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VIP-EXECUTIVE

Reference Manual
2001, 2002 Landmark Graphics Corporation

Part No. 159682 R2003.4

This publication has been provided pursuant to an agreement containing restrictions on its use. The publication is also
protected by Federal copyright law. No part of this publication may be copied or distributed, transmitted, transcribed,
stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any human or computer language, in any form or by any means,
electronic, magnetic, manual, or otherwise, or disclosed to third parties without the express written permission of:

Landmark Graphics Corporation


Building 1, Suite 200, 2101 CityWest, Houston, Texas 77042, USA
P.O. Box 42806, Houston, Texas 77242, USA
Phone: 713-839-2000
FAX: 713-839-2401
Web: www.lgc.com

Trademark Notice
Landmark, the Landmark logo, 3D Drill View, 3D Drill View KM, 3DVIEW, Active Field Surveillance, Active
Reservoir Surveillance, ARIES, Automate, BLITZ, BLITZPAK, CasingSeat, COMPASS, Contouring Assistant,
DataStar, DBPlot, Decision Suite, Decisionarium, DecisionDesktop, DecisionSpace, DepthTeam, DepthTeam
Explorer, DepthTeam Express, DepthTeam Extreme, DepthTeam Interpreter, DESKTOP-PVT, DESKTOP-VIP,
DEX, DFW, DIMS, Discovery, Drillability Suite, DrillModel, DrillVision, DSS, Dynamic Surveillance System,
EarthCube, EdgeCa$h, eLandmark, EPM, e-workspace, FastTrack, FZAP!, GeoDataLoad, GeoGraphix, GeoGraphix
Exploration System, GeoLink, GES, GESXplorer, GMAplus, GrandBasin, GRIDGENR, I2 Enterprise, iDims,
IsoMap, LandScape, LeaseMap, LMK Resources, LogEdit, LogM, LogPrep, Make Great Decisions, MathPack,
Model Builder, MyLandmark, MyWorkspace, OpenBooks, OpenExplorer, OpenJournal, OpenSGM, OpenTutor,
OpenVision, OpenWorks, OpenWorks Well File, PAL, Parallel-VIP, PetroBank, PetroWorks, PlotView, Point
Gridding Plus, Pointing Dispatcher, PostStack, PostStack ESP, PRIZM, PROFILE, ProMAX, ProMAX 2D, ProMAX
3D, ProMAX 3DPSDM, ProMAX MVA, ProMAX VSP, pStaX, QUICKDIF, RAVE, Real Freedom, Reservoir
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SeisVision, SeisWell, SeisWorks, SeisXchange, SigmaView, SpecDecomp, StrataMap, Stratamodel, StratAmp,
StrataSim, StratWorks, StressCheck, STRUCT, SynTool, SystemStart, T2B, TDQ, TERAS, Total Drilling
Performance, TOW/cs, TOW/cs The Oilfield Workstation, Trend Form Gridding, Turbo Synthetics, VIP, VIP-COMP,
VIP-CORE, VIP-DUAL, VIP-ENCORE, VIP-EXECUTIVE, VIP-Local Grid Refinement, VIP-POLYMER, VIPTHERM, WavX, Web OpenWorks, Well Editor, Wellbase, Wellbore Planner, WELLCAT, WELLPLAN,
WellXchange, wOW, Xsection, ZAP!, Z-MAP Plus are trademarks, registered trademarks or service marks of
Landmark Graphics Corporation.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

Note
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice and should not be construed as a
commitment by Landmark Graphics Corporation. Landmark Graphics Corporation assumes no responsibility for any
error that may appear in this manual. Some states or jurisdictions do not allow disclaimer of expressed or implied
warranties in certain transactions; therefore, this statement may not apply to you.


Table of Contents
Preface

About This Manual


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
The Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
The Chapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx
Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx
Data Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx
Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx
Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx
Related Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi
Chapter 1

Data Overview
1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.1 VIP-COMP Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.2 VIP-ENCORE Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.3 VIP-DUAL Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.4 VIP-POLYMER Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.5 VIP-THERM Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.6 Shared Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1-1
1-1
1-2
1-2
1-3
1-3
1-4

1.2 Typical Data Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


1.2.1 Well Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.2 Production Histories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.3 Pressure History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1-6
1-6
1-6
1-6

1.3 Data Deck Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7


1.4 Input Data Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18
1.5 Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22
1.5.1 General Utility Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-23
1.5.1.1 Comment Lines (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-23

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1.5.1.2 Read Data from an External File (INCLUDE) . . . . . . . . .


1.5.1.3 Stop Reading Data from the Current INCLUDE File
(ENDINC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.1.4 Echo Print On (LIST) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.1.5 Echo Print Off (NOLIST) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.1.6 Skip Data On (SKIP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.1.7 Skip Data Off (NOSKIP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.1.8 Columns To Be Read (NCOL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.1.9 Data Line Continuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.2 Well Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5.3 Alternative Well Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1-23
1-24
1-24
1-24
1-25
1-25
1-25
1-25
1-26
1-26

1.6 Files Used by VIP-EXECUTIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27


1.7 Units Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-30
Chapter 2

Utility Data
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33
2.2 Control
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4
2.2.5

.........................................................
Start of Time-Dependent Data (RUN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculate Memory Requirement (STORAGE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Change Default Dimensions (DIM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Material Balance Option (OPTMBL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Volume Balance Option (VOLBAL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-33
2-33
2-34
2-34
2-39
2-40

2.3 Formulation Options (VIP-COMP or VIP-ENCORE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-40


2.3.1 Implicit form of Finite Difference Equations (IMPLICIT) . . . . . . . 2-40
2.3.2 Explicit form of Finite Difference Equations (IMPES) . . . . . . . . . 2-41
2.4 Results File Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.1 Plot File Format and Data Selection (PLOT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.2 Compositional Plot File Format and Data Selection (CPLOT) . . .
2.4.3 Map File Format (MAP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.4 File Type for PLOT/MAP Files (NOVDB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.5 Flow Vectors (FLOWVEC) (Not accepted by VIP-THERM,
see FLOWS card in VIP-CORE manual) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-41
2-41
2-42
2-45
2-46
2-46

2.5 Conductive (Leaky) Fault Solution Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-47


2.5.1 Segregated Flow Assumption (SEGREG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-47
2.5.2 Fully Coupled Calculation (LKCPLD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-47
2.6 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.1 Restarting Runs (RESTART) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.2 Descriptive Run Information (TITLE1, TITLE2, TITLE3) . . . . . . .
2.6.3 Beginning of Data (START) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.4 Time Specification for Reading Data (TIME) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.5 Date Specification for Reading Data (DATE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2-48
2-48
2-49
2-49
2-50
2-51

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2.6.6 Run Termination (STOP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-51


2.6.7 End-of-File Marker (END) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-52
Chapter 3

Well Data
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-53
3.2 Well Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 Well Name and Location (WELL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2 Describe Well Perforations (FPERF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.3 Describe Well Perforations, VIP-DUAL (FPERF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.4 Set Status of Well Perforations (PRFSTAT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.5 Well Perforation Tolerances (PERFPT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.6 Inclined and Horizontal Well Flow Correlation (BEGGS) . . . . . .
3.2.7 Wellbore Friction Pressure Loss (NOFRICTION) . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3-53
3-54
3-57
3-69
3-71
3-73
3-74
3-74

3.3 Surface Separation Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


3.3.1 Compositional Separator Battery, VIP-COMP or
VIP-THERM (SEPARATOR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.2 Black-Oil Separator Battery, VIP-ENCORE (SEPARATOR) . . . . .
3.3.3 K-Value Separation Data, VIP-ENCORE (SEPARATOR) . . . . . . .
3.3.4 Gas Plant Data Input (GASPLANT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.5 Separator Switching (NEWSEP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.6 Surface Facility Model Input (TSFM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3-75
3-75
3-78
3-81
3-84
3-86
3-87

3.4 Well Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-89


3.4.1 Production Well Definition (PROD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-89
3.4.2 Injection Well Definition (INJ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-91
3.4.2.1 Temperature Specification (VIP-THERM) . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-94
3.4.2.2 Steam Quality Specification (VIP-THERM) . . . . . . . . . . . 3-94
3.4.2.3 Pressure Specification (VIP-THERM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-95
3.4.2.4 Treatment of Water/Steam Injectors (VIP-THERM) . . . 3-95
3.4.3 Define Additional Injection Rate for FSTD or FRES Wells (INJA) 3-98
3.4.4 Computation of Mobility for Gas Injectors (GINJMOB) . . . . . . . . 3-98
3.4.5 Computation of Mobility for Water Injectors (WINJMOB) . . . . . 3-99
3.4.6 Production Rates Outer Iteration Number (ITNSTP) . . . . . . . . . . 3-99
3.4.7 Water Injection Rates Outer Iteration Number (ITNSTQ) . . . . . . 3-99
3.4.8 Gas Reinjection Rates Outer Iteration Number (ITNGRE) . . . . . 3-100
3.4.9 Change Well Type Class (WLTYCH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-101
3.5 Well Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.1 Maximum Rate (QMAX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.2 Water Limit - Water Cut, Rate or Liquid-Gas Ratio Constraint
(WLIMIT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.3 Gas Limit - GOR or Rate Constraint (GLIMIT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.4 Steam Limit - Steam Rate or Steam-Oil Ratio Constraint
(SLIMIT) (VIP-THERM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.5 Ecomonic Limit (ECOLIM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3-103
3-104
3-105
3-107
3-108
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3.5.6 Perforation Test Schedule (TSTPRF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


3.5.7 Perforation Water Cut, GOR, and/or SOR Limits (PRFLIM) . . .
3.5.8 Minimum Rate (QMIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.9 Multiple Rate (QMULT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.10 Injection Gas Composition (YINJ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.11 Define Additional Injection Gas Composition (YINJA) . . . . . .
3.5.12 Injection Water Salinity (WSAL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.13 Time Interval Between Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.13.1 Global Specification (TEST) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.13.2 Specification by Well (WTEST) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.14 Fraction of Time That Well is on Stream (ONTIME) . . . . . . . . .
3.5.15 Maximum Steam Rate for Producers (QSTMX) (VIP-THERM)
3.5.16 GOR Penalty (GORPEN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.17 Well Permeability-Thickness Multiplier (WKHMULT) . . . . . .

3-109
3-110
3-111
3-112
3-113
3-114
3-114
3-115
3-115
3-116
3-117
3-119
3-119
3-120

3.6 Pressure Constraints and Productivity Indices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


3.6.1 Well Index (WI)(Skip if PI or FLOW orWIL or
KHWI is used) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.2 Productivity/Injectivity Index (PI) (Skip if WI or RFLOW
or WIL or KHWI is used) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.3 Radial Flow Equation Data (RFLOW) (Skip if WI or PI or
WIL or KHWI is used) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.4 Well Angle Open to Flow (FLOANG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.5 Well Datum Depth (WLWDAT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.6 Bottomhole Pressure (BHP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.7 Tubinghead Pressure (THP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.8 Implicit Tubinghead Pressure Equations (IMPTHP) . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.9 Tubinghead Pressure Iteration Control (ITNTHP) . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.10 Maximum Drawdown Constraint (DPBHMX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3-121

3.7 Wellbore Crossflow Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


3.7.1 Crossflow Option (XFON/XFOFF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.2 Wellbore Gradient Calculation (MBAWG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7.3 Wellbore Gradient Calculation (VIP-THERM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3-124
3-125
3-126
3-127
3-128
3-129
3-129
3-130
3-131
3-132
3-133
3-133
3-134
3-135

3.8 Wellbore Flash Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-136


3.8.1 THP Convergence Control (BHPITN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-136
3.9 Wellbore Hydraulics Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.9.1 Wellbore Hydraulics Table Assignment (ITUBE) . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.9.2 Wellbore Hydraulics Table (BHPTAB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.9.3 Wellbore Hydraulics Table Switching (NEWBHPTAB) . . . . . . .
3.9.4 Wellbore Hydraulics Table for Injectors (BHITAB) . . . . . . . . . . .
3.9.5 Additive Correction to BHP Tables (BHPADD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.9.6 Artificial Lift Quantity (ALQ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3-138
3-138
3-139
3-144
3-145
3-147
3-148

3.10 Gas Producers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-148


3.10.1 Assignment of Gas Producer THP Tables (GTHPWL) . . . . . . . 3-149
3.10.2 Gas Well THP Calculation Data (GASTHP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-150
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3.10.3 Z-factor/Viscosity Tables for Gas Producer THP


(THPGTB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-150
3.11 Single Phase Injectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.11.1 Tubing Length Assignment (TUBE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.11.2 Tubing Diameter/Friction Factor (DIAM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.11.3 Specify Density and Viscosity Values (WTRTHP) . . . . . . . . . . .

3-152
3-152
3-153
3-153

3.12 Pattern Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


3.12.1 Pattern Balancing Option (PATTN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.12.2 Assign Central Injection Wells to a Pattern or Turn Off
Pattern Balancing (PATNCI ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.12.3 Assign a Peripheral Production Well and Production
Fractions to Multiple Patterns (PATNPP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.12.4 Same Perforations in Pattern Gas and Water Injectors
(WAGPERF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.12.5 Voidage Calculation Based on GOR (PTNGOR) . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.12.6 Hydrocarbon Volumes and Angles (ATWGVA) . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.12.7 MI Injection Target and Allocation Parameters (ATWGCL) . .
3.12.8 Category Definitions and Injection Fractions (ATWGCT) . . . .

3-154
3-154
3-155
3-157
3-158
3-159
3-159
3-160
3-161

3.13 Non-Darcy Gas Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-162


3.13.1 Non-Darcy Gas Density and Viscosity Option (WNDGDV) . . 3-162
3.13.2 Specify Rate-Dependent Skin Factors for Non-Darcy Gas Flow
(WDNDG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-163
3.14 Automatic Recompletion Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-164
3.14.1 Recompletion Unit Status and Limit Data (RCMPPERF) . . . . . 3-164
3.14.2 Order for Opening Recompletion Units (RCMPOR) . . . . . . . . . 3-166
3.15 WAG (Water-Alternating-Gas) Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.15.1 WAG Injection Well Definition (WAG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.15.2 Maximum Rates for WAG Injectors (QMAXWG) . . . . . . . . . . .
3.15.3 Bottomhole Pressure for WAG Injectors (BHPWAG) . . . . . . . .
3.15.4 Injection Temperature for WAG injectors (TINJWAG,
VIP-THERM Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.15.5 Timestep Controls for WAG Injectors (DTWAG) . . . . . . . . . . .

3-167
3-167
3-170
3-171
3-173
3-173

3.16 WBSIM (Gridded Wellbore) Well Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-174


3.16.1 WBSIM Well Perforations (COMPERF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-174
3.16.2 Dynamic Vertical Flow Transport Parameters Calculation . . . 3-177
3.17 Automatic Cycle Control (VIP-THERM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.17.1 Cycle Tables (CYCLETABLE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.17.2 Cyclic Well Definition (CYCLIC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.17.3 Cycle Phase Perforation Status (CPERF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.17.4 Start Cycle (CSTART) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.17.5 Stop Cycle (CSTOP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3-178
3-178
3-184
3-185
3-186
3-187

3.18 Condensate Banking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-188


3.18.1 Condensate Banking Calculation Parameters (CNDBNK) . . . . 3-188
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3.18.2 Selective Application of Condensate Banking (CNDBWL) . . . 3-189


3.19 Well Index Multipliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.19.1 Assignment of WI Multiplier Tables (WIMUWL) . . . . . . . . . . .
3.19.2 WI Multiplier Tables (WIMULTAB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.19.3 Outer Iteration Number (ITNWIMULT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3-191
3-191
3-192
3-192

Chapter 4

Well Management Level Data


4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-195
4.2 Well Management Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-195
4.2.1 Well Management Level Definition (GATHER, FLOSTA,
AREA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-195
4.2.2 Fraction of Time Management Level is Onstream (ONTIME) . . 4-196

viii

4.3 Production and Injection Targeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


4.3.1 Production Target (PTARG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2 Production Target History Option (PTARGH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.3 Production Target Frequency (PTGFRQ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.4 Options for Reduction of Rates to Meet Target (TRGOPT) . . . .
4.3.5 Order for Checking Phase Targets (TRGORD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.6 Minimum Rate for Use in Targeting Calculations (TRGQMN) .
4.3.7 Well Rate Maximum Tolerances (TRGTOL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.8 Injection Target (ITARG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.9 Well Rate Scaleback Options with Targeting (LSCALE) . . . . . . .
4.3.10 Minimum Production Rates (PRDMIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.11 Minimum Injection Rates (INJMIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-199
4-199
4-201
4-202
4-202
4-205
4-205
4-206
4-207
4-208
4-209
4-211

4.4 Gas Cycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


4.4.1 Shrinkage Gas Specification (GASSKG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.2 Fuel Gas Specification (GASFUL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.3 Sales Gas Specification (GASSLS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.4 Makeup Gas Specification (GASMKP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.5 Makeup MI Specification (MIMKP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.6 Effective Gas Injection Target (ETRGOP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.7 Makeup Gas Composition (YINJMK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.8 Reinjected Gas Composition (YREINJ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.9 Liquid Recovery Factors (RECFAC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.10 Invoke Major Gas Sales Option (PLANT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.11 Gas Conditioning for Sales Gas and Fuel Gas (GASCOND) . .
4.4.12 Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Plant Data Input (NGLPLANT) . .
4.4.13 Miscible Injectant (MI) Plant Data Input (MIPLANT) . . . . . . . .
4.4.14 Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) Plant Data Input
(LPGPLANT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.15 Maximum Feed Rate to NGL Plant (NGLFED) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.16 Maximum NGL Rate (NGLOUT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.17 Maximum Feed Rate to LPG Plant (LPGFED) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-213
4-213
4-214
4-216
4-217
4-219
4-220
4-221
4-222
4-223
4-223
4-225
4-226
4-229
4-232
4-234
4-235
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4.4.18 Maximum LPG Rate (LPGOUT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-237


4.5 Basic Gas Reinjection (GINJOP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-238
4.6 Injection Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.1 Define the Injection Region Option (RINJOP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.2 Assign Name to Injection Region (INJRNM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.3 Maximum Source Water Injection Rate (IRSRCW) . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.4 Assign Injection Wells to Injection Regions (INJRGR) . . . . . . . .
4.6.5 Distribution Percentage of Injection Rate to Injection Regions
(IRPCTA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.6 Assign Gridblocks to Injection Regions (INJREGN) . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.7 Specify How Distribution of Injection Fluid is to Occur
(IRDIST) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.8 Forced Gas Injection Into Injection Regions (IRGAS) . . . . . . . . .
4.6.9 Select Gas Project Prioritization Option (PRIOP) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.10 Assign Name to Gas Project (PROJNM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.11 Assign Gas Injection Wells to Projects (PROJWL) . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.12 Prioritize Gas Projects (PRIIR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-239
4-239
4-241
4-241
4-242
4-243
4-243
4-244
4-247
4-250
4-250
4-251
4-251

4.7 Voidage Injection by Guide Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-252


4.7.1 Maximum Injection Target for a Group (INJTAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-253
4.7.2 Injection Guide Rate for a Group (INJGR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-254
4.8 Water Injection Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.8.1 Assign Injector Pump Characteristics Tables (IPUMP) . . . . . . . .
4.8.2 Water Injection Pump Discharge Pressure (PMPTAB) . . . . . . . .
4.8.3 Convergence Criteria (WTRPUMP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-255
4-255
4-256
4-257

4.9 Gaslift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9.1 Gaslift Allocation (QLIFT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9.2 Gaslift Gas Source (QLIFTA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9.3 Optimal GLR Tables for Gaslift (GLRTAB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9.4 Optimal GLR Table Pointer for Gaslift (GLRTBP) . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9.5 Maximum Well Gaslift Gas Rate (GLGMAX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9.6 Minimum Well Gaslift Gas Rate (GLGMIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9.7 Additive Correction to GLR Tables (GLRADD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9.8 Time Interval for Gaslift Gas Rate Calculations (TESTGL) . . . .
4.9.9 Minimum Gaslift Efficiency (GLEFMN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9.10 Performance Curve Option Data (PFMCRV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9.11 Gaslift Gas in Gas Handling Loop (GLGOP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9.12 Makeup Gaslift Gas Specification (QLIFTM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-258
4-258
4-260
4-262
4-263
4-264
4-265
4-266
4-267
4-267
4-268
4-270
4-271

4.10 Multi-level Optimization of Gaslift Gas Utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


4.10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.10.2 Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.10.3 Gaslift Optimization Outer Iteration Number (ITNGLG) . . . .

4-272
4-272
4-272
4-273

4.11 Automatic Well Workovers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-273


4.11.1 Workover Rig Definition (RIGDEF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-273

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4.11.2 Relative Number of Workovers (WRKRTO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


4.11.3 Workover Calculation Frequency (WRKFRQ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.11.4 Elapsed Time Between Workovers (WRKDLT) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.11.5 Workover Failure Rate (WRKFAIL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.11.6 Well Limit for Automatic Shutoffs (WRKWLM) . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.11.7 Workover Benefit Function Limits (WRKLIM) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.11.8 Group Numbers for "Group 1" (WRKGP1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.11.9 Group Numbers for "Group 2" (WRKGP2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.11.10 Group 1 Default Coefficients (WRKCF1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.11.11 Group 2 Default Coefficients (WRKCF2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.11.12 Coefficients for Workover Benefit Functions (WRKCOEF) . .
4.11.13 Debug Output (WRKDBG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-274
4-275
4-276
4-277
4-277
4-278
4-281
4-282
4-284
4-285
4-286
4-288

4.12 Fluid Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


4.12.1 Fluid Tracking Option (TRACK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12.2 Tracked Fluid Number (YINJT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.12.3 Activates Tracked Fluid Composition Output (OPRSYS) . . . .

4-289
4-289
4-290
4-290

4.13 Water Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-292


4.13.1 Tracked Water Mixing Parameter (FTWMIX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-292
4.13.2 Tracked Water Type Number (WINJT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-292
Chapter 5

Predictive Well Management


5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-293

5.2 Keywords Common to NEW PWM and MGOR PWM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


5.2.1 Predictive Well Management (PREDICT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.2 Number of Outer Iterations Each Timestep (WMITN) . . . . . . . .
5.2.3 Pressure Systems and Lift Methods Available (PWMGC) . . . . .
5.2.4 Tubinghead Pressure (THP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.5 Production Target Data (PTARG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.6 Frequency of PWM Calculations (PWMFRQ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.7 Bottomhole Pressure Tables (SYSTB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.8 Define Pressure Systems for Wells During History (HISTSYS) .
5.2.9 Defining Pressure Systems (PRSYS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.10 Artificial Lift Method Names (ARTLFT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.11 Tolerance for Production Rates (PWMTLP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.12 Oil Incremental Benefit with Gaslift (PWMOBN) . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.13 Maximum PWM Timestep Size (DTPWM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.14 Write PWM Report to File (PWMFILE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.15 Debug Output (PWMDBG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5-294
5-294
5-294
5-295
5-296
5-296
5-299
5-299
5-301
5-302
5-303
5-303
5-305
5-306
5-306
5-307

5.3 Keywords for NEW PWM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


5.3.1 Minimum Oil Rate for Producers (QOMIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.2 Minimum Gas Rate for Producers (QGMIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.3 PWM Calculation Steps (PWMSTEP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.4 Producing Area Number (PWMWPA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5-309
5-309
5-310
5-312
5-318

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5.3.5 Producing Mechanism (PWMWPM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


5.3.6 Define Well Category (PWMCAT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.7 MUSTFLOW Well Specification (MUSTFLOW) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.8 Minimum Oil Rate for Wells on Gaslift (QOMINL) . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.9 Execute Normal Targeting Procedure (PWMTRG) . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.10 Frequency of Pressure System Switching (PRSDLT) . . . . . . . . .
5.3.11 Well Rate Control (PWMWCN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5-319
5-320
5-321
5-322
5-323
5-324
5-324

5.4 Keywords for MGOR PWM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


5.4.1 Separator Battery Numbers (SYSSEP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.2 MGOR Option Data (PRMGOR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.3 Water-Cut Versus Efficiency Table (EFFTAB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.4 Specify Wells Included in Well Debug Report (WPWMDB) . . .

5-325
5-325
5-325
5-326
5-327

Chapter 6

Output Control
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-329
6.2 Print/Map Arrays and Parameters (OUTPUT, MAPOUT) . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-330
6.3 Array Print Windows (OUTWINDOW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-340
6.4 Content and Frequency of Printed Output (PRINT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-342
6.5 Buildup Pressure Output Control (BUILDUP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-348
6.6 Write Files (WPLOT, WMAP, WMAPOLD, WREST, WFLUX, WFILE,
WCPLOT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-349
6.7 Save Temporary Restarts (WLASTR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-351
6.8 Write Fluid Tracking Data (WTRACK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-351
6.9 Print/Map Mole Fractions (OUTX, OUTY, OUTZ, OUTXT, OUTYT,
OUTZT, MAPX, MAPY, MAPZ, MAPXT, MAPYT, MAPZT) . . . . . . . . . 6-353
6.10 Format of Mole Fraction Array Print (ALLCOMP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-354
6.11 Tracked Water Type Fractions (OUTWT, MAPWT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-354
6.12 Specify Which Separator Batteries to Process (OUTSEP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-355
6.13 Reservoir Region Separator Battery Assignment (REGSEP) . . . . . . . . . . 6-356
6.14 Compute Potentials for Plot File (PLOTPTN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-357
6.15 Printout Processed Well Cards (PRINTOUT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-357
6.16 Logical Unit for Timestep Summary Output (IPRTSS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-358
6.17 Specify Wells Included in Well RFT Report (OUTRFT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-358
6.18 Spreadsheet Files (SSSUM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-359
6.19 Well Average Pressure Calculation (OUTPAVG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-366
6.20 Print Well Indices (PRWI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-367

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6.21 Print Well Properties Summary (PRWSTA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-368


6.22 Track File Format (TFORM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-369
6.23 Boundary Flux File Format (FXFORM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-370
6.24 Print by Cross-Sections (CROSS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-370
6.25 Grouping Wells (WLGRP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-371
6.26 Group Specification of Maximum Well Rates (QMAXGR) . . . . . . . . . . . 6-372
6.27 Plot File Well Specification (PLOTLIST) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-372
6.28 Spreadsheet Well Specification (SPRLIST) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-374
6.29 Results File Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.29.1 Plot File Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.29.2 Compositional Plot File Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.29.3 Map File Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.29.4 Hydrocarbon Track File Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6-375
6-375
6-379
6-382
6-385

Chapter 7

Simulator Control
7.1 Timestep Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.1 Timestep Controls (DT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.2 Timestep Size After Rate Changes (DTQMAX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.3 Outer Iteration Controls (ITNLIM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.4 Control Convergence Failures and Timestep Cuts (TCUT) . . . .
7.1.5 Control Treatment of IMPES Stability (IMPSTAB) . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.6 Maximum Variable Change Overshoot (MAXOVR) . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.7 Convergence Tolerance on Unknowns (TOLD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.8 Convergence Tolerance on Residuals (TOLR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.9 Saturation Convergence Tolerance for OPTMBL and VOLBAL
(TOLSCN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.10 Well Convergence Tolerance for OPTMBL and VOLBAL
(TOLWCN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.11 Maximum Allowable Material Balance Error (ABORT) . . . . . .
7.1.12 Minimum BHP Damping Factor (CBHPMN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.13 Table Extrapolation Control (CHKTAB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7-387
7-388
7-390
7-391
7-392
7-393
7-394
7-395
7-396

7.2 Matrix Solution Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


7.2.1 Gaussian Elimination (GAUSS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.2 Iterative Solver (EXCEL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.3 Iterative Solver (BLITZ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.4 Bad Solution Indicator (SLVCUT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7-401
7-402
7-402
7-403
7-406

7-398
7-398
7-398
7-399
7-399

7.3 Implicit Well Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-407


7.3.1 Implicit Well Calculations in IMPES Grids (IMPWEL) . . . . . . . . 7-407
7.4 Interactive Suspend Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-408
7.4.1 Interactive Card (INTERACTIVE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-409
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7.4.2 BATCH Card (BATCH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-410


7.5 Interactive Recurrent Data Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-411
Chapter 8

Miscellaneous Options
8.1 Energy Minimization Phase Equilibrium (VIP-COMP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-413
8.1.1 Invoking the Gibbs Algorithm (GIBBS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-413
8.1.2 Turning Off the Gibbs Algorithm (GIBOFF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-415
8.2 Successive Substitution Flash Data (VIP-COMP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-415
8.2.1 Definition of Flash Calculation Method (FLASH) . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-415
8.2.2 Control of Flash Calculations (KMAX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-416
8.3 Gas Percolation Algorithm (GASPERC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-418
8.4 Gas Remobilization Option (GASRMON) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-418
8.5 Modified Lands Constant for Hysteresis (MODLAND) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-420
8.6 Modifying VIP-CORE Array Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6.1 Override Modification (OVER) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6.2 Override Modification, VIP-DUAL (OVER) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6.3 Individual Value Override Modification (VOVER) . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6.4 Individual Value Override Modification, VIP-DUAL
(VOVER) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6.5 Modifying Fault Connection Transmissibilities (FTRANS) . . . .
8.6.6 Modifying Fault Connection Transmissibilities, VIP-DUAL
(FTRANF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8-421
8-421
8-422
8-423
8-425
8-425
8-426

8.7 Named Fault/Region Transmissibility Multiplier (MULTFL) . . . . . . . . . 8-428


8.8 Inter/Intra Region Transmissibility Multiplier (MULTIR) . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-428
8.9 Pressure Threshold for Limiting Grid Block to Grid Block Flow
(PTHLD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-429
8.10 Phase Identification (PHASID) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-431
Chapter 9

Polymer Option (VIP-POLYMER)


9.1 Polymer Physical Property Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.1 Change Default Dimensions (DIM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.2 Polymer Mode (POLYMER) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.3 Polymer Concentration/Salinity Table (POLYT) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.4 Polymer Concentration/Salinity Functions (POLYF) . . . . . . . . .
9.1.5 Non-Newtonian Viscosity Cards (SHEAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.6 Polymer Inaccessible Pore Volume Card (EPHIP) . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.7 Cation Exchange Cards (IONEX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.8 Effective Divalent Salinity Cards (CSEP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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9.1.9 Salinity Units Card (SUNITS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-440


9.2 Injectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.1 Polymer Concentration (CPINJ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.2 Anion (Chloride) Concentration (CLINJ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.3 Divalent Cation (Calcium) Concentration (CAINJ) . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.4 Polymer Slug Definition (PSLUG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.5 Describe Well Perforations (FPERF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9-441
9-441
9-441
9-442
9-442
9-443

9.3 Instantaneous Gel Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-443


9.3.1 Gel Data (GEL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-443
9.3.2 Permeability Reduction Multiplier (RKMULT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-444
9.4 Print/Map Arrays and Parameters (OUTPUT, MAPOUT) . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-444
9.5 Timestep Controls (DT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-446
9.6 Modifying VIP-CORE Array Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-447
9.6.1 Override Modification (OVER) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-447
9.6.2 Individual Value Override Modification (VOVER) . . . . . . . . . . . 9-447
Chapter 10

Surface Pipeline Network Option


10.1 General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-449
10.2 Flow Modeling in Well Tubing Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-452
10.3 Application of Hydraulic Tables for Modeling Flow in Flow Devices 10-453
10.4 Application of Look-Up Tables for Pressure Gradient Determination
in Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-453
10.5 Profiles of Temperature, Inclination Angle, Valve Coefficient,
Choke Correlation, and PVT Tables (CURVE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.5.1 Temperature Profile (CURVE TEMPPR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.5.2 Temperature Gradient Profile (CURVE TMGRPR) . . . . . . . . .
10.5.3 Elevation Profile (CURVE ELEVPR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.5.4 Valve Coefficient Profile (CURVE VCPR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.5.5 Choke Correlation (CURVE IDPR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.5.6 PVT Property Table Profile (CURVE IPVTPR) . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10-454
10-454
10-455
10-456
10-457
10-458
10-459

10.6 Pipe Data (PIPES) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-460


10.7 Tubing Data (TUBING) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-464
10.8 Valve Data (VALVES, VALSET) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-468
10.9 Link Data (LINK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-472
10.10 Node Data (NODES) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-475
10.10.1 Gas Partial Processing Optimization (PPOPT) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-479
10.11 Node Connection Data (NODCON) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-481

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10.12 Lift Gas Composition (YINJA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-484


10.13 Well Connection Data (WELCON) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-485
10.14 Satellite Field Production Data (NODSOURCE and SOUCOM) . . . . 10-489
10.15 Pseudo Well Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.15.1 Inflow Performance Correlations (BHITAB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.15.2 Correlation Assignments (PSEUTAB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.15.3 Reservoir Pressure (PSEUPRES) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.15.4 Compositions (PSEUXY) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.15.5 Well Status (PSEUWS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10-491
10-492
10-495
10-496
10-496
10-497

10.16 General Parameters of the Surface Pipeline Network System


(NETPAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-499
10.17 Output of Surface Pipeline Network Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.17.1 Node Report in Print File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.17.2 Node Spreadsheet File (SSSUM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.17.3 Tubing Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.17.4 Surface Pipeline Network Information in Plot File . . . . . . . .
10.17.5 Generation of Hydraulic Tables (HTOUTPUT) . . . . . . . . . . .

