding process. Notice that the editor is aware that you
want to use CNTRS OF TRIANGLE GRID (EDITED) to regrid.
Also, the limits are indicated AS DRAWN, which means the editor
recognizes the polygon you just displayed. The output grid is listed
as TRIANGLE GRID, the same name as the input grid. This
indicates that the regridding process will use the original grid name
with a version number unless you specify a different output name.

R2003.12.0

How To: Edit a Picture and Regrid

177

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

9.

Optional: To change the output grid name, click Files/Fields in


the Regrid dialog box. A dialog box indicating default selections
for input and output appears. Clear the TRIANGLE GRID
selection, and click SELECT OUTPUT GRID FILE NAME, as
shown in the following example.

Click here to clear the


default output grid name.

Click here to be prompted


for a new name.

Click OK in the REGRID - Select Files and Fields dialog box to


save the changes.
When the Regrid OUTPUT File Name dialog box appears, enter
the grid name EDITED TRIANGLE GRID, and click OK.
10. Click Auto Regrid in the Regrid dialog box. The editor uses
contour gridding to make the area grid because you edited
contours. Watch the system window for the contour gridding
report and the PROCESSING FINISHED PLEASE CONTINUE
prompt.

R2003.12.0

How To: Edit a Picture and Regrid

178

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

11. To check the quality of the regridding process, click Contour Edit
Area. The Contour Edit Area dialog box appears.

Click Parameters to change the contour Line Color to 6, and


change the Dashed Lines (Multiple of Interval) parameter to 1,
so that the contour lines are dashed. Click OK.
Click Add to Display Only to draw the contours on the graphics
display. This does not update your picture. As shown below, the
contours are only drawn to the display.

Click OK to dismiss the Contour Edit Area dialog box.

R2003.12.0

How To: Edit a Picture and Regrid

179

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

12. Update the picture. Click Contour Grid Area, then click the
Replace Picture option. Contours of EDITED TRIANGLE
GRID are drawn on the reference picture. Click OK in the Contour
Grid Area dialog box to close it.
13. To exit the editor, click OK in the Regrid dialog box, and OK in
the Edit/Create Data dialog box.
14. To refresh the graphics display, click the Full Display icon. The
picture is updated with your interpretation, and so is the grid.

The picture is now


updated with
contours of EDITED
TRIANGLE GRID.

R2003.12.0

How To: Edit a Picture and Regrid

180

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

15. Optional: To recheck the edits, display a list of the updated files:
Select File Info Master File Directory.

This is one of the most common uses of the editing functions, but
editing in Z-MAP Plus is a complex process. Editing copies parts
of files during the time the editing is taking place and creates a set
of temporary files to contain the features to be edited. These
temporary files are erased when you click OK and leave the Edit/
Create menu. As we have seen, it also creates a series of new files.
The new files created in the example steps include:
CNTRS OF TRIANGLE GRID The digitized and edited
contours that you used in the regridding process
REGRIDDED AREA GRID The area grid that was patched
into the original grid to generate EDITED TRIANGLE GRID
EDITED TRIANGLE GRID The final edited grid output
from the regridding process
CREATED VERTICES SET 1 A VERT file that contains
the polygon you digitized as an area limit for the regridding
process
To learn more, see the Editing section in the Z-MAP Plus Reference
Guide.

R2003.12.0

How To: Edit a Picture and Regrid

181

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

View Maps in the ZGF Picture Viewer


This section describes the following tasks you can accomplish in the
ZGF Picture Viewer application:

Display a picture of the posted data or a contour mapshowing


the selected recommendation (next topic).

Load a picture from a ZGF (page 184).

View the x,y location of the cursor in the picture (page 184).

Measure distance in the displayed picture (page 184).

Overlay features from one picture to another, such as culture data


from SeisWorks (page 186).

Create a CGM file of the display to produce hardcopy (page 188).


Working with Color in the ZGF Picture Viewer
For information about editing color tables, editing the colors for map features,
loading color tables into displayed pictures, and saving edited color tables, see
Appendix B: Using Color in the ZGF Picture Viewer starting on page 241.

R2003.12.0

How To: View Maps in the ZGF Picture Viewer

182

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Displaying the ZGF Picture Viewer Window


To open a new ZGF Picture Viewer window, select Applications
ZGF Picture Viewer from the Z-MAP Plus Command Menu. The
ZGF Picture Viewer window appears.

Icons in the ZGF Picture Viewer


Use the icons in the ZGF Picture Viewer window to perform the
following actions:

R2003.12.0

Point Zoom Zooms around a point you select. To zoom, click


the icon, then click in the center of the area you want to examine.

Rectangular Zoom Zooms around an area you select. Click the


icon. Drag the mouse on the map until the area you want to zoom
is enclosed by a rectangle. Release the mouse button and the map
zooms into the area defined by the rectangle.

How To: View Maps in the ZGF Picture Viewer

183

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Zoom Out Zooms out, with the selected point as the new
display center. Click the icon, then click a point in the map.

Unzoom Returns the display to its original AOI. To unzoom,


click the icon.

Redraw Redraws the current displaywithout changing the


current zoom setting.

Measure Distance Enables you to measure the distance


between any two points on the map. Click the icon, then position
the cursor over the first point and press MB1. Drag the cursor over
the second point. While you hold down the mouse button, the
status area reports the distance between the first and current
location, expressed in map units.

Stop Stops the program from drawing the picture. This is useful
for a amount of data that takes a long time to display.

Select Point Mode Select Options Point Mode to show the x, y


location of the cursor in the status area at the bottom of the ZGF Picture
Viewer window.

Loading ZGFs
To switch ZGFs or load additional ZGFs, use the Load ZGF dialog box.
You cannot view more than one map in the ZGF Picture Viewer, but
you can have several ZGF Picture Viewer windows open that display a
series of maps.
To load a picture from a ZGF into the ZGF Picture Viewer window.
follow these steps:

R2003.12.0

1.

To open a new ZGF Picture Viewer window, select


Applications ZGF Picture Viewer from the Z-MAP Plus
Command Menu. The ZGF Picture Viewer window appears.

2.

Select File Load ZGF in the ZGF Picture Viewer window.


Locate the ZGF. The filter displays all files with the extension
.ZGF. (The filter is not case-sensitive, it displays matching files
regardless of capitalization.)

How To: View Maps in the ZGF Picture Viewer

184

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

3.

Select a ZGF from the Files list.


The pictures stored in the selected ZGF appear in the Pictures On
This Graphics File list in the Load A ZGF dialog box.

4.

Select a picture from the Pictures On This Graphics File list and
click OK. The picture loads into the ZGF Picture Viewer window.
Load ZGF Mode
To see a series of pictures, select Actions Load ZGF Mode. The OK
button is replaced by an Apply button. If you click Apply, the ZGF Picture
Viewer loads the selected picture but leaves the Load A ZGF dialog box open
so you can load another picture.

R2003.12.0

How To: View Maps in the ZGF Picture Viewer

185

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Overlaying Picture Features


You can copy and superimpose selected features from one picture
(input) onto another picture (output). This topic describes how to
perform this task in the ZGF Picture Viewer, but you can also perform
this task (with slightly different looking dialog boxes) by selecting
Features Overlay Picture in the Z-MAP Plus window.
The program assumes the input and output pictures have intersecting
AOIs and adjusts the scale of input features to fit the output picture.
Overlaying Color Tables
If you overlay pictures, the color table of the first picture overrides the color table
of the picture used as an overlay.
This can cause problems, for example, if you overlay a colorfilled picture on a
posted data picture. The colorfill may display differently because the colorfilled
picture is now using the color table for the posted data.

To overlay features on a picture, follow these steps:


1.

Select File Overlay Picture in the ZGF Picture Viewer


window.

Select Input
Picture button

Features To
Overlay button

Resetting the Overlay Picture Dialog Box


You can return the Overlay Picture dialog box to its original settings at any
time by clicking the Reset button.

R2003.12.0

How To: View Maps in the ZGF Picture Viewer

186

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

2.

Select the source picturethe picture from which you want to


copy features:
2a. Click the Select Input Picture button.
2b. Select a ZGF. The pictures in the graphics file appear in the
Pictures On This Graphics File list.
2c. Select a picture from the Pictures On This Graphics File list
and click OK.

3.

4.

Specify whether you want the features divided: Click the Division
Of Features On Overlay button and select one of the following
options:

Maintain Divisions Keeps all the selected features separate


from each other.

Single Feature Combines all the selected features into a


single feature.

Click the Use Cutline button to specify whether you want a cutline
around the picture.
The cutline represents the edge of the plotter paper and appears as
a dotted line in the display. The default offsets between the cutline
and the map AOI equal one inch on the top, right, and left, and four
inches on the bottom.

5.

Choose the features to overlay. By default, all features in the


picture are overlaid.
5a. To choose specific features, click the Features To Overlay
button to display a selection dialog box.
5b. Select the features and click OK.
5c. To remove features from the selection list, click them in the
list.

6.

In the Overlay Picture dialog box, click Apply to overlay the


features of the selected picture.
Getting Additional Information
For additional information about performing this task in the Z-MAP Plus
window, see the Overlay Picture topic in the Z-MAP Plus Reference Guide.

R2003.12.0

How To: View Maps in the ZGF Picture Viewer

187

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Saving Pictures as CGM Files


You can convert multiple pictures to CGM files (computer graphics
metafiles), which you can then send to a plotter.
1.

Select File Create CGM File in the ZGF Picture Viewer


window:

These
buttons
correspond
to each of
the options.

By default, the Picture Name box displays the name of the current
picture.
Resetting the Create CGM Dialog Box
To restore the original settings in the Create CGM File dialog box, click the
Reset button at any time. The original Picture Name, Feature To Output To
CGM File, and CGM Output File values are restored.

R2003.12.0

How To: View Maps in the ZGF Picture Viewer

188

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

2.

If you want to save another picture as a CGM file, click the ellipsis
(. . .) button next to the Picture Name box.
In the Picture Name dialog box that appears, complete these
actions:
2a. Navigate to the directory that contains the ZGF with the
needed picture.
2b. Use the Filter feature to display all the directorys ZGFs. in the
Graphics Files list.
2c. Select a ZGF from the Graphics File list. All pictures stored in
the selected ZGF appear in the Pictures On This Graphics File
list.

R2003.12.0

Select a picture from the Pictures On This Graphics File list


and click OK.

How To: View Maps in the ZGF Picture Viewer

189

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

3.

By default, all features in the picture are included in the CGM file.
To include only selected features, click the LGB Types button.
(An LGB is a logical graphics block, or group of features available
for inclusion. An LGB may contain several different types of
features.)
In the LGB Types dialog box that appears, complete these actions:
3a. Select the features you want to include from the Items list.

The selected features appear in the list area at the bottom of the
dialog box.
3b. When you finish, click OK.
4.

By default, the output file is named temp.cgm. To select another


output file or create one, click the CGM Output File button and
complete these steps:
4a. Use the CGM Output File dialog box to locate and select an
existing CGM file or enter a new file name in the Selection
box.
4b. Click OK. The dialog box closes. You return to the Create
CGM File dialog box, which displays the selected output file
name in the CGM Output File box.

5.

In the Create CGM File dialog box, click OK.


The dialog box closes, and the CGM file is created.

R2003.12.0

How To: View Maps in the ZGF Picture Viewer

190

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Change the AOI of a Grid or Picture


To change the AOI of an existing grid, you can either create a grid with
the new minimum and maximum coordinates for both x and y, or you
can resample the grid. To change the AOI of an existing grid, you must
copy the min and max x and y coordinate values and create a picture
with those coordinates.

Change the AOI of a Picture


To change the AOI of an existing picture, create a picture by following
these steps:

R2003.12.0

1.

Note the minimum and maximum x, y coordinates in the existing


picture or select File Info File/Picture Information. (To
display coordinates with the mouse, click Button 2.)

2.

Create a new basemap: Select File New Basemap. The


NEW MAP Creation dialog box appears.

3.

In the NEW MAP Creation dialog box, select the Picture Name,
AOI Types and Scale Types button.

4.

Name the picture you are about to create. You can also set the type
of AOI and Scale you want to use, but this is not required.

5.

Click OK to close the Picture Name, AOI Types and Scale Types
dialog box.

How To: Change the AOI of a Grid or Picture

191

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

6.

Choose the AOI for user input, Offsets and Scale button. The
LIMITS, Offsets, and Scale dialog box appears:

Enter the
values you
copied from the
existing picture.

Set the margins


that surround
the new picture.

Set the picture


scale.

To resize the current picture, specify new X Scale and Y Scale


values. If you experiment, each time you click OK the new
basemap dimensions appear in the status area. This is useful when
you get ready to print the picture.
.

Size appears in either inches or centimeters, depending on the Units


setting in Tools SYSTEM SWITCHES.

R2003.12.0

How To: Change the AOI of a Grid or Picture

192

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

7.

The newly created blank basemap appears in the Z-MAP Plus


window. To view the basemap, select Features Overlay
Pictures in the Z-MAP Plus window. Use the OVERLAY
PICTURE dialog box that appears.

Watching the Status Area


The Z-MAP Plus window status area displays useful information during many
operations. The following example detail shows messages that appear as you
execute the OVERLAY PICTURES command:

R2003.12.0

8.

Click Apply to overlay the pictures. Click Save to save the


composite picture and close the dialog box.

9.

To view the new map, select File Open Picture Open in the
Z-MAP Plus window or click the Picture Open icon. Highlight
the new map name, and it appears in the display area. The new
picture has a different AOI than the original picture.

How To: Change the AOI of a Grid or Picture

193

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Change the AOI by Resampling a Grid


Resampling is often used in operations to ensure that grid nodes align
exactly. In this task, resampling is used to change the AOI of an
existing grid. Remember that you have many ways to accomplish
objectives in Z-MAP Plus and that each Z-MAP Plus command has
many uses.
To change a grids AOI by resampling the grid, follow these steps:

R2003.12.0

1.

Attach the MFD that contains the grid to be subset (as described
on page 72).

2.

Begin grid resampling by selecting Operations


Grid Operations Resample Grid. The GRID RESAMPLING
dialog box appears.

3.