10-504
10-504
10-505
10-507
10-508
10-508

10.18 Production Well Optimization Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


10.18.1 Default Dimensions (DIM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.18.2 Objective Coefficients (OBJCOEF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.18.3 Lock Well Rates (LOCK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.18.4 Surface Network Optimization Control (NTOPTC) . . . . . . .
10.18.5 Node Data (NODES) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.18.6 Well Connection Data (WELCON) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.18.7 Maximum Velocity Constraints (WLVEL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.18.8 Output Well and Node Connection Changes (PRTSWT) . . .

10-514
10-514
10-514
10-515
10-516
10-517
10-518
10-519
10-520

10.19 Integration of Surface Pipeline Network and Predictive


Well Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-521
10.19.1 Number of Outer Iterations Each Timestep (WMITN) . . . . . 10-521
10.20 Understanding Injection Network Allocations and Node
Pressures in VIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.20.1 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.0.1 Injection Network with No Group Targeting . . . . . .
10.1.0.2 Injection Network with Group Targeting Using
ITARG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.0.3 Injection Regions for Group Targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.0.4 Injection Regions with Network Node Targets . . . . .
10.20.2 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Chapter 11

Automatic Tuning Procedures


11.1 General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-529
11.2 Well Index Adjustment Procedure (WIADJ) and Tubing String
Parameter Adjustment Procedure (TBADJ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-529
11.3 Dynamic TUNING Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.1 General Parameters (TUNING, ENDTUNING) . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.2 Convergence Tolerances (MAXRER and MAXRNE) . . . . . . .
11.3.3 Parameter Ranges (TWELL, TFPERF, TTUBING,
TWLFL, TSPN, MNPFCF, MNFLCF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.4 Activation of Inactive Perforations (MINRER) . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.5 Field Measurements and Error Function Coefficients
(QMULT, TBHP, TTHP, TPRND, TERC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.6 Adjustment Factors (ADJWI, ADJFPERF, ADJ
TUBING, ADJWLFL, ADJSPN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3.7 Output of Automatic Tuning Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11-536
11-541
11-543
11-544
11-547
11-549
11-551
11-553

Chapter 12

Gas Field Operations (GFO) Option


12.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555
12.2 Gas Field Operations Data (GFO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556
12.3 Annual Scheduling File (ASF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561
Chapter 13

Local Grid Refinement


13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-563
13.2 Formulation Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-563
13.2.1 Formulation Specification by Grid (IMPGRID)
(VIP-COMP or VIP-ENCORE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-563
13.2.2 Turn Off Pressure Interpolation (NOPINT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-564
13.3 Activate/Deactivate Grids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-565
13.4 Timestep Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-566
13.4.1 Timestep Controls for IMPLICIT Grids (DTMPL)
(VIP-COMP or VIP-ENCORE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-566
13.4.2 Iteration Controls for IMPLICIT Grids (ITNMPL)
(VIP-COMP or VIP-ENCORE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-567
13.5 Matrix Solution Option (CBLITZ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-569
13.5.1 CBLITZ Parameters by Grid (CBLGRID) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-571
13.6 Well Data Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-573
13.6.1 Well Name and Location (WELL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-573

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13.6.2 Describe Well Perforations (FPERF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-574


13.7 Assign Gridblocks to Injection Regions (INJREGN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-575
13.8 Options Restricted to Use with Single-Grid Systems Only . . . . . . . . . . 12-575
13.9 Arbitrary Gridblock Connections (FTRANS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-575
13.10 Override Modification (OVER) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-576
13.11 Value Override (VOVER) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-576
Chapter 14

Tracer Option
14.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-577
14.2 VIP Tracer Option Input Data Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2.1 Change Default Dimensions (DIM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2.2 Activate Front Tracking Option (FRONT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2.3 Define Parameters for Tracer Option (TRACER) . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2.4 Inject Tracer (TRACIN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2.5 Write Map Records to Database (WTRACE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2.6 Write Plot Records to Database (WTRPLOT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2.7 Write Records to Tracer File (WTRDBG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2.8 Write Tracer Summary (PRINT TRACER) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13-577
13-578
13-578
13-579
13-582
13-583
13-583
13-584
13-585

Chapter 15

Parallel Computing
15.1 Parallel Grid Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-587
15.1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-587
15.1.1 Processor Mapping File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-587
Appendix A

References
Keyword Index
Subject Index

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Preface

About This Manual


Introduction
VIP-COMP, VIP-ENCORE, VIP-DUAL, VIP-POLYMER, and VIPTHERM are the simulation modules of the VIP-EXECUTIVE Family of
simulators. The VIP-COMP, VIP-ENCORE, VIP-DUAL, and VIPPOLYMER modules are all conveniently "packaged" within a single
program library which we call VIP-EXECUTIVE.

Purpose
The primary purpose of this Reference Manual is to document the input
options of the VIP-EXECUTIVE suite of reservoir simulation modules. It is
assumed that the reader is familiar with reservoir engineering concepts, in
general, and reservoir simulation terminology, specifically. This document
is not intended to be a cookbook for the novice simulation user.

The Modules
This manual is intended to be used in conjunction with the VIP-CORE
Reference Manual. VIP-CORE is the module within VIP-EXECUTIVE
which calculates the initial reservoir conditions to be used by one of the
simulation modules.
The VIP-EXECUTIVE reservoir simulator contains the following program
modules:
VIP-ENCORE

Multi-Component Black-Oil Model

VIP-COMP

Equation-of-State Compositional Model

VIP-DUAL

Dual-Porosity Model

VIP-POLYMER

Polymer Flooding Model

VIP-THERM

Thermal Model

These program modules work together to provide total flexibility in


reservoir modeling. For example, VIP-ENCORE and VIP-DUAL could be
combined to provide simulation capability for a dual-porosity, black-oil

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

reservoir. If VIP-COMP were included in the same program, the user


could convert to a fully compositional version of the dual-porosity model
simply by substituting the compositional specific data for the black-oil
specific data.

The Chapters
The input data stream for the simulation modules consists of keywords
and data values which invoke the features of the simulator. Chapter 1 is an
overview of the data; it also describes data cards which are used
throughout the entire data stream. The subsequent chapters describe the
time-dependent data, which have some order dependencies. (Any
restrictions are described in the appropriate section.

Data Format
The keywords, or alpha labels, used in the data input stream are denoted
in this manual by upper case letters. The names of the variables that are
entered as numbers in the data stream are typed in lower case letters.

Data Options
In all of the data descriptions, parentheses are used to indicate optional
items of data. Parentheses are never included in the actual data stream,
unless specifically noted. Items of data that are aligned vertically in the
description of a single data card indicate a choice. The items are mutually
exclusive.

Compatibility
This documentation is compatible with Version 1998 of the VIPEXECUTIVE software. Along with additional enhancements, some of the
formats have been modified. In the case of changed formats, only our new
formats appear.

Units
Internal calculations are carried out in customary oil field units, but input
and output can be in either customary units or the International System of
Units (SI) metric system or in laboratory units. Throughout this Reference
Manual, units are first listed as the customary units followed by the SI
units in parentheses. The user may choose metric pressure units of kg/
cm2 (bar) instead of the default kPa. In this case, whenever the
documentation reads kPa, kg/cm2 (bar) will be expected. A table of data
types and the possible units is given in Section 1.7.

xx

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Related Documentation
The following manuals provide more information related to the material
in this manual. For more information, please consult the appropriate
manual listed below.

R2003.4 - Landmark

VIP-EXECUTIVE Technical Reference. A detailed discussion of the


mathematical theory behind the VIP simulators. [Available only in
hardcopy]

VIP-CORE Reference Manual. A complete summary of all keywords


and data formats needed to build an initial reservoir model.

xxi

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xxii

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Chapter

1
Data Overview

00000

1.1 Introduction
00

00

00

VIP-COMP, VIP-ENCORE, VIP-DUAL, VIP-POLYMER, and VIPTHERM are the simulation modules of the VIP-EXECUTIVE Family of
simulators. The VIP-COMP, VIP-ENCORE, VIP-DUAL, VIP-POLYMER,
and VIP-THERM modules are all conveniently packaged within a single
program library which we call VIP-EXECUTIVE. When VIP-DUAL is
executed, it is used in conjunction with either VIP-COMP or VIPENCORE. For example, VIP-CORE, VIP-ENCORE and VIP-DUAL may be
combined to provide a modeling capability for a fractured black-oil
reservoir. If VIP-COMP replaces VIP-ENCORE, the user could convert to a
fully compositional version of the fractured reservoir model simply by
substituting the compositional specific data for the black-oil specific data.
All of these modules contain one or more of our newest solution
algorithms: EXCEL and BLITZ.
Only the particular modules purchased are activated. These are listed on
the first page of computer output in the title box.
The documentation for VIP-COMP, VIP-ENCORE, VIP-DUAL, VIPPOLYMER, and VIP-THERM are included in this Reference Manual. The
major features are applicable to all of the modules; therefore, the majority
of the data required for all four of these modules is identical. Where data
differs between VIP-COMP, VIP-ENCORE, and VIP-THERM or additional
data is required for VIP-DUAL, VIP-POLYMER, or VIP-THERM, the
model to which the described data applies is enclosed in parentheses after
the section heading.

1.1.1 VIP-COMP Overview


00

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VIP-COMP is an n-component, equation-of-state, compositional


simulator. It can simulate the flow of oil, gas, and water through an
underground reservoir and predict the behavior of all associated
production/injection wells. The system takes into account the fact that
fluid properties and phase behavior can vary strongly with fluid
composition. Fluid properties and phase equilibrium are governed by
generalized cubic equation-of-state which includes the Peng-Robinson
(Reference 11) equation and various versions of the Redlich-Kwong
(Reference 12) equation. Both oil and gas are treated as mixtures
containing an arbitrary number of hydrocarbon and nonhydrocarbon

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Data Overview

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

components. In addition, special techniques are implemented in VIPCOMP to insure stability and efficiency of solution for near-critical oil and
gas fluid systems.

1.1.2 VIP-ENCORE Overview


00

VIP-ENCORE is a three-phase reservoir simulator which models the


immiscible flow of oil, gas, and water within the reservoir. VIP-ENCORE
is a special case of the generalized VIP-COMP simulator. Fluid properties
can be described according to the black-oil convention -- oil at reservoir
conditions is a mixture of stock tank oil and dissolved gas. The amount of
gas dissolved in the oil is determined by a bubble-point pressure
relationship. VIP-ENCORE is able to treat water-oil or gas-water twophase problems as special cases of the more generalized three-phase fluid
system. In addition, VIP-ENCORE can process multicomponent systems
whose PVT properties are adequately described by pressure-dependent Kvalues. Thus, it can be used to model gas condensates and volatile oils
more rigorously than conventional black-oil simulators.

1.1.3 VIP-DUAL Overview


NOTE:

00

1-2

VIP-DUAL is available as a separately licensed option.

The VIP-DUAL option simulates the performance of reservoirs which are


naturally fractured, heterogeneous, or highly stratified. The full dualporosity, dual-permeability formulation allows flow in both fractures and
rock matrix, thereby enabling correct and accurate modeling of reservoirs
which may be highly fractured in some regions while unfractured in
others. VIP-DUAL must be used in conjunction with either VIP-ENCORE
or VIP-COMP. Within VIP-DUAL, the exchange of fluids between the
fracture and matrix rock is based on the Warren & Root theory, and the
more recent work of Thomas, Dixon, and Pierson. Mass transfer between
matrix rock and fractures includes diffusion, convection, imbibition, and
gravity drainage. Imbibition and gravity drainage effects are modelled
with pseudo-capillary pressure functions that include hysteresis. These
functions are automatically and independently determined for the matrix
and fractures and account for the matrix block and gridblock sizes. Also
available is a dual-porosity/single-permeability option which assumes
that the fractures alone are a continuous media and the matrix rock exists
only as a source or sink for reservoir fluids.

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Data Overview

1.1.4 VIP-POLYMER Overview


NOTE:

00

VIP-POLYMER is available as a separately licensed option.

The VIP-POLYMER option simulates the performance of polymer flooded


reservoirs. The model takes into account the major physical properties
attributed to the flow of polymer solutions through porous media. These
include a non-Newtonian viscosity. The polymer is represented by a
separate component, present only in the aqueous phase and occupying no
volume. VIP-POLYMER must be used in conjunction with either VIPENCORE or VIP-COMP.

1.1.5 VIP-THERM Option


VIP-THERM is an extension of the fully implicit formulation of VIPCOMP to include an energy balance, an equilibrium constraint for the
water component, heat loss models, and temperature-dependency of all
important properties. Two phase behavior models are available: 1) the ncomponent compositional equation of state model which VIP-THERM
shares with VIP-COMP or 2) the dead oil model in which oil is treated as a
single non-volatile component.
The VIP-THERM compositional model is a fully implicit, n-component,
equation-of-state, thermal simulator. The number of volatile components
may be specified as less than or equal to the total number of components.
Water and steam properties including density, enthalpy, and viscosity are
obtained from a tabular input file which is separate from the file
containing the data described in this manual.
The VIP-THERM dead oil model is a fully implict three-phase reservoir
simulator which models the flow of oil, water, and steam within the
reservoir. This version is a special case of the generalized compositional
version. Oil is represented as a single non-volatile component. Oil
properties are either calculated by interpolation from input tables or are
calculated from input values of oil compressibility, oil coefficient of
thermal expansion, oil heat capacity, and oil viscosity as a function of
temperature. Water and steam properties including density, enthalpy, and
viscosity are obtained from a tabular input file which is separate from the
file containing the data described in this manual.
VIP-COMP or VIP-ENCORE initialization data may easily be converted to
VIP-THERM format:
1. Specify THERMAL card in VIP-CORE utility data (VIP-CORE Section
2.2.19.1).
2. Specify NCV in the grid system data (VIP-CORE Sections 2.2.3.1 or
2.2.3.2).

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3. Replace Physical Property Constants table with VIP-THERM format


(VIP-CORE Section 2.2.4.2).
4. Replace VIP-ENCORE PVT data with either EOS data (VIP -CORE
Section 4.4) or Dead Oil PVT data (VIP-CORE Section 4.7). If PCHOR
was specified in VIP-COMP EOS data, that column must be removed
before the data will be accepted by VIP-THERM.
5. Specify heat capacity arrays in VIP-CORE array data (VIP-CORE
Sections 5.38 and 5.39).
6. Specify heat loss data in VIP-CORE (VIP-CORE Chapter 12).
VIP-COMP and VIP-ENCORE recurrent data may easily be converted to
VIP-THERM format:
1. Specify TINJ and QUAL for all water injectors (Sections 3.4.2.1 and
3.4.2.2). Also specify PINJ ( Section 3.4.2.3) for all wells for which
steam quality is specified as zero.
2. Specify TINJ for all gas injectors (VIP-EXECUTIVE Section 3.4.2.1).
3. Modify DT cards (VIP-EXECUTIVE Section 7.1.1), ITNLIM cards (VIPEXECUTIVE Section 7.1.3), and TOLD cards (VIP-EXECUTIVE 7.1.7)
to include values for maximum temperature change.
4. Modify TOLR cards (VIP-EXECUTIVE Section 7.1.8) to include an
energy balance tolerance.

1.1.6 Shared Features


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1-4

VIP-COMP, VIP-ENCORE, VIP-DUAL, VIP-POLYMER, and VIP-THERM


share all of the same major features. Wells are controlled by a variety of
options which allow both rate and pressure constraints. Wells also can be
shut in or recompleted automatically. Rates can be adjusted to meet
production and injection targets at any of the target levels. These target
levels include gathering center, flow station, area, and field.
Separator conditions are also taken into consideration for all of the
simulator modules. In VIP-COMP (or in the VIP-THERM compositional
model), a multi-component model, separators are required to determine
surface production rates. In VIP-ENCORE, separators allow for the
additional flexibility of treating flash separation conditions at the surface
versus the differential calculations which take place in the reservoir.
Both VIP-COMP and VIP-ENCORE allow fully implicit or IMPES
formulations to be selected for the integration of the flow equations. When
the DUAL or the THERMAL option is activated, only the fully implicit
formulation is accepted for the additional required stability.
Internal calculations are carried out in customary oil field units, but input

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Data Overview

and output can be in either customary units or the International System of


Units (SI) metric system or in laboratory units. Throughout this Reference
Manual, units are first listed as the customary units followed by the SI
units in parentheses. The user may choose metric pressure units of kg/
cm2 (bar) instead of the default kPa. In this case, whenever the
documentation reads kPa, kg/cm2 (bar) will be expected. A table of data
types and the possible units is given in Section 1.7.

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1.2 Typical Data Requirements


1.2.1 Well Data
00

The following well data are required:

Well completion and workover or stimulation reports indicating


treatments (i.e., acid, frac, etc.) and completion intervals.

Measured data (i.e., rates, pressure) from any productivity or


injectivity tests.

1.2.2 Production Histories


00

The following production histories are required:

Summary sheets for each well showing monthly volumes of all fluids
produced and the number of days or hours on production in the
month.

Plots of individual well performance (i.e., rate, GOR, WOR) versus


time.

1.2.3 Pressure History


00

1-6

The following pressure history is required:

Pressure survey reports for all pressure measurements detailing all


pertinent data (i.e., tool identification, tool calibration, tool range,
reference elevations, tool run depth, datum depth, all measured
pressures) and the results from any pressure analysis work performed
(i.e., Horner buildup, etc.).

Isobaric maps, if available, showing the distribution of pressure in the


reservoir at various times in the reservoirs history.

Plots showing all pressure data as a function of time or cumulative


production.

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Data Overview

1.3 Data Deck Layout


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00

00

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Time-dependent, or recurrent, data include all data that can be defined or


altered subsequent to initialization. With clearly noted exceptions, any
item of time-dependent data can be changed any time during the
simulation. In addition to the operating characteristics of wells, these data
define simulator controls and the frequency and type of output.
Figure 1-1 displays the layout of the recurrent data. The first possible card
in the time-dependent data is the RUN card. It is no longer a required
card.
The first required data card is the RESTART card, although other optional
utility data may precede it. The data following the RESTART card are
divided into time groups, each of which is read and processed at a time
selected by the user. Each group is introduced by a card which specifies
when that group is to be processed. The first group is introduced by the
START card (either user-specified or automatically inserted) and is read
immediately. Each of the remaining groups is introduced either by a TIME
card or by a DATE card that tells when the data group should be read.
TIME and DATE cards are used interchangeably and may be mixed in the
same run.
All simulations are terminated by a STOP card, which may appear
anywhere in the time-dependent portion of the data deck. Whenever a
STOP card is encountered, no further data processing occurs. The run
stops at the time or date appearing on the preceding TIME or DATE card.
An END card must be the last card in the data stream; it acts as an end-offile.

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Data Overview

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

00

Figure 1-1: Order of Recurrent Data


00

00

00

00

1-8

VIP-EXECUTIVE time-dependent data input allows the user to describe


well data, output control, and simulator control. The well data includes
the definition of all well and well management level parameters. VIPEXECUTIVE offers numerous options to define all of the time-dependent
data; however, only a minimum amount of recurrent data is actually
needed to run the simulator. Change need be specified by exception only.
The required time-dependent well data is displayed in Table 1-1 and
Table 1-2 . Table 1-1 lists the minimum data requirements for a production
well, while Table 1-2 displays the same information for an injection well.
These tables also show the minimum data requirements to implement
pressure constraints at the well level. VIP-EXECUTIVE offers several
types and levels of production/injection constraints. These are listed in
the Chapter 2 Table of Contents for Section 3.3.
A matrix solver option may be specified. At time = 0 either BLITZ or
CBLITZ will be defaulted, depending on the problem type. At time > 0 the
solver information will be retrieved from the restart file. We suggest the
user also enter data for print controls along with the well data that are
appropriate for the particular study.
Table 1-3 and Table 1-4 list the VIP-EXECUTIVE data cards that can be
used to control production and injection.

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00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Data Overview

Table 1-5 and Table 1-6 list all of the required data cards for any given
option for both production and injection. Within the lists commas indicate
"and" meaning both are required. The "or" indicates any one of the
required cards is necessary, and the user chooses which is appropriate.

1-9

Data Overview

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00

Table 1-1: Minimum Data Requirements for Production Wells


Rate constraint only:
WELL

PROD

FPERF

QMAX

Bottomhole pressure constraint:


WI

WELL

PROD

FPERF

QMAX

PI

BHP

RFLOW

Tubinghead pressure constraint:


WI

WELL

PROD

FPERF

QMAX

PI

THP

ITUBE

BHPTAB

RFLW
Notes:

1-10

1.

For the tubinghead pressure constraint, more than one well can refer to the
same BHPTAB.

2.

If no productivity is defined by a WI, PI, or RFLOW card, well productivity will


be automatically adjusted to cause the well to flow at the rate specified on the
QMAX card; i.e., defaults to rate constraint. This can slow convergence whenever the gridblock pressure, adjusted to datum depth, approaches the bottomhole pressure.

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Data Overview

00

Table 1-2: Minimum Data Requirements for Injection Wells


Rate constraint only:
WELL

INJ

FPERF

QMAX

Bottomhole pressure constraint only:


WI
WELL

INJ

FPERF

QMAX

PI

BHP

RFLOW
Tubinghead pressure constraint:
WI
WELL

INJ

FPERF

QMAX

PI
RFLOW

THP

TUBE

DIAM

ITUBE

BHITAB

Gas Injectors only:


YINJ
VIP-THERM only:
TINJ

Note:

R2003.4 - Landmark

QUAL

PINJ

(water/
steam
injectors)

(if
QUAL =
0. or 1.)

If no injectivity is defined by a WI, PI, or RFLOW card or by WIL or KHWI data on


the FPERF card, the injectivity will be automatically adjusted to cause the well to
flow at the rate specified on the QMAX card; i.e., defaults to rate constraint. This
can slow convergence whenever the gridblock pressure, adjusted to datum depth,
approaches the bottomhole pressure.

1-11

Data Overview

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

00

Table 1-3: Data Cards Valid For Production


ALQ

QLIFTM

AREA

QMAX

BEGGS

QMIN

BHP

QMULT

BHPADD

QSTMX (VIP-THERM)

BHPITN

RCMPPERF

BHPTAB

RCMPOR

DIAM

RIGDEF

DPBHMX

SEPARATOR

ECOLIM

TEST

FLOSTA

TESTGL

FPERF

THP

FTWMIX

THPGTB

GASPLANT

TRACK

GASTHP

TRGOPT

GATHER

TRGORD

GLEFMN

TRGQMN

GLGMAX

TRGTOL

GLGOP

TSFM

GLIMIT

TSTPRF

GLRADD

TUBE

GLRTAB

WDNDG

GLRTBP

WELL

GTHPWL

WI, PI, RFLOW

IPRTRG

WLIMIT

ITNSTP

WLTYCH

ITNTHP

WNDGDV

ITUBE

WRKCF1

LSCALE

WRKCF2

MBAWG

WRKCOEF

NEWSEP

WRKDBG

NOFRICTION

WRKDLT

ONTIME

WRKFAIL

PFMCRV

WRKFRQ

PRDMIN

WRKGP1

PRFLIM

WRKGP2

PROD

WRKLIM

PTARG

WRKRTO

QLIFT

WRKWLM

QLIFTA

XFOFF
XFON

1-12

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Data Overview

00

Table 1-4: Data Cards Valid For Injection


AREA

ONTIME

BEGGS

PATNCI

BHITAB

PATNPP

BHP

PATTN

BHPITN

PINJ (VIP-THERM)

DIAM

PMPTAB

DPBHMX

PRIIR

ECOLIM

PRIOP

ETRGOP

PROJNM

FLOSTA

PROJWL

FPERF

QMAX

FTWMIX

QMIN

GASFUL

QUAL (VIP-THERM)

GASMKP

QSTMX (VIP-THERM)

GASSKG

RECFAC

GASSLS

RINJOP

GATHER

SEPARATOR

GINJMOB

TEST

GINJOP

THP

INJ

TINJ (VIP-THERM)

INJA

TRACK

INJGR

TRGTOL

INJMIN

TSFM

INJRGR

TUBE

INJREGN

WELL

INJRNM

WI, PI, RFLOW

INJTAR

WINJT

IPRTRG

WLTYCH

IPUMP

WNDGDV

IRDIST

WTRPUMP

IRPCTA

WTRTHP

IRSRCW

XFOFF

ITARG

XFON

ITNSTQ

YINJ

ITUBE

YINJA

LSCALE

YINJMK

MBAWG

YINJT

NEWSEP

YREINJ

NOFRICTION

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00

Table 1-5: Production Data Card Cross-Reference


DATA CARD

REQUIRED DATA CARDS

Required
WELL

--

FPERF

WELL QMAX

PROD

WELL

QMAX

PROD, FPERF

Optional

1-14

ALQ

THP

AREA

--

BEGGS

FPERF (horizontal well data)

BHP

WI or PI or RFLOW

BHPADD

BHPTAB

BHPITN

GTHPWL,THPGTB, TUBE, DIAM

BHPTAB

ITUBE, THP

DIAM

THP, GTHPWL, THPGTB, TUBE

DPBHMX

WI or PI or RFLOW

ECOLIM

--

FLOSTA

--

GASTHP

GTHPWL, THPGTB, TUBE, DIAM

GATHER

--

GLEFMN

QLIFT, QLIFTA

GLGMAX

QLIFT, QLIFTA

GLIMIT

--

GLRADD

GLRTAB

GLRTAB

QLIFT, QLIFTA

GLRTBP

QLIFT, QLIFTA, GLRTAB

GTHPWL

THP, THPGTB, TUBE, DIAM

IPRTRG

PTARG

ITNTHP

THP

ITUBE

THP, BHPTAB

MBAWG

--

LSCALE

--

NEWSEP

SEPARATOR

NOFRICTION

FPERF (horizontal well data)

ONTIME

--

PFMCRV

QLIFT, QLIFTA

PI

BHP or THP

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Data Overview

Table 1-5: Production Data Card Cross-Reference (Continued)


DATA CARD

REQUIRED DATA CARDS

PRDMIN

--

PRFLIM

TSTPRF

PTARG

--

QLIFT

THP

QLIFTA

QLIFT, GLRTAB

QMIN
QSTMX
RFLOW

BHP or THP

SEPARATOR

--

TEST

--

TESTGL

QLIFT, QLIFTA

THP

ITUBE or TUBE, BHPTAB, WI or PI or RFLOW

THPGTB

THP, GTHPWL, TUBE, DIAM

TRGTOL

PTARG

TSTPRF

PRFLIM

TUBE

THP, GTHPWL, THPGTB, DIAM

WI

BHP or THP

WLIMIT

--

WLTYCH

--

XFOFF

--

XFON

--

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00

Table 1-6: Injection Data Card Cross-Reference


DATA CARD
Required
WELL
FPERF
INJ
QMAX
TINJ
QUAL
PINJ
Optional
AREA
BEGGS
BHITAB
BHP
BHPITN
DIAM
DPBHMX
ECOLIM
FLOSTA
GASFUL
GASMKP
GASSKG
GASSLS
GATHER
GINJMOB
GINJOP
INJMIN
INJREGN
INJRGR
INJRNM
IPRTRG
IPUMP
IRDIST
IRPCTA
IRSRCW
ITARG
ITNSTQ
ITUBE
LSCALE
MBAWG
NEWSEP

1-16

REQUIRED DATA CARDS


-WELL, QMAX
WELL
INJ, FPERF
WELL, INJ (VIP-THERM only)
WELL, INJ (VIP-THERM water/steam
injectors only)
WELL, INJ (VIP-THERM water/steam
injectors with QUAL = 0. or 1. only)
-FPERF (horizontal well data)
ITUBE, THP
WI or PI or RFLOW
THP
THP, TUBE
WI or PI or RFLOW
--INJ (reinjection)
INJ (reinjection), YINJMK
INJ (reinjection)
INJ (reinjection)
--INJ (reinjection)
-RINJOP (INJREG)
RINJOP (INJREG)
RINJOP (INJREG)
ITARG
THP, PMPTAB
RINJOP (INJREG)
RINJOP (INJREG)
RINJOP (INJREG)
--THP, BHITAB
--SEPARATOR

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Data Overview

Table 1-6: Injection Data Card Cross-Reference (Continued)


DATA CARD
NOFRICTION
ONTIME
PI
PMPTAB
QMIN
RECFAC
RFLOW
RINJOP
SEPARATOR
TEST
THP
TRGTOL
TUBE
WI
WLTYCH
WTRPUMP
WTRTHP
XFOFF
XFON
YINJ
YINJMK
YREINJ

R2003.4 - Landmark

REQUIRED DATA CARDS


FPERF (horizontal well data)
-BHP or THP
THP, IPUMP
ECOLIM
INJ (reinjection)
BHP or THP
INJ (reinjection)
--TUBE, DIAM, WI or PI or RFLOW
ITARG
THP, DIAM
BHP or THP
-IPUMP, PMPTAB
THP
--INJ
INJ (reinjection), GASMKP
INJ (reinjection)