Click the Input Grid button to display the Select INPUT GRID
dialog box, which you use to specify an existing input grid. The
dialog box closes immediately when select a grid name.

4.

Optional: To include faults, click the Select Faults button to


display the Select FAULTS dialog box.

How To: Change the AOI of a Grid or Picture

194

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

5.

Click the Output Grid Name and Parameters button to display


the Output Grid NAME dialog box, which you use to specify the
new grids name, location, and AOI coordinates.

6.

Click OK to close the dialog box, and OK again to resample the


grid.
As you specify parameter values to resample a grid, the status area
displays information about the grid you are creating and the source
files used.

Name the new


grid and location

Set the AOI


coordinates.

Set the space


between the
nodes.

Size is displayed in number of nodes

R2003.12.0

How To: Change the AOI of a Grid or Picture

195

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

When you click OK in the GRID RESAMPLING dialog box, a


new grid is produced. Details about the new grid appear in the
system window.

To see the results of the new grid, create a new basemap and
contour the grid.

R2003.12.0

How To: Change the AOI of a Grid or Picture

196

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Summary
Lets compare the results of the different methods for changing the
area of interest:
The New AOI

The Original Picture

Picture made from an existing picture

R2003.12.0

Picture made from resample grid

How To: Change the AOI of a Grid or Picture

197

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Create an Isopach Map


If you want to map the thickness of a structure, you need two values:
one value to represent the depth at the top of the surface and one with
depth at the bottom of the surface. You can use a data file with z-fields
for each depth (top and bottom of a surface) or two grids to calculate
thickness. Use the Operations Calculator option to subtract one
depth from another.

R2003.12.0

How To: Create an Isopach Map

198

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Using Data Operations


1.

Display the Calculator dialog box by selecting Operations


Calculator.

2.

On the Input Files and Grids panel, use the Select File button to
designate the data file that contains both Z-fields for the top and
bottom of the surface.

3.

Select field that represents the formation top from the Select Field
A drop-down menu. This drop-down displays all named fields
within your input file.

4.

Select the field that represents the bottom of the formation from
the Select Field B drop-down menu.

5.

In the Dual field, select SUBTRACT from the drop-down menu.


This operation produces a Z-field whose values represent thickness
of the formation.

6.

Name the new field with the Output Field Name drop-down list
or highlight the default name (NEW FIELD) and enter another
name.

7.

Name the new data file in the Output File Name box, and select a
location for storing the file from the Location drop-down menu.

8.

Move the equation into the Equation Display list by clicking the
Move button.

9.

Click Apply to process the equation, create the new Z-field, and
create the new data file that contains the Z-field that represents the
structure depth.

10. Use the new data file to create a grid based on the values found in
the new Z-field. When you contour this grid, you have a contour
map showing the thicknesses of the formation.

R2003.12.0

How To: Create an Isopach Map

199

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Using Grid Operations


You can use similar steps to subtract the value of grid nodes on one grid
from the same node values in another grid; thus you use the Calculator
to determine the thickness of the structure.
1.

Display the Calculator dialog box by selecting Operations


Calculator.

2.

Under Input Files and Grids on the Calculator dialog box, select
the name of a grid file that represents the formation top in the
Select File field. This becomes GRIDIN1 (the first grid).
Calculator Automatically Displays only Relevant Fields
When a grid file is chosen, the Input Files and Grids fields automatically
reconfigure with only the fields you need to perform calculations on grids.

R2003.12.0

3.

In the Select Grid field, designate the name of the second grid
(GRINDIN2) that represents the formation base.

4.

Under Dual, choose SUBTRACT from the drop-down list. This


instructs the program to subtract the grid node values from the grid
named in the second grid field from node values in the Select File
grid.

5.

In the Grid AOI Source field, designate which grids AOI to use
for the new grid. The default AOI is GRINDIN1. To change this
value, use the drop-down list.

6.

Name the grid in the Output File Name box and specify the
location for storing the grid file by making a selection in the
Location list.

7.

Click the right arrow to move your equation into the


Equation Display panel.

8.

Click Apply to execute the equation and leave the Calculator


dialog box open, or click OK to execute the equation and close the
Calculator dialog box.

9.

Contour the grid to create the isochore map by selecting the


Features Contouring Contour option.

How To: Create an Isopach Map

200

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Exchange Data with SeisWorks


You can import SeisWorks horizon files into Z-MAP Plus, converting
the horizons into DATA files so you can use them to create maps in
Z-MAP Plus. You can also save Z-MAP Plus grids as horizons, so they
are accessible in SeisWorks projects. To use these functions, you must
use Z-MAP Plus with OpenWorks.

Open SeisWorks Horizons as Grids


To import SeisWorks horizon files into Z-MAP Plus as grids, click the
Open SeisWorks Data icon or select File Open SeisWorks. The
Seismic Project Selection dialog box appears. Select a the seismic
project that contains the horizons you want to import, then click OK.
The Import From SeisWorks dialog box appears.

R2003.12.0

How To: Exchange Data with SeisWorks

201

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

In the Import From SeisWorks dialog box, you must specify the input
horizons, the types of output you want to create, and the target location
for saving the data. Several optional parameters are also available.
For more information about this operation, see the SeisWorks topic in the Z-MAP
Plus Reference Guide, or click the Help button in one of these locations: the
Seismic Project Selection dialog box or the Import From SeisWorks dialog box.

Save Grids as Horizons


To save grids as horizons and make them are accessible in SeisWorks,
click the Save To SeisWorks icon or select File Save As
SeisWorks File. The Seismic Project Selection dialog box appears.
Select a target project for saving the horizon files, then click OK. The
Transfer Grid to Seismic dialog box appears.

In the Transfer Grid to Seismic dialog box, you must specify the input
grid and output horizon file name, at a minimum. You also have the
option to specify a fault file to include in the horizon, change the
reference datum value, and flip the Z values.
For more information about this operation, see the SeisWorks File topic in the
Z-MAP Plus Reference Guide, or click the Help button in the Seismic Project
Selection dialog box or Transfer Grid to Seismic dialog box.

R2003.12.0

How To: Exchange Data with SeisWorks

202

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Make Z-MAP Plus Data Available in StratWorks


To use Z-MAP Plus-created faults, grids, and pointsets in StratWorks,
save the files to OpenWorks or to MFDs. You do not need to take any
special steps in Z-MAP Plus to make the files accessible in StratWorks.
This topic is a brief overview of the StratWorks procedure for
importing Z-MAP Plus MFDs.
Accessiblilty of MFD Data
OpenWorks is the data management suite for making data accessible in multiple
Landmark applications. OpenWorks does not store MFDs, however. To make the
contents of an MFD accessible in the broadest range of Landmark applications, save
the files from the MFD to OpenWorks. For example, save Z-MAP Plus FALT,
DATA, and GRID files in OpenWorks.

In StratWorks, you can import individual files contained in an MFD


into OpenWorks by using the MapView application. To start MapView,
select Interpret MapView in the StratWorks window. In the
MapView window that appears, select MapView Mapping
Import Map Data. The Import dialog box appears.

Select a File Type

The File Names


values identify the
source files in the
Z-MAP Plus MFD

Use the Import


Data Type values
to specify how to
store each file in
OpenWorks.

For more infromation about this operation, see the StratWorks Mapping
guide.

R2003.12.0

How To: Make Z-MAP Plus Data Available in StratWorks

203

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Create a Fault File


You can create fault files by using a number of Landmark products,
such as StratWorks and SeisWorks. Although you may typically use
other applications to create fault files, you can also create fault files in
Z-MAP Plus by following these steps:

R2003.12.0

1.

Open the existing contour file to use for digitizing a fault.

2.

To create the fault file, select Edit Data Editor.


The Edit/Create Data dialog box appears.

3.

In the Edit/Create Data dialog box, click the Create Data button.
The Type of Data to create dialog box appears.

4.

Click the Fault button. The Create Data dialog box appears.

How To: Create a Fault File

204

Landmark

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

5.

In the Create Data dialog box, click the Filename, mfd Name, #
of Fields button. The Create New Fault File - Select File Name
dialog box appears.

6.

Set the File name parameter to name the new FALT file.

7.

Set the MFD for new file value to specify the target MFD for
storing the FALT file.

How To: Create a Fault File

205

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

8.

Optional: Set the following parameters:


Number of field in addition to x,y and segment id An
input fault file must contain the following required fields: X, Y,
and SEGID. For extended faults, the file must also contain
values for the following extended fields: DIP, THROW,
DELTA-Z ANGLE, and HEAVE. If the fault file contains any of
the extended fields, use this option to specify the number of
extended fields.
Autoset extra fields This setting enables the program to set
field values for new points automatically. Values (such as Z
values) are derived from a source grid or control point on which
the map was based. This option is especially useful for adding
synthesized control points away from the defined data and for
creating digitized profiles.
Snap vertices to point locations Defines the location of a
new point from the x,y location of the nearest point in the
selected file.

9.

Click OK to close the Create New Fault File - Select File Name
dialog box.

10. In the Create Data dialog box, specify names and types for any
extended fields you indicated previously in the value for the
Number of fields in addition to x,y and segment id box. (In this
example, you digitize a simple new fault file, so you do not specify
any extended field names and types.)
11. Click OK to close the Create Data dialog box.
The Create Lines dialog box appears. You can begin to use the
cursor for digitizing.

R2003.12.0

How To: Create a Fault File

206

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Use Mouse Button 1 (MB1) to select the points to define the fault
in the basemap. The digitizing line extends as you drag and click,
as shown in the following illustration.

Point & click

Drag & click

Drag & click

Thenclick
End from the
Dragthe
&
dialog
Then choose END
from the dialog

You have just created a single new fault segment.


Values for the Extra Fields
If you set up for extra fields in step 3, each time you click to digitize a fault
point along your segment, the following dialog appears where you furnish
values for the point.:

12. When you finish drawing the fault, click End in the Create Line
dialog box to stop digitizing and create a centerline fault.

R2003.12.0

How To: Create a Fault File

207

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

The Smooth Line dialog box asks whether you want to smooth the
line. It is generally a good idea to use the smoothing function.
Creating Fault Polygons
To create a fault polygon, click the End and Close button. This joins the
beginning point to the last point you drew.

13. Click OK to close each dialog box. When you click OK to close
the final dialog box, the new FALT file is created.
14. Select File Info File Listing to see the new file added to the
list of files in the system window.

R2003.12.0

How To: Create a Fault File

208

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Print a Picture
Use the File Print CGM option to display the Plot a Picture
dialog box. You can use this dialog box to save the current picture as a
.cgm file, which you can send to a plotter at any time. You can also use
the CGM option to print multiple copies of a picture.

R2003.12.0

1.

Click the Graphics File Name button. In the Input List dialog box
that appears, specify the ZGF that contains the picture you want to
print. The dialog box closes automatically.

2.

Click Picture Name and select the name of the picture.

3.

Optional: To change the measurement units used for the picture


statistics shown in the dialog box, select the Unit Type: Inches or
cm radio button.

How To: Print a Picture

209

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

4.

You cannot change the values for Original Size of the picture, but
you can change the Offsets and size of the plotted image.
Red Outlines Tie Fields Together
As you move your cursor over the Plot Width, Plot Height, and Offset fields,
red boxes appear. Red boxes indicate a relationship exists between the values
of highlighted fields. For example, when you move over the Scale Factor field,
red boxes appear around Plot Width, Plot Height, and Scale Factor. This
indicates that if you change the value in any of these fields, the program
calculates the values for the related fields automatically.

R2003.12.0

5.

Select the plotter you want to use from the drop-down menu in the
Plotter Name field (if you have plotters set up through
OpenWorks).

6.

Set the dimensions for your printout in the Plot Width and Plot
Height fields.

7.

To save this file to disk and make printing future copies of this
picture easier, name the file and select the radio button beside
Create cgm disk file.

8.

Click OK to print the picture and close the dialog, or Apply to


print this picture and leave the dialog box open so you can
schedule other print jobs.

How To: Print a Picture

210

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Heres a summary of Plot a Picture features:


Select the input ZGF
and picture.
Specify the units the
plotter uses.
You can change plot
width, height, or scale
factor, or accept the
default values.
Indicate the number of
copies to plot. You can
Rotate the picture to
prevent paneling. Indicate
whether or not you want
the plot to have a Cut-line
(a solid thin line drawn at
the edge of the offset
area of the plot).

If your system is set up properly, you can click Queue Plotter to send
the picture directly to a plotter. Select a plotter from the list of options or
click Create a cgm disk file and specify a file name.

R2003.12.0

How To: Print a Picture

211

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Overlay Maps
You can compare two maps by merging one map into another. To
accomplish this task, you can use the Overlay Pictures option or
perform one of the following actions:

Display a basemap of leases over an interpreted contour map of the


geologic feature.

Compare gridding algorithms.

Compile a map of multiple geologic features.

In the following example, a contour map of the Drake formation


created with the Weighted Average gridding algorithm is overlaid onto
a contour map of the same feature gridded with the Least Squares
algorithm.
Picture 1 - LS TIME MAP
This is the base or Output
Picture, which is
overwritten in the Overlay
Picture process.
The contours are drawn on
a Least Squares grid.

Picture 2 - WA TIME MAP


This picture is merged with
Picture1. The contours are
drawn on a Weighted Average
grid.

R2003.12.0

How To: Overlay Maps

212

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

To overlay features from an existing picture onto another existing


picture, follow these steps:
AOI Requirement for Overlaid Pictures
Overlay Pictures assumes the input and output pictures have intersecting AOIs and
adjusts the scale of the input picture features to fit the output picture. See Change
the AOI of a Grid or Picture on page 191 to learn how to adjust the AOI of a
picture or a grid.

1.

Check the status area to insure that the correct ZGF is attached.

2.

Display Picture1 in the Z-MAP Plus window.

3.

Make a copy of Picture1. You make a copy because the composite


picture created with the Overlay Picture option overwrites the file
name of the picture used as the base or bottom layer. Use the
File Copy option to make a copy of Picture1. In this example,
you name the Picture1 copy as OverlayExample.

4.

Display the copy of Picture1 (OverlayExample) in the


Z-MAP Plus window: Select File Open Picture Open or
click the Picture Open icon and select OverlayExample.

5.