1-17

Data Overview

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

1.4 Input Data Template


00

The printout that follows lists the most frequently used simulator data
input options.
C
******************************************************************
C
TIME DEPENDENT DATA
CHAPTER 2
C
******************************************************************
C
DIM PARAMETERS
SECTION 2.2.3
C
C NOTE:THE DIM CARD IS ONLY USED TO MODIFY THE DEFAULT PROGRAM
C
DIMENSIONS.
C
IMPLICIT
SECTION 2.3.1
C
C NOTE:IF THE IMPLICIT CARD IS NOT ENTERED IN AN ISOTHERMAL RUN
STARTING FROM INITIAL CONDITIONS, THE DEFAULT IS IMPES.
C
RESTART
(STARTING T.S.)
SECTION 2.5.1
C
C NOTE:THE RESTART CARD IS ALWAYS REQUIRED. THE DEFAULT TIMESTEP
C
NUMBER IS ZERO.
C
TITLE1
VIP-EXECUTIVE
BATCH DATA INPUT TEMPLATE
TITLE2
THIS LIST INCLUDES ONLY THE MOST FREQUENTLY USED OPTIONS
C
C NOTE: IF TITLE CARDS ARE NOT ENTERED, THE TITLE CONTAINED ON
C
THE RESTART RECORD WILL BE RETAINED.
C
START
C
C NOTE:THE START CARD INDICATES THE BEGINNING OF THE DATA TO
C
BE INCLUDED IN THIS RUN. IT MAY BE MOVED DOWN IN THE
C
DATA DECK AS APPROPRIATE FOR STARTING NEW RESTART RUNS.
C
OUTPUT OPTION LIST
SECTION 6.2
PRINT OPTION LIST I/O FREQ
SECTION 6.3
C
C NOTE:THE PRECEDING TWO CARDS ARE REQUIRED TO GENERATE ARRAYS,
C
ITERATION SUMMARIES, WELL AND WELL MANAGEMENT LEVEL
C
SUMMARIES, REGION SUMMARIES, SEPARATOR SUMMARIES, AND
C
SIMULATION STATISTICS; IF THEY ARE OMITTED ONLY TIMESTEP
C
SUMMARIES AND END-OF-JOB SIMULATION STATISTICS WILL BE
C
PRINTED.
C++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
C
MATRIX SOLUTION OPTIONS
SECTION 7.2
C+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
C
[METHOD] (PARAMETERS)
SECTION 7.2
C
C NOTE:THE MATRIX SOLUTION METHOD MAY BE DEFAULTED.
C
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
TIMESTEP CONTROL
SECTION 7.1
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
DT DT DTMIN DTMAX (DTMPMX) DPMAX DSMAX DVMAX DZMAXSECTION 7.1.1
C
C
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
WELL DATA
CHAPTER 3
C-----------------------------------------------------------------C

1-18

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Data Overview

SECTION 3.2.1
WELL N (NAME) I J (IGC) (IBAT)
WELL NO. NAME I LOC. J LOC. G.C.NO. BAT.NO.
C
REPEAT THE DATA CARD AS NECESSARY
C
PROD FLUID (UNIT) WELL LIST
SECTION 3.4.1
INJ FLUID (UNIT) (LEVEL) WELL LIST
SECTION 3.4.2
C
C NOTE:PROD AND/OR INJ CARDS ARE REQUIRED FOR EACH WELL IN THE
C
RESERVOIR MODEL
C
FPERF
SECTION 3.2.2
WELL
L
KH
W1
L1
KH1
X
L2
KH2
FPERF
SECTION 3.2.2
WELL
L
KH
SWMN
SWRO
W2
L1
KH1
SWMN1 SWRO1
X
L2
KH2
SWMN2 SWRO2
X
L3
KH3
SWMN3 SWRO3
C
C NOTE:EACH WELL MUST BE INCLUDED IN A SET OF FPERF DATA
C
QMAX
WELL LIST
SECTION 3.5.1
C
BHP
WELL LIST
SECTION 3.6.4
BHP1 BHP2 . . . BHPN
WDAT1 WDAT2 . . . WDATN
THP
WELL LIST
SECTION 3.6.5
THP1 THP2 . . . THPN
C
C NOTE:A BHP OR THP VALUE MAY BE SPECIFIED FOR EACH WELL.
C
WI
WELL LIST
SECTION 3.6.1
WI1 WI2 . . . WIN
PI
WELL LIST
SECTION 3.6.2
GF1 GF2 . . . GFN
PI1 PI2 . . . PIN
RFLOW
WELL LIST
SECTION 3.6.3
RW1 RW2 . . . RWN
RB1 RB2 . . . RBN
SKIN1 SKIN2 . . . SKINN
C
C NOTE:A WI, PI, OR RFLOW VALUE IS REQUIRED IF THP OR BHP IS
C
DEFINED.
C
TUBE
WELL LIST
SECTION 3.11.1
TL1 TL2 . . . TLN
DZW1 DZW2 . . . DZWN
WDAT1 WDAT2 . . . WDATN
DIAM
WELL LIST
SECTION 3.11.2
DIAM1 DIAM2 . . . DIAMN
EPS1 EPS2 . . . EPSN
C
C NOTE:TUBE AND DIAM VALUES ARE REQUIRED ONLY IF THP IS SPECIFIED
C
FOR AN INJECTOR.
C
ITUBE
WELL LIST
SECTION 3.9.1
IBHP1 IBHP2 . . . IBHPN
DZW1 DZW2 . . . DZWN
WDAT1 WDAT2 . . . WDATN
BHPTAB - BHP TABLE
SECTION 3.9.2
C
C NOTE:ITUBE AND BHPTAB DATA ARE REQUIRED ONLY IF THP IS
C
SPECIFIED FOR A PRODUCER
C
C---------------------------------------------------------------C
POLYMER PHYSICAL PROPERTY DATA
SECTION 9.1.2
C----------------------------------------------------------------POLYMER
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
POLYMER CONCENTRATION TABLE
SECTION 9.1.3

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Data Overview

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

C----------------------------------------------------------------POLYT
ESALT
PERM
POR
C
THE ABOVE CARD IS FOLLOWED BY 1 DATA CARD
CP
VP0
CPADS
RK
POLYMER
VISCOSITY AT
POLYMER
PERMEABILITY
CONCENTRATION ZERO SHEAR RATE ADSORPTION REDUCTION FACTOR
C
THE PREVIOUS 2 CARDS ARE REPLACED BY AT LEAST 2 DATA CARDS
C
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
POLYMER NON-NEWTONIAN VISCOSITY PARAMETERSSECTION 9.1.5
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
SHEAR
NSH
GAMMAC
GAMHF
POWN
C
THE ABOVE CARD IS FOLLOWED BY 1 DATA CARD
C
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
POLYMER INACCESSIBLE PORE VOLUME
SECTION 9.1.6
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
EPHIP
NEP
EPHIP
C
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
CATION EXCHANGE PARAMETERS
SECTION 9.1.7
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
IONEX
NEX
QV
XKC
C
THE ABOVE CARD IS FOLLOWED BY 1 DATA CARD
C
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
EFFECTIVE SALINITY PARAMETERS
SECTION 9.1.8
C----------------------------------------------------------------CSEP
BETAP
CSE1
C
THE ABOVE CARD IS FOLLOWED BY 1 DATA CARD
C
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
SALINITY UNITS
SECTION 9.1.9
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
SUNITS
UNITS
C
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
INITIAL ION CONCENTRATIONS
SECTION 9.5.1
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
OVER
CLW
C
OVER OR VOVER CARDS ARE USED TO INITIALIZE THE ANION
C
CONCENTRATIONS
C
OVER
CAW
C
OVER OR VOVER CARDS ARE USED TO INITIALIZE THE CATION
C
CONCENTRATIONS
C
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
POLYMER PROPERTIES REGION NUMBER
SECTION 9.5.1
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
OVER
IPOLYT
C
OVER OR VOVER CARDS ARE USED TO INITIALIZE THE IPOLYT ARRAY
C
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
POLYMER INJECTION CONCENTRATION
SECTION 9.2.1
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
CPINJ WELL LIST
CPW1
CPW2
. . .
CPWN

1-20

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Data Overview

C
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
ANION INJECTION CONCENTRATION
SECTION 9.2.2
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
CLINJ
WELL LIST
CLW1
CLW2
. . .
CLWN
C
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
DIVALENT CATION INJECTION CONCENTRATION SECTION 9.2.3
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
CAINJ
WELL LIST
CAW1
CAW2
. . .
CAWN
C
C----------------------------------------------------------------C
TIME CARDS
SECTION 1.3.6 - 2.1.39
C----------------------------------------------------------------TIME (DATE)
STOP
END
C

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Data Overview

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1.5 Data Format


00

00

00

00

Nearly all data are input in "free field" format. This means it is not
necessary to enter numbers in specific columns. Each item of data, or
"word", must be separated by either one or more blank columns or by a
comma. Unless explicitly stated, all data need not appear on a single card the continuation character > is used to extend data onto the next card.
If more than one set of the same data type is read for the same well, the
last set of data encountered is used. For example, if two sets of FPERF
cards are read for Well 3, the second set of FPERF data will be used.
Data appearing on the card or cards following a well list have a one-to-one
correspondence with the wells in the list.
The data stream includes both numbers and alpha keywords; the latter are
used to identify subsequent numbers or select program options. Generally,
each new type of data is introduced by an alpha keyword. Secondary
keyword items in [ ] are required mutually exclusive while those in ( )
are optional. The brackets and parentheses should not be input with the
data (unless noted); they simple help describe data input options. In the
data descriptions that follow, keywords are shown in upper case letters
(they can be input in upper or lower case). The names of the variables that
are entered as numbers are shown in lower case letters. For example, one
of the data cards indicates the time in days when simulated operating
conditions are to be changed. In the data description, this is written as:
TIME

00

00

00

00

00

00

1-22

time

This indicates that the data card must contain the alpha label TIME
followed by a number that indicates the time in days. An example of a
valid data card follows:
TIME 365
This information could be anywhere on the card so long as nothing else
appears in the columns being scanned and there is at least one blank
between TIME and 365.
Numbers can be represented in any of the conventional FORTRAN
formats. Note the following valid representations of the number 1000:
1000 1000. 1.E3 1E3 0.1E+4 10000E-01
None of the various forms may contain an imbedded blank, since the
simulator interprets them as two words rather than one. There is no
distinction between integer and floating point representations of numbers.

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Data Overview

(All numbers are decoded as if they were floating point, then are stored as
either integer or floating point variables, depending on use.)
00

Repeated values can be written in shorthand notation to reduce data


preparation effort. For example, consider two equivalent ways of
specifying the following data card:

00

Method 1: 10 12.5 12.5 12.5 15. 15. 16.5

00

Method 2: 10 3*12.5 2*15 16.5

00

00

00

00

The single "word" 3*12.5 is decoded as 12.5 12.5 12.5 and 2*15 becomes 15
15. On the other hand, 3* 12.5 could not be decoded properly because of
the blank between * and 12.5. In this case, the simulator issues an error
message. If an error occurs in the time-dependent data, the run stops
before the first timestep is taken.
The number of data values on a line is restricted to 20,000. This applies to
decoded repeated values, so that 1500*3 becomes 1,500 data values.
Any word beginning with a number (or a decimal point) must be a valid
numeric form, or it causes the run to terminate before the first timestep.
Any word beginning with a character other than a number (or a decimal
point) is treated as alpha data. A # sign before a number causes the
number to be interpreted as an alpha string.
Any word beginning with an exclamation point (!) indicates the beginning
of inline comments. All text after the exclamation point is ignored by the
simulator.

1.5.1 General Utility Data


1.5.1.1 Comment Lines (C)
C

00

00

comment

Makes a comment of the field which follows. The alpha label C must be
the first word on the card and must be followed by a blank.
See also the use of the inline comment character !, which is discussed in
the introduction to this section.

1.5.1.2 Read Data from an External File (INCLUDE)


INCLUDE

Definition:

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file-name

00

1-23

Data Overview

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

file-name

00

The pathname to the file from which data should be


read.

When the INCLUDE card is encountered in the input file, the named file is
opened and it becomes the current input file. A fatal error occurs if the file
cannot be opened. Reading from the include file stops when either a
physical end-of-file is encountered or an ENDINC card is encountered.
Reading then continues from the previous input file. Include files can be
nested (i.e. contain other INCLUDE cards). However, the nesting level
cannot exceed nine.

1.5.1.3 Stop Reading Data from the Current INCLUDE File (ENDINC)
ENDINC

00

The ENDINC card indicates the end of data for the current include file.
When the ENDINC card is encountered on an INCLUDE file, the file is
closed and data continues to be read from the previous input file. If
INCLUDE files are nested then the nesting level is decreased by one. The
ENDINC card is optional in that a physical end-of-file also indicates end
of data. A warning message is given when an ENDINC card is
encountered on the primary input file.
Examples:

ENDINC

1.5.1.4 Echo Print On (LIST)


LIST

00

LIST and NOLIST cards control printing of card images of the data read.
Until a NOLIST Card is entered, LIST is assumed.
Examples:

LIST

1.5.1.5 Echo Print Off (NOLIST)


NOLIST

00

If NOLIST is read, printing of card images is suppressed until a LIST card


is read.
Examples:

1-24

NOLIST

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Data Overview

1.5.1.6 Skip Data On (SKIP)


SKIP

00

A SKIP card indicates that all subsequent data is ignored until a NOSKIP
card is encountered; i.e. it is as if all the cards were comment lines. The
card images are not printed.
Examples:

SKIP
.
.
.
NOSKIP

1.5.1.7 Skip Data Off (NOSKIP)


NOSKIP

00

A NOSKIP card ends the skip data option.

1.5.1.8 Columns To Be Read (NCOL)


NCOL

ncol

Definition:
ncol

00

00

Number of columns to be scanned for data; value


must be between 30 and 1000, inclusive. Default is
1000.

Only the columns 1 to ncol will be processed. Items beyond column ncol
will be ignored (e.g. comments).
Examples:

In order to limit processing to the first 45 columns:


NCOL 45

1.5.1.9 Data Line Continuation


Data required to be entered in a single record may be input on multiple
lines by entering a greater than (>) character at the end of each data line
to be continued.

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1-25

Data Overview

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

1.5.2 Well Lists


00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

Several types of data apply to wells. When well data are defined, the alpha
label card identifying the type of data also includes a list of wells for
which data are being entered. A typical list of well numbers may appear
as a well list of:
1 2

7 10 25 15 16 17 18 19

Alternatively, this could be represented as:


1 -3 7 10 25 15 -19
In this example, 1 -3 means wells 1 through 3. It is mandatory that at least
one blank appear between 1 and -3. Furthermore, a blank may not appear
between - and 3. The well numbers in a well list do not have to appear in
sequential order.
Data appearing on the card or cards following a well list have a one-to-one
correspondence with the wells in the list. For example,
QMAX 1 -4 12 10
1250 1000 1725 2*800 950
is interpreted as follows:
Well

00

1
2
3
4
12
10

QMAX
1250
1000
1725
800
800
950

1.5.3 Alternative Well Lists


00

00

00

00

1-26

Wells can also be referred to by their alphanumeric names. However, the


well names need to have been defined by the WELL CARD. A typical list
of well names may appear as a well list of:
A1 A2 AAA INJEC1 #12345678
Well names beginning with ., +, -, / or a numeral need to be preceded by
the # character so as to interpret the string as an alphanumeric. Only the
first eight (8) characters of any character string are used for well names.
A group of wells sharing the same root can be selected by use of an
identification of the form "root*". For this reason the character * cannot be
used as part of a well name.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

00

00

00

00

00

Data Overview

Data appearing on the card or cards following a well list have a one to one
correspondence with the wells or group of wells in the list. For example,
suppose wells A1, A2, AAA and INJEC1 are defined. Then:

QMAX
1000.

A*
2000.

INJEC1

is interpreted as follows:
Well

QMAX

A1
A2
AAA
INJEC1

1000.
1000.
1000.
2000.

1.6 Files Used by VIP-EXECUTIVE


00

00

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

It is possible to write enough information onto disk to allow a subsequent


run to pick up where the first one left off. The information saved this way
is called a "restart record".
VIP-CORE automatically writes a restart record upon completion of the
initialization process. The simulation modules also have the ability to
write restart records. These subsequent restart records are written as the
user directs by means of WREST and/or WLASTR data cards (see Section
6.7). A subsequent run that continues a previous run is a "restart run".
To begin a simulation at time zero, the restart file generated by VIP-CORE
is attached. To simulate from a time greater than zero, a restart file created
by a previous simulation run is attached.
Along with the standard restart records, VIP-EXECUTIVE simulation
modules can write periodic summary records for subsequent processing
by ancillary programs. All of the records written can be generated at userspecified time intervals as directed by means of specific data cards. The
currently available menu of these data cards, the summary records they
control, and the FORTRAN units on which the information is stored
include:
PRINT

Printer Output (Chapter 6), FORTRAN Unit 6.

WPLOT

Production/Injection Data, summarized by well,


well management levels, region, and field (Chapter
6), FORTRAN Unit 11 or the vdb file.

WCPLOT

Production/Injection Compositional Data,


summarized by well, well management levels,
region, and field (Chapter 6), FORTRAN Unit 26 or
the vdb file.

1-27

Data Overview

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

00

1-28

WMAP

Grid Array Maps (Chapter 6), FORTRAN Unit 27 or


the vdb file.

WMAPOLD

Grid Array SIMOUT Maps (Chapter 6), FORTRAN


Unit 9.

WREST/
WLASTR

Restart Records (Chapter 6), FORTRAN Unit 2.

WFLUX

Boundary flux data (Chapter 6), FORTRAN Unit 16.


FORTRAN Unit 61 is used instead if the model is
being executed as both a fine grid and a course grid.

WFILE

Special well file (Chapter 6), FORTRAN Unit 71.

WTRACK

Tracking option output (Chapter 6), FORTRAN


Unit 17.

To save any or all of these records for subsequent post-processing,


appropriate commands must be added to the job control stream for
permanent storage of the appropriate FORTRAN units.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

00

Data Overview

Simulator I/O is illustrated schematically in Figure 1-2 below along with


the appropriate FORTRAN (FT) Unit numbers.
RESTART FILE: FT02

00

PRINTER FILE: FT06

00

SIMOUT MAP FILE: FT09

00

PLOT DATA FILE: FT11

00

WELL LAYER SUMMARY:


FT13

00

TARGETING MESSAGE FILE:


FT14

00

INPUT
DECK:
FT05

RESTART
FILE:
FT03

TIMESTEP INFORMATION
FILE: FT15

00

VIP-EXECUTIVE
SIMULATION
MODULE

OUTPUT BOUNDARY FLUX


(IF NOT ALSO INPUT): FT16

00

TRACKING OUTPUT: FT17

00

RFT REPORT: FT18

00

COMPOSITIONAL PLOT
DATA FILE: FT26

00

FINE GRID
BOUNDARY
FLUX
FT16

MAP FILE: FT27

00

BUILDUP PRESSURE DEBUG:


FT29

00

SCRATCH FILES:
FT01 (Formatted)
FT08 (Formatted)
FT04 (Unformatted)
FT21, FT23

STONE PSEUDOS FILE: FT31

00

TRACK FILE: FT37

00

TRACER OUTPUT FILE: FT38

00

WELL PROD/INJ HISTORY


FILE: FT40

00

FLUX DEBUG: FT55

00

FACILITY UTILIZATION
SUMMARY: FT57

00

OUTPUT BOUNDARY FLUX


(IF ALSO INPUT USED): FT61

00

EXPERT RUN STATISTICS


FILE: FT69

00

WELL REPORT FILE: FT71

00

SPREADSHEET SUMMARY
FILES: FT72 - FT77

00

INPUT DATA INCLUDE


OPTION: FT91-FT99

00

TIMESTEP SUMMARY FILE:


USER-CONTROLLED

00

Figure 1-2: Simulation I/O Files

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1-29

Data Overview

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

1.7 Units Conventions


Three unit conventions are available in VIP-EXECUTIVE. The default unit
system is FIELD (also known as customary, or English units). The others
are METRIC and LAB, which can be selected by placing a METRIC or LAB
card in the UTILITY section of the VIP-CORE input file. The METRIC
option also can specify pressure as kPa (default), kg/cm2, or bar units.
All references to kPa in the METRIC column of the table below can be
replaced by kg/cm2 or bar depending on the pressure option selected.
Data Type

1-30

Field

Metric

Lab

Angle

degrees

degrees

degrees

Area

acres

m2

cm2

Compressibility

1/psi

1/kPa

1/psi

Density (water)

gm/cc

gm/cc

gm/cc

Density (oil)

gm/cc or
degree API

gm/cc or
degree API

gm/cc or
degree API

Formation volume
factor (oil)

rb/STB

m3/STM3

cc/stcc

Formation volume
factor (gas)

rb/MSCF
or Z-factor

m3/SM3
or Z-factor

cc/scc or
z-factor

Gas gravity

relative to air at
std. cond.

relative to air at
std. cond.

relative to air at
std. cond.

Gas-liquid ratio

SCF/STB

SM3/STM3

scc/stcc

Length

feet

meters

cm

Moles

lb-moles

lb-moles

gm-moles

Permeability

md

md

md

Pressure

psia

kPa

psia

Rates

1/day

1/day

1/day

Saturation

fraction

fraction

fraction

Standard pressure
(default)

14.65 psia

101.325 kPa or
1.03353 kg/cm2

14.65 psia

Standard temperature (default)

60 F

15 C

15 C

Solution gas-oil ratio

SCF/STB

SM3/STM3

scc/stcc

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Data Overview

Data Type

Field

Metric

Lab

Temperature

degrees F

degrees C

degrees C

Time

days

days

hours

Transmissibility

rb-cp/day/psi

m3-cp/day/kPa

cc-cp/day/psi

Viscosity

cp

cp

cp

Volume (surface liquid)

STB

STM3

stcc

Volume (reservoir)

rb

m3

cc

Volume (surface gas)

MSCF

SM3

scc

Water-cut

fraction

fraction

fraction

Thermal conductivity

Btu/day/ft/ F

W/M/ C

Btu/day/ft/ F

Thermal trasmissibility

Btu/day/ F

W/ C

Btu/day/ F

Enthalpy

Btu/Lb mole

kJ/kg mole

Btu/Lb mole

Rock heat capacity

Btu/ft3/ F

kJ/m3/ C

Btu/ft3/ F

Fluid heat capacity

Btu/Lb/ F

kJ/kg/ C

Btu/Lb/ F

00

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Data Overview

1-32

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Landmark - R2003.4

Chapter

2
Utility Data

000000

2.1 Introduction
00

The following cards can be used to control the program. Of these, the
RESTART and END cards are required. The other cards should be used
when appropriate. The only order-dependencies involve the RUN,
STORAGE, and DIM cards. The other utility data cards may be in any
order, but must precede any recurrent data.

2.2 Control
2.2.1 Start of Time-Dependent Data (RUN)
RUN

00

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

The RUN card is an optional card signifying the beginning of the


simulation data deck. If entered it should be the first card. It should not be
entered along with a STORAGE card.
Example:
RUN
DIM NBHPMX NBHPQ
5
5
IMPLICIT
RESTART 0
TITLE2
L4VIPR.DAT RESULTS
START

NPRFMX
1

NPRFTOT NWMAX
50
5

2-33

Utility Data

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

2.2.2 Calculate Memory Requirement (STORAGE)


00

If entered the STORAGE card must be the first card in the deck.
STORAGE

00

CORERST

The STORAGE card allows the user to calculate memory requirements for
various combinations of grid size, options, formulation and solver. Model
description is read from the initialization restart. Recurrent data which
affect memory requirements (such as solver and formulation) are obtained
from the data set.

2.2.3 Change Default Dimensions (DIM)


00

00

00

If entered the DIM card(s) must immediately follow the RUN/


STORAGE card, or be the first card(s) in the deck.
The DIM card allows the user to change the default dimensions on any
run starting from initial conditions (time zero) and to increase the
dimensions passed on a restart. Multiple sets of DIM cards may be
entered, one after the other, or the continuation character > may be used.
If a dimension is not changed on a restart run, the value used will be the
one read from the restart file. The defaults noted below only apply until
they are initially overwritten by a DIM card.
DIM

00

2-34

param1 param2 . . .
size1 size2 . . .

paramn
sizen

(card 1)
(card 2)

Definitions:
param

Alpha labels of those dimension parameters being


defined.

NAMAX

Amount of workspace available for matrix solution


methods. Default is to use internally calculated
value.

NAREAX

Maximum number of areas (well management


hierarchy) to be defined in this run. Default is 5.

NBATMX

Maximum number of separator batteries to be


defined in this run. Default is 5.

NBHIMX

Maximum number of bottomhole pressure tables


for injectors to be defined in this run. Default is 3.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

R2003.4 - Landmark

Utility Data

NBHIQ

Maximum number of rate or tubinghead pressure


values in any of the bottomhole pressure tables for
injectors to be defined in this run. Default is 5.

NBHIV

Maximum number of bottomhole pressure values


in any of the bottomhole pressure tables for
injectors to be defined in this run. Default is 50.

NBHPMX

Maximum number of bottomhole pressure tables


for producers to be defined in this run. Default is 3.

NBHPQ

Maximum number of rate, ratio, water-cut or


tubinghead pressure values in any of the
bottomhole pressure tables for producers to be
defined in this run. Default is 5.

NBHPV

Maximum number of bottomhole pressure values


in any of the bottomhole pressure tables for
producers to be defined in this run. Default is 300.

NCPLMX

Maximum number of gasplant interpolation values


to be defined in this run. Default is 5.

NCYCTM

Maximum cycle table number to be defined in this


run. Default is 10.

NCYCMX

Maximum number of cycle entries in any cyclic


table (CYCLETABLE or CPERF). Default is 1. If it is
desired to vary constraints by cycle, this dimension
must be increased to the maximum number of cycle
specifications in all input CYCLETABLE and
CPERF data.

NDRMX

Maximum number of automatic drilling regions to


be defined in this run. Default is 10.

NFSMAX

Maximum number of flow stations to be defined in


this run. Default is 5.

NGCMAX

Maximum number of gathering centers to be


defined in this run. Default is 5.

NGLRMX

Maximum number of optimal GLR tables (gas lift)


to be defined in this run. Default is 1.

NGLRQ

Maximum number of rate or water-cut values in


any of the optimal GLR tables (gas lift) to be defined
in this run. Default is 5.

NGLRV

Maximum number of gas-liquid (or gas-oil) ratio


values in any of the optimal GLR tables (gas lift) to
be defined in this run. Default is 100.
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Utility Data

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

NIADD

Amount of workspace to be added to the internally


calculated length of the integer work array for the
BLITZ matrix solution method. Default is 0.

NIRMX

Maximum number of injection regions to be defined


in this run. Default is 1.

NPMPMX

Maximum number of water pump tubinghead


pressure tables to be defined in this run. Default is
0.

NPMPV

Maximum number of rate/tubinghead pressure


values in any of the water pump tubinghead
pressure tables to be defined in this run. Default is
1.

NPRFMS

Maximum number of real and pseudo perforated


intervals (implicit well option) contained in any
well to be defined in this run. (See Section 7.3.1.)
Default is 7 * NPRFMX.

NPRFSOL

Maximum numbr of real and pseuso perforations


(implicit well option) for all wells to be defined in
this run. (See Section 7.3.1.) Default is 7 * NPRFTOT.

NPRFMX

Maximum number of perforated intervals


contained in any well to be defined in this run.
Default is 5.

NPRFTOT

Maximum number of perforations for all wells to be


defined in this run. Default is 25.

NPRIMX

Maximum number of priorities in the gas project


prioritization option to be defined in this run.
Default is 1.

NPROMX

Maximum number of projects in the gas project


prioritization option to be defined in this run.
Default is 1.

NPRSYS

Number of pressure systems to be defined in this


run. Default is 2. This parameter can be specified on
the DIM card for the predictive well management
calculations.

NPTNMX

Maximum number of patterns for the pattern


balancing option to be defined in this run. Default is
0.

NPWMAL

Number of artificial lift methods in any pressure


system to be defined in this run. Default is 1.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Utility Data

Currently this number may not be larger than 1.


This parameter can be specified on the DIM card for
the predictive well management calculations.

R2003.4 - Landmark

NPWMPA

Maximum number of producing areas to be defined


in this run. Default is 20. This parameter can be
specified on the DIM card for the predictive well
management calculations.

NPWMPM

Maximum number of producing mechanisms to be


defined in the run. Default is 20. This parameter can
be specified on the DIM card for the predictive well
management calculations.

NPWMPS

Maximum number of passes in any PWM step to be


defined in this run. Default is 10. This parameter
can be specified on the DIM card for the predictive
well management calculations.

NRCMUN

Maximum number of recompletion units per well to


be defined in this run. Default is 0.

NRIGMX

Maximum number of rigs at any well management


level to be defined in this run. Default is 10. This
parameter can be specified on the DIM card for the
automatic workover calculations.

NRIGTOT

Maximum number of workover rigs to be defined


in this run. Default is 0. This parameter can be
specified on the DIM card for the automatic
workover calculations.

NSTGMX

Maximum number of stages to be defined for any


separator battery in this run. Default is 5.

NTHGMX

Maximum number of z-factor/viscosity tables for


gas producer tubinghead pressure option to be
defined in this run. Default is 1.

NTHPGQ

Maximum number of pressure or temperature


values in any of the gas producer THP tables to be
defined in this run. Default is 5.

NTHPGV

Maximum number of z-factor/viscosity values in


any of the gas producer THP tables to be defined in
this run. Default is 50.

NWIMMX

Maximum number of well index multiplier tables to


be defined in this run. Default is 0.

2-37

Utility Data

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

00

00

2-38

NWIMV

Maximum number of entries in any well index


multiplier table to be defined in this run. Default is
1.

NWMAX

Maximum well number to be defined in this run.


Default is 10.

NWRKG1

Maximum number of groupings for group 1 to be


defined in this run. Default is 20. This parameter
can be specified on the DIM card for the automatic
workover calculations.

NWRKG2

Maximum number of groupings for group 2 to be


defined in this run. Default is 20. This parameter
can be specified on the DIM card for the automatic
workover calculations.

NXFWEL

Maximum number of crossflow wells to be defined


in this run. Default is 10.

size

The value or size of the corresponding parameter.

Examples:
DIM

NPRFTOT
660
RESTART 0

NWMAX
660

NGCMAX
9

NBHPMX
10

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Utility Data

2.2.4 Material Balance Option (OPTMBL) (Not available in VIP-THERM)


OPTMBL

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

(STBCHK)

(PJACO)

(DAMP)

The OPTMBL option is derived from an updating procedure for solution


unknowns that satisfies the material balance for hydrocarbons and water
during each outer iteration. Also, the convergence of the outer iteration is
controlled by the residuals in the saturation constraint equation and the
well constraint equation. The convergence tolerances may be specified
through the TOLSCN and TOLWCN cards, respectively. The use of this
option will reduce the number of outer iterations and hence the CPU time.
This option is only applicable to the IMPES formulation. OPTMBL only
functions for the run in which it is specified, i.e., it is not passed on restarts
and must be reentered.
Definitions:
STBCHK

Alpha label indicating that an OPTMBL stability


test is only to be performed for single-phase
gridblocks either with two-phase neighbors or that
contain wells. Otherwise, a stability test will be
performed for all single-phase gridblocks. For
certain compositional problems, this feature could
significantly reduce the CPU time. This keyword
can be used only for compositional problems.