Select Features Overlay Pictures to create the composite


picture. The following dialog box appears:

Input Picture = Picture 2


Output Picture = copy of Picture 1

Default Values in the Status Area


The default value for the output picture is the picture most recently reported
in the display area.

R2003.12.0

How To: Overlay Maps

213

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

6.

Set the following values from the OVERLAY PICTURE dialog:


Input GRAPHICS FILE Select the name of the ZGF that
contains Picture2.
Input picture Select the file name of Picture2. This picture is
overlaid on top of the output picture. Sometimes the order might
be important.
Output GRAPHICS FILE Click this button and select the
ZGF that will contain the output picture.
Output picture Select the name of the picture you want to
overwrite when you merge the two pictures.
Features to Overlay If you do not select any features from this
multiple list box, all features are displayed when the two pictures
are merged. Otherwise, highlight the features you want to display
on the new, merged map, and click OK.

7.

Click Apply in the OVERLAY PICTURES dialog box.


When the operation is complete, the Z-MAP Plus System Window
reports that processing is finished.

8.

Click Save to save the composite picture and close the OVERLAY
PICTURES dialog box.

9.

To see the new composite picture, select File Open


Picture Open or click the Picture Open icon in the Z-MAP Plus
window. Select the name of the new picture in the dialog box that
appears. You must display the picture in this way even if it has the
same name as the original output picture.

Overlaying one picture on another with different colored contours


makes it easy to compare the results of the gridding algorithms.

R2003.12.0

How To: Overlay Maps

214

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Overlay Picture Tips

R2003.12.0

Overwritten Pictures Z-MAP Plus usually does not overwrite


an existing picture or file. Typically the program creates a new file
name by adding a version number to the original file name. The
OVERLAY PICTURES operation is an exception to this rule. The
OVERLAY PICTURES operation overwrites the file named as the
output file. Be sure to copy the picture before executing the
overlay operations, if you want to preserve the original picture as a
separate picture.

Merged Picture Features The Overlay Pictures operation


merges two pictures into one. Once you overlay the pictures, you
cannot separate the features of the two pictures for editing.

How To: Overlay Maps

215

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Create a Trend Form Grid


Trendform Gridding grids a set of data while honoring the shape (but
not the values) of a form grid using the continuously varying bias
information embedded in that form grid.
To create a trendform grid, follow these steps:
1.

Select Modeling Trendform Gridding. The Trendform


Gridding dialog box appears:

Tabbed parameter
panels.
Ellipsis
produce
a popup
dialog to
choose
from.

Red fields require


you to enter a value.

Main Window Buttons

R2003.12.0

2.

Now designate the file that contains the shape of the new
trendform grid. Click the selection button to the right of the Form
Grid (Shape) parameter. Highlight the name of your shape grid.

3.

If the form grid is associated with a fault file, select the name of
the fault file in the Form Grid Faults field.

4.

Follow the same procedure to select the input Control Point file.

How To: Create a Trend Form Grid

216

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

5.

Choose the Z field you wish to grid from the Z Field drop-down
list this list of Z-fields comes from the control point file you
designated in the previous step. Because this is a s single select
list, simply highlight the name of the Z-field. The name
automatically appears in the Z Field parameter. To change this
value, choose another field from the same drop-down list.

6.

Your data file may contain one or more data confidence fields.
Where multiple confidence fields exist, you must interactively
target which field you want to use.
Creating Confidence Fields
When you create a confidence field, always use positive numbers (including
zero) for confidence factors. You can apply a confidence factor to each of the
z-values in the data file.

The Data Confidence Field is also a single list drop-down menu.


7.

Optional: Select the fault file associated with the control point
file.

8.

Specify the location for storing the new grid from the Output
Location list.

9.

Name the new grid (Output Grid Name).

10. Select a gridding method in the Algorithm field. The default value
is LEAST SQUARES.
You can apply the same logic used for ordinary gridding. For a
description of the algorithms, see the Modeling section in the
Z-MAP Plus Reference Guide or use the browser-based help
system.

R2003.12.0

How To: Create a Trend Form Grid

217

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

11. Enter the gridding bias. This parameter controls how closely the
output grid follows the form grid. The default is 50. The bias has
meaning only with respect to the units used for the x, y and z
coordinates in your data and your form grid. You probably need to
do some experimenting to determine the best value. Start with the
default, then iterate until you get what you would consider to be
the most accurate results. If you set this parameter to 0 (or the
form grid is flat), the program reverts to ordinary gridding
independent of the shape of the form grid.
12. If the file has multiple X or Y fields. you must indicate which
fields you want to use to create the grid. On the Other Outputs
and Controls tab, select the field name for both X and Y from the
drop-down menus in the Select From Multiple X and Y Fields
panel.
13. You can also choose to generate fault throw grids on the Other
Outputs and Controls tab. These additional files are
automatically generated when you enter a name in the field beside
each type of file. For a complete explanation of these files, see
Output When Performing Throw Gridding on page 133.
14. Click OK to execute Trendform Gridding.

R2003.12.0

How To: Create a Trend Form Grid

218

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Viewing the Results


To view the new trendform grid, follow these steps.
1.

Select File Open MFD Open/Close and highlight the MFD


that contains the output trendform grid. Click OK.

2.

Select File Open ZGF Open/Close and select an existing


ZGF.

3.

Create a basemap with an area of interest (AOI) from the


trendform results by using the File New Basemap option.

4.

Select Features Contouring. Create a contour map of the


trendform results.
Set the contouring parameters so that contours are Colorfilled

5.

Select Features Overlay Pictures and overlay the form grid


contours onto the trendform contours to see how well the
colorfilled contours match those of the form grid.
Contouring the Form Grid
When you contour the form grid, be sure to use the COARSEST

setting

for the Contour Refinement option.

Recommendations

R2003.12.0

The Trendform algorithm is slower than the other gridding


algorithms and should not be used on dense data.

At the other extreme, results will suffer when too little data is used.
Do not expect good results when you use a complex form grid
together with a dataset that contains three wells.

Ideally, some data must be scattered throughout the area of your


form grid.

Since a high frequency form grid that contains a lot of contour


detail between control points may cause unexpected results, it is
recommended that you filter such high frequency information out
of the form grid before using it

When viewing a form grid in Z-MAP Plus contouring, use the


COARSEST setting for the Curve Sampling Density or Contour
Refinement option.

A very fine row and column spacing in the form grid may be
required to impose an interpretation on closely spaced data.

How To: Create a Trend Form Grid

219

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Post Specific Seismic Lines and Shot Points


Since seismic data is so dense, you often want to post only specified
shot points or lines. We will first designate which shotpoints to post
then designate which lines to post on a 3D survey. Many of the same
concepts apply to posting 2D.
To specify which shotpoints and lines to post on a 3D survey, follow
these steps:
1.

Open Features 3D Seismic. The following dialog box appears:

As you can see from the many types of parameters, this dialog
gives you a lot of control over seismic posting. For our purposes,
we are concentrating on the number of shotpoints to post. For
complete descriptions of all the parameters, see the Features
section in the Z-MAP Plus Reference Guide.

R2003.12.0

How To: Post Specific Seismic Lines and Shot Points

220

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

2.

Choose Shotpoints to Post to reduce the clutter of posted


shotpoints on your map. The following dialog box appears:

Use this dialog box to control the frequency of posted shotpoints,


the appearance of shotpoint labels, size of the symbol, etc.
Three fields (Symbol Posting Method, Rate to Post (Divisible
by), and Starting Location (Divisible bias)) on this dialog are
closely interrelated and the settings between the three give you
very accurate control over which shot points to post:

R2003.12.0

How To: Post Specific Seismic Lines and Shot Points

221

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Symbol Posting Method


The options for the Posting Method parameter appear in a
drop-down list. The default value is Rate. For the ALL, RATE,
and DIVIDE methods, the first and last shotpoints on the line are
always posted. The options are:
ALL Posts all shotpoints.
RATE (default value) Enables you to set an interval between
posted shot points and always includes the first and last shot
points. If the method is set to RATE and the Rate to Post
(Divisible by) field is set to n, then every nth shot point in the
file is posted, starting with the Starting Location (Divisible
bias). For example, if you set the method to RATE, the Rate to
Post to 5, and the Starting Location to 7, you post points 1, 7,
12, 17, 22, and so on.
DIVIDE Posts any shot point number which is divisible by
the number you designate in the Rate to Post field. In addition,
the first and last shots are always included. For example, if you
set the method to DIVIDE, the Rate to Post to 5, and the
Starting Location (Divisible by) to 0, you post points 1, 5, 10,
15, 20, 25, 30, and so on.
If you set the Starting Location (Divisible bias) to 1 and use
the other two previous settings, you post points 1, 4, 9, 14, 19,
and so on.
NONE Posts no shot points on the map.
Rate to Post (Divisible by)
This field is only used when the mode is set to RATE or DIVIDE.
If the mode is RATE, the value in this field is the interval (after 1)
of shot points to skip. If the mode is DIVIDE, then all shot points
are posted where the shot point number plus the Divisible bias is
evenly divisible by the value you assign to this field.
Starting Location (Divisible bias)
This field requires a value when you are using the RATE or
DIVIDE mode. If the method is set to RATE, this is the starting
location of the first shot point you want to post. Remember the first
and last shot points are always posted. If the method is set to
DIVIDE, this is the Divisible Bias. Each shot point number where
shot point number plus Divisible Bias is evenly divisible by Rate
to Post (Divisible by) is posted.

R2003.12.0

How To: Post Specific Seismic Lines and Shot Points

222

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

3.

To set the number and frequency of lines to post, choose the 3D


Survey Line Parameters button. The following dialog appears:

To control which 3D seismic survey lines appear on the map,


specify the following parameter values:
Line Posting Method
The following options for the Posting Method parameter appear in
a drop-down list:
ALL Posts all lines.
RATE (default value) Uses the specified interval between
posted lines. Notice that RATE always calculates the interval
beginning with line 1, and always includes the last line. For
example, if you set the method to RATE, the Rate to Post to 5,
and the Starting Location to 1, you post lines 1, 6, 11, 16, 21,
26, and so on.
DIVIDE Posts any line that is divisible by the number
specified in the Rate to Post box. For example, if you set the
method to Divide and the Rate to Post to 5, you post lines 1, 5,
10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and so on. The first and last lines are always
posted.
NONE Omits all seismic lines from the map.

R2003.12.0

How To: Post Specific Seismic Lines and Shot Points

223

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Rate to Post Lines (Divisible by)


This field is only used when the mode is set to RATE or DIVIDE.
If the mode is RATE, the value in this field is the interval (after 1)
of lines to skip. If the mode is DIVIDE, then all lines are posted
where the line number plus the Divisible bias is evenly divisible
by the value you assign to this field.
Starting Location (Divisible bias)
This field requires a value when you are using the RATE or
DIVIDE mode. If the method is set to RATE, this is the starting
location of the first line you want to post. Member the first and last
lines are always posted. If the method is set to DIVIDE, this is the
Divisible Bias. Each line number where line number plus Divisible
Bias is evenly divisible by Rate to Post (Divisible by) gets posted
on your map.

R2003.12.0

4.

Click OK when you have set up the line parameters.

5.

Click OK to post the shotpoint and line parameters you have set
up.

6.

Click Save to close the Post Seismic Data (New) dialog box.

How To: Post Specific Seismic Lines and Shot Points

224

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Appendix A. Glossary

Z-MAP Plus Glossary


algorithm
An unambiguous sequence of instructions, such as a portion of a computer program, which
gives an answer to a problem within a finite number of steps.
alias
The ambiguity in surface shape resulting from too widely spaced control data. If a surface is
very rough or wavy and the control points are widely spaced relative to the highs and lows
of the surface, then it will appear to be a much smoother surface after gridding. It is not
possible to accurately reconstruct a surface when it is undersampled and aliasing occurs.
alphabetic character
A letter or other symbol, excluding digits, used in a language. A blank is also considered an
alphabetic character.
alphanumeric data
Data composed of alphabetic and/or numeric characters. Generally, any data that is keyed or
displayed directly to a computer terminal or printer is alphanumeric data. When alphanumeric
data are stored by the computer, each character occupies one byte (8 bits). The two standard
internal computer representations of alphanumeric data are called ASCII and EBCDIC. See
binary data.
annotation
Descriptive text, scales, legends, etc., that are drawn on a map to identify and locate features,
describe the function of the map or features, and generally make the map useful.

R2003.12.0

Appendix A. Glossary

225

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

API well number


A unique numbering system developed by the American Petroleum Institute to identify wells
drilled in the United States. The 12 digit number can be broken down as follows:

Digits 1-2: State code. Numbers 1-49 are alphabetical for states including the District of
Columbia. Alaska and Hawaii are 50 and 51 respectively.
Digits 3-5: County, parish, or offshore code.
Digits 6-10: Specific well code.
Digits 11-12: Codes for sidetracks, etc.

apparent dip
Any dip not measured at a right angle to the strike. It is always less than the true dip. Cross
sections, which cut a surface at any angle other than 90 degrees to the strike of the surface, will
reveal the apparent dip.
area of interest (AOI)
The area in a map's border specified in rectangular coordinates (x and y values). In
Z-MAP Plus, the AOI may also be defined in latitude and longitude. AOI is also used for
discussing grid limits since grids typically have the same spatial dimensions as the map they
are intended to produce.
array
An arrangement of elements in one or more dimensions. Contrast with scalar.
ASCII
American National Standard Code for Information Interchange. The standard code, using a
coded character set consisting of seven-bit coded characters (eight bits including parity
check), used for information interchange among data processing systems, data
communications systems, and associated equipment. The ASCII set consists of control
characters and graphic characters including some which are not represented on the keyboard
keys.

R2003.12.0

Appendix A. Glossary

226

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

back interpolation
An operation that is somewhat like the reverse of gridding in that Z-values can be interpolated
from a grid at irregularly spaced x,y locations. A local interpolation scheme is used to compute
the Z-value from grid values surrounding the x,y location and the resulting Z-value is added to
the data location to yield x,y,z for each of the input x,y points.
basemap
A map that shows the names and locations of map data, such as seismic lines, shotpoints, well,
culture, and other basic geographic data.
binary data
A way of encoding numeric data to make best use of the computational and storage facilities
of computers. Numeric data are converted into binary data as they are loaded into the
computer. Most numeric data are converted to binary data unless they are strictly for display
purposes on a map or other type of graphics. Then they would be retained in alphanumeric
form.
blanking
The operation of changing valid Z-values within a designated area into null values so that it
appears there are no data within the area. Data blanking nulls a specified field of all x,y,z data
points within an area. Grid blanking nulls all the grid values of a specified grid within an area.
border ticks
Short lines drawn perpendicular to map border and used to divide the border into distance
intervals. Longer ticks are used to indicate major intervals while shorter ticks are used to
subdivide major intervals. Major ticks are usually labeled with their respective coordinates.

R2003.12.0

Appendix A. Glossary

227

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

boundary
A line or closed curve that delineates one area from another. The line or curve is usually
represented by a series of x,y points at its vertices. Boundaries between private properties are
called property lines or lease lines.
boundary polygon
An enclosed multi-sided area that limits data processing, such as regridding, to either inside or
outside the marked area.
centered symbol
See symbol.
CGM
Acronym for Computer Graphics Metafile. CGM files are a standard way of storing graphics
information. You can use the File Print CGM option in the Z-MAP Plus window to
save pictures as CGM files. You can use CGM files in graphics applications outside of
Z-MAP Plus.
clipping
The operation of limiting or truncating data which is beyond specified limits. Grid clipping is
performed to truncate grid values that exceed or fall below specified thresholds; values above
or below the threshold are set to the threshold. Data clipping of Z-values is similar. Map
clipping cuts off all graphic information that would otherwise be drawn beyond a clipping
boundary, typically the map border.
closure
The property of a structure, which means it is enclosed by a closed contour. In a structural trap,
vertical closure is the vertical distance between the lowest contour that closes and the highest
point on the feature. Areal closure is the area contained within the lowest closing contour.
color index
A number assigned to a color in the Z-MAP Plus Color Table.

R2003.12.0

Appendix A. Glossary

228

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

concatenate
To link two or more datasets into a single dataset, generally so the data from one precedes the
data from the next in the combined dataset.
contour interval
The difference in value between two adjacent contour lines. Generally, the contour interval is
constant across a map; however, the interval may be decreased in flat areas or increased in
high-slope areas to maintain a fairly uniform density of contours across a map.
contour line
A line separating all points that are higher than the contour value from points of lower value.
Alternatively, the contour line is the locus of all points on the surface having the same value as
the contour value. Computer drawn contours are approximations of true contours. They are
produced by computing closely spaced points along the true contour and connecting them by
line segments.
control grid
An existing grid that is used to control how a grid is generated. In gridding, the most frequent
uses of control grids are to:
1) default the gridding control parameters for the new grid to match those of the control grid,
2) limit gridding to locations where the control grid is null, or
3) limit gridding to locations where the control grid is not null. Control grids also provide the
second and third functions during filtering.
control points
Known points on a surface that are used to control the interpretation of the surface. Control
points minimally contain x,y,z information, where x,y is the horizontal location of some
measured information represented by z such as depth or time values. Control point files can
also contain other Z values, textual descriptions about the data, symbol codes, and other types
of measured information. Control point files are used to store well data, seismic data, and other
types of data that are recorded at discrete locations. A typical control point file may be of the
form X, Y, symbol, API, top 1, top 2 where symbol denotes the symbol used to spot the well on
a basemap, API is a text string, and top 1 and top 2 are subsea elevations.

R2003.12.0

Appendix A. Glossary

229

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

conversion factors
Scale factors that are used to convert one set of units to another. The following is a table of
useful scale factors for mapping work.
Table 1: Units Conversion
Starting Units

Scale Factor

Converted Units

meters

39.37

inches

meters

3.280833

feet

feet

0.3048006

meters

kilometers

0.6213699

statute miles

statute miles

1.609347

kilometers

nautical miles

6076.103

feet

nautical miles

1.851999

kilometers

square feet

2.295684E-5

acres

square miles

640

acres

square miles

2.589998

sq. kilometers

hectare

2.471

acres

square kilometers

100

hectares

cubic feet

7.4805

U.S. gallons

cubic feet

2.295684E-5

acre feet

cubic feet

5.61

barrels

barrels

0.15899

cubic meters

barrels

42

U.S. gallons

acre feet

7758

barrels

acre feet

1233.5

cubic meters

cross hair cursor


Depending on the graphics device, a cross hair cursor can span the entire screen or be a fairly
small cross. In the former case, the cursor is composed of two faint white lines that cross the
screen, one vertical and one horizontal. Typically, the horizontal and vertical lines can be
positioned independently. The other type of cursor is formed with the two lines about 1/2 inch
long. In this case, the lines do not move independently. The cursor is moved using the mouse,
arrow keys, thumb wheels, or joystick. The cross hair cursor is also called graphics cursor or
cursor.
cross section
A geologic diagram showing the vertical relationship between formations and structures that
are cut by a vertical plane. The vertical scale is typically depth while the horizontal scale is
distance along the section baseline. Z-MAP Plus displays cross sections of grid surfaces.

R2003.12.0

Appendix A. Glossary

230

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

culture data
The term used to refer to man-made map data such as roads, property lines, cities, pipelines,
etc. It sometimes includes geographic land grids.
cursor
A movable marker used to indicate a position on the display screen.
curvature
The rate of change in the slope of a surface. The curvature at any grid location can be
estimated using a finite difference formula which relates the grid value to 12 symmetrically
surrounding grid values. The total squared curvature is the sum of the squared curvature at all
grid locations.
curve identification
The names used to designate log curve types. These names are usually the same as those
commonly used to identify log curves.
data field
A portion of a data record that is allocated to store numeric or textual data. Data fields are
qualified by the type of information in the field, the position of the field within the data record,
the range of values for information stored in the field, and the null value for the data in the
field. The position of a specific data field must be the same for all records in a dataset.
data record
The grouping of all data fields for each independent item (control point, vertex, fault trace
point, etc.) in a specified order. The format (contents and order) of the data record is defined
by the specifications for each data field in the record.
data reduction
The process of removing unnecessary or redundant data from the dataset.
dataset
A collection of data records. Typical mapping datasets include x,y,z control point data, grids,
polygons, profiles, fault traces, and map text.
datum (datum level)
A reference from which other measurements are made, such as an elevation, typically sea
level, used as a reference for determining elevations in a dataset.

R2003.12.0

Appendix A. Glossary

231

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

decimation
A controlled deletion of data entities or posted attributes. For example, the Post Seismic Data
(New) process under Add Features, Post Data/Grids allows for decimation of shotpoints,
shotpoint labels, and Z-Attribute labels. Seismic lines can be selectively eliminated from 3D
seismic surveys.
default value
An automatically assigned value. Default values are appropriate for many standard mapping
tasks. Static default values are the same from session to session. Dynamic default values
depend on other parameter values, processing steps, process results, or combinations of these
elements.
detach
To remove an attached MFD or ZGF from the Z-MAP Plus session, thereby making its data
inaccessible.
digitize
The process of converting maps or graphs into datasets for use in mapping and modeling tasks.
To digitize contours, for example, a map is taped on a digitizer and registered, then each curve
is manually followed using a special stylus or a cross hair device. The path followed by the
stylus is automatically converted into a string of x,y locations. Additional information is
entered from the keyboard, such as Z values or text.
display area
The part of the window used for displaying the picture.
dual grid operations
Mathematical operations (such as addition or multiplication), which you can perform on two
grids in the Calculator utility to produce a new grid.
dynamic
Occurring at the time of execution.
editor
A Z-MAP Plus task used to edit data or text.

R2003.12.0

Appendix A. Glossary

232

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

engineering units
The units in which the source data were measured, such as feet, meters, miles, seconds, etc., as
opposed to plotter units or other special units used by a computer program.
extrapolate
A mathematical procedure to estimate surface values in areas beyond the spatial limits of the
data. How the data are extrapolated is dependent on the specific algorithm chosen to model the
data.
extension
The part of a file name that follows the last period, which the program uses to identify the file
type.
FALT file
The extension used within an MFD to identify data files that describe fault geometry.
fault
A displacement of rocks along a shear surface. The surface along which the displacement
occurs is the fault face or fault plane. The dip of the fault face is the angle it makes with the
horizontal. The fault throw is the vertical displacement of a surface across the fault face. The
heave is the horizontal separation of a surface across the fault. The trace of the fault is the
curve formed by the intersection of the fault face and the surface which is faulted. The fault
zone on any surface is the area enclosed by the fault trace. See merge operations.
fault data
A data file type, signified with the FALT extension, that graphically represents a fault.
filtering
A mathematical process to remove certain types of surface information from a gridded
surface. In many applications, filters are used to smooth a surface, which is equivalent to
removing rough character. Filters can also be designed to remove trends and leave the local
variation. In general, grid filters are implemented by convolving the grid with a set of weights.
flexing
A special type of grid filter that is used to remove unwarranted surface variation between data
locations while retaining a precise fit at the data locations. One type of grid flexing uses a
biharmonic filter to produce a grid that is smooth between data locations while honoring the
data.

R2003.12.0

Appendix A. Glossary

233

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

flexing pass
Grid flexing generally must be performed several times to achieve the desired smoothness and
accuracy. This term is used to indicate how many times the input grid has been flexed.
foreground
1) The part of the display area that is the character itself. 2) Evident on screen, e.g, foreground
processing. Contrast with background. See also interactive mode.
format
The way and order in which data are arranged within data records; or a Fortran control
statement telling the computer how data are arranged. The format precisely defines where
each field is positioned within the data record, the number of characters in the field, and the
type of information (integer, decimal, or text). The A, F, E and G formats are used most
frequently.
formatted dataset
A dataset that has been prepared for input into a specific application program. It is in
alphanumeric format; therefore, it can be displayed and edited at a computer terminal
independently of the mapping program.
GINCI
Represents the initial grid increment.
graphics file
A disk file that contains individual picture files. Also referred to as a ZGF (the graphics file
extension) and as a Z-MAP Graphics File.
grid
A set of surface values which are located at the intersections of grid lines which span a
rectangular area and which run parallel to the sides of the rectangle. The grid line spacing is
called the grid increment. Usually the increment is constant across the entire grid. The grid
line intersections are called grid nodes. The smallest areas enclosed by grid lines are called
grid cells. The surface values of a grid are called grid values. Since the grid covers a rectangle,
the grid limits are given by the coordinates of the lower left and upper right corners of the area.
gridding
The mathematical process used to estimate values at the grid nodes from control points,
digitized contours, shotpoints, etc. The result of gridding is a grid.

R2003.12.0

Appendix A. Glossary

234

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

hachured line
A line or curve such as a contour formed by drawing short and equally spaced line segments
perpendicular to the curve. The line segments are typically about 0.1 inch long and 0.5 inch
apart. Hachured contours are used to indicate the dip direction, closed low areas, elevated
areas, or steep slopes depending on the conventions established for the map.
hardcopy
A paper or other tangible media copy of a map or other types of graphic products as opposed
to an image of the map on a graphics screen.
header
Information that is inserted at the beginning of a dataset to identify the data and assist in
loading the data into the computer program.
horizon
The surface at the intersection of two different rock layers or a surface associated with a
seismic reflection when the reflector covers a large area.
inclination
The angle between a surface and the horizontal. See dip.
index map
A reference map, usually of a large scale, showing the location of another small-scale map. An
index map is frequently drawn in the margin of a small-scale map near the map title block.
interpolation
A mathematical process for estimating surface values at locations where the surface values are
not known. The estimates are made from known data, such as control point datasets. Grids are
produced by interpolating control points. The interpolation procedure employed to grid a
dataset should be selected to best fit the characteristics of the data and the specific application.
isochore
1) The vertical thickness of a rock unit.
2) A contour map of vertical thickness for a rock unit.

R2003.12.0

Appendix A. Glossary

235

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

isopach
1) The stratigraphic thickness of a rock unit (measured perpendicular to the top and base of a
unit). Isopach thickness is less than or equal to isochore thickness.
2) A contour map of stratigraphic thickness for a rock unit.
least squares fit
An approximation of a set of data such that the sum of the squared deviations between the
approximation and the data is minimized.
line of section
A map line indicating the location of a profile or cross section.
line resampling
1) Creates points at regular intervals along the lines in a dataset.
2) Through attribute propagation, finds the value for a given field of an intermediate point by
using the known values of the points on either side.
map projection
A mathematical procedure for mapping latitude and longitude grid lines on the surface of the
earth onto a plane surface such as a map which enables the systematic transformation of
spherical coordinates into planar coordinates and vice versa.
map scale
The ratio of the distance between any two points on the map to the distance between the same
two points on the earth. Map scales are expressed as 1:2000, 1:10000, an so on.
masking grid
See control grid.
master file
A disk file which contains a collection of datasets, often expressed as MFD. Master files are
used by Landmark geological mapping systems and often have the extension .MFD.
mean value
The average of all data values. Null values are not included in the mean.

R2003.12.0

Appendix A. Glossary

236

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

merge operations
A general class of dual grid operations which act to combine intersecting and sometimes
unrelated surfaces, such as unconformities, onlap, faults, etc. The hybrid surface resulting
from such a combination usually serves to define a geologically distinct body of rock. The
operations involved are MIN, MAX, CMIN, CMAX, MERGE LOW and MERGE HIGH. See
the Operations section in the Z-MAP Plus Reference Manual to determine which operation
best fits the specific circumstances.
missing value
See null value and ZNON.
mis-tie
The difference of values at identical points on intersecting seismic lines.
null area
The part of the gridded area in which valid grid values were not computed, generally because
of insufficient data.
null value
A special number that is encoded in the place of Z-values to indicate that the Z-values are
missing or unknown. The null value must be different than any possible Z-value which it
replaces. Typical null values are 999, 9999, 1.0E+30, etc. Null values are used to indicate
areas where grid values cannot be determined and when Z-values in a control point dataset are
missing. Landmark geological products call the null value ZNON.
overlay
The process of taking a set of graphics, such as contours, and superimposing them onto
another set, such as a basemap.
picture
A generic term for a map, cross section, or other type of display that can be produced by a
mapping system. A picture is a named collection of graphic features. It can be recalled by its
name, displayed and edited.
plotter units
Units of distance used to specify plotting locations as opposed to actual data units. Most
plotters manufactured in the United States use inches, while most foreign plotters use
centimeters. The plotter units are given relative to the lower left corner of the picture and
include space for map margins.