PJACO

Alpha label indicating that a partial Jacobian


update of the fugacity equations will be performed,
in conjunction with the OPTMBL option. Jacobian
coefficients will not be recalculated for gridblocks
that satisfy a preset convergence criteria. For certain
compositional problems, this feature could result in
up to a 20% reduction in CPU time. This keyword
can be used only for compositional problems.

DAMP

Alpha label indicating that damping the outer


iteration solution is allowed.

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Utility Data

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

2.2.5 Volume Balance Option (VOLBAL) (Not available in VIP-THERM)


VOLBAL

00

The relaxed volume balance (VOLBAL) option is derived from an


updating procedure for solution unknowns that conserves material for
hydrocarbons and water during each outer iteration. The convergence of
the outer iteration is controlled by the residuals in the saturation
constraint equation and the well constraint equation. The convergence
tolerances may be specified through the TOLSCN and TOLWCN cards,
respectively. This option is only applicable to the IMPLICIT formulation.

2.3 Formulation Options (VIP-COMP or VIP-ENCORE)


00

Two formulation options are available: IMPES and IMPLICIT. The


formulation may be switched from one to another at the beginning of any
restart run by entering any one of the cards. If no formulation card is
entered in a run starting from initial conditions, the IMPES form of the
finite difference equations will be used. If no formulation card is entered
in a restart run, the formulation will be the same as used during the
previous run. The format of the restart file is independent of the
formulation option.

2.3.1 Implicit form of Finite Difference Equations (IMPLICIT)


IMPLICIT

00

Definition:
IMPLICIT

00

00

2-40

This run will use the implicit form of the finite


difference equations. Pressures, saturations and
compositions will be solved for simultaneously. Not
required for VIP-THERM.

Example:
DIM

NBHPMX NBHPQ
5
5
IMPLICIT
RESTART 0
TITLE 2
L4VIPR.DAT RESULTS
START
OUTPUT P SO SW

NPRFMX
10

NPRFTOT
50

NWMAX
5

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Utility Data

2.3.2 Explicit form of Finite Difference Equations (IMPES) (Not available


in VIP-THERM)
IMPES

00

Definition:
IMPES

This run will use the IMPES form of the finite


difference equations. Only pressure will be implicit.

2.4 Results File Control


2.4.1 Plot File Format and Data Selection (PLOT)
PLOT (FORM) (class1 . . .)

Possible Class Names

00

WELL WLLYR GATHER FLOSTA AREA REGION FIELD SURFACE ALL

00

Definitions:

00

FORM

This parameter causes formatted records to be


written to the plot file. It is required for files that are
going to be processed on another computer by
PACKER, the Plot and Map Restructuring program.
If the FORM parameter is omitted, binary records
are written to the plot file. (Binary records are less
expensive to write and to store but do not have the
flexibility of being able to be used on all computer
systems).
This parameter is ignored if plot data is being
written to the vdb file.

R2003.4 - Landmark

WELL

Well production and injection data.

WLLYR

Well production and injection data detailed by layer


perforations.

GATHER

Gathering center production and injection data.

FLOSTA

Flow station production and injection data.

AREA

Area production and injection data.

2-41

Utility Data

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

REGION

Region production and injection data.

FIELD

Field production and injection data.

SURFACE

Surface network pressure and rate data at nodes.


This parameter is applicable only when plot data is
being written to the vdb file.

ALL

Data for all classes.

NOTE:

1.

The PLOT card is needed if summary records of production/


injection data are to be written during the simulation for
subsequent post-processing. There are three formats. If none of
the plot classes are specified, then all of the plot classes (except
WLLYR) are written to the plot file at WPLOT frequency (see
Chapter 6 - Output Control). If ALL is specified, all of the
plot classes (including WLLYR) are written to the plot file. If
one or more plot class names are specified, only those plot
classes (including WLLYR) are written to the plot file.

2.

Plot data is either written to the vdb file or written to the plot
file. The default is to use the vdb file. This may be changed by
specifying NOVDB (Section 2.4.4).

3.

For additional information, see the PLOT file format


description in the OUTPUT CONTROL section.

Examples:

00

C To get all classes:


PLOT FORM ALL

00

C To select formatted information for WELL, GATHER and FIELD:


PLOT FORM WELL GATHER FIELD
00

2.4.2 Compositional Plot File Format and Data Selection (CPLOT)


CPLOT

(FORM)

(CCNDN) (class1 ...)

Possible Class Names

00

WELL WLLYR GATHER FLOSTA AREA REGION FIELD ALL

00

Definitions:

00

FORM

2-42

(CNDN)

This parameter causes formatted records to be


written to the compositional plot file. It is required
for files that are going to be processed on another
computer by PACKER, the Plot and Map

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Utility Data

Restructuring program. If the FORM parameter is


omitted, binary records are written to the
compositional plot file. (Binary records are less
expensive to write and to store but do not have the
flexibility of being able to be used on all computer
systems).
This parameter is ignored if plot data is being
written to the vdb file.
CNDN

Condensate production rate and condensate


production yield for the specified classes will be
written to the compositional plot file.

CCNDN

Cumulative condensate production volumes for the


specified classes except WLLYR will be written to
the compositional plot file.

WELL

Well compositional production and injection data.

WLLYR

Well compositional production and injection data


detailed by layer perforations.

GATHER

Gathering center compositional production and


injection data.

FLOSTA

Flow station compositional production and


injection data.

AREA

Area compositional production and injection data.

REGION

Region compositional production and injection


data.

FIELD

Field compositional production and injection data.

ALL

Data for all classes.

NOTE:

The CPLOT card is needed if summary records of compositional


production/injection data are to be written during the simulation
for subsequent post-processing. There are three formats. If none of
the plot classes are specified, then all of the plot classes (except
WLLYR) are written to the compositional plot file at WCPLOT
frequency (see Chapter 6 - Output Control). If ALL is specified,
all of the plot classes (including WLLYR) are written to the
compositional plot file. If one or more plot class names are
specified, only those plot classes (including WLLYR) are written to
the compositional plot file.
Condensate production rate and yield are not written to the
compositional plot file if CNDN is not specified (default).
Cumulative condensate production volume is not written to the

R2003.4 - Landmark

2-43

Utility Data

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

compositional plot file if CCNDN is not specified (default). The


cumulative condensate production volume is not written to the
compositional plot file for WLLYR even when CCNDN is specified.
The format for CPLOT file is exactly the same as the format for
PLOT file. For additional information, see the PLOT file format
description
in
the
OUTPUT
CONTROL
section.

Examples:
C To get all classes:
CPLOT FORM CNDN CCNDN ALL

00

00

C To select formatted information for WELL, GATHER and FIELD:


CPLOT FORM CNDN WELL GATHER FIELD
00

2-44

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Utility Data

2.4.3 Map File Format (MAP)


00

00

00

The MAP card may be entered only if a MAP card was specified in the
VIP-CORE dataset. The MAP card need only be entered in the Utility Data
of the simulation run if the file format is to be changed from that used in
the run after which this run is restarting; i.e., either VIP-CORE or a
previous simulation run. The MAP card is ignored if map data is being
written to the vdb file.
By default, the map records will be written to the same type of file (vdb or
map file) as that used in the run after which this run is restarting. If the
user wishes to switch from vdb output to a map file, then a NOVDB card
(Section 2.4.4) should be entered. There is no way to turn vdb back on once
NOVDB has been selected.
The arrays to be written to the vdb file/map file may be specified on the
recurrent data cards MAPOUT, MAPX, MAPY, MAPZ, MAPXT, MAPYT,
MAPZT, MAPWT. Note that these cards and the MAP card do not apply
to the SIMOUT map file.

MAP

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

BINARY
FORM

Definitions:
BINARY

This parameter causes binary records to be written


to the map file (FORTRAN Unit 27). If neither
BINARY nor FORM are entered, the format of the
map file will not change.

FORM

This parameter causes formatted records to be


written to the map file (FORTRAN Unit 27). It is
required for files that are going to be disposed to
another computer, when binary compatibility
cannot be guaranteed. If neither BINARY nor
FORM are entered, the format of the map file will
not change.

2-45

Utility Data

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

2.4.4 File Type for PLOT/MAP Files (NOVDB)


00

00

The NOVDB card is used to specify that plot/cplot and/or map array data
are to be written to separate files instead of to the vdb file.
It is permissible for plot/cplot data to be written to the vdb file while map
array data is written to a map file (FORTRAN Unit 27), or vice versa (plot
to FORTRAN Unit 11, cplot to FORTRAN Unit 26).
NOVDB

00

(PLOT) (MAP)

Definitions:
PLOT

This parameter causes the plot/cplot data to be


written to FORTRAN files rather than the vdb file.

MAP

This parameter causes the map array data to be


written to a FORTRAN file rather than the vdb file.

NOTE:

If no NOVDB card is entered, plot/cplot data will be written to the


vdb file, while map data will be written to whatever file type was
used in VIP-CORE.
If a NOVDB card is entered with no additional parameters, the
effect is the same as entering both PLOT and MAP.

2.4.5 Flow Vectors (FLOWVEC) (Not accepted by VIP-THERM, see FLOWS


card in VIP-CORE manual)
FLOWVEC

00

2-46

The FLOWVEC card is used to indicate that, during this run or a


subsequent restart run, the printing and/or mapping of flow vector arrays
will be requested.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Utility Data

2.5 Conductive (Leaky) Fault Solution Options (Not available in


VIP-THERM)
2.5.1 Segregated Flow Assumption (SEGREG)
SEGREG

00

Definitions:
SEGREG

Alpha label indicating that the segregated flow


assumption in conductive faults is to be used. If the
SEGREG card is not entered, the fully-mixed
assumption is used.

2.5.2 Fully Coupled Calculation (LKCPLD)

LKCPLD

ON
OFF

00

Definitions:
ON

Alpha label indicating that the fully coupled


calculation for inflow gridblocks is to be performed.

OFF

Alpha label indicating that a portion (related to


outflow gridblocks rates) of the rate calculation for
inflow gridblocks (gridblocks receiving fluids from
faults) is to be iteratively lagged.

NOTE:

If the LKCPLD card is omitted in a run starting from time=0, the


default is to use the fully coupled calculation. If the LKCPLD card
is omitted in a restart run, the default is to use whatever was the
case on the previous run.
The lagged option (LKCPLD OFF) in general could significantly
reduce the solver CPU time and hence will be more efficient for
simple models. However, it may increase the number of Newton
iterations and/or cause convergence problems for more complex
models (e.g., fine-grid models).

R2003.4 - Landmark

2-47

Utility Data

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2.6 General
00

The AUTOCYCLE card is required for any run using automatic cycle
control (Section 3.17).
AUTOCYCLE

2.6.1 Restarting Runs (RESTART)


00

This card is required on every run, including runs that begin from initial
conditions.

RESTART

00

2-48

istart
STEPNO istart
DATE date month year
TIME time
LAST

(NOOUT)

Definitions:
istart

The timestep number from which this run is to


begin. A value of zero indicates a run that will start
from initial conditions. Default is 0.

STEPNO

Alpha label indicating that the restart record


written on a certain timestep should be used.

istrt

The timestep number from which this run is to


begin. A value of zero indicates a run that will start
from initial conditions. No default.

DATE

Alpha label indicating that the restart record


written on a certain date should be used.

d..m..y..

The day, month, and year from which this run is to


begin. No default.

TIME

Alpha label indicating that the restart record


written at a certain time should be used.

time

The time, in days, from which the run is to begin.


No default.

LAST

Alpha label indicating that the last record found on


the restart file is to be used to start this run. This

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Utility Data

record must have been written at a time greater


than zero.
NOOUT

00

00

00

Alpha label indicating that no output restart file


(FORTRAN Unit 2) is to be generated during this
run. This is useful for quick runs when it is known
that no subsequent runs will be restarted from this
one.

Example:
For a restart run starting from timestep number 11, whose
corresponding date is March 25, 1989, the following three lines
function identically.
RESTART 11
RESTART STEPNO 11
RESTART DATE 25 3 1989
If the output restart file is not needed, the input is
RESTART 11 NOOUT

2.6.2 Descriptive Run Information (TITLE1, TITLE2, TITLE3)


00

Title cards are not required. If none are read, then the titles contained on
the restart record will be retained. Any or all of the three title cards
contained on the restart record can be overwritten by entering new title
cards.
TITLE1
title1
TITLE2
title2
TITLE3
title3

00

Definitions:
TITLEn

Alpha label indicating that titlen is to be replaced


by the information on the following card.

titlen

The information on this card will replace that


contained on the restart record for title line n.

2.6.3 Beginning of Data (START)


00

R2003.4 - Landmark

All data appearing between the last recognized utility data and the START
card will be ignored. On subsequent restart runs the START card can be

2-49

Utility Data

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

moved down in the data deck to cause previously used data to be ignored.
00

The START card is not required to be input. If it is omitted the simulator


will effectively insert a START card at the appropriate position in the input
data based on the information on the RESTART card. For a run starting at
time = 0, the START card is placed immediately following all recognized
utility data. When starting from a time > 0, the placement depends on
whether a TIME/DATE card exists with the specified time equal to the
restart time. If so the START card is placed after the corresponding TIME/
DATE card. If not the START card is placed immediately before the next
TIME/DATE card after the restart time.
START

00

Definition:
START

Alpha label indicating the beginning of the data to


be included in this run.

2.6.4 Time Specification for Reading Data (TIME)


00

TIME and DATE cards are used interchangeably to control timestep size
and output frequency, and may be mixed in the same run. One TIME or
DATE card is required.

TIME

PLUS delt
time

00

00

00

2-50

Definitions:
PLUS

Alpha label indicating that the following value is a


time increment.

delt

Time increment, days. The following data group


will be read at the time equal to the current time
plus delt.

time

Time in days at which the following data group is


read. This must be a positive value. Subsequent
time values always must increase.

Example:
TIME PLUS 1.0
TIME 360
.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Utility Data

.
C RECURRENT DATA FOR THE PERIOD
C 360 TO 720 DAYS GOES HERE
.
.
TIME 720

2.6.5 Date Specification for Reading Data (DATE)


00

00

TIME and DATE cards are used interchangeably to control timestep size
and output frequency, and may be mixed in the same run. One TIME or
DATE card is required.
The date on this card determines the time at which the following data
group is read. The program does account for leap years.
DATE

00

day

mo

yr

Definitions:
day

Day of the month.

mo

Month expressed as a number from 1 to 12.

yr

Year. If yr is entered as a number smaller than 1000,


it is interpreted as 1900 + yr (e.g. 75 becomes 1975,
101 becomes 2001). Any value greater than or equal
to 1000 is not adjusted.

2.6.6 Run Termination (STOP)


00

The STOP card terminates the run at the time defined on the TIME or
DATE card preceding it. No further data processing will occur after a
STOP card is found. If the STOP card is omitted, the END card is used to
terminate the run.
STOP

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Example:
C Data here is processed
STOP
C Data here is not processed
END

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2.6.7 End-of-File Marker (END)


00

The END card must be the last card in the data stream; it acts as an end-offile marker. When the END card is read, error checking and data
processing begins.
END

2-52

Landmark - R2003.4

Chapter

3
Well Data
3.1 Introduction
00

The well data includes all data which describes wells; i.e., the definition of
all well and well management level parameters. The minimum required
well data is shown in Table 1-1 and Table 1-2 . These tables also exhibit the
minimum data requirements for wells subject to pressure constraints at
the well level.

3.2 Well Location


00

00

VIP-EXECUTIVE model wells may be vertical or deviated. A well is


referred to as "vertical" if its perforations all have the same areal
coordinates; otherwise it is "deviated". Thus, a vertical VIP-EXECUTIVE
model well can incline from true vertical. More than one well may coexist
in a given gridblock. Also, a well may have more than one perforation in a
given reservoir layer.
Additionally an inclined and horizontal well flow correlation option is
available. It is activated through parameters on the FPERF card.
If a pattern element option was selected in VIP-CORE (see Section 2.2.3.4
of the VIP-CORE Reference Manual), then all extensive well input and
output data (minimum and maximum rates, KH values, production/
injection rates and cumulative, etc.) are defined as full well values. The
grid geometry is fixed for each pattern element option and is shown in
Figures 2-2 to 2-8 of the VIP-CORE Reference Manual. Conventional
injector/producer well locations are summarized in Table 3-1 for all the
pattern element types.
Table 3-1: Conventional Well Locations For Pattern Element Options
Pattern Type
1/8 5- or 9-spot

R2003.4 - Landmark

Grid
Orientation
Parallel

Well Description
Injector
Corner Producer
Side Producer (9-spot)

Well Location
1, NY
NX, 1
1, 1

3-53

Well Data

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Table 3-1: Conventional Well Locations For Pattern Element Options


Pattern Type

Grid
Orientation

Well Description

Well Location

1/8 5- or 9-spot

Diagonal

Inejctor
Corner Producer
Side Producer (9-spot)

1, NY
NX, NY
(NX-1)/2, 1

1/4 5- or 9-spot

Parallel

Injector
Corner Producer
Side Producer (9-spot)
Side Producer (9-spot)

1, NY
NX, 1
1, 1
NX, NY

1/4 5- or 9-spot

Diagonal

Injector
Corner Producer
Side Producer (9-spot)
Side Producer (9-spot)

(NX-1)/2, NY
(NX-1)/2, 1
1, (NY-1)/2
NX, (NY-1)/2

1/12 7-spot

--

Injector
Producer

1, NY
NX, 1

1/6 7-spot

--

Injector
Producer
Producer

(NX-1)/2, 1
1, NY
NX, NY

3.2.1 Well Name and Location (WELL)


00

Vertical Well
WELL

00

N
(NAME)
IW
JW
(IGC)
(IBAT)
nw
(wname) iw
jw
(igc)
(ibat)
(Repeat data card as necessary for subsequent wells.)

Deviated Well
WELL

N
nw

(NAME)
(wname)

IW
X

JW
X

(IGC)
(igc)

(IBAT)
(ibat)

or
WELL

N
(NAME)
(IGC) (IBAT)
nw
(wname) (igc) (ibat)
(Repeat data card as necessary for subsequent wells.)

3-54

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00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Well Data

Definitions:
N

Alpha label indicating that this field will contain a


well number. Required as the first data field
following WELL.

NAME

Alpha label indicating that this field will contain a


well name.

IW

Alpha label indicating that this field will contain the


x direction (r direction) index of the gridblock
containing the well.

JW

Alpha label indicating that this field will contain the


y direction ( direction) index of the gridblock
containing the well.

IGC

Alpha label indicating that this field will contain the


number of the gathering center to which the well is
attached.

IBAT

Alpha label indicating that this field will contain the


number of the separator battery to which the well is
assigned.

nw

Well number. Any value in the range of one to


NWMAX (maximum well number for which the
program is dimensioned) may be used. A value of
zero causes the program to automatically assign a
well number to the well, provided a well name is
used to define the well. In this case, the well
number assigned will be the minimum value
between one and NWMAX that has not already
been allocated by the user or chosen by the
program.

wname

Well name of up to eight (8) characters. The first


character in the name must be alphabetic unless the
name is immediately preceded by the character #.
The well name must be unique. A repeated well
name will result in an error message and
termination of the run. Default is blanks.

iw

X direction (r direction) index of the gridblock


containing the well.

jw

Y direction ( direction) index of the gridblock


containing the well.

igc

Number of the gathering center to which the well is


attached. Default is 1.

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Well Data

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ibat

Number of the separator battery to which the well


is assigned. Alternatives include the battery
number of a separator input in the separator data
(Surface Separator Data), a value of -npvt which
accesses a default separator, and a value of 0:
ibati

=
=
=

nbat (input battery)


-npvt (default separator)
0

Default is 0 which will result in Separator 1 being


assigned if one has been defined or the default
separator for PVT region 1 if one has not been
defined.
00

00

The deviated well option can be used to model any non-vertical well,
including horizontal wells. The data format is identical to the format for
the vertical well option. However, to define a deviated well, the iw and jw
fields must contain the alphabetic character X, if the IW and JW fields
appear on the WELL card. If the IW and JW fields are absent from a WELL
card, this implies that the well is deviated.
The areal locations of the deviated well completions are entered by
perforation as described in the FPERF card.
NOTE:

00

00

00

3-56

(for both Vertical and Deviated wells):


1.

Data fields on the WELL card may be entered in any order.


However, the data following the WELL card must be in the
order specified by the heading labels.

2.

Once a well has been defined with a WELL card, it cannot be


redefined. A second WELL card with the same well number
results in an error message and terminates the run.

3.

A well must be defined by a WELL card before any references


can be made to the well on other data cards.

4.

NWMAX, the maximum well number permitted, is a limit


established by program dimensions. This value is printed on
the first page of the program output and may be reset by using
the DIM card (see Section 2.2.3).

5.

More than one well may be assigned the same (iw, jw)
location.

Examples:
VERTICAL:
C+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
C
WELLS 1 -364 SAD WELLS

Landmark - R2003.4

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Well Data

C
253 -266 NGI WELLS
C
324 -326 WGI WELLS
C
PUT WELLS INTO THE APPROPRIATE GC/FS
C
C+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
C
WELL

00

00

NAME
#01-01

IW
18

JW
26

IGC
4

IGC
2

IBAT
3

DEVIATED:

00

00

N
1

WELL

N
5

NAME
DEV1

IW
X

JW
X

WELL

N
5

NAME
DEV1

IGC
2

IBAT
3

or

00

3.2.2 Describe Well Perforations (FPERF)


00

The FPERF card is used to describe well perforations. Three basic formats
are permitted, with optional data for specific situations. If necessary, one
or more continuation cards may be used by placing the character ">" as the
last string on a card and then continuing the data on the following card.
Except for the well number, the data may appear in any order; however,
the order on the cards for the perforations must match the order of the
headings.
If the water-oil hysteresis model is being used (VIP-CORE Section 4.3.4),
ISAT cannot be specified unless hysteresis for the perforation relative
permeabilities is deactivated by entering a NOHYSW card before the
FPERF card. By default, perforation relative permeabilities are set equal to
the hysteretic gridblock values.
NOHYSW

00

General Format:
FPERF

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

(NOPWDEP)
(card 1)
WELL
(other headings)
(card 2)
Perforation data cards
(card 3)
(Card 3 is repeated as necessary to describe all the
perforations for each well being perforated.)

The three basic formats for the FPERF cards are:

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

00

Format A: (Any relative permeability option; each layer specified)

00

FPERF

(card 1)

WELL

(IW JW)

00

nw

00

00

(k)
(h)
(kh)
(k h)

(Other headings)

(card 2)

(Other data)

(card 3)

Format B: (Any permeability option; depth to perforations specified)


FPERF
WELL (IW JW) DTOP
nw
(iw jw) dtop

DBOT (K)
dbot (k)

(Other headings)
(Other data)

(card 1)
(card 2)
(card 3)

00

Format C: (Vertical equilibrium relative permeability; each layer specified)

00

FPERF

(card 1)

WELL L
nw
00

00

00

3-58

(iw jw)

(K)
(H)
(KH)
(K H)

(K)
(IW JW) HTOP HBOT (KH) (Other headings)
(k)
(iw jw) htop hbot
(kh) (Other data)

(card 2)
(card 3)

In the basic formats shown above, the "other headings" may identify 1)
data affecting relative permeability endpoints (SWL, SWMN, SWRO,
SWMX, SGL, SGMN, SGRO, SGMX, ISAT, ISATI); 2) weighting factors
used to interpolate between rock and vertical equilibrium relative
permeability (FVEW, FVEG); 3) perforation status (STAT); 4) perforation
unit number (UNIT) and/or recompletion unit number (RCMPUNT); 5)
well index values for each perforation or the data to calculate the values
(WIL, SKIN, RADB, RADW); 6) additional data required for the reduced
entry skin (Sr) calculation, to be used in conjunction with the calculation
of the well index for each perforation (RKHKV, DHTOP, HTOT); 7) rate
dependent skin factor for non-Darcy gas flow (WDL); and 8) inclined and
horizontal well data (LENGTH, PWDEP, DIAM, ROUGH, ANGLV,
ANGLA). In VIP-THERM, the other headings may also identify 1)
specified production well gradients (GRAD); and 2) a well index
permeability thickness product (KHWI).
For each column heading that appears on card 2, a single data value must
appear in the corresponding position on each card 3. An exception to this
rule is data for L, the layer number. A range of values may be entered.
Some of the data may only be used for certain types of models or in
conjunction with other data; such restrictions are noted below.
Inclusion of the UNIT heading invokes the perforation UNIT option in
which layers are grouped into perforation units before perforation

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

production constraints are applied. The unit number has no effect on


injection wells.
00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

A separate grouping algorithm is invoked using the RCMPUNT heading


and data. This option involves the automatic opening of a group of
perforations when another group violates constraints. This unit number
has no effect on injection wells.
Definitions:
NOPWDEP

Alpha label indicating that, for horizontal/inclined


wells for which PWDEP data is not entered, the
depth to center of well segment will be set to the
depth of the gridblock containing the perforation.

WELL

Column heading for nw, the well number or well


name. The well number or name must be entered
for each data card. For multiple completions in a
single well the alpha label X can be substituted for
the well number or well name on each data card
after the first.

Column heading for l, the layer number for a


completed interval. Required unless dtop and dbot
are used. A single number or a range of values may
be entered. The format for the range of values is i1
-i2, where i1 i2, or i1 NZ. The last format results in
perforations in all layers between layer i1 and the
last layer in the appropriate grid, inclusive.

IW

Column heading for iw, the x(r) direction gridblock


index of the block containing the perforation for a
deviated well.

JW

Column heading for jw, the y() direction gridblock


index of the block containing the perforation for a
deviated well.

Column heading for k, the average permeability


times the net-to-gross ratio of the perforated
interval, md (md). For an areal model, the default is
the product of the gridblock net-to-gross ratio and
K x K y ( or K r K ). For a cross-section model, the
default is the product of the gridblock net-to-gross
ratio and the appropriate permeability. Not
permitted with kh.

Column heading for h, the thickness of the


perforated interval, ft (m). Default is gridblock

3-59

Well Data

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

gross thickness. Not permitted with kh, dtop, dbot,


htop, or hbot.
KH

Column heading for kh, the average permeabilitythickness of the perforated interval, md-ft (md-m)
or a permeability-thickness multiplier. Default is
the product of the gridblocks areal permeability
and net thickness.
To input a permeability thickness-multiplier, enter a
* followed by the value. The permeabilitythickness of the perforation will be the default
calculation times the multiplier.

3-60

UNIT

Column heading for unit, the perforation unit


number. Values must lie between 1 and nprfmx.

RCMPUNT

Column heading for rcmpunt, the recompletion


unit number. Values must lie between 1 and
nrcmun. Permitted only if the dimension nrcmun is
greater than zero.

DTOP

Column heading for dtop, the subsea depth to the


top of a perforated interval, ft (m). May not be used
with l, kh, h, htop, or hbot. Must appear with dbot.
Required unless l is used. When used with the VE
option with corner point geometry, the layer
number l must also be specified. Also for this
special case, if dtop is entered as -1.0, it will be reset
to the gridblock center top depth.

DBOT

Column heading for dbot, the subsea depth to the


bottom of a perforated interval, ft (m). May not be
used with l, kh, h, htop, or hbot. Must appear with
dtop. Required unless l is used. When used with the
VE option with corner point geometry, the layer
number l must also be specified. Also for this
special case, if dbot is entered as -1.0, it will be reset
to the gridblock center bottom depth.

HTOP

Column heading for htop, the distance from the top


of the gridblock to the top of the perforation,
expressed as a fraction of the gross thickness of the
gridblock. Default is 0. Permitted only in Format C
when using the vertical equilibrium option. The
value of htop can be less than 0 in the VE cornerpoint option.

HBOT

Column heading for hbot, the distance from the top


of the gridblock to the bottom of the perforation,
expressed as a fraction of the gross thickness of the

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

gridblock. Default is 1. Permitted only in Format C


when using the vertical equilibrium option. The
value of hbot can be greater than 1 in the VE cornerpoint option.

R2003.4 - Landmark

DHTOP

Column heading for dhtop, the distance between


the top of the block where the wellbore penetrated
the block, and the top of the perforated interval,
ft(m). Default is 0., except when DTOP and DBOT
are also specified, in which case dhtop is calculated
as dtop * gross thickness. The value of dhtop can be
less than 0 in the VE corner-point option.

HTOT

Column heading for htot, the maximum sand


thickness which could be perforated along the
wellbore within the gridblock, ft(m); i.e., not
necessarily the true vertical net sand thickness.
Default is the gross thickness of the block. For the
special case of the VE option with corner point
geometry, the default is the deepest corner point
base depth minus the shallowest corner point top
depth.

SWL

Column heading for swl, the connate water


saturation to be used in denormalizing water
relative permeabilities for this perforation. Default
is the gridblocks value. SWMN and SWRO must
also be specified.

SWMN

Column heading for swmn, the residual water


saturation to be used in denormalizing water
relative permeabilities for this perforation. Default
is the gridblocks value. SWRO must also be
specified.

SWRO

Column heading for swro, the water saturation at


residual oil to water, to be used in denormalizing
water relative permeabilities for this perforation.
Default is the gridblocks value. SWMN must also
be specified.

SWMX

Column heading for swmx, the maximum water


saturation to be used in denormalizing water
relative permeabilities for this perforation. Default
is 1. SWMN and SWRO must also be specified.

SGL

Column heading for sgl, the connate gas saturation


to be used in denormalizing gas relative
permeabilities for this perforation. Default is the
gridblocks value. SGMN and SGRO must also be
specified.
3-61

Well Data

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

SGMN

Column heading for sgmn, the residual gas


saturation to be used in denormalizing gas relative
permeabilities for this perforation. Default is the
gridblocks value. SGRO must also be specified.

SGRO

Column heading for sgro, the gas saturation at


residual oil to gas, to be used in denormalizing gas
relative permeabilities for this perforation. Default
is the gridblocks value. SGMN must also be
specified.

SGMX

Column heading for sgmx, the maximum gas


saturation to be used in denormalizing gas relative
permeabilities for this perforation. Default is 1-swl.
SGMN and SGRO must also be specified.

ISAT

Column heading for isat, the saturation table to be


used in calculating relative permeabilities. Default
is the gridblocks rock type.

ISATI

Column heading for isati, the imbibition saturation


table to be used in calculating relative
permeabilities. Default is the gridblocks rock type.

FVEW

Column heading for fvew, the weighting factor


used to interpolate between rock and vertical
equilibrium relative permeabilities in the matrix for
water-oil systems. A value of 1.0 is full vertical
equilibrium. Default is the gridblocks value.

FVEG

Column heading for fveg, the weighting factor used


to interpolate between rock and vertical
equilibrium relative permeabilities in the matrix for
gas-oil systems. A value of 1.0 is full vertical
equilibrium. Default is the gridblocks value.

STAT

Column heading for stat, the perforation status


indicator. Value is ON or OFF. Default is ON.

WDL

Column heading for wdl, the rate dependent skin


factor for non-Darcy gas flow.

WIL

Column heading for wil, the well index, by


perforation. Dimensionless.
If WIL is not specified as a data item, and if any one
or more of the data items SKIN, RADB, RADW,
RKHKV, DHTOP, or HTOT is specified, then wil
will be calculated as follows:

3-62

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

wil = --------------------------------------------------------------radb
l n -------------- + skin + Sr
radw

where = 2 for rectangular grids and varies with


ntheta for radial grids. For rectangular grids, can
be changed by the FLOANG card. Sr is zero unless
any one or more of the data items RKHKV, DHTOP,
or HTOT is specified, in which case Sr will be
calculated as follows:
0.825
htot
Sr = 1.35 ---------- 1
{ ln ( htot rkhkv + 7 ) [ 0.49 + 0.1 ln ( htot rkhkv ) ]ln r wc 1.95 }
h

where rwc = radw e0.2126(Zm/htot +2.753)


and Zm = dhtop + h(hbot - htop)/2
SKIN

Column heading for skin, the skin factor for this


perforation. Dimensionless. Default is 0.

RADB

Column heading for radb, the equivalent radius of


the gridblock containing the well, ft (m). Default is
the value computed in VIP-CORE based on
Peacemans recommendation (Reference 2):
12

12

kx
ky
2
2
-----y + ------- x
ky
kx
radb = 0.28 --------------------------------------------------------------------kx 1 4 ky 1 4
-----+ ------ ky
kx

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

RADW

Column heading for radw, the wellbore radius, ft


(m). Default is 0.25.

RKHKV

Column heading for rkhkv, the ratio of horizontal


to vertical permeability within this productive
interval. Default is 1.

The following only apply to inclined and horizontal wells


LENGTH

Column heading for length, the length of well


segment in a well gridblock, ft (m).

PWDEP

Column heading for pwdep, the depth to center of


well segment, ft (m). If not specified, the depth will
be computed from LENGTH and ANGLV.

DIAM

Column heading for diam, the diameter of the well


segment, ft (m). RADW may be used instead.

3-63

Well Data

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

00

ROUGH

Column heading for rough, the absolute roughness


of the well segment, ft (m).

ANGLV

Column heading for anglv, the angle of the source


end of the segment to the downward vertical
direction, degrees.

ANGLA

Column heading for angla, the angle of the segment


with respect to the x axis in the areal plane, degrees.
Default is 0.

The following only apply to VIP-THERM:


GRAD

Column heading indicating the position of grad on


the following data cards.

grad

Wellbore gradient for the perforated interval, psi/ft


(kPa/m). Ignored for injection wells.

KHWI

Column heading indicating the position of khwi on


the following data cards.

khwi

For producers (see Equation 3-6, Section 3.6), khwi


= 0.001127 WI KH, rBcp/D psia (rcm cp/D kPa).
For water/steam injectors (see Equation 3-1 and 3-5
in Section 3.4.2.4), khwi = 0.001127 WI KH , rB/
D psia (rcm/D kPa).
Do not use for gas injectors.

NOTE:

1.All unread data is given default values prior to calculating


perforation properties.
2. In Format B, the simulator automatically generates as many
perforations as required by the dtop and dbot data. In this
case, iw and jw are held constant over the perforated
thickness.

00

3. In Format C, if k is read, the htop and hbot data are used to


determine thickness and position of the perforation. If kh is
read, then htop and hbot determine position only.

00

4. If h is read in Format A when using vertical equilibrium


relative permeabilities, htop and hbot are set so as to center
the perforation vertically in the gridblock.

00

5. All perforations for each well being perforated must be defined


on consecutive cards.

00

6. If an interval is specified more than once, the result is multiple


perforations; i.e., the KH will be cumulative. The previously

00

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Well Data

specified interval is not replaced.


7. Except for one condition, respecifying the FPERF data for a
well replaces the entire set of perforations with the new data.
The exception is when the new data immediately follows the
old data on the same FPERF card. In this case the new data is
assumed to be a continuation of the old data.

00

8. When rate dependent skin factor for each perforation (WDL) is


specified, the well index cannot be zero. Well index set to zero
is a special case which means adjusting the well index to honor
both the rate and bottomhole pressure constraints. In such case,
rate dependent skin factor does not have effective meanings.
An error message will print in the output and the simulation
run will be terminated.

00

9. The inclined and horizontal well flow correlation option is


activated by the presence of the LENGTH, PWDEP, DIAM,
ROUGH, ANGLV, and ANGLA keywords on the FPERF card.
These data cause the well index and permeability thickness to
be computed automatically. Optional keywords to alter the
flow correlation and friction factors are given in Section 3.2.6
and Section 3.2.7. If the data for a multilateral well is being
input, set the values of ROUGH, the absolute roughness, to -1.
This disables the friction loss computation which is currently
inaccurate for this type of well. Wellbore gradients will be
calculated by the simulator using the volume balance method
(Section 3.7.2) which cannot be overridden.

00

10. If KHWI is input, then a productivity index (specified by WIL


data or by a PI, WI, or RFLOW card, Section 3.6) is not
required and will be ignored if input.

00

00

00

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Example 1:
FPERF
WELL
1
X
X
2
X

L
3
4
6
1
2

Example 2:
FPERF
WELL
1
X
X
2
X

L
2
3
4
1
2

KH
3000
4200
1700
5780
3620

3-65

Well Data

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

3-66

In this example perforated intervals are defined for Wells 1 and 2. Well 1 is
perforated in layers 2, 3, and 4 with permeability-thickness values of 3000,
4200, and 1700 md-ft, respectively. Well 2 is perforated in layers 1 and 2
with permeability-thickness values of 5780 and 3620 md-ft, respectively.
Example 3:
FPERF
WELL
1
X
X
X
X
X

L
7
7
7
8
8
8

IW
1
1
1
1
1
1

JW
1
2
3
1
2
3

KH
1550
3100
1550
120
240
120

In this example perforations are defined for a three-dimensional coning


problem. The well is completed in layers 7 and 8 in the first radial annulus
(I=1). All of the angular increments are completed (J=1,3).
Example 4:
FPERF
WELL
22
X
X

L
3
4
5

WIL
.85
1.02
1.24

In this example, Well 22 is perforated in layers 3, 4, and 5, and each of the


layers has exhibited a different response to the stimulation treatment.
Example 5:
FPERF
WELL
27
X

L
1
2

RADB
450.
450.

RADW
.25
.25

SKIN
-1.5
2.2

In this example, Well 27 is perforated in layers 1 and 2, and each of the


layers has exhibited a different response to the stimulation treatment.
Example 6:
FPERF
WELL L
35
1
X
2

H
20
15

RADB RADW SKIN RKHKV DHTOP HTOT


450.
.25
-1.5
2.0
10.
30
450.
.25
2.2
5.0
0
25

In this example, Well 35 is perforated in layers 1 and 2, and each of the


layers has exhibited a different response to the stimulation treatment. In
addition, layer 1 is perforated in the lower 20 feet of layer 1, ten feet below

Landmark - R2003.4

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Well Data

the top of the layer, and layer 2 is perforated in the top 15 feet. Layer 1 is
fairly clean, with a kh to kv ratio of 2. Layer 2 has more shaly streaks, with
a kh to kv ratio of 5. The wil values will be calculated for each layer, after
first calculating a reduced entry skin factor for each layer. The
permeability-thickness values stored for each layer will be the layer
permeability times htot, since the reduced entry skin factor will
compensate for the partial penetration.
00

00

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Example 7:
FPERF
WELL L
42
3
X
4

DTOP DBOT SKIN


7528
-1
.4
-1
7588
-.8

RKHKV
4.5
2.5

HTOT
45
52

This combination of both L and DTOP/DBOT can only be used with the
special case of using the VE option with corner point geometry. In this
example, the reduced entry skin factor will be calculated for each layer
based on its perforated interval relative to the geometry of the gridblock.
The wil values for each layer will then be calculated, and the
permeability-thickness stored for the layers will be the layer permeability
times its htot.
The following example illustrates the definition of an inclined well,
perforated in layers 1-4 and with a horizontal section in layer 4.

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00

00

00

Example 8:
FPERF
WELL L IW JW LENGTH PWDEP DIAM ROUGH ANGLV ANGLA SKIN
2
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

1
2
3
4
4
4
4
4
4

3
3
3
3
4
5
6
7
8

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

118
120
50
45
90
70
150
100
100

4450
4490
4560
4577
4600
4635
4635
4635
4635

0.25
0.25
0.25
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15

0.00001
0.00001
0.00001
0.00001
0.00001
0.00001
0.00001
0.00001
0.00001

5
7
10
20
20
90
90
90
90

40.
40.
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

5
5
2
3
4
2
5
6
10

00

The following example illustrates the simulation of a multilateral well.

00

Example 9:

00

00

00

FPERF
WELL
1
X
X
X
X
X
X
C
X
X
X
X
X
X
C
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

IW

JW

L LENGTH

DIAM

ROUGH

11
12
13
14
15
16
17

11
11
11
11
11
11
11

5
5
5
5
5
5
5

11
12
13
14
15
16

11
12
13
14
15
16

11
11
11
11
11
11
11

11
12
13
14
15
16
17

ANGLV ANGLA

50
100
100
100
100
100
100

0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375

-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0

90.
90.
90.
90.
90.
90.
90.

0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.

5
5
5
5
5
5

70.7
141.4
141.4
141.4
141.4
13.7

0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375

-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0

90.
90.
90.
90.
90.
90.

45.
45.
45.
45.
45.
45.

5
5
5
5
5
5
5

50
100
100
100
100
100
100

0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375

-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0
-1.0

90.
90.
90.
90.
90.
90.
90.

90.
90.
90.
90.
90.
90.
90.

The following example illustrates the use of the range of layers option.
Example 10:
FPERF
WELL
1
2

3-68

L
1
4

-6
-5

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

3
X
X
4
5
6
00

2
3
5
1
3
2

NZ
NZ

The following example illustrates the use of the permeability-thickness


multiplier.
Example 11:
FPERF
WELL
1
X
X

L
2
3
4

KH
*2.
1000.
*0.5

3.2.3 Describe Well Perforations, VIP-DUAL (FPERF)


00

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

The DUAL option allows additional data on the FPERF card. The three
basic formats still apply. In the basic formats, the additional "other
headings" which apply to DUAL may identify data affecting relative
permeability endpoints (SWLF, SWMNF, SWROF, SWMXF, SGLF,
SGMNF, SGROF, SGMXF, ISATF, ISATIF), weighting factors used to
interpolate between rock and vertical equilibrium relative permeability
(FVEWF, FVEGF), a fraction used to allocate the total permeability or
permeability-thickness between the matrix and fracture (FM), and a rate
dependent skin factor for non-Darcy gas flow (WDLF). Each perforation
defined by the user will generate two perforations, one for the matrix and
one for the fracture, depending on the value of FM. (see note)
These data can be used in conjunction with any of the other FPERF data.
Any restrictions are noted within the definitions.
Definitions:
SWLF

Column heading for swlf, the connate water


saturation to be used in denormalizing fracture
water relative permeabilities for this perforation.
Default is the gridblocks value. SWMNF and
SWROF must also be specified.

SWMNF

Column heading for swmnf, the residual water


saturation to be used in denormalizing fracture
water relative permeabilities for this perforation.
Default is the gridblocks value. SWROF must also
be specified.

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

SWROF

Column heading for swrof, the water saturation at


residual oil to water, to be used in denormalizing
fracture water relative permeabilities for this
perforation. Default is the gridblocks value.
SWMNF must also be specified.

SWMXF

Column heading for swmxf, the maximum water


saturation to be used in denormalizing fracture
water relative permeabilities for this perforation.
Default is 1. SWMNF and SWROF must also be
specified.

SGLF

Column heading for sglf, the connate gas saturation


to be used in denormalizing fracture gas relative
permeabilities for this perforation. Default is the
gridblocks value. SGMNF and SGROF must also be
specified.

SGMNF

Column heading for sgmnf, the residual gas


saturation to be used in denormalizing fracture gas
relative permeabilities for this perforation. Default
is the gridblocks value. SGROF must also be
specified.

SGROF

Column heading for sgrof, the gas saturation at


residual oil to gas, to be used in denormalizing
fracture gas relative permeabilities for this
perforation. Default is the gridblocks value.
SGMNF must also be specified.

SGMXF

Column heading for sgmxf, the maximum gas


saturation to be used in denormalizing gas relative
permeabilities for this perforation. Default is 1-swlf.
SGMNF and SGROF must also be specified.

ISATF

Column heading for isatf, the saturation table to be


used in calculating fracture relative permeabilities.
Default is the gridblocks rock type.

ISATIF

Column heading for isatif, the imbibition saturation


table to be used in calculating fracture relative
permeabilities. Default is the gridblocks rock type.

FVEWF

Column heading for fvewf, the weighting factor


used to interpolate between rock and vertical
equilibrium relative permeabilities in the fracture
network for water-oil systems. A value of 1.0 is full
vertical equilibrium. Default is the gridblocks
value.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

FVEGF

Column heading for fvegf, the weighting factor


used to interpolate between rock and vertical
equilibrium relative permeabilities in the fracture
network for gas-oil systems. A value of 1.0 is full
vertical equilibrium. Default is the gridblocks
value.

FM

Column heading for fm, the fraction of the total k or


kh contributed by the matrix. This data is entered
only in conjunction with the dual-porosity option.
Default value is calculated as the ratio KX/
(KX+KXF), where KX is the matrix x direction
permeability and KXF is the fracture x direction
permeability for the block being perforated.

WDLF

Column heading for wdlf, the rate dependent skin


factor for non-Darcy gas flow in the fracture
network.

NOTE:

00

00

00

Well Data

Single permeability option will remove perforations from the


matrix, and only perforate the fractures.

Example 1:
FPERF
WELL
17
X

L
4
5

H
12
7

K
1750
1200

FM
.02
0

In this example the perforated intervals are defined for Well 17. It is
completed in layers 4 and 5 of a fractured reservoir (FM option is used).
The lengths of the perforated intervals are 12 and 7 feet, respectively, and
the average permeabilities of the intervals are 1750 and 1200 md,
respectively. In Layer 4, 98% of the production comes from the fracture
system and 2% comes from the matrix. In Layer 5, all of the production
comes from the fracture system. (Only three perforations would be
generated from this data.)

3.2.4 Set Status of Well Perforations (PRFSTAT)


00

The PRFSTAT card is used to set the status of (previously defined)


perforations of wells. The user may define subsets of perforations or all
the perforations in a well.
PRFSTAT
WELL STAT
(L IW JW GRID UNIT)
Perforation data cards

R2003.4 - Landmark

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00

Definitions:

NOTE:

WELL

Column heading for nw, the well number or well


name. The well number or name must be entered
for each data card and must be the first parameter.
For multiple completions in a single well, the alpha
label X can be substituted for the well number or
well name on each data card after the first.

STAT

Column heading for stat, the perforation status


indicator. Value is ON or OFF. This parameter must
be entered.

Column heading for l, the layer number to which


this status change is restricted. A single number or
range of values may be entered. The format for the
range of values is i1 -i2, where i1i2, or i1 NZ. The
last format results in perforations in all layers
between layer i1, and the last layer in the
appropriate grid, inclusive.

IW

Column heading for iw, the x(r) direction gridblock


index to which this status change is restricted.

JW

Column heading for jw, the y( ) direction


gridblock index to which this status change is
restricted.

GRID

Column heading for the grid name to which this


status change is restricted.

UNIT

Column heading for unit, the perforation unit


number to which this status change is restricted.

The WELL parameter must be first. The remaining parameters may


be in any order. The parameter STAT is required.
For all parameters except WELL and STAT, the character * may be
entered to denote that the status change should not be restricted by
this parameter.
For parameters L, IW, and JW, if a grid name is not entered under
the parameter GRID, the data will be presumed to apply to the
grid of the first perforation of the well. If a grid name is entered, the
data will apply to that grid.

3-72

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Well Data

3.2.5 Well Perforation Tolerances (PERFPT)


PERFPT khmin (rkhmin pvmin rpvmin)

Definitions:

khmin

Minimum KH value in well perforations, md-ft (mdm). The perforation status is set to OFF if the KH
value in the perforation is less than khmin. Default is
0.

rkhmin

Minimum relative KH value in well perforations,


fraction. The status of a perforation in a well is set to
OFF if the ratio of the KH value in this perforation to
the maximum KH value in well active perforations is
less than rkhmin. Default is 0.

pvmin

Minimum pore volume in gridblocks with well


perforations, ft**3 (m**3). The perforation status is
set to OFF if the pore volume of the perforation
gridblock is less than pvmin. Default is 0.

rpvmin

Minimum relative pore volume value in gridblocks


with well perforations, fraction. The status of a
perforation in a well is set to OFF if the ratio of the
gridblock pore volume in this perforation to the
maximum grid block pore volume in well active
perforations is less than rpvmin. Default is 0.

Example:
PERFPT 20 0.01 0 0.001

R2003.4 - Landmark

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3.2.6 Inclined and Horizontal Well Flow Correlation (BEGGS)


00

The BEGGS card is used to specify the correlation to be used for inclined
producers.

ON

BEGGS

surf

OFF

00

Definitions:
ON

The Beggs and Brill correlation will be used for


inclined producers. Haalands correlation will be
used for inclined injectors.

OFF

Haalands single phase equation will be used for


producers. This is the default.

surf

Liquid surface tension, dynes/cm.

NOTE:

00

If the BEGGS keyword is not input, Haalands correlation will be


used for all wells.

Example:
BEGGS

00

ON

0.121

3.2.7 Wellbore Friction Pressure Loss (NOFRICTION)


NOFRICTION

00

Definition:
NOFRICTION

NOTE:

3-74

Alpha label indicating that the friction kinematic


pressure loss will be neglected from the horizontal
well pressure loss computation.

This option is applicable only to the Horizontal and Inclined well


option. When the keyword NOFRICTION is absent, the horizontal
and inclined well option computes frictional pressures losses
(kinematic and hydrostatic). Note that the hydrostatic pressure loss
is always computed.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

3.3 Surface Separation Data


00

00

This section does not apply to the VIP-THERM Dead Oil Model.
The surface separation data includes the definition of the set of pressure
and temperature conditions through which a produced fluid will be
passed. Also defined are the destinations of the product from each stage of
the separation process.

3.3.1 Compositional Separator Battery, VIP-COMP or VIP-THERM


(SEPARATOR)
00

Each separator battery may contain an arbitrary number of stages. Each


stage contains one feed stream and two output streams: vapor and liquid.
Each of the two output streams can itself be split into two streams, each of
which may be fed to (1) any downstream separator stage, (2) the gas sales
line or (3) the oil sales line.
SEPARATOR ibat
(PVTTABLE
ipvt)
(1)
STAGE TEMP
PRES
VFRAC VDEST
LFRAC
LDEST
(2)
n
tn
pn
vfn1
vdn1
lfn1
ldn1
(3)
X
X
X
vfn2
vdn2
lfn2
ldn2
(Type 2 and 3 Data Cards are repeated as necessary to define all
the stages of separation.)

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Definitions:
ibat

List of separator battery numbers.

ipvt

EOS table number used for separator calculations


(VIP-COMP only). If the particular EOS table has
EOSSEP data, the EOSSEP parameters will be used
for the calculations. If the PVTTABLE number is not
input, EOS table 1 will be assumed.

Separator stage number. Values range from 1 to the


total number of stages.

tn

Operating temperature of separator stage n, F (C).

pn

Operating pressure of separator stage n, psia (kPa).

vfn1

Fraction of the vapor stream leaving separator stage


n to be sent to the destination indicated by vdn1.
Values must lie in the range 0-1. If vfn1 is less than
1.0, then one type 2 data card must be provided for
this stage so that vfn1 and vfn2 sum to 1.0.

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Well Data

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

vdn1

Destination of the first vapor stream leaving stage


n. Alternatives include a downstream separator
stage, the gas sales line, and vent.

vd n1

m
( m is a stage number )

= GAS ( alpha label )

VENT ( alpha label )

lfn1

Fraction of the liquid stream leaving separator stage


n to be sent to the destination indicated by ldn1.
Values must lie in the range 0-1. If lfn1 is less than
1.0, then one type 2 data card must be provided for
this stage so that lfn1 and lfn2 sum to 1.0.

ldn1

Destination of the first liquid stream leaving stage


n. Alternatives include a downstream separator
stage and the oil sales line.
m
ld n1 =
OIL

3-76

( alpha label )

Alpha label that must be entered in the first three


locations on the type 2 data card.

vfn2

Fraction of the vapor stream leaving separator stage


n to be sent to the destination indicated by vdn2.
The values of vfn1 and vfn2 must sum to exactly 1.0.

vdn2

Destination of the second vapor stream leaving


stage n. Alternatives include a downstream
separator stage and the gas sales line.

lfn2

Fraction of the liquid stream leaving separator stage


n to be sent to the destination indicated by ldn2. The
values of lfn1 and lfn2 must sum to exactly 1.0.

ldn2

Destination of the second liquid stream leaving


stage n. Alternatives include a downstream
separator stage and the oil sales line.

NOTE:

00

( m is a stage number )

1. Stock tank conditions should be entered as the last stage of


separation in order to obtain the stock tank liquid volume.
2.

The user may optionally enter surface separator equation of


state parameters. Because a and b parameters, binary
coefficients, and volume shift factors at reservoir conditions are
sometimes not adequate for describing fluid behavior during
surface separations, an option to change these parameters is
provided. If entered, these data must immediately follow the

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

data for the last stage of the separator battery to which they
apply. The user may override the data for any or all stages for a
battery.
00

3.

Surface separator equation-of-state parameters cannot be


entered without entering all of the separator data, and default
values are calculated from reservoir values considering
temperature dependency (see Coats, SPE 10512).

00

4.

The default separator is single stage at standard temperature


and pressure. A vapor fraction of 1.0 is assigned the destination
GAS (gas sales line) and a liquid fraction of 1.0 is assigned the
destination OIL (oil sales line).

00

5.

Both the default and the input separators can be accessed for
surface volume calculations by means of the REGSEP card.

OMEGAS
ai
OMEGBS
bi
(DJKSEP

ENDSEP
(VSHFTS
vshftsi

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

istg
. . .
istg
. . .
cmpj
cmpk
. .
. .)

anc
bnc
istg
djk

istg
...

vshftsnc)

Definitions:
OMEGAS

Alpha label indicating that surface separator a


values will be entered.

OMEGBS

Alpha label indicating that surface separator b


values will be entered.

istg

Separator stage in the current battery to which the


equation-of-state parameters apply.

ai

Values of a for each hydrocarbon component.

bi

Values of b for each hydrocarbon component.

DJKSEP

Alpha label indicating that optional surface


separator binary interaction coefficients will be
entered.

cmpj

Component name of the first component in a binary


mixture.

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00

00

cmpk

Component name of the second component in a


binary mixture.

djk

The binary interaction coefficient for mixtures of


component j and component k.

VSHFTS

Alpha label indicating that optional surface


separator volume shift factors will be entered.

vshftsi

Surface separator volume shift factor for


component i at stage istg.

Example:
C=======================================
C COMPOSITIONAL SEPARATOR BATTERY
C=======================================

00

STAGE
1
2
3
4
5

SEPARATOR 1
TEMP
PRES
100.0
665.0
132.0
100.0
126.0
40.0
149.0
15.0
60.0
14.7

VFRAC
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

VDEST
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS
GAS

LFRAC
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

LDEST
2
3
4
5
OIL

3.3.2 Black-Oil Separator Battery, VIP-ENCORE (SEPARATOR)


00

00

00

00

3-78

The default separator is described in Section 4.7.1 of the VIP-CORE


Reference Manual.
Separator data may be entered in VIP-CORE and/or the simulation
modules. Separator batteries in addition to those defined in VIP-CORE
may be input, and those defined in VIP-CORE may be redefined. This last
statement is not true when the PVT interpolation option is in use;
separator data may not be input in the simulation modules.
When "black oil" type problems are run in VIP-ENCORE, the PVT data is
converted into a multicomponent format, including the use of K-values
and z-factors to calculate the phase behavior and volumetric behavior of
both oil and gas. This treatment makes it possible for separator conditions
to be exactly modeled, while using differential expansion data to describe
fluid behavior in the reservoir. This eliminates the conflict between
differential and flash volumetrics that creates difficulty for conventional
black-oil simulators.
Some of the options for separator data input given in Section 4.7.1 in the
reference manual for VIP-CORE are not yet available in the simulation
modules. If data for one of these options is available, the option should be
used in VIP-CORE.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

00

Well Data

Separator input data include the following:


1. Definition of the separator configuration. This includes the number of
stages, the destinations of the two outflow streams leaving each stage,
and the fraction of each outflow stream that flows to each destination.
2. The density of the oil product (stock tank oil) leaving the last separator
stage.
3. The molecular weight of the stock tank oil. Since the separator data
should correspond to a fluid described in one of the PVT tables, a
liquid molecular weight should not be input. Molecular weight can
and will be calculated from the input K-values and the differential
liberation data.
4. The equilibrium K-values for each component in the system for each
stage of separation. The use of K-values derived from the last step in
the differential liberation experiment can lead to large errors in surface
volume calculations (for reasons discussed below). This option should
only be used when accurate separator K-values and liquid density are
known.

00

One must take great care to insure that the input K-values are consistent
with the internally defined component molecular weights, which are
printed out in the Default Separator Properties Table in VIP-CORE.
SEPARATOR
ibat
STAGE
VFRAC
VDEST
LFRAC LDEST
(label card)
n
vfn1
vdn1
lfn1
ldn1
(type 1 data card)
X
vfn2
vdn2
lfn2
ldn2
(type 2 data card)
(Type 1 and 2 data cards are repeated as necessary to
define all of the stages of separation.)
DLIQ
MWL
(label card)
dliq
mwl
(type 3 data card)
KVALUES
(label card)
COMP
STAGE 1
(STAGE 2. . .STAGE n)
(label card)
comp
kval1
(kval2 . . . kvaln)
(type 4 data card)
(Enter one of these cards for each component in the fluid system.)

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Definitions:
ibat

List of separator battery numbers.

Separator stage number. Values range from 1 to the


total number of stages.

vfn1

Fraction of the vapor stream leaving separator stage


n to be sent to the destination indicated by vdn1.
Values must lie in the range 0-1. If vfn1 is less than
1.0, then one type 2 data card must be provided for
this stage so that vfn1 and vfn2 sum to 1.0.

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

vdn1

vd n1

00

m
( m is a stage number )

= GAS ( alpha label )

VENT ( alpha label )

lfn1

Fraction of the liquid stream leaving separator stage


n will be sent to the destination indicated by ldn1.
Values must lie in the range 0-1. If lfn1 is less than
1.0, then one type 2 data card must be provided for
this stage, so that lfn1 and lfn2 sum to 1.0.

ldn1

Destination of the first liquid stream leaving stage


n. Alternatives include a downstream separator
stage and the oil sales line.
m
ld n1 =
OIL

00

3-80

Destination of the first vapor stream leaving stage


n. Alternatives include a downstream separator
stage, the gas sales line, and vent.

( m is a stage number )
( alpha label )

Alpha label that must be entered in the first location


on the type 2 data card.

vfn2

Fraction of the vapor stream leaving separator stage


n to be sent to the destination indicated by vdn2.
The values of vfn1 and vfn2 must sum to exactly 1.0.

vdn2

Destination of the second vapor stream leaving


stage n. Alternatives include a downstream
separator stage and the gas sales line.

lfn2

Fraction of the liquid stream leaving separator stage


n to be sent to the destination indicated by ldn2. The
values of lfn1 and lfn2 must sum to exactly 1.0.

ldn2

Destination of the second liquid stream leaving


stage n. Alternatives include a downstream
separator stage and the oil sales line.

dliq

Density of the oil product (stock tank oil) leaving


the last separator stage, gm/cc (gm/cc).

mwl

Molecular weight of the stock tank oil.

comp

Component name (or number).

kvali

Equilibrium K-value for this component for stage i.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

3.3.3 K-Value Separation Data, VIP-ENCORE (SEPARATOR)


SEPARATOR
ibat
STAGE
VFRAC
VDEST
LFRAC LDEST
(label card)
n
vfn1
vdn1
lfn1
ldn1
(type 1 data card)
X
vfn2
vdn2
lfn2
ldn2
(type 2 data card)
(Type 1 and 2 data cards are repeated as necessary to
define all of the stages of separation.)
DLIQ
MWL
(label card)
dliq
mwl
(type 3 data card)
KVALUES
(label card)
COMP
STAGE 1
(STAGE 2. . .STAGE n)
(label card)
comp
kval1
(kval2 . . . kvaln)
(type 4 data card)
(Enter one of these cards for each component in the fluid system.)

00

Definitions:
ibat

List of separator battery numbers.

Separator stage number. Values range from 1 to the


total number of stages.

vfn1

Fraction of the vapor stream leaving separator stage


n to be sent to the destination indicated by vdn1.
Values must lie in the range 0-1. If vfn1 is less than
1.0, then one type 2 data card must be provided for
this stage so that vfn1 and vfn2 sum to 1.0.

vdn1

Destination of the first vapor stream leaving stage


n. Alternatives include a downstream separator
stage, the gas sales line, and vent.

vd n1

m
( m is a stage number )

= GAS ( alpha label )

VENT ( alpha label )

lfn1

Fraction of the liquid stream leaving separator stage


n to be sent to the destination indicated by ldn1.
Values must lie in the range 0-1. If lfn1 is less than
1.0, then one type 2 data card must be provided for
this stage so that lfn1 and lfn2 sum to 1.0.

ldn1

Destination of the first liquid stream leaving stage


n. Alternatives include a downstream separator
stage and the oil sales line.
m
ld n1 =
OIL

R2003.4 - Landmark

( m is a stage number )
( alpha label )

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Alpha label that must be entered in the first


location on the type 2 data card.

vfn2

Fraction of the vapor stream leaving separator stage


n to be sent to the destination indicated by vdn2.
The values of vfn1 and vfn2 must sum to exactly 1.0.

vdn2

Destination of the second vapor stream leaving


stage n. Alternatives include a downstream
separator stage and the gas sales line.

lfn2

Fraction of the liquid stream leaving separator stage


n to be sent to the destination indicated by ldn2. The
values of lfnl and lfn2 must sum to exactly 1.0.

ldn2

Destination of the second liquid stream leaving


stage n. Alternatives include a downstream
separator stage and the oil sales line.

dliq

Density of the oil product (stock tank oil) leaving


the last separator stage, gm/cc (gm/cc).

mwl

Molecular weight of the stock tank oil.

comp

Component number.

kvali

Equilibrium K-value for this component for stage i.