R2003.12.0

Appendix A. Glossary

237

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

polygon
A closed planar figure with three or more sides. Polygons are used to specify property
ownership boundaries, areas where special grid operations such as grid blanking are to be
performed, the horizontal limits for volume calculations, and other map data.
posting data
Placing data on a map on its correct geographic position. In some programs, posting data is
referred to as spotting data.
process window
A computer terminal screen display which is used to list process control parameters and their
current values or processing options. The Z-MAP Plus process window is known as the
system window.
refinement passes
Recalculation passes on a grid which have the effect of smoothing contours. The calculation
interval becomes smaller and smaller with an increasing number of passes and the processing
time increases.
residual
The small scale regional variation of a surface. The residual is used to locate important surface
detail that might be obscured by large scale surface trends. See trend analysis.
scalar
A quantity characterized by a single number.
scaling factor
A multiplicative factor used to change the values of a specific curve.
scratch file
A disk file that is automatically attached to each Z-MAP Plus session. All intermediate files
created during the session are stored on the scratch file and deleted when you terminate the
session, unless you specify otherwise.
search radius
The radius of the data collection circle that is constructed around each grid node during
gridding. The circle defines the area from which data can be collected to be used to interpolate
the grid value. Data outside the circle are not used to interpolate the grid value.

R2003.12.0

Appendix A. Glossary

238

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

shot point (SP)


For mapping purposes, the shot point is the location where seismic reflection times are
recorded.
symbol
One of many graphics symbols that can be drawn on a map at designated x,y locations. The
symbols are constructed so their centers are positioned at x,y. Symbols range in graphic
complexity from a simple plus sign to complex combinations of shaded circles and lines. The
different designs are used to indicate different types of data or states of the data. Any of the
symbols can be used to spot a dataset.
trend analysis
The fitting of a smooth analytical surface to data points to represent the large scale regional
variation of the data rather than a precise fit which honors all the data. The objective is to
detect trends in the data which might mask small and important local features. The difference
between a precise fit to the data and a trend fit is called the residual. This is the local erratic or
random component of the data.
trend surface map
The calculated average surface over a given area. Initial calculated surface is linear (first
order).
volumetrics
A mathematical procedure for computing the volume between two surfaces. The volumetrics
module also computes planar and surface areas.
weighting function
A mathematical equation that is used in gridding to decrease the significance of control point
data with increasing distance from the grid node being interpolated. The justification for a
weighting function is that the similarity in surface characteristics at any two arbitrary points
typically decreases with increasing distance between the points. Weighting function equations
are designed to approximate the way that similarity decreases.
wildcard
A designated character such as * or % used to set up a search or a mask. Usually the wildcard
is used in the middle or at the end of a partial string. For example, AUS* will search for any
character string beginning with AUS. Wildcards are used in Z-MAP Plus to construct textual
masks for selective posting, as well as for file extensions and directory path definitions.

R2003.12.0

Appendix A. Glossary

239

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

x-coordinate
1) The horizontal (left-right or east-west) component of a rectangular cartesian coordinate
system used in mapping. The x coordinate increases to the right or the east. 2) The first
component of a 3-dimensional rectangular system.
x-field
A portion of a data record that is allocated to store the x coordinate. See data field.
y-coordinate
1) The vertical (up-down or north-south) component of a 2-dimensional rectangular cartesian
coordinate system. The y coordinate increases to the north. 2) The second component of a
3-dimensional rectangular system.
y-field
A portion of a data record that is allocated to store the y coordinate. See data field.
Z-field
A portion of a data record that is allocated to store a Z-value. See data field.
ZGF
Z-MAP Graphics File. See graphics file
ZNON
Null value. See null value.
zoom
The process of displaying a small area of a picture so that small features are visible. See
window and unwindow one level.
Z-value
1) The third component of a 3-dimensional coordinate system of x,y,z points.
2) A measured or computed value for a surface at a corresponding x,y location. Z value is used
to refer to grid values or the numeric data components in control point datasets. Measured or
computed values of elevation, thickness, porosity, pressure, and seismic time are typical Z
values.

R2003.12.0

Appendix A. Glossary

240

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Appendix B:
Using Color in the ZGF Picture Viewer

Overview of Editing Color Tables


Each picture you create consists of features, such as borders, contours,
seismic lines, and text. The features consist of one or more of the
following graphic primitives: lines, text, symbols, or polygons. For
each feature, each graphic primitive is assigned a number (color index)
that corresponds to a color.
A color table defines which color is assigned to each color index. This
color information is stored as a part of each picture. You can redefine
the color assigned to any color index by using either the RGB or HLS
color system. Edits affect both present and future graphics.
This appendix covers the following topics regarding color in the
ZGF Picture Viewer window:

R2003.12.0

Using the Color Editor page 242


Color Modes page 243

Displaying Color Assignments page 245

Editing Colors page 246

Copying Colors page 247

Interpolating Color Ranges page 249


Modes for Interpolating Color Ranges page 249
Steps for Interpolating Colors page 250

Working with Color Table Files page 252


Default Color Table File page 252
Loading Color Tables page 252
Saving Color Tables page 253

Appendix B: Using Color in the ZGF Picture Viewer

241

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Using the Color Editor


To display the Edit Color Table dialog box, select Edit Edit Colors.
The Color Table palette and Edit Color Table dialog box appear. The
Color Table palette displays only the colors currently used in the
ZGF Picture Viewer.

Sliders appear if a
color is selected.

To identify a colors index value, add the row and column numbers for
the color cell (the numbers at the left and top):
To identify a color index
number, add the row
and column number. In
this example, the cursor
is pointing to color
index number 57.

R2003.12.0

Appendix B: Using Color in the ZGF Picture Viewer: Using the Color Editor

242

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Color Modes
The Edit Color Table dialog box has two modes for identifying and
editing colors:

RGB (Red-Green-Blue)

HLS (Hue-Lightness-Saturation)

You can use either or both systems to edit a maximum of 256 different
colors to display in pictures. Since both methods can yield the same
colors, the system you choose is a matter of personal choice.
RGB Color Mode
The RGB color system defines colors by mixing varying percentages of
the primary colors: red, green, and blue. Red, for example, is produced
by mixing 100 percent red with zero percent green and blue.
The following table shows the percentages of red, green, and blue that
create some common colors. These numbers are useful to know if you
mix colors. (See Editing Colors on page 246.)
RGB System
Color
Red
Blue

R2003.12.0

Green

Blue

100

Magenta

100

100

Red

100

Orange

100

50

Yellow

100

100

Green

100

Cyan

100

100

Gray

50

50

50

Black

White

100

100

100

Appendix B: Using Color in the ZGF Picture Viewer: Using the Color Editor

243

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

HLS Color Mode


The HLS color mode defines colors by varying the values of hue,
lightness, and saturation.

Hue is determined by the wavelength of light reflected from a


surface, measured in degrees from 0 to 360.

Lightness is the amount of light reflected from a colored surface,


measured on a scale of 0 to 100. Regardless of hue or saturation, a
lightness of 0 produces black, and a lightness of 100 produces
white.

Saturation is the intensity of the color, also measured on a scale


of 0 to 100. When saturation is zero, the color is gray. When
saturation is 100, the color is at its most intense.

The following table shows the levels of hue, lightness, and saturation
that create some common colors. This information is useful for editing
colors. (See Editing Colors on page 246.)
HLS System
Color
Hue
Blue

R2003.12.0

Lightness

Saturation

0 or 360

50

100

Magenta

60

50

100

Red

120

50

100

Orange

150

50

100

Yellow

180

50

100

Green

240

50

100

Cyan

300

50

100

Gray

--

50

Black

--

--

White

--

100

--

Appendix B: Using Color in the ZGF Picture Viewer: Using the Color Editor

244

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Displaying Color Assignments


The Color Table palette displays only the colors used by the current
picture. You can view the color assigned to color indexes by using
either of these methods:

To display the color of a single color index, click a color cell in


the Color Table palette. The Edit Color Table dialog box switches
to Edit mode and displays the color for the selected color cell.

To display the colors for a range of color indexes, select the


Display option in the Edit Color Table dialog box. You are
prompted to identify the first color in the range. Click a color cell
to specify the starting point of the range, then click another color
cell to identify the end of the range. The Color Table palette
displays the colors assigned to all color indexes in the selected
range.
Returning to the Display
To clear the Color Table palette of all colors except the colors displayed in the
current picture, select the Reset option in the Edit Color Table dialog box.

R2003.12.0Appendix B: Using Color in the ZGF Picture Viewer: Displaying Color Assignments

245

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Editing Colors
To edit the colors assigned to specific color indexes, follow these steps:
1.

If the Edit Color Table dialog box is not already displayed, display
it by selecting Edit Edit Colors in the ZGF Picture Viewer
window.

2.

Select the Edit option in the Edit Color Table dialog box, if it is
not already selected.

3.

Click the RGB or HLS radio button.

4.

In the Color Table palette, click the color cell of the color index
you want to edit. The Status field at the top of the Edit Color Table
dialog box reports the color number. The dialog box also displays
the selected color and slider bars that show the percentage of RGB
or HLS for the color.

Color index

Selected color
Slider bars indicating
the percentages of
RGB (or HLS) for the
selected color.

5.

To change the color, drag the slider bars.


Changes you make to the color automatically appear in the display.
The map features assigned the selected color change as you move
the slider bars.

R2003.12.0

Appendix B: Using Color in the ZGF Picture Viewer: Editing Colors

246

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Copying Colors
Use the Copy option to copy a color from one index to another index in
the current color table.
1.

If the Edit Color Table dialog box is not already displayed, display
it by selecting Edit Edit Colors in the ZGF Picture Viewer
window.

2.

Select the Copy option in the Edit Color Table dialog box.
The Prompt field instructs you: Identify the first color.

3.

Click the source cellthe color cell that contains the color you
want to copy.
The Status field reports the selected color index value, and the
Prompt field instructs you to select the second color.

Status and
Prompt fields

R2003.12.0

Appendix B: Using Color in the ZGF Picture Viewer: Copying Colors

247

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

4.

Click the target color cellthe color cell to which you want to
copy the color.
The color is copied to the target index immediately. The Status
field reports the numbers of the source and target color indexes.

Any map features that are assigned the target color index appear in
the new color.

R2003.12.0

Appendix B: Using Color in the ZGF Picture Viewer: Copying Colors

248

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Interpolating Color Ranges


Modes for Interpolating Color Ranges
Color interpolation produces a gradational color scheme. You select the
beginning and ending colors, and the Color Editor supplies the
intermediate colors.
The RGB and HLS color systems handle color interpolation differently.
The RGB system uses a linear interpolation method, while the HLS
system is partially nonlinear.
RGB Color Interpolation
RGB color interpolation follows a linear process that gradually changes
from the beginning individual red, green, and blue components to the
ending individual red, green, and blue components.
For example, the RGB interpolation from blue to yellow is:
blue yellowish blue bluish yellow yellow
The following table illustrates an RGB color interpolation from blue to
yellow through an eight-color range.
Blue

Yellowish Blue

Bluish Yellow

Yellow

Red

14

29

43

57

71

86

100

Green

14

29

43

57

71

86

100

Blue

100

86

71

57

43

29

14

R2003.12.0 Appendix B: Using Color in the ZGF Picture Viewer: Interpolating Color Ranges

249

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

HLS Color Interpolation


These following principles apply to the HLS color mode:

Lightness and saturation are interpolated linearly (light to dark,


gray to intense).

Hue is interpolated along the HLS color interpolation wheel (as


shown below).
Magenta 60

Red 120

Yellow 180

Blue 0 or 360

Green 240

Cyan 300

For example, HLS interpolation from blue to yellow follows the


wheel along the shortest route to produce a gradation from:
blue magenta red yellow
Blue

Magenta

Red

Yellow

Hue

26

51

77

103

129

154

180

Lightness

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

Saturation

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

You can also set an intermediate color between blue and yellow
and interpolate twice to force the interpolation to progress in a
clockwise direction, producing a gradation from:
blue cyan green yellow

Steps for Interpolating Colors


Use the Interpolate option to generate a gradual color change along a
specified range of color indexes in the current color table.
To use the Interpolate option, follow these steps:
1.

If the Edit Color Table dialog box is not already displayed, display
it by selecting Edit Edit Colors in the ZGF Picture Viewer
window.

2.

Select the Interpolate option in the Edit Color Table dialog box.

R2003.12.0 Appendix B: Using Color in the ZGF Picture Viewer: Interpolating Color Ranges

250

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

3.

Define a color index to start the range, as described in Editing


Colors on page 246.

4.

Define the color index to end the range.


Select the starting color
index for the range and
define its color.

Next, select and define the


color index to end the range.

5.

Select the Interpolate option in the Edit Color Table dialog box.
The Status field reads Interpolate from.

6.

Click the color cell at the start of the range, then click the color cell
at the end of the range.
The Edit Color Table dialog box interpolates and displays the
gradations of color between the selected indexes.

R2003.12.0 Appendix B: Using Color in the ZGF Picture Viewer: Interpolating Color Ranges

251

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Working with Color Table Files


Default Color Table File
Z-MAP Plus comes with a default color table, zmapplus_default.tbl,
which is located in $OWHOME/ZMAPPlus/files. You can make
changes to this color table and save a copy of it under a new name. You
cannot save changes to the original file.

Loading Color Tables


Use the Read option to load (read) a color table file and apply its colors
to the picture in the active ZGF Picture Viewer window. You can read
the default color table, a table you created and saved in Z-MAP Plus, or
a color table you previously imported from a formatted ASCII file.
To use the Read option, follow these steps:
1.

If the Edit Color Table dialog box is not already open, display it by
selecting Edit Edit Colors in the ZGF Picture Viewer window.

2.

Select the Read option in the Edit Color Table dialog box. The
Color Table File To Read From dialog box appears.

3.

If necessary, navigate to the directory that contains the color table


file you want to use.

4.

To display all the color tables in the Color Table Files list, click
the Filter button. (Color table files have the extension TBL or tbl.)