NOTE:

Each separator battery may contain any number of stages. Each


stage contains one feed stream and two output streams: vapor and
liquid. Each of the two output streams can itself be split into two
streams, each of which may be fed to; any downstream separator
stage, the gas sales line (GAS) or the oil sales line (OIL).
Separator data may be entered in VIP-CORE and/or the simulation
modules. Separator batteries in addition to those defined in VIPCORE may be input, and those defined in VIP-CORE may be
redefined. This last statement is not true when the PVT
interpolation option is in use; separator data may not be input in
the simulation modules.
The equilibrium K-values for each component in the system for
each stage of separation. The use of K-values derived from the last
step in the differential liberation experiment can lead to large errors
in surface volume calculations (for reasons discussed below). This
option should only be used when accurate separator K-values and
liquid density are known. When using this option, one must take
great care to insure that the input K-values are consistent with the
internally defined component molecular weights, which are
printed out in the default separator properties table.
DEFAULT SEPARATOR

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Well Data

The default separator is single stage at standard temperature and


pressure. A vapor fraction of 1.0 is assigned the destination GAS
(gas sales line) and a liquid fraction of 1.0 is assigned the
destination OIL (oil sales line).
Both the default and the input separators can be accessed for
surface volume calculations by means of the REGSEP Card.
Default separator K-values are derived in one of two ways
depending on whether or not saturated oil mole fractions at the
initial saturation pressure are input in the K-value PVT tabular
data. If these mole fractions are not input, default K-values are
equal to those in the last entry of the KVTAB table (at standard
pressure). This may cause large errors in surface volumes if the
default separator is used for separation, since these K-values
correspond to the last step in the laboratory differential liberation
experiment in which a relatively large fraction of the heavy
components is vaporized. If saturated oil mole fractions at the
initial saturation pressure are input, this fluid is flashed stepwise
through the KVTAB data (corresponding to the differential
liberation test) to standard pressure using the input K-values in the
table. Default separator K-values are then calculated based on the
composition of the total gas liberated between the initial saturation
pressure and standard pressure, and the composition of the oil at
standard pressure.
The default separator oil z-factor is determined by one of several
methods which depends on whether or not residual oil z-factor,
density, or API gravity is input in the K-value PVT tabular data. If
none of these residual oil properties is input, the default separator
oil z-factor is given by the oil z-factor in the last entry of the table
(at standard pressure) corrected for temperature. Since this neglects
oil density variation between reservoir and standard temperature,
error in oil surface volume will result. If a residual oil z-factor is
input, this is the default separator value. If residual oil density or
API gravity is input, in which case oil composition at the initial
saturation pressure must also be input, the residual oil composition
obtained for the stepwise flash to derive default separator K-values
(as described above) is used to calculate a residual oil molecular
weight. The default separator oil z-factor is then calculated from
this molecular weight and the input residual oil density or API
gravity.

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Examples:
C=============================================
C BLACK-OIL AND K-VALUE SINGLE STAGE SEPARATOR
C =============================================
SEPARATOR 1
STAGE
VFRAC VDEST LFRAC
LDEST
1
1.
GAS
1.
OIL

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DLIQ MWL
0.8966 200
C
KVALUES
COMP
STAGE
00

1
2

89.4
0.0056

3.3.4 Gas Plant Data Input (GASPLANT) (Not available in VIP-THERM)


GASPLANT
NKEY
ikey
ibat
KEYCMP
vkcmp1
vkcmp2 ... vkcmpj ... vkcmpNI
(enter number of KEY component plus composition values for
interpolation. j=1 to number of interpolation points, NI)
PLNTRY
pr1,1 pr1,2 ...
pr1,j ...
pr1,NI
pr2,1 pr2,2 ...
pr2,j ...
pr2,NI
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
pri,1 pri,2 ...
pri,j ...
pri,NI
.
.
.
prNC,1 prNC,2 ...
prNC,j ...
prNC,NI
(enter the plant liquid molar recovery fractions for each
interpolation point, j=1 to number of interpolation values, NI and
repeat for all components, i=1 to the number of components, NC)

00

3-84

Definitions:
NKEY

Alpha label indicating that the key component plus


fraction number and battery are to be read. The
cards KEYCMP and PLNTRY defined below should
follow the NKEY card, as all values correspond to
ibat, the battery defined on this card.

ikey

The number of the key component plus fraction to


be used in the liquid recovery fraction table look up.
The sum of the well stream over all mole fraction
from the key component plus all the following
components are used in the table look up of
component liquid recovery values.

ibat

The battery number of the Gas Plant.

KEYCMP

Alpha label indicating the key component plus over


all mole fractions are to be entered. These are the
sum of key component plus mole fractions that are
to be used in the liquid recovery fraction table look

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

up. The key component plus fraction is used for


ibat, the battery defined on the NKEY card.
vkcmp

The value of the sum of key component plus


fraction to be used as an interpolation value. There
are NI number of interpolation point values to be
read. They should be on one card and should cover
the range of sums that are to be expected in the run.
The range of values on this card should be between
0. and 1. NI is determined by the number of values
read on the card.

PLNTRY

Alpha label indicating that the separate liquid


recovery fractions will be entered. The liquid
recovery fraction is the molar fraction of the
component that will be separated to the liquid
stream. The plant recovery values are for ibat, the
battery that was defined on the NKEY card.

pr

The fraction of the component that will be


separated to the liquid stream in the Gas Plant. The
liquid recovery fractions are entered for each
component as a function of the key component plus
mole fraction and one value must be entered for NI
points and for each component. The data must be
ordered so that the liquid recovery fractions should
be entered for component 1 for all values of key
component plus fraction interpolation points (NI).
The next card is for component 2 recovery fractions
at NI points. This continues until all component
values have been read. In all there should be (NI *
NC) values read. The values must be between 0.
and 1.

NOTE:

Input to a gas plant is the total well stream, while output is


determined by the molar liquid recovery fractions. There are no
surface flash calculations as are carried out with a normal surface
separator.
A gasplant can be entered in VIP-CORE and/or the simulation
modules. Surface batteries in addition to those defined in VIPCORE may be input, and those defined in VIP-CORE can be
redefined in the simulation modules.
The user may optionally enter the surface separator equation-ofstate parameters. These parameters will be used for the stock tank
density calculations to obtain the surface rates. The new equationof-state parameters must follow the last stage of the battery to
which they apply. The values of the separator equation-of-state
parameters will default to the reservoir values if not given.

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00

Examples:
C=========================================
C GAS PLANT SURFACE SEPARATOR
C =========================================
GASPLANT
NKEY 6 1
KEYCMP
C DEFINE KEY COMPONENT PLUS FRACTIONS (NC = 6 TO 8)
C NUMBER OF INTERPOLATION POINTS (NI= 11)
.9999 .108 .104 .098 .075 .065 .047 .028 .018 .010 .000
PLNTRY
C DEFINE COMPONENT LIQUID RECOVERIES (NI = 11, NC =8)
.0240 .0240 .0240 .0220 .0170 .0140 .0100 .0050 .0030 .0020 .0020
.0070 .0070 .0070 .0060 .0050 .0040 .0030 .0010 .0010 .0000 .0000
.0610 .0610 .0590 .0560 .0430 .0370 .0270 .0140 .0090 .0060 .0060
.1790 .1790 .1750 .1690 .1370 .1220 .0920 .0550 .0400 .0290 .0290
.4680 .4680 .4640 .4530 .4000 .3710 .3050 .2200 .1770 .1480 .1480
.9960 .9960 .9960 .9960 .9940 .9930 .9890 .9790 .9690 .9590 .9590
1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

00

3.3.5 Separator Switching (NEWSEP)


00

The NEWSEP card allows the user to assign separator batteries to a well as
a function of either the flowing bottomhole pressure of the well or the
tubinghead pressure of the well.
BHP
THP

NEWSEP
l1
h1
p1

00

3-86

l2
h2
p2

. . .
. . .
. . .

wl
ln
hn
pn

Definitions:
BHP

Alpha label indicating that the assigning of


separator batteries is based on the flowing
bottomhole pressure of the well. This is the default.

THP

Alpha label indicating that the assigning of


separator batteries is based on the tubinghead
pressure of the well.

wl

List of well numbers for which l, h, and p values are


being entered (see Section 1.5.2).

Separator battery number for low pressure.

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Well Data

Separator battery number for high pressure.

Bottomhole/tubinghead pressure, psia (kPa).

NOTE:

1.

If flowing bottomhole pressure/tubinghead pressure is less


than pi for welli, separator battery li will be used. If flowing
bottomhole pressure/tubinghead pressure is greater than or
equal to pi, separator battery hi will be used.

2.

If it is desired to use one of the default separators defined by


VIP-CORE, then l or h should be set to -npvt, where npvt is a
PVT table number (VIP-ENCORE) or 1 (VIP-COMP).

3.

The THP option on the NEWSEP card may not be used for a
well unless a tubinghead pressure constraint (THP card) is
specified for that well.

3.3.6 Surface Facility Model Input (TSFM)


00

gas
gas rate
gas
plant

gas

separator
battery

gas
oil
oil
stabilizer

H/C/well stream
oil
oil rate
00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

stock
tank

Hydrocarbon component recovery factors are specified for the oil


stabilizer and gas plant units (moles of component i recovered as oil/mole
component i in feed). The component molar rates from the gas plant are
converted to surface volumetric rates using specified component molar
densities (LB mole/ft3).
The well gas rate is defined at the gas inlet to the gas plant. The default
well oil rate is at the oil outlet of the oil stabilizer. However, if the keyword
ADDNGL is specified on the TSFM card, the well oil rate is redefined as
the sum of the oil from the oil stabilizer plus the natural gas liquids (oil)

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from the gas plant. All well and group constraints apply at these points,
unless the keyword DRYTRG is specified on the TSFM card. If so, the gas
group constraints apply to the gas leaving the gas plant (after liquids have
been stripped).
00

00

00

Gas reinjection options apply to gas produced from the gas plant.
Stream rates, cumulatives, and compositions are reported in the TSFM
Surface Facility Model Report. Output is controlled by the PRINT WELLS
card.
Information on streams leaving the separator battery or on separator stage
streams is obtained from the SEPARATOR report.
TSFM (ADDNGL)(DRYTRG)
rfs1
rfs2
...
rfsnc
rfp1
rfp2
...
rfpnc
denp1 denp2 ...
denpnc

00

3-88

Definitions:
TSFM

Alpha label which turns on the Surface Facility


Model.

ADDNGL

Alpha label which redefines the well oil rate as the


sum of the oil from the oil stabilizer plus the natural
gas liquids (oil) from the gas plant. The default
well oil rate is only the oil from the oil stabilizer.
This will affect all well group constraints with
respect to oil rate.

DRYTRG

Alpha label indicating that gas targets apply to gas


leaving the gas plant (after liquids have been
stripped). The default is for the gas targets to apply
to gas entering the gas plant (before liquids have
been stripped).

rfsi

Hydrocarbon component recovery factors for the oil


stabilizer, moles of i produced as oil/mole of i in
feed.

rfpi

Hydrocarbon component recovery factors for the


gas plant, moles of i produced as oil/mole of i in
feed.

denpi

Hydrocarbon component molar densities used to


convert gas plant oil product stream rate to surface
volumetric rate, LB moles/ft3.

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

NOTE:

Usage of the TSFM option will change the oil in place calculations
for the REGION summary report, based on the possibility that the
separators defined do not yield proper stock tank volumes without
the inclusion of the oil stabilizer. (i.e., the separators defined are
only the high pressure or low pressure separators, and by
themselves do not yield correct stock tank volumes.)

3.4 Well Type


00

00

00

Each well must be identified as either a production well or an injection


well. The PROD, INJ, and WAG cards are used for this purpose. These
cards also allow the user to identify the primary fluid being produced/
injected at a rate specified on either the QMAX card or the QMULT card.
For producers, other fluids may be produced in conjunction with the
primary fluid based upon mobility.
If a minimum rate constraint is imposed on a well by means of a QMIN
card, the fluid phase used in determining that constraint is defined by the
ECOLIM card.
In VIP-EXECUTIVE, the fluid production (injection) of a well may be
constrained at five levels: the individual well level, the gathering center
level, the flow station level, the area level, and the field level. Multiple
constraints may be imposed at each level. For example, at the well level,
oil production may be limited by minimum and maximum rates, water
cut, GOR, and bottomhole pressure. All of these constraints may be
imposed simultaneously. At the gathering center level, production targets
can be allocated back to individual wells. At the highest level, field-wide
targets can be imposed. The well constraint hierarchy is described in detail
in Section 3.4, 3.5, and 3.6.

3.4.1 Production Well Definition (PROD)


00

00

A PROD card must precede a QMAX or QMULT card for producers.


A PROD card is required for production wells to define the production
phase and units being used for data on the QMAX (maximum well rate)
card or the QMULT (multiple rate) card.

PROD

W
O
G

STD

RES
MOLES

wl

ALL
LIQUID
MULTRT

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Well Data

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00

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the type of maximum production rate specified
on the QMAX card or the QMULT card. Valid labels for fluid
production rate are:
W

Water.

Oil.

Gas.

ALL

All fluid components combined.

LIQUID

Total liquid (oil plus water).

MULTRT

Alpha label indicating the rate defined by the


QMULT card is specified separately for each fluid
phase. Rates are specified in STB/D (STCM/D) for
water and oil, and MSCF/D (SCM/D) for gas. The
separate rates are converted internally to reservoir
barrel equivalents and summed to obtain a total
reservoir barrel rate for all fluid phases combined.
This conversion occurs at the start of each timestep.
Rates for this type of well must be specified with a
QMULT card.

Alpha label indicating units type:

NOTE:

3-90

STD

Standard conditions. STB/D (STCM/D) for water,


oil, or liquid. MSCF/D (SCM/D) for gas. Not
permitted for ALL.

RES

Reservoir conditions, rb/D (cm/D).

MOLES

Lb-moles/D (lb-moles/D). Only permitted for ALL.

wl

List of all production wells with rates specified in


this manner (see Section 1.5.2).
1.

One and only one of the labels W, O, G, ALL, LIQUID or


MULTRT must be specified. There is no default. Timestep
convergence may be slowed by use of the ALL or MULTRT
options.

2.

If no units type is specified, the default is STD except for ALL.


The default for ALL is RES.

3.

When an injection well is converted to a production well, and if


the injectors bhp value is the default value 10,000 psia, then
the bhp value will be changed to 0 psia. Otherwise, previously
input BHP or THP data will be maintained.

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00

4.

Specifying a PROD card for a shut-in well will cause the well to
be "turned back on".

5.

The QMULT card may be used to input rates for the well types,
W, O, G, or LIQUID. The appropriate rate(s) are taken from
QMULT data, ignoring the remaining rates. For example, for a
LIQUID producer the oil and water rates will be summed to get
the maximum well rate. The gas rate will not be used.

Example:
C
PROD
C

00

00

Well Data

ALL 1

-364

390

-428

438

-507

514

-538

or
C***************************************************
C DEFINE WELL CHARACTERISTICS
C***************************************************
PROD LIQUID STD 2 -14 18 22 24 -37 41

00

3.4.2 Injection Well Definition (INJ)


00

00

An INJ card must precede a QMAX card for injectors.


An INJ card is required for injection wells to define the injected phase and
units being used for data on the QMAX (maximum well rate) card.

INJ

00

W
G

RES
FSTD
FRES
STD

GATHER

FLOSTA

AREA

KEYCMP
MI

wl

FIELD

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the maximum injection rate specified on the
QMAX card is based on:
W

Water (Water and steam in VIP-THERM).

Gas.

Alpha label indicating units type:

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STD

Standard conditions, STB/D (STCM/D) for water


injectors, MSCF/D (SCM/D) for gas injectors. This
is the default.

RES

Reservoir conditions, rb/D (cm/D).

FSTD

A fraction of the total surface production rate of the


injected phase within a specified level of the well
management hierarchy (see below). Note that some
options (for example, the UNIFORM gas injection
option ) change the definition of FSTD.

FRES

A fraction of the total fluid withdrawal (at reservoir


conditions) within a specified level of the well
management hierarchy (see below). Note that some
options (for example, the injection region option)
change the definition of FRES.

When FSTD or FRES is specified, the level in the well management


hierarchy upon which replacement is based may be specified. The well
management level may also be specified for MI injectors with STD or
RES specification to identify the level upon which the MI composition
determined from the MI plant in the major gas sales option is to be
used for the injection composition. In this case, YINJ cards for MI
injectors should be omitted and the MI plant calculation for the
selected well management level must be invoked (see PLANT card in
Section 4.4). The well management levels are:
GATHER

Gathering Center. This is the default for FSTD or


FRES specification.

FLOSTA

Flow station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field. This is the default for STD or RES


specification with MI plant in the major gas sales
option.

If a gas conditioning plant in the major gas sales option is present, and
keyword DIST is specified in the GASCOND card, a portion of the
FSTD gas injectors may be assigned to receive the key component
(component icomp in the GASCOND card) removed from the sales
gas stream using the following keyword:
KEYCMP

3-92

Alpha label indicating that the key component


stream removed from the sales gas in the gas
conditioning plant will be injected into the gas
injectors specified in this INJ card. These gas
injectors must be specified as FSTD injectors and a

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

GASCOND card with keyword DIST must also be


specified.
Alternatively, in the four-component miscible (Todd and Longstaff)
option the wells being specified on this card may be identified as MI
injectors through input of alpha label MI. In this case, the wells must
be specified as FSTD injectors and an MI recovery factor must be
specified using a RECFAC card (see Section 4.4.9).

NOTE:

R2003.4 - Landmark

MI

Alpha label indicating that the wells being defined


are MI injectors in a four-component miscible
model. These injectors must be specified as FSTD
injectors and an MI recovery factor must be
specified using a RECFAC card.

wl

List of all injection wells with rates specified in this


manner (see Section 1.5.2).
1.

Either W or G must be specified. There is no default.

2.

Optionally, exactly one of the labels STD, RES, FSTD, and FRES
may be specified. If none is specified, STD is the default.

3.

Optionally, if either FSTD or FRES is specified, exactly one of


the labels GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, and FIELD may be
specified. If none is specified, GATHER is the default.

4.

Optionally, if either STD or RES is specified and the major gas


sales option (with MI plants) for a well management level is
invoked, the well management level (label GATHER, FLOSTA,
AREA, or FIELD) may be specified to identify the level upon
which the calculated MI composition from the MI plant is to be
used as the injection composition. In this case, the injection
composition (YINJ card) may be omitted (the input of YINJ
card will cause the calculated MI composition to be ignored). If
none is specified, FIELD is the default.

5.

When a production well is converted to an injection well, any


previously input WLIMIT, GLIMIT, or QMIN data will be
ignored, and the ECOLIM unit will be set to the injection phase.
Also, if the producers bhp value is the default value 0 psia,
then the bhp value will be changed to 10,000 psia. Otherwise,
previously input BHP or THP data will be maintained.

6.

Anytime a gas injection well is specified or respecified as either


STD or RES, and the wells are not to be identified as MI wells
(with MI plant in the major gas sales option), the composition
of the injected gas must be defined using the YINJ card.

7.

Optionally, if an FSTD gas well is specified and a GASCOND


card with keyword DIST is also present, keyword KEYCMP
may be specified.

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00

00

8.

Optionally, if FSTD gas wells are specified and the fourcomponent miscible option is invoked, keyword MI may be
specified to identify the MI injectors.

9.

Specifying an INJ card for a shut-in well will cause the well to
be turned back on.

Example:
C
INJ G
YINJ

STD

C
INJ G STD
C
INJ G FSTD

253 -266 324 -326 365 -381


253 -266 324 -326 365 -381
0.9944 0.0056
GATHER 1 -10

FIELD

KEYCMP 11 -20

3.4.2.1 Temperature Specification (VIP-THERM)


A TINJ card must be specified for all injection wells in VIP-THERM.
TINJ
tinj1

wl
tinj2

. . .

tinjn

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which the data is being specified


(see Section 1.5.2).

tinj

Injection temperature, F (C).

3.4.2.2 Steam Quality Specification (VIP-THERM)


QUAL cards must be specified for water/steam injection wells in VIPTHERM.
QUAL
qual1

wl
qual2

. . .

qualn

Definitions:

3-94

wl

List of wells for which the data is being defined (see


Section 1.5.2).

qual

Steam quality, mass fraction vapor.

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3.4.2.3 Pressure Specification (VIP-THERM)


If a quality of 0.0 or 1.0 is specified for a water/steam injector, then a
PINJ card must be specified for the well.
PINJ
pinj1

wl
pinj2

...

pinjn

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which the data are being defined


(see Section 1.5.2).

pinj

Injection pressure, psia (kPa).

3.4.2.4 Treatment of Water/Steam Injectors (VIP-THERM)


The equation describing the mass rate of water/steam injection is:
L

q = 0.001127 WI

[ kh ] [ P
l

bl

P bh ( D l D o ) ]

(3-1)

l=1

where
q

H20 injection rate.

P bh

Datum flowing bottomhole pressure.

WI

Well index.

khl

Permeability thickness product for perforation l.

Mobility for perforation l.

Average density for perforation l.

Pbl

Pressure of gridblock containing perforation l.

Average fluid density over perforated interval of


the well.

Dl

Subsea depth of perforation l.

Do

Datum depth.

The rate of energy injection is given by


E=qH

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where H is the enthalpy of the injected steam/water mixture which is


assumed constant over the perforated interval and with time. H is
calculated from the user specified values of TINJ, QUAL, and PINJ (if
QUAL = 0 or 1).
The average density term l is Equation 3-1 is calculated from phase
densities wl, sl and quality Ql:
wl sl
l = ------------------------------------------- sl + Q l ( wl gl )

(3-2)

The perforation quality Ql is calculated from enthalpy H and pressure Pl.


If Ql is 0 or 1, then the perforation temperature Tl is calculated. Otherwise,
Tl is the water saturation temperature at Pl. Ideally, Pl should be set to
o
P bh ( D l D o ) , which is the pressure in the wellbore opposite
perforation l. However, this poses problems for a fully implicit model,
especially since is a function of l. Hence, we use Pl = Pbl (pressure of
griblock containing perforation l. Phase densities wl and sl are evaluated
at Pl, Tl.
There are three options for treatment of the mobility term in Equation 31. Conventionally, is taken as the total mobility of the gridblock
containing the perforation:
kro krg krw
= -------- + -------- + ---------o
g
w

(3-3)

where the relative permeabilities are evaluated at gridblock conditions


using the perforation relative permeability functions and the viscosities
are gridblock values. There are two disadvantages to this method in
thermal simulation:
1. Extreme nonlinearities are introduced into Equation 3-1, mainly
through temperature dependence of the viscosities. Stable timestep
size will be significantly reduced relative to other methods, especially
near the initiation of injection (at low temperatures).
2. If the gridblock is large relative to the drainage radius of the well, the
mobility should be evaluated at near-wellbore conditions rather than
at average gridblock conditions.
The total mobility method is available as an option. In the endpoint
method (default), it is assumed that the formation in the vicinity of the
wellbore which controls injectivity is quickly reduced to some irreducible
oil saturation which depends on Ql. The effect of the saturation changes
occurring during this period on mobility are neglected. Perforation
mobilities are given by the volumetric average of the water mobility at
residual oil to water and the steam mobility at residual oil to gas:

3-96

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Well Data

1 Q l krwrol Q l krgrol
--------------- ----------------- + ------ --------------- sl sl
wl
wl
l = -----------------------------------------------------------------1 Ql Ql
--------------- + ----- wl
sl

(3-4)

where relative permeabiliites and phase densities and viscosities are


evaluated at Pl, Tl. The third option is that the perforation mobilities may
be (in effect) user-specified as constant values using the KHWI option on
the FPERF card (Section 3.2.2). For injectors, KHWI is defined as:
KHWI l = 0.001127 WI kh l l

(3-5)

The WINJMOB card allows the user to select between the first two
options.

WINJMOB

ENDPOINT
TOTAL

Definitions:
ENDPOINT

Alpha label which activates endpoint mobility,


Equation 3-4 (default).

TOTAL

Alpha label which activates total mobilty option,


Equation 3-3.

Previous to version 1.8R, the endpoint method was used with the
following differences:
1. Ql in Equation 3-2 and 3-4 was set to the user specified value of QUAL.
2. Phase densities and viscosities in Equation 3-2 and 3-4 were evaluated
at the user-specified value of TINJ and the corresponding water
saturation pressure.
Simulation results using this method can be reproduced by specification of
the keyword OLDINJ.
OLDINJ

R2003.4 - Landmark

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3.4.3 Define Additional Injection Rate for FSTD or FRES Wells (INJA)
00

The INJA card is used to specify an additional injection rate for either
FRES or FSTD wells.
INJA

00

qa

wl

Definitions:
qa

Additional injection rate for FSTD or FRES wells.

wl

List of injection wells for which qa are being


specified (see Section 1.5.2)

NOTE:

The unit is determined by the INJ card. If the well specified on the
INJ card is an FRES well, then qa is reservoir rate. If it is an FSTD
well, then qa is surface rate.
The INJA card should be specified after the INJ card.
This option can be used for both the standard reinjection or general
injection option.
If the well is a gas injection well using the standard reinjection
option, the YINJA card can be used to specify the gas composition
for the additional rate.

3.4.4 Computation of Mobility for Gas Injectors (GINJMOB)


00

The GINJMOB card is used to specify the method to use for computing the
mobility for gas injection wells.

GINJMOB

ENDPOINT
TOTAL

00

3-98

Definitions:
ENDPOINT

Alpha label indicating that endpoint mobilities will


be used for gas injectors. This is the default.

TOTAL

Alpha label indicating that total gridblock


mobilities will be used for gas injectors.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

3.4.5 Computation of Mobility for Water Injectors (WINJMOB)


00

The WINJMOB card is used to specify the method to use for computing
the mobility for water injection wells.

ENDPOINT

WINJMOB

TOTAL

00

Definitions:
ENDPOINT

Alpha label indicating that endpoint mobilities will


be used for water injectors. This is the default.

TOTAL

Alpha label indicating that total gridblock


mobilities will be used for water injectors.

3.4.6 Production Rates Outer Iteration Number (ITNSTP)


00

The ITNSTP card allows the user to specify the outer iteration number
after which production rates will not be recomputed for the remainder of
the timestep. The maximum drawdown constraint option (DPBHMX
card) makes use of this iteration number to fix the bottomhole pressure of
a constrained producer for the remainder of the timestep.
ITNSTP

00

itnstp

Definition:
itnstp

Outer iteration number after which production


rates will not be recomputed for the timestep.
Default is 99999, meaning the rates will be
computed every outer iteration.

3.4.7 Water Injection Rates Outer Iteration Number (ITNSTQ)


00

The ITNSTQ card allows the user to specify the outer iteration number
after which water injection rates will not be recomputed for the remainder
of the timestep. The maximum drawdown constraint option (DPBHMX
card) makes use of this iteration number to fix the bottomhole pressure of
a constrained injector for the remainder of the timestep.
ITNSTQ

R2003.4 - Landmark

itnstq

3-99

Well Data

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

00

Definition:
itnstq

Outer iteration number after which water injection


rates will not be recomputed for the timestep.
Default is 99999, meaning the rates will be
computed for every outer iteration.

3.4.8 Gas Reinjection Rates Outer Iteration Number (ITNGRE)


00

The ITNGRE card allows the user to specify the outer iteration number
after which gas reinjection rates will not be recomputed for the remainder
of the timestep.
ITNGRE

00

itngre

Definition:
itngre

NOTE:

Outer iteration number after which gas reinjection


rates will not be recomputed for the timestep.
Default is -1, meaning an internal algorithm is used
to determine the number of iterations.
1.

The gas reinjection rates are used for FSTD gas injectors and in
the general injection region option (RINJOP INJREG).

2.

The default algorithm for computing the value of itngre is


itngre = max(min(itnmax - 3, 3), 1),
where itnmax is the maximum number of outer iterations per
timestep from the ITNLIM card.

3-100

Landmark - R2003.4

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Well Data

3.4.9 Change Well Type Class (WLTYCH)


00

The WLTYCH card is used to immediately change the well type of one
class of wells to another type.
WLTYCH
FROM
TO

*
*

00

where * =PROD

W
O
G
ALL
LIQUID
MULTRT

(STD)
(RES)
(MOLES)

or

INJ

00

W
G

(STD)
(RES)
(FSTD)
(FRES)

(GATHER)
(FLOSTA)
(AREA)
(FIELD)

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the type of maximum production rate specified
on the QMAX card or the QMULT card. Valid labels for fluid
production rate are:
W

Water.

Oil.

Gas.

ALL

All fluid components combined.

LIQUID

Total liquid (oil plus water).

MULTRT

Rate for each fluid phase. See PROD card for more
detailed discussion.

Alpha label indicating units type:

R2003.4 - Landmark

STD

Standard conditions. STB/D (STCM/D) for water,


oil, or liquid. MSCF/D (SCM/D) for gas. Not
permitted for ALL.

RES

Reservoir conditions, rb/D (cm/D).

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MOLES

Lb-moles/D (lb-moles/D). Only permitted for ALL.

Alpha label indicating the maximum injection rate specified on the


QMAX card is based on:
W

Water.

Gas.

Alpha label indicating units type:


STD

Standard conditions, STB/D (STCM/D) for water


injectors, MSCF/D (SCM/D) for gas injectors. This
is the default.

RES

Reservoir conditions, rb/D (cm/D).

FSTD

A fraction of the total surface production rate of the


injected phase within a specified level of the well
management hierarchy (see below).

FRES

A fraction of the total fluid withdrawal (at reservoir


conditions) within a specified level of the well
management hierarchy (see below).

When FSTD or FRES is specified, the level in the well management


hierarchy upon which replacement is based may be specified. These
are:

NOTE:

3-102

GATHER

Gathering Center. This is the default.

FLOSTA

Flow station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

1.

At the exact moment in the program that this card is read, all
wells of the type designated by the FROM data will be
converted to wells of the type designated by the TO data.

2.

It is up to the user to make sure all well data are consistent with
this switch.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

3.5 Well Constraints


00

Each well produces/injects at the maximum rate defined by a QMAX card


or a QMULT card, subject to reduction to honor other applicable
constraints.

3.5.1 Maximum Rate (QMAX)


00

00

Must be preceded by aPROD or INJ card (Section 3.4.1 and 3.4.2).


The QMAX card defines the maximum rate a well is allowed to produce/
inject. A QMAX card, or a QMULT card, is required for the well to flow.
QMAX
qmax1

00

wl
qmax2

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

qmaxn

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which qmax values are being


specified (see Section 1.5.2).

qmax

Maximum rate at which the well is allowed to


produce/inject. Units are determined by the PROD
or INJ card. Default is zero.

NOTE:

00

. . .

1.

The well produces/injects at a rate of qmax unless this causes


a violation of one of the other constraints defined by the user.
In this event, the constraint is observed, which causes a rate
reduction.

2.

The number of qmax values must equal the number of wells in


the well list.

3.

For the FSTD injection option, qmax is the fraction of the total
surface production rate of the injected phase within the
appropriate level. For the FRES injection option, qmax is the
fraction of the total reservoir volume production rate within
the appropriate level. Note that certain options (UNIFORM gas
injection, injection region) change the definitions of FSTD and
FRES.

Example:
C
INJ
QMAX

STD

382

-389

429

-437

508

-513

382 -389 429 -437 508 -513


8*10000 9*0 6*10000

3-103

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

3.5.2 Water Limit - Water Cut, Rate or Liquid-Gas Ratio Constraint


(WLIMIT)
00

00

This card can be used in conjunction with a TEST card (Section 3.5.13).
The WLIMIT card allows the user to define a maximum water cut, water
rate, or liquid-gas ratio for a production well.