R2003.12.0Appendix B: Using Color in the ZGF Picture Viewer: Working with Color Table Files

252

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

5.

Select a color table from the Color Table Files list and click OK.
The colors defined by the retrieved color table are applied
automatically to the current picture. You can edit the color table
and save changes to it by using the Write option, as described in
the next topic.

Saving Color Tables


Use the Write option to create color tables or save changes to existing
color tables.
To use the Write option, follow these steps:
1.

If the Edit Color Table dialog box is not already displayed, display
it by selecting Edit Edit Colors in the ZGF Picture Viewer
window.

2.

Select the Write option in the Edit Color Table dialog box. The
Color Table File To Write To dialog box appears. The program
searches for files that have a .tbl or .TBL extension.

R2003.12.0Appendix B: Using Color in the ZGF Picture Viewer: Working with Color Table Files

253

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

3.

If necessary, navigate to the directory that contains the color table.

4.

Perform one of these actions:

5.

To replace an existing table with the new settings, select the


color table from the Color Table Files list.

To create a color table, enter a unique name in the Selection


box. (If you want the Color Editor to find the file automatically,
add a .tbl or .TBL extension to the file name.)

Click OK.

R2003.12.0Appendix B: Using Color in the ZGF Picture Viewer: Working with Color Table Files

254

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Appendix C. Unix Primer

Overview
The operating system you use to run Z-MAP Plus enables the
application to manage processes and files. Occasionally, you need to
use an xterm window to execute commands that facilitate the smooth
operation of Z-MAP Plus. Here are a few common commands used in
Unix and Linux.

cat merge or display files

cd change directory

chmod change access permissions

cp copy files or directories

df report disk space

ls list directory contents

mkdir create a directory

more view a file

pwd report the present working directory

rm remove files

You can learn about other Unix commands by entering


man CommandName at an xterm prompt.

R2003.12.0

Appendix C. Unix Primer

255

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

cat Command
Definition
You can use the cat (concatenate files) command to append one file
onto the end of another file or to display a files contents. This
command is useful for displaying the contents of data files before you
import them into Z-MAP Plus. Use it to check for irregularities or
mistakes in the .DAT files.
Usage
cat File1 [File2 > File3]
1.

To append one file onto the end of another, then to save it to a new
file name, enter a command like the following one:
cat LowerBalmei UpperBalmei > Balmei

This command adds the contents of UpperBalmei to the end of


LowerBalmei and names the new file Balmei. This new file is
stored in the present working directory unless you specify an fully
qualified file name.
2.

To display the contents of the file named balmeiexpflts.dat, enter:


cat balmeiexpflts.dat

The xterm window displays the contents of the .DAT file:


0.62963E+06

0.57560E+07

1.0000

0.62906E+06

0.57561E+07

1.0000

0.62782E+06

0.57564E+07

1.0000 ...

Warnings
MFDs and ZGFs are binary, so you cannot use the cat command to
view their component files. To view the contents of MFDs and ZGFs in
Z-MAP Plus, use the File Info File Listing option (for an MFD)
or the File Info File/Picture Information option (for a ZGF).

R2003.12.0

Appendix C. Unix Primer: cat Command

256

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

cd Command
Definition
The cd (change directory) command enables you to navigate through
your directory structure. The cd command is also known as current
directory because as you use cd to navigate the directory structure you
are also changing the present working directory. Use this command to
maneuver to the directory closest to the files you want to work with.
Usage
cd DirectoryPath|..
1.

To change to the /home/ajax2/new directory, enter:


/home/splinter/old> cd /home/ajax2/new
Your prompt now reads:
/home/ajax2/new>
The new directory is now the present working directory.

2.

To reverse back through the directory structure, you can use the
double dot (..) command in place of a directory name. For
example, to move from the /home/ajax2/new directory to the
/home/ajax2 directory, enter:
/home/ajax2/new> cd ..
The prompt now reads:
/home/ajax2>

Related Commands

R2003.12.0

pwd Reports the present working directory (page 265)

ls Lists files in a directory (page 262)

Appendix C. Unix Primer: cd Command

257

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

chmod Command
Definition
You can use the chmod (change mode) command to set file and
directory access permissions. You can set read (r), write (w), or execute
(x) permissions for three classes of users: user (u), group (g), or other
(o). System administrators determine who is in your group. Other
represents all other users in the network.
Usage
chmod [([u|g|o][(+|-) r|w|x]...)|###]
Filename|DirectoryName
You can specify permissions in either of these ways:

Alphabetically

Numerically

Alphabetic Permissions Flags


Use the + (plus) and - (minus) sign with the initial of the class of user
and the initial for type of permission to grant or withhold permissions.
1.

To take away write permissions from all classes of users on the file
named TestFile, enter:
chmod -w TestFile

2.

To add write permissions for all classes of users for TestFile, enter:
chmod +w TestFile
Notice that - or + symbols do not affect permissions of the others
class of user unless specified.

3.

To deny read permission to others, you can combine flags:


chmod o-r TestFile
Notice that the letter representing the class of user comes before
the letter that represents the type of access.

R2003.12.0

Appendix C. Unix Primer: chmod Command

258

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

The results of the command appear if you use the ls -l command:

For more detail about the output from the ls command, see page 262.
Numerical Permissions Flags
An alternative method to set permissions uses numerical values in
specific positions to determine who gets read, write, and execute
permissions. The following example gives read, write and execute
permissions to everyone.
User Permissions
Group Permissions
Others Permissions

chmod 777 FileName


The numerical values are determined according to the following table:

R2003.12.0

User

Group

Others

Read

Write

Execute

1.

To grant only read and write permissions to all groups, enter:


chmod 333 TestFile

2.

To grant full permissions to the user, read and write permissions to


the group, and read-only permissions to others, enter:
chmod 731 TestFile

Appendix C. Unix Primer: chmod Command

259

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

cp Command
Definition
Use the cp command to copy or rename files. You can copy a file to
another directory or add a file copy to the the files original location.
Usage
cp Filename1 Filename2

Filename1 should contain all the directory information necessary to


uniquely identify the file to copy. You need to include full paths to any
files that are not in the present working directory.
1.

If TestFile is in the present working directory, rename TestFile to


ExampleFile by using the cp command:
cp TestFile ExampleFile

2.

To copy the file PressureTest from the present working directory


into the /james/geology/Griffen/Tests/ directory, enter:
cp PressureTest /james/geology/Griffen/Tests/

Notice this path ends with a directory name and the / symbol. In
this case, a copy of the file PressureTests is added to the Tests
directory and the name remains the same.
3.

To specify a new file name for the copy, enter:


cp PressureTest /geology/Griffen/Tests/Pressure

This command renamed PressureTest to Pressure when it created


the file copy in the new location.

R2003.12.0

Appendix C. Unix Primer: cp Command

260

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

df Command
Definition
Use the df (disk file) command to display the amount of available and
occupied disk space in a mounted file system.
Usage
df -kl

The k flag instructs the command to print space in kilobytes. The l flag
reports on local file systems only, as opposed to the entire network.
1.

To see how much space is left on your local disk space, enter:
df -kl

This command creates the following output:


Filesystem

KBytes

Used

/dev/dsk/c0t3d0s0

1240727

449146

Avail
729545

Capacity

Mounted on

39%

/proc

0%

/proc

fd

0%

/dev/fd

/dev/dsk/c0t2d0s6

3002924

1552720

1149912

58%

/export/home/spl2

/dev/dsk/c0t2d0s7

3002924

1301287

1401345

49%

/export/home/

/export/home/splin

3002924

1552720

1149912

58%

/home/

R2003.12.0

Appendix C. Unix Primer: df Command

261

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

ls Command
Definition
Use the ls command to list the files that are contained in a directory.
You can use many flags with the ls command, but this discussion
describes only the -l (long list) flag.
Usage
ls [-l]

1.

Use the cd command to move to the directory whose contents you


want to list. To display an abbreviated list of files in the current
directory, enter:
/home/nomad> cd /home/SALTDOME/producers/
/home/SALTDOME/producers> ls
WELL1.DAT
WELL4.DAT
WELL6.DAT

This command lists all file names within the directory in


alphabetical order.
2.

To see a listing with more information, enter:


ls -l

This command lists files in the following format:


Permissions

Creator

Group

File Size

Date and Time


Last Modified

File Name

-rwxrw-r-- 1 smith dev 10876 Jul4 10:02 FileTest


Type of File

R2003.12.0

Number of Links to the File

Appendix C. Unix Primer: ls Command

262

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

mkdir Command
Definition
Use the mkdir command to create an empty directory.
Usage
mkdir NewDirectoryName | /AbsolutePath/NewDirectoryName

1.

To create a new subdirectory named Tests in the present working


directory, enter:
mkdir Tests

2.

To create a new directory named Tests in a directory that is not the


current working directory, enter the complete path plus the new
directory name:
mkdir /home/jeffery/Griffen/Tests

Related Commands

R2003.12.0

chmod Change permissions for the new directory (page 258)

cd Make the new directory the present working directory


(page 257)

Appendix C. Unix Primer: mkdir Command

263

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

more Command
Definition
Use the more command to view the contents of a file. Use the spacebar
to advance through the text of the file.
Usage
more FileName

Displays the contents of the FileName file on the monitor.

R2003.12.0

Appendix C. Unix Primer: more Command

264

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

pwd Command
Definition
Use the pwd command to keep track of your location in the system
directory structure by displaying the fully qualified name of the present
working directory. The present working directory is the directory in
which you are located and from which you issue commands to the
system.
Usage
pwd

This command prints the full path of the present working directory to
the monitor. For example, pwd from a home directory displays the
following text string:
/home/splinter1/judyt/test

Related Commands
cd Change the directory (page 257)

R2003.12.0

Appendix C. Unix Primer: pwd Command

265

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

rm Command
Definition
Use the rm command to delete files or empty directories.
Usage
rm [-r ] Filename|DirectoryName

1.

To remove TestFile from the current working directory, enter:


rm TestFile

2.

To remove the subdirectory Test (that contains two files named:


OldTestFile and ThirdTest) from the present working directory,
enter:
rm -r Test
The -r flag removes the directory named Test and both files in
that directory.

Warning!
Once you have used the rm command, you cannot undo it! The files are
gone unless you have access to a backup tape or you created a copy of
the file before you deleted it.

R2003.12.0

Appendix C. Unix Primer: rm Command

266

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Appendix D. Unix Files

Default Unix Files


The directory you use to start a Z-MAP Plus session is called the
project directory. Each time you start Z-MAP Plus, the program creates
several files in the project directory. This appendix gives you a brief
overview of the default files.
Unix Files
File Name

Location

Purpose

LASPARM.ZCL

project
directory

Contains all the parameter dialog settings


from your Z-MAP Plus session.

LASPARM.ZCL2

Deleting this file and restarting


Z-MAP Plus sometimes improves
performance.

R2003.12.0

POSMEM4_0

project
directory

This file contains the location settings for


the Z-MAP Plus windows. In this way, the
application remembers where you last
displayed a particular dialog box and
opens it at the same place in the next
session.

MappingLauncher.da
t

home
directory

Contains the shell script that starts the


Z-MAP Plus Command Menu. If you start
Z-MAP Plus without OpenWorks, the
program creates this file in your home
directory.

TEMPMACRO.ZCL

project
directory

When you run a macro, Z-MAP Plus


writes the macros parameter settings to
this file for easy access.

Appendix D. Unix Files

267

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Log Files
Log records for the Z-MAP Plus xterm window are stored in .zlog files
in the project directory. Each application and utility you start from the
Z-MAP Plus Command Menu creates a separate .zlog file. Check the
.zlog files for errors and other messages.

R2003.12.0

.zlog File Name

Application Generating Log and Contents

pset.zlog

Pointset Builder

zmapplus.zlog

Z-MAP Plus Contains output from the xterm


window

hardcopy.zlog

Hardcopy utility program.

zcl.zlog

Contains any errors that occur during a ZCL


operation

MappingLauncher.zlog

Contains Z-MAP Plus launching error messages

zgfviewer.zlog

ZGF Picture Viewer started from the Z-MAP Plus


Command Menu

Appendix D. Unix Files

268

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Appendix E.
Applications and Utilities Menu Options
When you start Z-MAP Plus, the Z-MAP Plus Command Menu
appears, as shown in the following example.

This section is an overview of the following menus, located in the


Z-MAP Plus Command Menu:

R2003.12.0

Applications (next topic)

Utilities (page 271)

System (page 272)

Help (page 272)

Appendix E. Applications and Utilities Menu Options

269

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Applications Menu
The Applications menu gives you access to software applications in the
Z-MAP Plus suite:

Application

Description

Z-MAP Plus

Mapping and modeling application described in this guide.

PowerView

Application for simultaneously visually comparing multiple


horizons, seismic slice displays, grids, and contour maps
with different color schemes, in an interactive
three-dimensional environment.

ZCL

Z-MAP Command Language application a


command-driven mapping system tailored for execution in
the background processing environment.

ZGF Picture Viewer Viewer for maps created in Z-MAP Plus. Documentation on
ZGF Picture Viewer starts on page 182.
3D Viewer

R2003.12.0

Three-dimensional visualization companion to Z-MAP Plus.


Provides an integrated graphical 3D environment you can
use to access data from multiple projects, view the data in a
common 3D scene, and perform limited interpretation.

Appendix E. Applications and Utilities Menu Options

270

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Utilities Menu
Use the Utilities menu options to set up or enhance your environment
for working in Z-MAP Plus applications.

R2003.12.0

Utility

Purpose

Pointset Builder

Create subsets of large pointsets to use in Z-MAP Plus.

Flowlines/Orthogonal
Contouring

Create flow path traces that model the influence of a


structure on fluid migration.

Overpost Resolution
(New)

Set priorities for thinning the map labels on maps if the


labels are too crowded to read.

Source Priority

Prioritize the list of interpreters assigned to a data source,


in order to determine which data to use by preference.

Hardcopy

Converts pictures made with Z-MAP Plus or its


applications into a format plotters can recognize.

Hardcopy Batch

Plot pictures from a prepared file of hardcopy settings.

Convert ZGF to DXF

Convert ZGF pictures into DXF format so they are


accessible in AutoCAD.

Appendix E. Applications and Utilities Menu Options

271

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

System Menu
The Systems menu contains a single option: Unix Window. Use the
Unix Window option to display an xterm window, which you can use to
determine which directory you used to start Z-MAP Plus or
OpenWorks. This directory is known as the working directory or
project directory. You can also use the xterm window to execute system
commands.

Help Menu
Use the Help menu options to display the online guides, release notes,
and HTML-based help.

If you select one of the online guides, a PDF document appears


automatically in an Adobe Acrobat Reader window.

If you select the HTML-based help, a help system appears in a


browser-based window. The HTML-based help covers the newest
parts of Z-MAP Plus. If you select the Help button or menu option
in one of the newer Z-MAP Plus windows (for example, File
Manager), an appropriate topic appears, from which you can enter
the overall help system.

The Z-MAP Plus Command Menu remains open until you select
Applications Exit to close it.
Importance of Exiting Properly
Always close applications by using the File Exit option. If you close application
windows by using the X-Windows Close option, serious problems can occur.

R2003.12.0

Appendix E. Applications and Utilities Menu Options

272

Landmark

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Index
Z-MAP Plus User Guide
Numerics
2D seismic
determine best grid increment 114
gridding suggestions 148
posting specified lines and points 220
3D seismic
determine best grid increment 114
gridding suggestions 148
posting specified lines/shot points 220
3D Viewer
brief description/menu option 270

A
ABSOLUTE scale type 76
adding
features to maps 84
item to list end (ordered selection dialog) 25
items to list by insertion (ordered selection) 26
algorithms
brief description of 90
least squares example 212
select with parameter 104
weighted average example 212
alias
briefly defined 225
start-up command 10
American Petroleum Institute: see API
annotating
annotation briefly defined 225
AOI
adjusted: overlaid pictures (ZGF Viewer) 186
briefly defined 226
changing (Resample Grid option) 194
changing for existing picture/map 191
create nodes outside of 117
defining manually 80
overlaid pictures: requirement for AOI 213
selecting for new basemap 73
set from existing source 79
set type 74

R2003.12.0

AOI continued
setting with control grid 139
specifying AOI type for new map 75
API well number
briefly defined 226
apparent dip
briefly defined 226
Apply button described 31
arrow icons 27
ASCII
editing flat files 163
file format example 47
format groups for 49
importing data file 66
logical records/physical lines described 48
attaching
MFDs with icon/option 65
ZGF 37
attributes
Attribute key field briefly described 61
picture attributes: example of 40
AutoCAD
Convert ZGF to DXF menu option 271

B
back interpolation 100
background
changing color 158
Toggle Background Color icon 18
basemaps
creating new blank 73
defined 5
New Map Creation dialog box 73
bathymetric data
gridding w/ Line Gridding Plus 92
biharmonic filtering
described 119
binary files
editing 163

Index

273

Landmark

blanking
blanked (expanded) grids described 133
briefly defined 227
Boolean grids
described 93
borders
adding to map 84
offset surrounding map 77
boundaries
tolerances in data hull 145
buffers
editor buffers 170
buttons
additional buttons in tabbed dialog boxes 32
also see icons
common buttons described 31

C
Calculator
Calculator dialog box described 166
creating isopach map with 198
data operations 163
how to use 166
Cancel button described 31
CARM menu
illustrated 20
Cartesian coordinate system
using for new map AOI type 75
cat Unix command 256
cd Unix command 257
cells
grid cells described 89
centerline faults
in Point Gridding Plus 70
centerline grids
creating in Point Gridding Plus 71
CGMs
briefly defined 228
creating 188-190
printing pictures 209
chmod Unix command 258
clipping
briefly defined 228

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

color ranges
displaying colors for (ZGF Viewer) 245
interpolating (HLS mode: ZGF Viewer) 250
interpolating (RGB mode: ZGF Viewer) 249
color tables
Color Table icon 155
copying colors between cells 247-248
default color table file 252
displaying index colors (ZGF Viewer) 245
editing (ZGF Picture Viewer) 241-254
editing colors 154-158
effect: overlaying pictures (ZGF Viewer) 186
HLS color mode (ZGF Picture Viewer) 244
index defined 241
interpolating colors (ZGF Viewer) 250-251
loading 252
overview of 154
resetting palette to current colors 245
RGB color mode (ZGF Picture Viewer) 243
saving (ZGF Picture Viewer) 253
setting directory paths 46
setting directory paths to 65
colors
changing background color 158
Color Table/Indices/Toggle Background icons

18
editing feature color 155
editing in pictures 154-158
columns
grid columns described 89
combination filtering
described 121
compressing
MFDs 36
ZGFs 41
concave hulls
described 142
constant grids
gridding method described 93
contouring
creating maps 63
editing contour lines 172
files stored in OpenWorks 59
Flowlines/Ortogonal Contouring option 271
generating/viewing contours 85
gridding method briefly described 91
interval/lines briefly defined 229

Index

274

Landmark

control grids 137-140


briefly defined 229
using to set AOI 139
control points
briefly defined 229
described 88
not used during refinement 100
selecting in Point Gridding Plus 69
converting
units of measure conversion table 230
ZGF to AutoCAD format 271
convex hulls
described 141
coordinates
display on map 152
copying
colors in color tables 247-248
copy (cp) Unix command 260
internal files 51
creating
list in an ordered selection dialog box 25
cross hair cursor
briefly defined 230
culture data
briefly defined 231
cursor
viewing x,y location (ZGF Viewer) 184
cut off value
described 124
cut-line
appears when you print 211
illustrated 78
printing 211

D
data
Calculator operations 166
collection circle: search radius 109
collection circle: setting points required 118
displaying wells on map 85
eliminating extrapolation/edge effects 141
fault profile 134
field management utilities 52
gridding beyond data edge 117
importing ASCII file 66
maintain consistent range 79
management 51-52
search radius: clustered 110
search radius: evenly distributed 111
R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

data continued
set smoothing for seismic 116
setting grid increments for data types 114
viewing fields in a file 52
data access modes
standalone/OpenWorks 3
data collection circle 97
data files
editing 163
renaming fields in 164
setting directory paths 65
viewing fields in data files 160
data hull 141-145
extrapolation distance parameter 144
radius 143
data reduction
briefly defined 231
Data Set Name key field
briefly described 60
datasets
link with common fields in OpenWorks 58
datum (datum level)
briefly defined 231
defaults
map offsets 81
Point Gridding Plus parameters 146
search radius 109
to calculate node values 97
X and Y expand 117
deleting
Delete button described 31
files 51
internal files 57
item from list (ordered selection dialog) 26
detaching
ZGF 37
detail
to grid geologic 107
deviated well display 85
df (Unix) command 261
dialog boxes
closing without executing process 23
common features 27
Directory Paths 46
Edit Color Table (ZGF Picture Viewer) 242
editing text in 29
File Listing 160
Load ZGF (ZGF Picture Viewer) 184
Overlay Picture (ZGF Viewer) 186-187
Index

275

Landmark

dialog boxes continued


Plot a Picture 209
types described 21
dip angle
field (FALT file) 125
illustrated diagram 131
dipping horizon 131
directories
changing current directory in Unix 257
checking working directory in xterm 12
creating (Unix mkdir command) 263
current working 54
list contents command (Unix) 262
present working (pwd) command (Unix) 265
project or working 53
directory paths
Directory Paths dialog box 46
setting 65
disk file (Unix) command 261
display area
illustrated 17
Display List icon 18
displaying
map data 85
distances
Measure Distance icon (ZGF Viewer) 184
documentation
conventions 32
online reference books 86
double-click 29
drawing
contours 85
Redraw/Stop icons (ZGF Viewer) 184
drop-down menus
indicated by arrow icon 27
dual grid operations
briefly defined 232
DXF files
Convert ZGF to DXF menu option 271

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

E
edge effects
eliminating with data hulls 141
Edit Color Table dialog box 155
ZGF Picture Viewer 242
Edit menu
illustrated 20
editing
AOI of existing picture/grid 191
ASCII files 163
binary (MFD) files 163
buffers 170
color table (ZGF Picture Viewer) 241-254
colors in color table 154-158
data files in an MFD 163
field in data file 163
fields of data 164
files created during editing 181
picture/grid with regrid 169
elevation corrections 166
engineering units
briefly defined 233
errors
in list dialog selections 24
exiting
warning not to use X Windows Close option 13
Z-MAP Plus 12, 85
expanded fault grids
creating in Point Gridding Plus 125-136
expanded faults
grid/file described 133
extensions for external files 56
external files
introduction to 34
related to a project 56
summary table 56
table of extensions 56
extrapolation distance 117
parameter summary 146
with data hulls 144

Index

276

Landmark

F
FALT files
briefly defined 233
fields described 125
fault filled grid 134
fault filled grids
creating in Point Gridding Plus 125-136
faults
adding values for new extra fields 207
centerline (in Point Gridding Plus) 70
create 204
defined in Z-MAP 127
digitizing new segment 207
gridding normal 125-136
gridding reverse 126
gridding w/ Line Gridding Plus 92
non-opaque barriers 71
opaque 127
opaque barrier 71
setting grid increment for 108
stored in OpenWorks 59
features
adding to map 84
contouring 85
deviated wells 85
editing color 155
elements of a graphics 41
overlaying 213
seismic lines 85
shot points 85
smoothing high frequency 93
XYZ data points 85
fields
changing values with Calculator 166
creating/copying/editing/merging 163
example of 47
listing fields in data files 160
management utilities 52
naming limits in MFD 36
renaming 164-166
File Manager option/icon
briefly described 51
File menu
Exit option 85
illustrated 20
File: Info menu
File Listing option 160

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

files
.LCK 36
.zlog type 268
appending with cat command 256
changing permissions in Unix 258
compressing 51
control grid as input to Point Gridding Plus 140
copy files: Unix command 260
copying 51
deleting 51
expanded fault 133
extensions for external 56
fault profile data 134
File Listing option 52
format group example 50
input formats 47-50
list directory files command (Unix) 262
listing information about 160
managing project 56
naming limits in MFD 36
remove (rm) command: Unix 266
renaming 51
saving to OpenWorks 61
show contents command (more): Unix 264
table of MFD types 35
Unix naming conventions 36
filtering 93
biharmonic flexing described 119
briefly defined 233
combination filtering described 121
cut off value 124
Flexing gridding described 93
how template used in filtering 123
Laplacian filtering described 120
more parameters that control 118-124
steps 101
templates and weights illustrated 121
final grid increment 114
setting 104
flexing
see filtering
Flowlines/Orthogonal Contouring option (Utilities)
briefly described 271
format files
example 50
setting directory paths 46, 65

Index

277

Landmark

format groups
described 49
formats
example of ASCII data file format 47
Full Display icon 18

G
geologic constraints 91
GeoName key field
briefly described 60
GeoType key field
briefly described 60
GINCf
default setting: equation for calculating 107
setting final grid increment 104
GINCi 99
calculation described 95
grid increments
calculating default GINCf setting 107
setting GINCf 108
setting to retain detail 107
setting with faults 108
grid nodes
described 89
gridding
Boolean grid described 93
collection circle: used in grid creation 97
computational steps 94-101
constant grids described 93
contour method briefly described 91
expediting gridding time 142
filter steps 101
Flexing gridding described 93
increment settings compared 113
Line Gridding method 92
Line Gridding Plus method 92
multiple surfaces with control grids 137
normal faults 125-136
number of refinements 112-115
opaque barriers 127
overview 87
pinnacle reef 120
Point Gridding method 91
Point Gridding Plus method 90
polynomial grids described 93
post processing: honoring data/smoothing 99
rate of change 101
reverse faults 126
set search radius 109
R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

gridding continued
setting final grid increment 104
setting the search radius 111
suggestions for non-default gridding 148
terms illustrated 89
throw gridding described 132
Trend Fit Gridding method described 92
trend form grids 216
Trend Surface Gridding described 92
Trendform Gridding method 91
user-defined filter grids briefly described 93
using data hulls 141
using Point Gridding Plus 67
grids
add ZNONs 138
calculating node values 98
changing AOI of 191
creating grids 63
creating with default values 67
effect of search radius 109
expanded fault grid 133
fault filled 134
fault profile data 134
importance of refinements 112
imposing geologic constraints on 91
in OpenWorks 59
increment: calculating initial 95
initializing nodes 95
refinements illustrated 100
selecting control grid (Point Gridding Plus) 69
smoothing 116
smoothing modulus 101
trend form grids 216
weighted average function 101

H
hachured lines
briefly defined 235
hardcopy
brief description of Hardcopy/Hardcopy Batch

271
heaves
field (FALT file) 125
illustrated diagram 131
help
displaying browser-based help 12
Help button described 31
Help menu illustrated 20
high frequency noise reduction 116

Index

278

Landmark

HLS mode
Edit Color Table dialog (ZGF Viewer) 244
HOR files 201
horizons
briefly defined 235

I
icons
arrow 27
Attach MFDs 65
Attach ZGFs 37
color indices 154
Color Table 155
File Manager 51
Master File Directory 34
Measure Distance (ZGF Picture Viewer) 184
Minimize, Maximize (X Windows) 13
overview of main window icons 18
Picture Open 34
Point Gridding Plus 67
Point Zoom (ZGF Picture Viewer) 183
Rectangular Zoom (ZGF Picture Viewer) 183
Redraw (ZGF Picture Viewer) 184
Stop (ZGF Picture Viewer) 184
Toggle Background Color 158
Unzoom (ZGF Picture Viewer) 184
workflow icons overview 19
ZGF Picture Viewer icons 183
Zoom Out (ZGF Picture Viewer) 184
importing
ASCII data file 66
using data format group 49
increments
calculating default GINCf setting 107
calculating initial grid 99
grid increment described 89
setting final 99
index maps
adding 84
briefly defined 235
indexes
color index defined 241
displaying assigned colors (ZGF Viewer) 245
initial grid increment 114
described 95
initial grid nodes
how values calculated 97
initializing
grid nodes 95
R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

installation reference guide 86


internal files
delete 39, 44
introduction to 34
management commands 51
related to a project 56
tips for maintaining 57
interpolating
color in color table (ZGF Viewer) 250-251
color in HLS mode (ZGF Viewer) 250
color in RGB mode (ZGF Viewer) 249
isopach maps
creating 198