WLIMIT
wmax1
(wcut1

00

3-104

PLUG
SHUTIN
(LGR) wl
LIMIT
wmax2 . . .
wmaxn
wcut2 . . . wcutn)

Definitions:
PLUG

Alpha label indicating that the well is automatically


recompleted whenever water cut exceeds wmax.
When the well has just one active perforation, the
check is against wcut instead of wmax.
Recompletion consists of plugging the perforation
with the highest water cut. If there is only one
perforation, the well is permanently shut in. Once a
perforation has been plugged, it never produces/
injects again, unless the well is reperforated by an
FPERF card.

SHUTIN

Alpha label indicating that the well is automatically


shut in whenever water cut exceeds wmax. It
periodically is tested according to data on the TEST
card. If water cut is found to be less than wmax
during a test, the well is returned to production.

LIMIT

Alpha label indicating that the water production


rate is not allowed to exceed wmax, STB/D
(STCM/D). The specified production rate is
reduced, if necessary. The water production limit is
rechecked every timestep.

LGR

Alpha label indicating that the PLUG and SHUTIN


options apply to liquid-gas ratio instead of water
cut. The LIMIT option is unaffected.

wl

List of wells to which these restrictions apply (see


Section 1.5.2).

wmax

Limiting water cut or water production rate, or


liquid-gas ratio, depending on the option selected.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

wcut

Limiting water cut or liquid-gas ratio for wells with


only one active perforation. Available only for the
PLUG option. This entire card may be omitted, in
which case the default is wcuti = wmaxi.

NOTE:

00

1.

One and only one of the PLUG, SHUTIN, or LIMIT labels must
be specified.

2.

The number of wmax and wcut values must equal the number
of wells in the well list. None of these restrictions is applied to
wells not named on a WLIMIT card.

3.

Only the SHUTIN option is affected by the TEST card.

4.

WLIMIT data may not be specified for injection wells.

5.

Liquid-gas ratios are specified in units of STB/MMSCF


(STCM/MSCM).

6.

Specifying a WLIMIT card for a shut-in well will cause the well
to be "turned back on".

Example:
TIME 5
C
WLIMIT SHUTIN
1 -252 267 -323 327 -364 390 -428 252*.99 57*.99 38*.99 39*.99
C

00

3.5.3 Gas Limit - GOR or Rate Constraint (GLIMIT)


00

00

00

This card can be used in conjunction with a TEST card (Section 3.5.13).
The GLIMIT card allows the user to define a maximum gas-oil ratio or gas
rate for a production well.
GOR or Rate Constraint

GLIMIT
gmax1
(gorm1

00

PLUG
SHUTIN
wl
LIMIT
gmax2 . . . gmaxn
gorm2 . . . gormn)

Definitions:
PLUG

R2003.4 - Landmark

Alpha label indicating that the well is automatically


recompleted whenever the producing gas-oil ratio
exceeds gmax, SCF/STB (SCM/STCM). When the

3-105

Well Data

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

well has just one active perforation, the check is


against gorm instead of gmax. Recompletion
consists of plugging the perforation with the
highest gas-oil ratio. If there is only one perforation,
the well is permanently shut-in. Once a perforation
has been plugged, it never produces/injects again
unless the well is reperforated by an FPERF card.
SHUTIN

Alpha label indicating that the well is automatically


shut in whenever the producing gas-oil ratio
exceeds gmax, SCF/STB (SCM/STCM). It is tested
periodically according to data on the TEST card. If
the gas-oil ratio is found to be less than gmax
during a test, the well is returned to production.

LIMIT

Alpha label indicating that the gas production rate


is not allowed to exceed gmax, MSCF/D (SCM/D).
The specified production rate is reduced, if
necessary. The gas production limit is rechecked
every timestep.

wl

List of wells to which these restrictions apply (see


Section 1.5.2).

gmax

Limiting gas-oil ratio or gas production rate,


depending on the option selected.

gorm

Limiting gas-oil ratio for wells with only one active


perforation. Available only for the PLUG option.
This entire card may be omitted, in which case the
default is gormi = gmaxi.

NOTE:

3-106

1.

One and only one of the PLUG, SHUTIN, or LIMIT labels must
be specified.

2.

The number of gmax and gorm values must equal the number
of wells in the well list. None of these restrictions is applied to
wells not named on a GLIMIT card.

3.

Only the SHUTIN option is affected by the TEST card.

4.

GLIMIT data may not be specified for injection wells.

5.

Specifying a GLIMIT card for a shut-in well will cause the well
to be "turned back on".

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

3.5.4 Steam Limit - Steam Rate or Steam-Oil Ratio Constraint (SLIMIT)


(VIP-THERM)
00

00

This card can be used in conjunction with a TEST card (Section 3.5.13).
The SLIMIT card allows the user to define a maximum steam rate or
steam-oil ratio for a production well.

SLIMIT

PLUG
SHUTIN

(SOR)

wl

smax1
smax2 . . .
smaxn
(smaxl1 smaxl2 . . . smaxln)

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Definitions:
PLUG

Alpha label indicating that the well is automatically


recompleted whenever steam rate exceeds smax.
When the well has just one active perforation, the
check is against smaxl instead of smax.
Recompletion consists of plugging the perforation
with the highest steam rate. If there is only one
perforation, the well is permanently shut in. Once a
perforation has been plugged, it never produces/
injects again, unless the well is reperforated by an
FPERF card.

SHUTIN

Alpha label indicating that the well is automatically


shut in whenever the steam rate exceeds smax. It
periodically is tested according to data on the TEST
card. If steam rate is found to be less than smax
during a test, the well is returned to production.

SOR

Alpha label indicating that the PLUG and SHUTIN


options apply to steam-oil ratio instead of steam
rate.

wl

List of wells to which these restrictions apply (see


Section 1.5.2).

smax

Limiting steam production rate, STB(CWE)/D


(STCM(CWE)/D),or steam-oil ratio, STB(CWE)/
STB (STCM(CWE)/STCM), depending on the
option selected.

smaxl

Limiting steam rate or steam-oil ratio for wells with


only one active perforation. Available only for the
PLUG option. This entire card may be omitted, in
which case the default is smaxli = smaxi.

3-107

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

NOTE:

00

1.

One and only one of the PLUG or SMAXL SHUTIN labels must
be specified.

2.

The number of smax and smaxl values must equal the


number of wells in the well list. None of these restrictions is
applied to wells not named on a WLIMIT card.

3.

Only the SHUTIN option is affected by the TEST card.

4.

SLIMIT data may not be specified for injection wells.

5.

Steam-oil ratios are specified in units of STB(CWE)/STB


(STCM [CWE]/STCM). (CWE = cold water equivalent.)

6.

Specifying a SLIMIT card for a shut-in well will cause the well
to be "turned back on".

Example:
TIME 5
C
SLIMIT SHUTIN SOR
1 -252 267 -323 327 -364 390 -428 252*.99 57*.99 38*.99 39*.99
C

00

3.5.5 Ecomonic Limit (ECOLIM)


00

An ECOLIM card is required to define the units being used for data on the
QMIN (minimum well rate) card.
W
O
wl
G
LIQUID

ECOLIM

00

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the minimum production/injection specified on
the QMIN card is based on:

wl

3-108

Water, STB/D (STCM/D).

Oil, STB/D (STCM/D).

Gas, MSCF/D (SCM/D).

LIQUID

Liquid, STB/D (STCM/D).


List of all wells with minimum rates specified in
this manner (see Section 1.5.2).

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

NOTE:

1.

The ECOLIM card is used for both producers and injectors.


One and only one of the W, O, G, or LIQUID labels must be
specified. There is no default.

2.

Specifying an ECOLIM card for a shut-in well will cause the


well to be "turned back on".

3.5.6 Perforation Test Schedule (TSTPRF)


00

The TSTPRF card is used to specify the time interval between perforation
tests. It is used in conjunction with the PRFLIM card.
TSTPRF

00

tstpnc

Definition:
tstpnc

NOTE:

R2003.4 - Landmark

Time interval between tests for violations of water


cut or GOR by perforations, days. Default is 99,999
days.
1.

Perforation tests are scheduled for the time at which the


TSTPRF card is read plus tstpnc days. Until the simulation
reaches that time, the perforation water cuts and GORs are
unrestricted. Timesteps are not adjusted to hit the test time
exactly. Once a set of tests is performed, new tests are
scheduled for a time that is tstpnc days farther into the
simulation. A tstpnc value of zero causes the program to test
during every timestep.

2.

Flashes to surface conditions are required for each perforation


during these tests. This could cause a significant increase in
computer time if frequently performed.

3.

Both the TSTPRF and PRFLIM cards are needed to activate the
option to check each active perforation for violations of water
cut or GOR limits.

4.

The TSTPRF card is also used to activate the recompletion unit


option.

3-109

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

3.5.7 Perforation Water Cut, GOR, and/or SOR Limits (PRFLIM)


00

The PRFLIM card is used to assign water cut, GOR, and/or SOR (steam oil
ratio, VIP-THERM only) limits to be applied to each well perforation.
Perforations will be shut in if they exceed the limits and a TSTPRF card is
active. Note that the last perforation open is subject to the well constraints
(WLIMIT/GLIMIT/SLIMIT) not the layer constraints.
PRFLIM
GOR
WCUT
SOR

00

gorlim2 . . . gorlimn
wctlim2 . . . wctlimn
sorlim2 . . . sorlimn

Definitions:
wl

List of production wells for which limiting water


cut and/or GOR values are being specified (see
Section 1.5.2).

GOR

Alpha label indicating that the values on this card


are the limiting GOR values for each well in the
well list.

gorlim

GOR limit to be applied to each perforation in this


well, SCF/STB (SCM/STCM). Default is -1.0,
meaning the wells perforations will not be checked.

WCUT

Alpha label indicating that the values on this card


are the limiting water cut values for each well in the
well list.

wctlim

Water cut limit to be applied to each perforation in


this well. Default is -1.0, meaning the wells
perforations will not be checked.

SOR

Alpha label indicating that the values on this card


are the limiting steam-oil ratios for each well in the
well list.

sorlim

Steam-oil ratio limit to be applied to each


perforation in this well. Default is -1.0, meaning the
wells perforations will not be checked.

NOTE:

3-110

wl
gorlim1
wctlim1
sorlim1

1.

The number of gorlim/wctlim and/or sorlim values must


each equal the number of wells in the well list.

2.

Any combination of GOR, WCUT, and SOR cards may be


specified.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

3.

Flashes to surface conditions are required for each perforation


during these tests. This could cause a significant increase in
computer time if frequently performed.

4.

Specifying a PRFLIM card for a shut-in well will cause the well
to be "turned back on".

5.

The units of steam-oil ratio are STB(CWE)/STB (STCM(CWE)/


STCM). (CWE = cold water equivalent.)

3.5.8 Minimum Rate (QMIN)


00

00

The QMIN card must be preceded by an ECOLIM card (Section ).


A QMIN card is used to define the minimum rate a well is allowed to
produce/inject. When the rate falls below this qmin value, the well is shut
in. The rate will only be checked to see if qmin is exceeded, thereby
returning the well to production/injection, based on TEST card data.
QMIN
qmin1

00

. . .

qminn

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which qmin values are being


specified (see Section 1.5.2).

qmin

Minimum rate at which the well is allowed to


produce/inject. Units are determined by the
ECOLIM card. Default is zero.

NOTE:

R2003.4 - Landmark

wl
qmin2

1.

The number of qmin values must equal the number of wells in


the well list.

2.

Specifying a QMIN card for a shut-in well will cause the well to
be "turned back on".

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

3.5.9 Multiple Rate (QMULT)


00

00

00

Must be preceded by a PROD card (Section 3.4.1)


A QMULT card is required for a well to flow if the MULTRT option was
specified on the PROD card. The QMULT card defines the maximum
surface rates of all three phases for each well, from which a total reservoir
volume rate will be computed and used as the maximum rate constraint.
A QMULT card may also be used to specify maximum surface rates for
producer well types W, O, G, or LIQUID. The appropriate phase rate(s)
will be used depending on the well type.
QMULT
omax1
gmax1
wmax1

00

...
...
...

omaxn
gmaxn
wmaxn

Definitions:
wl

List of production wells for which maximum rates


are being specified (see Section 1.5.2).

omax

Specified oil rate for the well. Units are STB/D


(STCM/D).

gmax

Specified gas rate for the well. Units are MSCF/D


(SCM/D).

wmax

Specified water rate for the well. Units are STB/D


(STCM/D).

NOTE:

3-112

wl
omax2
gmax2
wmax2

1.

For a MULTRT well, the specified surface rates will be


converted internally to reservoir barrel rates and summed to
obtain a maximum reservoir barrel rate for total fluid at
reservoir conditions. The well will produce at this maximum
rate unless this causes a violation of one of the constraints
(pressure, water cut, or gas-oil ratio constraints, but not rate
constraints) defined by the user. In this event, the constraint is
observed, causing a rate reduction. The conversion to a
reservoir barrel rate is calculated at the start of each timestep.

2.

The number of omax, gmax, and wmax values must each


equal the number of wells in the well list.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

3.5.10 Injection Gas Composition (YINJ)


00

The YINJ card is used to specify the composition of the injected gas for
injection wells using the STD or RES options and the wells are not
identified as MI wells (with MI plant in the major gas sales option).
YINJ
yinj1

00

wl
yinj2

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

yinjnc

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which yinj values are being


specified (see Section 1.5.2).

yinjk

The mole fraction of component k in the gas


injection stream. A value must be specified for each
of the n components, and the values must sum
exactly to 1.0.

The number of hydrocarbon components in the gas


phase. Equal to ncv for VIP-THERM, equal to nc
otherwise.

NOTE:

00

. . .

1.

A YINJ card must be entered to define the injected gas


composition for all injection wells that are using the STD or
RES options, except for those wells identified as MI wells in the
major gas sales option (see Section 4.4).

2.

The specified gas composition applies to all the wells in the


well list.

3.

As many data cards as necessary may be used to specify a yinj


value for each component.

Example:
C
INJ G
STD 253 -266 324 -326 365 -381
YINJ
253 -266 324 -326 365 -381
0.9944 0.0056

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3.5.11 Define Additional Injection Gas Composition (YINJA)


00

The YINJA card is used to specify gas composition for injection wells
using the INJA card.
YINJA
yinja1

00

wl
yinja2

. ..

yinjanc

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which yinja values are being


specified (see Section 1.5.2).

yinjak

The mole fraction of component k in the additional


gas injection stream. A value must be specified for
each of the n components and the values must sum
exactly to 1.0.

The number of hydrocarbon components in the gas


phase. Equal to ncv for VIP-THERM, equal to nc
otherwise.

NOTE:

If the INJA card is specified for a gas injection well, but the YINJA
card is not specified for that well, the production composition from
the specified well management hierachy, or the composition
specified by the YREINJ card, is used for the well. If the YINJA
composition is specified, the rate weighted composition is used.
The YINJA card cannot be used for the FRES gas injection well
using the general injection option.

3.5.12 Injection Water Salinity (WSAL)


00

The WSAL card is used to specify the water salinity of injection wells.
WSAL
wsal1

00

. ..

wsaln

Definitions:
wl

List of injectin wells for which wsal values are being


specified (see Section 1.5.2).

wsal

Water salinity, user-specified units. Default is 0.

NOTE:

3-114

wl
wsal2

1.

The number of wsal values must equal the number of wells in


the well list.

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Well Data

2.

The surface pipeline network option does


take into acount any salinity values.

3.5.13 Time Interval Between Tests


00

All wells that have been automatically shut in (pressure limit violation,
lack of mobility, rate limit violation) are tested periodically to determine
whether they can be returned to production/injection. The TEST (or
WTEST) card is used to specify the time interval between tests for each
type of shut-in well. The previous format for the TEST card is still
accepted. See Note 1 below.

3.5.13.1 Global Specification (TEST)


00

When the TEST card is input, two methods are available to determine the
time at which wells are tested:
1. all wells of the appropriate shut-in type tested at the same time and
2. each well is tested at the time interval after it was shut-in.

00

The first method is the default; the second method is invoked if any of the
three values tincp, tincm, or tincr is negative.
TEST

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

PRESSURE
tincp

MOBILITY
tincm

RATE
tincr

Definitions:
PRESSURE

Alpha label indicating that the corresponding value


on the next card is the test increment for pressure
shut-ins.

MOBILITY

Alpha label indicating that the corresponding value


on the next card is the test increment for mobility
shut-ins.

RATE

Alpha label indicating that the corresponding value


on the next card is the test increment for rate shutins.

tincp

Time interval between tests for shut-in wells due to


a pressure limit violation, days. If the test card is not
entered, the default is 0 days.

tincm

Time interval between tests for shut-in wells due to


lack of mobility, days. If the test card is not entered,
the default is 0 days.

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tincr

NOTE:

Time interval between tests for shut-in wells due to


a rate limit violation, days. If the test card is not
entered, the default is 99,999 days.
1.

When the prior input format of TEST tinc is used, the tincp,
tincm, and tincr values are all set equal to tinc.

2.

A zero value for a time increment causes testing every


timestep.

3.

For the default method (positive values of tincp, tincm, and


tincr), well tests are scheduled for the time at which the TEST
card is read plus the appropriate shut-in type increment. Until
the simulation reaches that time, shut-in wells will remain shut
in. Timesteps are not adjusted to hit the test time exactly. Once
the wells are tested, new tests are scheduled for a time that is
the appropriate increment farther into the simulation.

4.

For the second method (negative value of any of the three


variables), each shut-in well is tested after the appropriate time
interval (absolute value) has elapsed since it was shut-in.
Timesteps are not adjusted to hit any test time exactly. If a well
does not return to production/injection when tested, it will be
retested at a time that is the appropriate increment farther into
the simulation.

5.

The TEST card data applies to all wells; i.e., it replaces any
previously specified WTEST data.

3.5.13.2 Specification by Well (WTEST)


00

The WTEST card is used to specify the time interval between tests for
individual wells. When this option is used, each well is tested at the time
interval after it was shut-in.
WTEST wl
(PRESSURE
(MOBILITY
(RATE

00

3-116

tincp1
tincm1
tincr1

tincp2
tincm2
tincr2

...
...
...

tincpn)
tincmn)
tincrn)

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which time interval values are


being specified (see Section 1.5.2).

PRESSURE

Alpha label indicating that the values on this card


are test increments for pressure shut-ins.

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Well Data

MOBILITY

Alpha label indicating that the values on this card


are test increments for mobility shut-ins.

RATE

Alpha label indicating that the values on this card


are test increments for rate shut-ins.

tincp

Time interval between tests for shut-in wells due to


a pressure limit violation, days.

tincm

Time interval between tests for shut-in wells due to


a mobility limit violation, days.

tincr

Time interval between tests for shut-in wells due to


a rate limit violation, days.

NOTE:

1.

The number of tincp, tincm, and tincr values must equal the
number of wells in the well list.

2.

A zero value for a time increment causes testing every


timestep.

3.

Each shut-in well is tested after the appropriate time interval


has elapsed since it was shut-in. Timesteps are not adjusted to
hit any test time exactly. If a well does not return to
production/injection when tested, it will be retested at a time
that is the appropriate increment further into the simulation.

3.5.14 Fraction of Time That Well is on Stream (ONTIME)


00

00

00

Ontime factors do not apply to injection wells using either of the FSTD or
FRES reinjection options.
The ONTIME card is used to specify the fraction of the time that a well is
actually producing/injecting. The fraction is applied to the well rate after
the rate has been determined by QMAX or pressure constraints and after
the well minimum rate (QMIN), water cut (WLIMIT) and GOR (GLIMIT)
checks.
Ontime factors may be input at the well level or at any other level of well
management. The effective ontime factor for a well will be the one
specified at the lowest level of the well hierarchy; that is, the first userspecified factor found in this order:
1. the well,
2. the appropriate gathering center,
3. the appropriate flow station,
4. the appropriate area,

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5. the field.
ONTIME
ontime1

00

Definitions:
WELL

Alpha label indicating that the data on this card


applies to wells. See Section 4.2.2 for ontime factor
input at other levels of well management.

wl

List of wells for which ontime factors are being


specified (see Section 1.5.2).

ontime

Fraction of time that the well is actually producing/


injecting. Default is 1.0.

NOTE:

3-118

WELL
wl
ontime2 . . . ontimen

The number of ontime values must equal the number of wells in


the well list.

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3.5.15 Maximum Steam Rate for Producers (QSTMX) (VIP-THERM)


The QSTMX card must be preceded by a PROD card (Section 3.4.1).
The QSTMX card defines the maximum steam rate a well is allowed to
produce. This rate constraint is optional and is applied in addition to any
other maximum rate constraints which may be defined.
QSTMX
qstmx1

wl
qstmx2

. . .

qstmxn

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which qstmx values are being


specified (see Section 1.5.2).

qstmx

Maximum steam production rate at reservoir


conditions in cold water equivalent surface units,
STB(CWE)/D (STCM(CWE)/D).

3.5.16 GOR Penalty (GORPEN)


00

00

00

00

00

The GOR penalty data is used to set limits on oil production rates of
individual wells, based on their previous months average GOR.
The oil production rate limits for the specified wells will be
Base GOR Maximum Rate Limit
Oil Rate Limit = --------------------------------------------------------------------Average GOR for the previous month
but not larger than the maximum rate limit. The Base GOR is a parameter
entered with the GORPEN card. The Maximum Rate Limit is specified
with the QMAX, QMULT or other oil rate limiting option.
While any well has a Base GOR greater than zero, the time steps are
automatically restricted to coincide with the end of each calendar month.
The last day of each month is represented by 00:00:01 AM on 1/??/?? in
DAY/MONTH/YEAR format. At the end of each month, the average
GOR over the month is determined for each well and used thereafter
when required.
GORPEN
bgor1 bgor2
(agor1 agor2

R2003.4 - Landmark

wl
. . . . . . bgorn
. . . . . . agorn)

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00

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for each gorpen values are being


specified.

bgor

Base GOR for the well, SCF/STB (SCM/STCM). A


zero or negative value will turn the GOR penalty off
for the well. Default is -1.0.

agor

Initial average GOR for the previous month, SCF/


STB (SCM/STCM). This value if entered will be
used until the end of the current month. This entire
card may be omitted, in which case the default is as
follows:
If the GOR penalty for any well is in use, then the
previous months average GOR for the wells will
already have been calculated. This value will be
used.
If this is the first GOR penalty data for any well,
then the average GOR over the previous month will
not be available. If the well has an oil rate the value
will be set to the wells GOR at the previous time
step, otherwise agori = bgori.

NOTE:

The GOR penalty data should normally be first introduced at the


beginning of the month. If it is first entered in the middle of a
month the average GOR calculated at the end of the month will be
based on the production since the data was entered.

3.5.17 Well Permeability-Thickness Multiplier (WKHMULT)


00

The WKHMULT card is used to specify a multiplier to be applied to the


perforation permeability-thicknesses of a well. The multiplication occurs
immediately upon reading the data.
WKHMULT
wkhm1

00

00

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which wkhm values are being


specified (see Section 1.5.2).

wkhm

Permeability-thickness multiplier.

NOTE:

3-120

wl
wkhm2...wkhmn

The number of wkhm values must equal the number of wells in

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Well Data

the well list.

3.6 Pressure Constraints and Productivity Indices


00

00

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

VIP-EXECUTIVE calculates a flowing bottomhole pressure consistent


with the well index and well rate. This bottomhole pressure is checked
against any user-defined pressure constraints. If the flow rate is in
violation of a pressure constraint, it is altered accordingly and a new
corresponding well rate is calculated. This bottomhole pressure is then
used to allocate production/injection to individual gridblocks.
Bottomhole pressure constraints are defined by BHP cards. Alternatively,
tubinghead pressure constraints can be imposed to control well flow.
These are established by entering both THP cards and BHPTAB data.
Hydraulics tables (BHPTAB data) are used for three-phase producers to
relate tubinghead pressure to bottomhole pressure, flow rate, water cut,
and gas-liquid ratio. VIP-EXECUTIVE searches for the largest intersection
of the Inflow and Outflow Performance Curves (Figure 3-1). The
bottomhole pressure corresponding to this intersection is used to calculate
well phase rates.
Tubinghead pressure constraints can also be imposed on gas producers
and on gas and water injectors. For these cases the default algorithm is
based on the "average pressure and temperature method" as described by
Beggs (Reference 1). For gas and water injectors hydraulics tables
(BHITAB data) may alternatively be entered.
Bottomhole pressure can also be constrained by the DPBHMX card, which
defines a maximum drawdown (for producers) or buildup (for injectors)
in each well. The drawdown/buildup is computed as the difference
between a wells average gridblock pressure at datum and the wells
bottomhole pressure. This option is applicable whether a well is on a BHP
or THP constraint. If necessary, the bottomhole pressure of the well is reset
so that the drawdown, or buildup, does not exceed DPBHMX. A new
corresponding well rate is then calculated. To help alleviate convergence
problems, after ITNSTP iterations (producers) or ITNSTQ iterations
(injectors) the bottomhole pressure of DPBHMX constrained wells is fixed
for the remainder of the timestep.

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00

Hydraulics For A Given


Tubinghead Pressure

Figure 3-1: Tubinghead Pressure


00

Whenever BHP or THP constraints are imposed, VIP-EXECUTIVE must


calculate a flowing bottomhole pressure, fbhp. Productivity/injectivity
indices are used to relate well flow rates to fbhp. In the VIP-EXECUTIVE
family of simulators this is accomplished through a well index, WI. The
well index is defined by its use within the following oil production
equation:
L

q o = 0.001127WI

I=1

00

(3-6)

where
qo
o

3-122

kh k ro
o
----------------- [ P bl P bh ( D l D o ) ].
Bo o I

Oil phase production rate.

P bh

Datum flowing bottomhole pressure.

WI

Well index.

khl

Permeability-thickness as defined by the FPERF


card opposite the l-th perforation of the well. This
need not be the gridblock value.

krol

Relative permeability to oil at the gridblock


saturation.

Bol

Oil formation volume factor at Pbl.

ol

Oil viscosity at Pbl.

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00

Well Data

Pbl

Gridblock pressure of the cell containing the l-th


perforation.

Average fluid density over the perforated interval


of the well, based on production or injection fluids.

Dl

Subsea depth of the l-th perforation.

Do

Datum depth.

Since qo is known (the value defined by the QMAX card), Equation 3-6
can be solved for flowing bottomhole pressure at datum, P obh .

00

Therefore, the flowing bottomhole pressure at the reference depth is given


by:
L

kh k ro
----------------- [ P bl ( D l D o ) ] q o 0.001127
Bo o I
I=1
= -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------L
khk ro
WI
--------------Bo o I
WI

P bh

(3-7)

I=1

00

This value of P obh is then compared to the user-specified bhp value. If P obh
is greater than bhp, the pressure constraint is honored and P obh is set equal
to bhp. A new qo is then calculated using Equation 3-7. (Similar
expressions are used for gas and water.)

00

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

The data cards described in this section provide alternate ways to


introduce the well index into the recurrent data stream. If no THP or BHP
limits are to be established for a well, then no WI, PI, or RFLOW cards
should be entered for that well. If previous limits are to be removed, wi
should be set to zero by a WI card.
In VIP-THERM, if KHWI is entered in the FPERF data (Section 3.2.2), then
no WI, PI, or RFLOW data should be entered since the well index is
included in KHWI.
If no productivity/injectivity index (PI, WI, RFLOW, KHWI (VIPTHERM)) is specified, the well index defaults to zero. In this case, the
simulator produces/injects the specified maximum production/injection
rate without regard to pressure limitations. Allocation to different
perforations is made on the basis of fluid mobility. This is reasonable only
if Pbl - Pbhl is approximately constant for all layers; however, it may cause
convergence difficulties in many cases. It is strongly recommended that a
productivity/injectivity index be specified for each well.

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3.6.1 Well Index (WI)(Skip if PI or FLOW orWIL or KHWI is used)


00

The WI card is used to specify well indices for wells. Data specified on a
WI card will replace any previous WI, PI, or RFLOW data for the same
well. WIL values computed for a well by a previous FPERF card will be
replaced by WI data for the same well.
WI
wi1

00

wl
wi2

. . .

win

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which wi values are being entered


(see Section 1.5.2).

wi

Well index, dimensionless.


2
wi = ------------------------------------ ,
r
b
ln ------ + skin
r w

where

00

00

3-124

rb

Equivalent radius (Peaceman) of


the gridblock containing the well
(see RFLOW Card) in ft (m).

rw

Wellbore radius.

skin

Skin factor.

The number of wi values must equal the number of wells in the


well list.

NOTE:

00

(3-8)

Example:
WI 4 -541
538*0.52

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3.6.2 Productivity/Injectivity Index (PI) (Skip if WI or RFLOW or WIL or


KHWI is used)
00

The PI card is used to specify productivity/injectivity data for wells. Data


specified on a PI card will replace any previous WI, PI, or RFLOW data for
the same well. WIL values computed for a well by a previous FPERF card
will be replaced by PI data for the same well.
PI
gf1
pi1

00

wl
gf2
pi2

. . .
. . .

gfn
pin

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which gf and pi values are being


entered (see Section 1.5.2).

gf

Geometry factor. Converts the productivity/


injectivity index from a drainage radius basis to a
gridblock basis. Dimensionless.
For laminar, radial flow,
ln ( r e r w )
gf = ------------------------ln ( r b r w )

where

pi

re

Drainage radius.

rb

Equivalent radius (Peaceman) of


the gridblock containing the well
(see RFLOW Card) in ft (m).

rw

Wellbore radius.

Productivity/injectivity index. Units are


determined by the units of production or injection
rates defined by the PROD or INJ cards:
STB/D-psia (STCM/D-kPa) - Water, oil, or liquid
STD producer, or a water injector with the STD or
FSTD option.
MSCF/D-psia (SCM/D-kPa) - Gas STD producer or
a gas injector with the STD or FSTD option.

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rb/D-psia (cm/D-kPa) - Producer with the ALL or


RES option or an injector with the RES or FRES
option.
NOTE:

1.

The number of gf and pi values must equal the number of


wells in the well list.

2.

PI data replace WI or RFLOW data. If none of these is read for


any well, it produces/injects at the rate given on the QMAX
card.

3.

The pi is converted to wi (for internal program use) when the


well is first put on production/injection. For an oil producer:
pi gf
wi = -----------------------------------------------------L
khk ro
0.001127
--------------o Bo I

I=1

3.6.3 Radial Flow Equation Data (RFLOW) (Skip if WI or PI or WIL or


KHWI is used)
00

The RFLOW card is used to specify radial flow equation data for wells.
Data specified on an RFLOW card will replace any previous WI, PI, or
RFLOW data for the same well. WIL values computed for a well by a
previous FPERF card will be replaced by RFLOW data for the same well.
RFLOW
rw1
rb1
skin1

00

3-126

wl
rw2
rb2
skin2

. . .
. . .
. . .

rwn
rbn
skinn

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which rw, rb, and skin values are
being entered (see Section 1.5.2).

rw

Wellbore radius, ft (m).

rb

Equivalent radius (Peaceman) of the gridblock


containing the well, ft (m). If this value is set to zero
rb is defaulted (see note 3).

skin

Skin factor. Dimensionless.

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

NOTE:

Well Data

1.