K
key fields 58
OpenWorks key fields briefly described 60

L
labels
adding (northing/easting, latitude/longitude) 84
Laplacian filtering
described 120
LASPRM.ZCL
located in project directory 53
saving settings to 31
Unix file briefly described 267
LASPRM.ZCL2 file
Unix file briefly described 267
latitude
using to define new map AOI 75
LATLONGPROJECTED AOI type
special notes 80
specifying for new map 75
launcher.dat file
required entry for Z-MAP Plus 7
LCK file 36
least squares
map example 212
least squares fit
briefly defined 236
Line Gridding 92
Line Gridding Plus
described 92

Index

279

Landmark

lines
displaying 2D/3D lines 85
editing 172
editing color (ZGF Picture Viewer) 241-254
posting specified 220
lines of section
briefly defined 236
list (ls) Unix command 262
list dialog boxes 24
lists
adding item to end (ordered selection dialog) 25
creating in ordered selection dialog box 25
deleting item (ordered selection dialog) 26
inserting item (ordered selection dialog) 26
loading
color tables 252
ZGF (ZGF Picture Viewer) 184
logical records
described 48
longitude
using to define new map AOI 75

M
macros
reference guide 86
setting directory paths 46
Macros menu
illustrated 20
magnetic data
gridding w/ Line Gridding Plus 92
main menu options
overview of 20
make directory (mkdir) command: Unix 263
Map View (StratWorks) 203
MappingLauncher.dat file
described 267
maps
adding features to 84
automatically displaying 159
changing background color 158
creating new basemap 73
display coordinates 152
display seismic information 85
distinction from basemaps 5
editing colors 154-158
features: color (ZGF Picture Viewer) 241-254
in ZGFs 72
loading in ZGF Picture Viewer 184-185
R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

maps continued
make a grid-based map 5
making a basemap 5
marginalia 77
Measure Distance icon (ZGF Viewer) 184
measure distances on 153
naming new 74
New Map Creation dialog box 73
offsets 77
overlaying features (ZGF Viewer) 186-187
overlaying maps 212
Overpost Resolution option described 271
rotating to print 211
saving to OpenWorks 61
set AOI type 74
set scale type 74
viewing contours 85
viewing x,y location (ZGF Viewer) 184
MAPTOGROUND scale type 76
marginalia 77
Master File Directory icon/option
briefly described 34
Master File Directory: see MFDs
maximizing
windows 13
Measure Distance icon (ZGF Viewer) 184
menu option dialog boxes 22
menus
drop-down described 27
overview of 20
symbols described 16
merge operations
briefly defined 237
merging
maps/pictures 212
methods, gridding algorithms 90
MFDs
access permissions 36
attaching with icon/option 65
briefly defined 236
compressing 36
create a new 38
deleting 39
editing binary data files 163
file and field naming limits 36
file types 35
introduction to 34
not stored in OpenWorks 203
overview 35
scratch MFD described 36
Index

280

Landmark

MFDs continued
setting directory paths 46, 65
view files within 52
minimizing
windows 13
mis-ties
briefly defined 237
modeling
see gridding
Modeling menu
illustrated 20
more command: Unix 264
multiple list dialog boxes 24

N
New Map Creation dialog box 73
nodes
creating during grid initialization 95
grid nodes described 89
how values calculated for initial grid node 97
initial values assigned in gridding 95
initializing beyond data perimeter 117
setting points required for initialization 118
value calculation process 98
non-opaque fault barriers 71
north arrows
adding 84
northing/easting
using for new map AOI type 75
nulls
blanking briefly defined 227
briefly defined 237
ZNON value 49

O
offsets 77
default values 81
set up 80, 81
oil-water contact grid (Boolean) 93
OK button described 31
opaque faults 71, 127

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

OpenWorks
links tables with key fields 58
MFDs not stored 203
moving data in and out of 58-62
running Z-MAP Plus from 64
selecting input files from 60
starting Z-MAP Plus from 7
Operations menu
illustrated 20
ordered selection dialog box: described 25
overlaying
maps/pictures 212
picture features 213
picture features (ZGF Viewer) 186-187
Overpost Resolution option (Utilities)
briefly described 271

P
Pan icon 18
parameters
session/LASPRM.ZCL files 53
summary of gridding settings 146
physical lines, described 48
Picture Open icon
briefly described 34
pictures
adding features to 84
as project files 56
automatically displaying 159
briefly defined 237
changing background color 158
display seismic information 85
display wells 85
editing 172
editing colors in 154-158
editing/regridding 169
in ZGFs 72
loading in ZGF Picture Viewer 184-185
naming new 74
New Map Creation dialog box 73
offsets 77
overlaying 212
overlaying features 213
overlaying features (ZGF Viewer) 186-187
printing 209

Index

281

Landmark

pictures continued
saving to OpenWorks 61
set AOI type 74
set scale type 74
viewing contour map 85
viewing x,y location (ZGF Viewer) 184
pinnacle reef trend model 120
Plot a Picture dialog box 209
plots
calculating plot width and height 78
plotters
determining image size 77
Hardcopy/Hardcopy Batch menu options 271
plotter units briefly defined 237
Point Gridding 91
Point Gridding Plus
basic gridding steps listed 67
building grids with default values 63
extrapolation distance 117
gridding method described 90
input a control grid 140
using the defaults 67-72
workflow 102-116
Point Mode option
Options menu (ZGF Viewer) 184
Point Zoom icon (ZGF Picture Viewer) 183
points
displaying on map 85
Pointset Builder option (Utilities)
briefly described 271
pointsets
in OpenWorks 59
polygons
blanking fault 134
briefly defined 238
Create Polygon option (Edit/Create dialog) 177
editing color (ZGF Picture Viewer) 241-254
graphic component example 40
polynomial grids
described 93
posting
2D seismic 220
specific seismic lines or shots 220
primitives
example of 40

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

printing
creating CGMs (ZGF Viewer) 188-190
determining image size 77
pictures 209
rotated map 211
summary of dialog options 211
procedure
creating contour maps 63
list of most common 151
Process Interrupt icon 18
project
checking working directory in xterm 12
organization tips 53
two organization models 55
project directories
described 53, 54
project directory
finding from Z-MAP 54
projected map
LATLONGPROJECTED AOI type 80
projections
specifying AOI to store projection data 75
pwd command: Unix 265

R
radius for concave data hull 143
Raise System Window icon 18
records
example of 47
logical records described 48
Rectangular Zoom icon (ZGF Viewer) 183
Re-display icon 18
Re-display option
disabling automatic redisplay 159
Redo Last Feature icon 18
Redraw icon (ZGF Picture Viewer) 184
refinements
grid refinement illustrated 100
guidelines for setting parameter 115
parameter summary 146
refining
importance of grid refinements 112
regridding
as you edit 176
how to regrid 169

Index

282

Landmark

relational data structure 58


relaxation of a grid 93
remove file (rm) command: Unix 266
renaming
data fields 164
internal files 51
Unix files with copy command 260
reports
shown in system window 15
resampling
to change AOI 191
resetting
color table palette (ZGF Picture Viewer) 245
Reset button 31
reverse faults 126
RGB mode
Edit Color Table dialog (ZGF Viewer) 243
rotating
map for printing 211
rows
grid rows described 89

S
saving
color table (ZGF Picture Viewer) 253
pictures as CGMs (ZGF Viewer) 188-190
Save button described 31
settings to default session file 31
scale
adjusted for overlays (ZGF Viewer) 186
parameters summary table 83
set type 74
setting type for new basemap 73
types described 76
use a ratio 76
scale bars
adding 84
scratch MFD/file
described 36
scroll bars 30
search radius 109-111
effect of 109
parameter summary 146
setting: hints 110
using with control grid to set AOI 139
Seg ID field (FALT file) 125
seismic
set smoothing for 116
R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

seismic data
gridding w/ Line Gridding Plus 92
posting lines/shot points 220
smoothing seismic data 116
SeisWorks integration 201
Select Point mode
showing x,y location (ZGF Viewer) 184
selecting
all characters by triple-clicking 29
appearance of selected item in reverse color 24
session files
setting directory paths 65
sessions
attaching MFDs to 36
parameter/LASPRM.ZCL files 53
Save Session As/Open options 54
saving settings to default session file 31
settings saved 23
shot points
briefly defined for mapping purposes 239
displaying 85
posting specified 220
single list dialog box 24
smoothing
controlling with weighting 117
in the filter process 101
range of values explained 116
reduce high frequency features 93
smoothness modulus 116, 146
Source Priority option (Utilities)
briefly described 271
standalone mode
data accessible in standalone mode 3
for running Z-MAP Plus 64
starting
MappingLauncher.dat file described 267
troubleshooting Z-MAP Plus startup 10
ZGF Picture Viewer 183
Z-MAP Plus 7, 64
Z-MAP Plus from Command Menu 10
Z-MAP Plus from OpenWorks 7
status area
attached MFDs listed 37
for new basemap 84
information in 193
stopping
Process Interrupt icon 18
Stop icon (ZGF Picture Viewer) 184
StratWorks integration 203
Index

283

Landmark

subtract operation 199, 200


surface model trends 114
surfaces
modeling multiple with control grids 137
surveys
types gridded w/ Line Gridding Plus 92
symbols
briefly defined 239
editing color (ZGF Picture Viewer) 241-254
system switches
auto picture display 84, 159
switch background color 158
units of measure 76
system window
described 14
displays data output of processes 15
displays diagnostic messages 15
Point Gridding Plus example 72
Raise System Window icon 18

T
tabbed dialog boxes
example 21
tables
in OpenWorks 58
link with key fields in OpenWorks 58
tbl files
default color tables 252
loading color table files 252
templates
how template used in filtering 123
TEMPMACRO.ZCL 267
text
editing color (ZGF Picture Viewer) 241-254
throw
illustrated diagram 131
throw values field (FALT file) 125
title blocks
adding 84
Toggle Background Color icon 18
Tools menu
illustrated 20

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

trend analysis
briefly defined 239
trend form grids
creating 216
trend surface maps
briefly defined 239
trends
extrapolated by biharmonic filtering 119
pinnacle reef model 120
preserved by initial grid increment 95
Trend Fit Gridding described 92
Trend Surface Gridding described 92
Trendform Gridding 91
triple-click 29
triple-clicking
to clear contents 29
troubleshooting
.zlog files with error messages 268
effect of overlaying pictures: color 186
eliminating edge effects w/ data hulls 141
expediting gridding time 142
grid increments for data orientations 114
gridding suggestions 148
hints on grid increment settings 107
improving performance (deleting LASPARM)

267
Point Gridding Plus settings 146
problems from improper exit 85
starting Z-MAP Plus 10
using control grid to set project AOI 139
using gridding default values 94
warning about X Windows Close option 13
Type key field
OpenWorks Type field briefly described 61

Index

284

Landmark

U
Undo Last Feature icon 18
units of measure
conversion table 230
units of measure (English or Metric) 76
UNITSPERINCH scale type 76
Unix
cat command 256
cd command 257
chmod command 258
cp Unix command 260
df command 261
displaying an xterm window 272
file name conventions 36
file naming conventions 56
ls command 262
mkdir command 263
more command 264
pwd command 265
rm command 266
X Windows shell described 13
unlock parameters button 23
Unzoom icon (ZGF Picture Viewer) 184
utilities
reference guide 86

V
vertical separation 131
View menu
illustrated 20
viewing
contours 85

W
weighted average
function in grid filtering process 101
map example 212
wells
determine correct grid increment 114
display deviated 85
displaying on map 85
gridding suggestions 148

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Window icon 18
windows
closing without executing process 23
Z-MAP Plus xterm/main/system 14
workflow icons 19
working directory 53
checking in xterm window 12
described 46

X
x (easting) values
required for gridding 47
X expand 117
X Windows
warning about Close option 13
X Windows Manger
described 13
x, y location
viewing w/ Select Point (in ZGF picture) 184
x-coordinates
briefly defined 240
displaying on map 152
x-inc 89, 114, 139
x-maximum 79
x-minimum 79
x-term window
introduction to 14
xterm windows
used to start Z-MAP Plus 54
zlog files 268
XY AOI type
specifying for new map 75
XYPROJECTED AOI type
specifying for new map 75

Y
y (northing) values
required for gridding 47
Y expand 117
y-coordinates
briefly defined 240
displaying on map 152
y-inc 89, 114, 139
y-maximum 79
y-minimum 79

Index

285

Landmark

Z
ZCL
brief description/menu option 270
LASPRM.ZCL session file 23
macro reference guide 86
z-field values
required for gridding 47
z-fields
selecting a field to grid 70
ZGF Picture Viewer 182-190
color table: editing 241-254
color: working with 241-254
copying color table colors 247-248
creating pictures as CGM files 188-190
displaying color assigned to index 245
Edit Color Table dialog box 242, 246
icons 183
interpolating colors 250-251
loading a ZGF 184-185
loading color tables 252
overlaying picture features 186-187
saving color tables 253
Select Point mode 184
starting 183
ZGFs
attaching/detaching 37
brief overview of Picture Viewer 270
Convert ZGF to DXF menu option 271
create new 43
delete 44
heirarchical structure 41
import to other Landmark applications 43
introduction to 34
loading in ZGF Picture Viewer 184-185
maintenance and compression 41
Open/Close 72
overview 40
setting directory paths 46, 65
view files within 52
viewing x,y location in pictures 184
zlog files 268

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Z-MAP Graphics Files: see ZGFs


Z-MAP Plus
exiting 12, 85
main window described 16
main window illustrated 17
starting 7, 64
Z-MAP Plus Command Menu
icon illustrated 14
options briefly described 12
overview of Applications/Utilities options

269-272
starting Z-MAP Plus 10
Z-MAP Plus window
described 14
zmapplus_default.tbl file
location of default color table 252
ZNONs
adding during grid creation 118
blanking briefly defined 227
briefly defined 240
defined 49
used by control grid 138
zooming
briefly defined 240
icons in ZGF Picture Viewer 183
Zoom In/Out/Window icons 18
z-values
briefly defined 240

Index

286

Landmark

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Index

287

Landmark

R2003.12.0

Z-MAP Plus User Guide

Index

288