The number of rw, rb, and skin values must equal the number
of wells in the well list. These values are used to calculate the
well index and must result in a positive well index. The
program calculates wi from the data as follows:

wi = -----------------------------------r
b
ln ------ + skin
r w
The term is calculated from the data entered on the
FLOANG card. If not entered, = 2 .

2. The RFLOW data replace PI or WI data. If none of these is read


for any well, it produces/injects at the rate given on the QMAX
card.
3.

When rb is entered as zero, its value is defaulted to that


recommended by Peaceman (Reference 2), for wells located in
the center of rectangular gridblocks with isotropic
permeabilities:
2

2 12

r b = 0.14 ( x + y )

For other configurations, e.g., wells in cross-sections, wells at


gridblock corners, the correct value of rb, must be entered
explicitly.

rb can only be defaulted for vertical wells in non-radial


systems; i.e. the WELL keyword must contain IW and JW data.
To obtain a defaulted value of rb for non-vertical wells or wells
in a radial systems, the FPERF keyword must be used. Also
wells with anisotropic permeablilities or other conditions that
require the rb to vary by layer should make use of the FPERF
keywork to define or default the values of rb.

3.6.4 Well Angle Open to Flow (FLOANG)


00

The FLOANG card is used to define the angle open to flow for wells.
FLOANG
wang1

00

wl
wang2...wangn

Definitions:
wl

R2003.4 - Landmark

List of wells for which wang values are being


entered (see Section 1.5.2).

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wang

NOTE:

Well angle open to flow, degrees. Values allowed are


0o to 360o, inclusive. Default is 360o.

The number of wang values must equal the number of wells in the
well list.

3.6.5 Well Datum Depth (WLWDAT)


00

The WLWDAT card is used to assign the depth to which the flowing and
limiting bottomhole pressures are referenced.
WLWDAT
wdat1

00

wl
wdat2

...

wdatn

Definitions:
w1

List of wells for which wdat values are being


entered (See Section 1.5.2).

wdat

Well datum depth, (ft)m. Bottomhole pressure is


referenced to this depth. If not entered, datum
depth defaults to the DEPTH from the first IEQUIL
card. A value of zero causes wdat to be set to the
depth to the center of the gridblock containing the
first perforation.

NOTE:

The number of wdat values must equal the number of wells in the
well list.

00

3-128

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3.6.6 Bottomhole Pressure (BHP)


00

To invoke BHP constraints, the user must define a productivity/injectivity


index (Section 3.6). The BHP card allows the user to define a limiting
bottomhole pressure.
BHP
bhp1

00

. . .

bhpn

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which bhp values are being entered


(see Section 1.5.2).

bhp

Limiting bottomhole pressure, psia (kPa); i.e.,


minimum allowed pressure for a producer or
maximum allowed pressure for an injector. Default
is 0 psia for producers and 10,000 psia for injectors.

NOTE:

00

wl
bhp2

1.

The number of bhp values must equal the number of wells in


the well list.

2.

If both BHP and THP constraints have been entered for a well,
both will be honored.

3.

The bottomhole pressure printed in well reports is referenced


to a depth of wdat (see WLWDAT card, Section 3.6.5) which
must be measured from the same reference point as is used for
gridblock depths.

4.

If no THP or BHP limits are to be established, then no WI, PI, or


RFLOW cards should be entered for the affected wells. If
previous limits are to be removed, pi should be set to zero by a
PI card. Note that inputting a wi value of zero on the WI card
will shut in the well because of no mobility.

Example:
C set the BHP to a minimum of 500 psi at 8800 feet
BHP 1 -150
150*500.
WLWDAT 1 -150
150*8800

3.6.7 Tubinghead Pressure (THP)


00

R2003.4 - Landmark

To invoke THP constraints with wellbore hydraulics tables for multiphase


producers, the user must define a productivity index (Section 3.6),
BHPTAB data, and ITUBE data. To invoke THP constraints with wellbore
hydraulics tables for injectors, the user must define an injectivity index
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(Section 3.6), BHITAB data, and ITUBE data. To invoke single-phase THP
constraints for injectors, the user must define an injectivity index, DIAM
data, and TUBE data. To invoke THP constraints for gas producers, the
user must define a productivity index (Section 3.6), DIAM data, GTHPWL
data, and THPGTB data. The THP card allows the user to define a limiting
tubinghead pressure.
THP
thp1

00

. . .

thpn

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which thp values are being entered


(see Section 1.5.2).

thp

Tubinghead pressure limit, psia (kPa); i.e.,


minimum pressure for producers or maximum
pressure for injectors.

NOTE:

00

wl
thp2

1.

The number of thp values must equal the number of wells in


the well list.

2.

If both BHP and THP constraints have been entered for a well,
both will be honored.

3.

If no THP or BHP limits are to be established for a well, then no


WI, PI, or RFLOW cards should be entered for that well. If
previous limits are to be removed, wi should be set to zero.

4.

For predictive well management, tubinghead pressure values


for production wells should be input for each eligible pressure
system.

The following statements are true when implicit tubinghead pressure


equations are not used. For both three-phase and gas producers, the
tubinghead pressure algorithm is only performed during the first "few"
outer iterations of the timestep (ITNTHP card). During the rest of the
timestep the well is treated as a bottomhole pressure constrained well,
with bhp equalling the calculated value from the tubinghead pressure
algorithm.

3.6.8 Implicit Tubinghead Pressure Equations (IMPTHP)


00

3-130

The IMPTHP card is used to specify whether implicit tubinghead pressure


equations are to be set up when a well is constrained by a tubinghead
pressure limit (THP).

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

ON

IMPTHP

OFF

00

Definitions:
ON

Alpha Label indicating that implicit tubinghead


pressure equations are to be set up.

OFF

Alpha label indicating that implicit tubinghead


pressure equations are not to be set up. This is the
default.

NOTE:

The tubinghead pressure iteration control variable, ITNTHP, is


ignored when implicit tubinghead pressure is on.

3.6.9 Tubinghead Pressure Iteration Control (ITNTHP)


00

The ITNTHP card allows the user to specify the number of outer iterations
of each timestep during which the tubinghead pressure algorithm will be
performed. After this number the wells are treated as bottomhole pressure
controlled, with bhp equalling the calculated value from the itnthp
iteration.
ITNTHP

00

Definition:
itnthp

NOTE:

R2003.4 - Landmark

itnthp

Number of outer iterations of each timestep during


which the tubinghead pressure algorithm for
producers will be performed. Default is 2.
This value is ignored when implicit tubinghead pressure equations
are in use (IMPTHP ON).

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

3.6.10 Maximum Drawdown Constraint (DPBHMX)


00

The DPBHMX card allows the user to define a limiting drawdown or


buildup pressure.
DPBHMX
dpbhmx1

00

wl
dpbhmx2 . . .

dpbhmxn

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which dpbhmx values are being


entered (see Section 1.5.2).

dpbhmx

Limiting drawdown (producers) or buildup


pressure (injectors), psia (kPa); i.e., maximum
allowed difference between a wells average
gridblock pressure at datum and the wells
bottomhole pressure. Default is 10,000 psia.

NOTE:

The number of dpbhmx values must equal the number of wells in


the well list.
The wells average gridblock pressure is calculated over all the
flowing perforations.
To help alleviate convergence problems, after ITNSTP iterations
(producers) or ITNSTQ iterations (injectors) the bottomhole
pressure of DPBHMX constrained wells is fixed for the remainder
of the timestep.

3-132

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

3.7 Wellbore Crossflow Model


3.7.1 Crossflow Option (XFON/XFOFF) (Not available in VIP-THERM)
00

00

Wellbore crossflow is computed using the method of Modine, Coats, and


Wells (Reference 9).
The XFON and XFOFF cards are used to select crossflow computations by
well. The computations can be enabled or disabled at any time. Crossflow
is off by default.
XFON
XFOFF

00

wl

Definitions:
XFON

Keyword indicating that wellbore crossflow


computations are to be performed for the following
list of wells.

XFOFF

Keyword indicating that wellbore crossflow


computations are not to be performed for the
following list of wells.

QMX

Keyword indicating that the wellbore crossflow


computations for each of the wells in the following
list will not occur until the well has a QMAX > 0.

wl

Well list (see Section 1.5.2).

NOTE:

R2003.4 - Landmark

(QMX)
wl

1.

Print control for the wellbore crossflow summary is equivalent


to that for the Well Perforation Summary (WLLYR). When the
Well Perforation Summary is printed, the Wellbore Crossflow
Summary is printed which shows crossflow rates by phase and
perforation in units of rb/D (rcm/D) for all wells which are
currently crossflowing. Crossflow rates are not included in the
Well Perforation Summary.

2.

If XFON is specified for one or more wells the simulator will


compute the wellbore gradient using the volume balance
method (MBAWG = OFF).

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

3.7.2 Wellbore Gradient Calculation (MBAWG)


00

Two methods are available for calculating wellbore gradients. In the first
method (default, except as indicated below), an average value of the
wellbore gradient over the perforated intervals is calculated by "mobility
allocation" as
L

00

I=1

00

00

00

3-134

j=1

where L is the number of layers, Np is the number of phases, WI and KH


are the well index and permeability-thickness products by layer, and krj,
j, and j are phase relative permeabilities, densities, and viscosities.
In the second method, a value for the wellbore gradient opposite each
perforated interval is calculated by a wellbore volume balance. These
calculations include the effects of crossflowing layers but ignore
interphase mass transfer effects and fluid expansion in the wellbore. This
method is the default, and cannot be overridden, if either the crossflow
option is invoked or the horizontal/inclined wellbore flow correlation (see
note 9 in Section 3.2.2) is invoked.
The MBAWG card is used to control the wellbore gradient calculations.

MBAWG

00

Np

k rj j
( WI*KH ) I
-----------
j = 1 j I
I=1
GRAD = --------------------------------------------------------------Np
L

k rj
( WI*KH ) I
------
j

ON

OFF

Definitions:
ON

Use mobility allocation method for the average


wellbore gradient. This is the default.

OFF

Use the volume balance method for the wellbore


gradient.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

3.7.3 Wellbore Gradient Calculation (VIP-THERM)


00

In VIP-THERM, three methods of calculating wellbore gradients are


available. For production wells, a fourth option is specification of gradient
by perforation in the FPERF data (Section 3.2.2). Two of the calculational
options, MOBAVG and VOLBAL, are described in the previous section,
the data for which is also accepted in VIP-THERM. The default (except as
indicated below) in VIP-THERM is similar to the MOBAVG option except
that a gradient for each perforation is computed which is a mobility
average gradient of the fluids produced at and below it:
L

Np

k rj j
( WI*KH ) I
-----------
j

I
=k
j=1
GRAD k = I--------------------------------------------------------------Np
L

k rj
( WI*KH ) I
------
j

00

j=1

I=k

WBGRAD

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

MOBAVG
MOBAVB
VOLBAL

Definitions:
MOBAVG

Use single mobility average gradient.

MOBAVB

Use mobility average for each perforation based on


all perforations below and including it. Default,
except as indicated below.

VOLBAL

Use volume balance method. This is the default if


either the crossflow option or the inclined/
horizontal wellbore flow correlation (see note 9 in
Section 3.2.2) is invoked.

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

3.8 Wellbore Flash Controls


00

00

00

The wellbore flash procedure is designed to calculate stock tank oil, water,
and gas flow rates for each production well when a surface rate or a
pressure constraint is specified by the user. An iterative procedure is
applied to find a bottomhole pressure that honors the well boundary
condition. The procedure is executed in each outer iteration of a timestep,
and separator flash subroutines are called several times in each iteration of
the procedure. These calculations require a significant amount of
computer time in compositional models with many wells.
In order to minimize the work involved in these calculations, methods
have been developed to improve the efficiency of calculations. The
wellbore equations and the separator flash equations are now solved
simultaneously. The initial bottomhole pressure is calculated from the
wellbore equation with a separator coefficient defined in the previous
outer iteration and values are only recalculated if necessary. The user can
control iteration tolerances and decide whether simplified separator
calculations will be performed.
The user may optionally choose to take into account pressure gradient
variations with depth in production wells in the wellbore flash
calculations.

3.8.1 THP Convergence Control (BHPITN)


00

The BHPITN card is used in conjunction with the THP, ITUBE, BHPTAB,
and BHPADD cards. A BHPITN card with the first three parameters
specified will apply to injection wells only. A card with the two additional
parameters is used to set iteration and convergence parameters for
tubinghead pressure and simplified separator computations in production
wells.
BHPITN

00

3-136

ibhpmx

bhptlp

bhptlq

(P bhptlz)

Definitions:
ibhpmx

Maximum number of tubinghead pressure


iterations. Default is 100.

bhptlp

Relative tolerance used to determine convergence


of the bottomhole pressure calculation during THP
iterations. Default is 0.0001.

bhptlq

Relative tolerance used to determine convergence


of the rate calculation during THP iterations.
Default is 0.001 for producers and 0.0001 for
injectors.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

R2003.4 - Landmark

Well Data

Alpha label indicating that iteration and


convergence parameters for tubinghead pressure
and simplified separator computations for
production wells are set.

bhptlz

Tolerance of composition changes. This parameter


is used in the simplified composition calculations. If
the maximum change of the mole fractions of the
hydrocarbon components in an input stream of a
separator battery is less than the tolerance bhptlz,
the K-values in each stage of the battery are not
recalculated. If this tolerance is set to zero, the Kvalues are recalculated in each outer iteration of
each timestep. Default is 0.0005.

3-137

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

3.9 Wellbore Hydraulics Tables


3.9.1 Wellbore Hydraulics Table Assignment (ITUBE)
00

00

ITUBE data must be defined along with BHPTAB data if a THP card is
entered for a multi-phase producer. This input is optional for single-phase
(water and gas) injectors and gas producers, for which simple wellbore
hydraulics treatments are available.
The ITUBE data are used with the wellbore hydraulics table data
(BHPTAB and/or BHITAB) to relate tubinghead pressure to bottomhole
pressure.
ITUBE
ibhp1
dzw1

00

. . .
. . .

ibhpn
dzwn

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which ibhp and dzw values are


being entered (see Section 1.5.2).

ibhp

Number of the bottomhole pressure table


(BHPTAB/BHITAB card) that defines tubing
pressure losses for this well. A zero here will turn
off tubing calculations.

dzw

Vertical distance from the wellhead to the first set of


perforations, ft (m).

NOTE:

3-138

wl
ibhp2
dzw2

1.

The number of ibhp and dzw values must equal the number
of wells in the well list.

2.

If dzw differs from the dzw value used to construct the


bottomhole pressure table, a gravity head calculation is used to
adjust from the perforations to the reference depth of the table.

3.

The bottomhole pressure printed in well reports is referenced


to a depth of wdat (see WLWDAT card, Section 3.6.5), which
must be measured from the same reference point as is used for
gridblock depths.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

00

Well Data

Example:
ITUBE 2 -14 18 22 24 -37 41
30*1
30*8800
WLWDAT 2 -14 18 22 24 -37 41
30*8800
THP 2 -14 18 22 24 -37 41
30*1815.
C

00

3.9.2 Wellbore Hydraulics Table (BHPTAB)


00

00

Must be defined if THP data is entered for a multi-phase producer.


BHPTAB data are used to relate tubinghead pressure to bottomhole
pressure and the three phase flow rates. Each table can be defined
independently, and more than one well can refer to the same BHPTAB.
BHPTAB
QLIQ
QO
QGAS
QEWS
GLR
GOR
OGR

nbhp

dzw

q1

q2

g1

(g2

. . .

qk

gl)

WCUT
WGR

w1

(ALQ

(GASRATE) alq1(alq2 . . .alqj))

THP

thp1

IGLR

IWCUT

(w2

(thp2

. . .

. . .

IQLIQ

wm)

thpn)

(IALQ)

BHP(ITHP)

IQO

IGOR

R2003.4 - Landmark

. . .

IOGR

IWGR

ig1
.
.
.
igl

iw1
.
.
.
iwm

IQGAS
IQEWS
iq1
(ialq1)
.
.
.
.
.
.
iqk
(ialqj)

bhp(ithp1) (bhp(ithp2). . .bhp(ithpn))


.
.
.
.
.
.
bhp(ithp1) (bhp(ithp2). . .bhp(ithpn))

3-139

Well Data

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

00

3-140

Definitions:
nbhp

Number of the bottomhole pressure table being


read.

dzw

Vertical distance from the wellhead to the reference


point for bottomhole pressures as tabulated, ft (m).

QLIQ

Alpha label indicating that values on this card are


liquid rates (oil plus water). This must be used with
GLR/GOR and WCUT.

QO

Alpha label indicating that values on this card are


oil rates. This must be used with GLR/GOR and
WCUT.

QGAS

Alpha label indicating that values on this card are


gas rates. This must be used with OGR and WGR.

QEWS

Alpha label indicating that values on this card are


equivalent total wellstream rates (total hydrocarbon
rate converted to gas rate at standard conditions).
This must be used with OGR and WGR.

Liquid or oil rates, STB/D (STCM/D), or gas rates,


MSCF/D (SCM/D). Values can be unequally
spaced.

GLR

Alpha label indicating that values on this card are


gas-liquid ratios. This must be used with either
QLIQ or QO.

GOR

Alpha label indicating that values on this card are


gas-oil ratios. This must be used with either QO or
QLIQ.

OGR

Alpha label indicating that values on this card are


oil-gas ratios. This must be used with either QGAS
or QEWS.

Gas-liquid or gas-oil ratios, SCF/STB (SCM/


STCM), or oil-gas ratios, STB/MMSCF (STCM/
MSCM). Values can be unequally spaced.

WCUT

Alpha label indicating that water-cut values are


read on this card. This must be used with either
QLIQ or QO.

WGR

Alpha label indicating that values on this card are


water-gas ratios. This must be used with either
QGAS or QEWS.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

R2003.4 - Landmark

Well Data

Water-cut values, fraction, or water-gas ratios, STB/


MMSCF (STCM/MSCM). Values can be unequally
spaced.

ALQ

Alpha label indicating that values on this card are


either gaslift gas rates or user-defined artificial lift
quantity values.

GASRATE

Alpha label indicating that the values on this card


are gaslift gas rates. If this keyword is specified,
then ALQ well data (Section 3.9.6) will be ignored
and the gaslift gas rate for the well will be used
instead. This also means that ratios on the GLR/
GOR card consist of produced gas only, not total
gas.

alq

Gaslift gas rates, MSCF/D (SCM/D) or artificial lift


quantity values, as defined by the user. Values can
be unequally spaced.

THP

Alpha label indicating that tubinghead pressures


are read on this card.

thp

Tubinghead pressure values, psia (kPa). Values can


be unequally spaced.

IGLR

Alpha label indicating that the values read in the


column under this heading are gas-liquid ratio
indices. This must be used with GLR.

IGOR

Alpha label indicating that the values read in the


column under this heading are gas-oil ratio indices.
This must be used with GOR.

IOGR

Alpha label indicating that the values read in the


column under this heading are oil-gas ratio indices.
This must be used with OGR.

IWCUT

Alpha label indicating that the values read in the


column under this heading are water-cut indices.
This must be used with WCUT.

IWGR

Alpha label indicating that the values read in the


column under this heading are water-gas ratio
indices. This must be used with WGR.

IQLIQ

Alpha label indicating that the values read in the


column under this heading are liquid rate indices.
This must be used with QLIQ.

3-141

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

IQO

Alpha label indicating that the values read in the


column under this heading are oil rate indices. This
must be used with QO.

IQGAS

Alpha label indicating that the values read in the


column under this heading are gas rate indices. This
must be used with QGAS.

IQEWS

Alpha label indicating that the values read in the


column under this heading are equivalent total
wellstream rate indices. This must be used with
QEWS.

IALQ

Alpha label indicating that the values read in the


column under this heading are artificial lift quantity
indices. This must be used with ALQ.

BHP(ITHP)

Alpha label indicating that the values read in the


columns under this heading are bottomhole
pressure values for each tubinghead pressure input.
Parentheses must appear in this alpha label.

igl

Index referring to the l-th ratio value read.

iwm

Index referring to the m-th water-cut value read.

iqk

Index referring to the k-th rate value read.

ialqj

Index referring to the j-th gaslift rate or artificial lift


quantity value read.

bhp(ithp)

The bottomhole pressure value, psia (kPa),


corresponding to the indicated ratio, water-cut, and
rate values. The corresponding tubinghead pressure
is the thp value that would correspond to ithp. The
number of bottomhole pressure values on this card
must equal the number of thp values on the THP
card.

An ITUBE value must be specified for each well which is to use


one of the BHPTAB tables.

NOTE:

00

00

3-142

Example
C TUBING SIZE = 3.500 OD = 2.992 ID
C SEPARATOR PRESSURES: 215. 315. 665. 665. 665.
C FLOW LINE LENGTHS: 0. 0. 4000. 10000. 18000.
C HALF WELL RATES TO REFLECT HALF WELLS
BHPTAB 1 8800.
QLIQ 50. 250. 500. 1000. 2000. 5000.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

GLR 300. 750. 1500. 5000. 20000.


WCUT 0.000 0.500
THP 215. 315. 815. 1315. 1815.
C REMAINDER OF TABLE

R2003.4 - Landmark

3-143

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

3.9.3 Wellbore Hydraulics Table Switching (NEWBHPTAB)


00

The NEWBHPTAB card allows the user to set an alternate bottomhole


pressure table for a well when its rate becomes too low at the existing THP
limit.
NEWBHPTAB
ibhp1 ibhp2
q1
q2

00

wl
...
...

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which ibhp and q values are being


entered (see Section 1.5.2).

ibhp

Bottomhole pressure table number to which the


well will be assigned when its production rate falls
below the corresponding q value.

Threshhold production rate such that when the


wells production rate falls below this value, the
bottomhole pressure table number will be changed.
The unit of q is the same as that specified in the
corresponding bottomhole pressure table
(BHPTAB).

NOTE:

1. The number of ibhp and q values must be equal the number of


wells in the well list.
2.

3-144

ibhpn
qn

The bottomhole pressure table switch will occur at most once.


That is, once a switch is made the well will not switch back to
the original table if the rate rises back above the specified
threshhold value.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

3.9.4 Wellbore Hydraulics Table for Injectors (BHITAB)


00

00

Must be defined if ITUBE data is entered for an injection well for which
THP data is also entered.
BHITAB data are used to relate tubinghead discharge pressure to
bottomhole injection pressure and injection rate. Each table can be defined
independently, and more than one well can refer to the same BHITAB. The
phase being injected need only be specified if metric units are being used,
in which case a units conversion must be performed.

BHITAB
QI
THP

qi1
thp1

R2003.4 - Landmark

dzw

W

G

qi2
(thp2

...
...

qik
thpn)

IQI

BHP ( ITHP )

ITHP

BHP ( IQI )

iqi 1

bhp ( ithp 1 )

(bhp ( ithp 2 )

bhp ( ithp n ) )

ithp 1

bhp ( iqi 1 )

bhp ( iqi 2 )

bhp ( iqi k )

.
.

00

nbhi

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

iqi k

bhp ( ithp 1 )

(bhp ( ithp 2 )

bhp ( ithp n ) )

ithp n

bhp ( iqi 1 )

bhp ( iqi 2 )

bhp ( iqi k )

Definitions:
nbhi

Number of the bottomhole injection pressure table


being read.

dzw

Vertical distance from the wellhead to the reference


point for bottomhole injection pressures as
tabulated, ft (m).

Alpha label, for metric units input only, indicating


that the rates are water injection rates, for
appropriate units conversion.

Alpha label, for metric units input only, indicating


that the rates are gas injection rates, for appropriate
units conversion.

3-145

Well Data

3-146

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

QI

Alpha label indicating that values on this card are


injection rates.

qi

Injection rates, water, STB/D (STCM/D), or gas,


MSCF/D (SCM/D). Values can be unequally
spaced.

THP

Alpha label indicating that values on this card are


tubinghead injection pressures.

thp

Tubinghead injection pressure values, psia (kPa).


Values can be unequally spaced.

IQI

Alpha label indicating that the values read in the


column under this heading are injection rate
indices.

BHP(ITHP)

Alpha label indicating that the values read in the


columns under this heading are bottomhole
injection pressure values for each tubinghead
injection pressure input. Parentheses must appear
in this alpha label.

ITHP

Alpha label indicating that the values read in the


column under this heading are tubinghead injection
pressure indices.

BHP(IQI)

Alpha label indicating that the values read in the


columns under this heading are bottomhole
injection pressure values for each injection rate
input. Parentheses must appear in this alpha label.

iqik

Index referring to the k-th injection rate value read.

bhp(ithp)

The bottomhole injection pressure value, psia (kPa),


corresponding to the indicated rate and tubinghead
pressure values. The number of bottomhole
pressure values on this card must equal the number
of thp values on the THP card.

ithpn

index referring to the n-th tubinghead injection


pressure value read.

bhp(iqi)

The bottomhole injection pressure value, psia (kPa),


corresponding to the indicated rate and tubinghead
pressure values. The corresponding injection rate is
the qi value that would correspond to iqi. The
number of bottomhole pressure values on this card
must equal the number of qi values on the QI card.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

00

Well Data

Examples:
BHITAB
1
9400.
QI 1 500 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
THP 15. 200 500 1000
ITHP BHP(IQI)
1 4304 4297 4276 4219 4134 4017 3854 3681 3471 3219
2 4489 4482 4467 4404 4319 4202 4039 3866 3656 3404
3 4789 4776 4759 4706 4624 4504 4349 4166 3956 3704
4 5289 5272 5249 5186 5106 5004 4859 4679 4456 4204

00

3.9.5 Additive Correction to BHP Tables (BHPADD)


00

00

This card is used in conjunction with the THP, ITUBE, and BHPTAB cards.
The BHPADD card is used to provide an additive correction term to the
value of bottomhole pressure obtained from the BHP tables.
BHPADD wl
bhpadd1 bhpadd2 . . . bhpaddn

00

Definitions:
wl

List of production wells for which bhpadd values


are being specified (see Section 1.5.2).

bhpadd

Additive correction to apply to the value of


bottomhole pressure obtained from the BHP tables
for the well, psi (kPa). Value may be positive or
negative. Default is 0.0 psia.

NOTE:

R2003.4 - Landmark

The number of bhpadd values must equal the number of wells in


the well list.

3-147

Well Data

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

3.9.6 Artificial Lift Quantity (ALQ)


00

The ALQ card is used to specify an artificial lift quantity, which can be
used as an additional parameter in the interpolation of the BHPTAB
tables. If the ALQ parameter in the BHPTAB is table for a well is
specifically identified as gaslift GASRATE, then the ALQ data for that well
is not required and will not be used if entered.
ALQ
alq1

00

wl
alq2

...

alqn

Definitions:
wl

List of production wells for which alq values are


being specified (see Section 1.5.2).

alq

Artificial lift quantity value for the well. Units are


defined by the user. Default is 0.0.

NOTE:

The number of alq values must equal the number of wells in the
well list.

3.10 Gas Producers


00

00

The algorithm for gas producers described below is activated for a well by
assigning a gas producer THP table to the well (GTHPWL card). If this
table is not assigned, the algorithm described in the Wellbore Hydraulics
section (Section 3.9) is used.
The algorithm implemented in VIP-EXECUTIVE for handling tubinghead
pressure constraints for gas producers is based on the "average pressure
and temperature method" as described on pp. 103-104 of Gas Production
Operations by H. Dale Beggs (Reference 1). (Note that the algorithm for
tubinghead pressure constraints for gas and water injectors also is based
on this method.) Generally speaking, the rate and corresponding
bottomhole pressure of a constrained well occurs at the intersection of the
inflow and outflow performance curves for the well. To calculate the
flowing bottomhole pressure for the outflow performance curve:
1. divide the wellbore into equal-length intervals,
2. starting at the wellhead, determine the bottomhole pressure of the first
interval using the input tubinghead pressure constraint and other
properties,

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Well Data

3. use the bottomhole pressure of the first interval as the tubinghead


pressure of the second interval to calculate the bottomhole pressure of
the second interval,
4. continue this process until the bottomhole pressure of the last interval
is calculated; this is the flowing bottomhole pressure of the well for the
outflow curve.
00

Properties needed by the "average pressure and temperature method",


and their source in VIP-EXECUTIVE, are as follows:
1. Gas flow rate - constant over entire wellbore.
2. Average temperature -

linear interpolation between surface


temperature on GASTHP card and reservoir
temperature TRES.

3. Average z-factor and average viscosity - table lookup in THPGTB


table at interval tubinghead
pressure and temperature.
4. Inside diameter of tubing and tubing roughness factor -DIAM card
5. Effective tubing length and vertical distance from wellhead to first set
of perforations - TUBE card
NC

6. Gas gravity -

( mol. wt. ) * ( production composition ) 28.96


j

j=1

00

00

The TUBE and DIAM cards (Section 3.11.1 and 3.11.2) as described for
injectors must be specified for gas producers that will use tubinghead
pressure constraints.
The BHPITN card (Section 3.8.1) may optionally be specified.

3.10.1 Assignment of Gas Producer THP Tables (GTHPWL)


GTHPWL
wl
ithgtb1 ithgtb2 . . . ithgtbn

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which tables are being assigned (see


Section 1.5.2).

ithgtb

Number of the gas producer THP table (THPGTB


card) that defines the z-factors and viscosities in the
wellbore for this well.

3-149

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

The number of ithgtb values must equal the number of wells in the
well list.

NOTE:

3.10.2 Gas Well THP Calculation Data (GASTHP)

GASTHP

00

INTERVALS

LENGTH

(SURFTEMP)

(LGRMAX)

intthg

length

(stmthg)

(lgrmax)

Definitions:
intthg

Number of intervals into which the wellbore length


will be divided. Default is 5.

length

Approximate length of each interval in the


wellbore, ft (m).

stmthg

Surface temperature in the wellbore at the


wellhead, F (C). Default is TRES.

lgrmax

Maximum allowed liquid-gas ratio for a gas


producer using tubinghead pressure, STB/MMSCF
(STCM/MSCM). Default is 10 STB/MMSCF.

3.10.3 Z-factor/Viscosity Tables for Gas Producer THP (THPGTB)


THPGTB
PRESSURE
(TEMP
IPRES
ip1
.
.
.
ipk

00

3-150

itab
pres1
pres2
temp1
(temp2
(ITEMP)
(it1)
.
.
.
(itm)

. . .
. . .
Z
z1
.
.
.
zkm

presk
tempm))
VISC
visc1
.
.
.
visckm

Definitions:
itab

Number of the gas producer THP table being read.

PRESSURE

Alpha label indicating that pressure values are read


on this card.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

pres

Pressure values, psia (kPa). Values can be unequally


spaced.

TEMP

Alpha label indicating that temperature values are


read on this card. This card is optional.

temp

Temperature values, F (C). Values can be


unequally spaced.

IPRES

Alpha label indicating that the values read in the


column under this heading are pressure indices.

ITEMP

Alpha label indicating that the values read in the


column under this heading are temperature indices.
This label can be included only if a TEMP card was
input.

Alpha label indicating that the values read in the


column under this heading are z-factors.

VISC

Alpha label indicating that the values read in the


column under this heading are viscosities.

ipk

Index referring to the k-th pressure value read.

itm

Index referring to the m-th temperature value read.


This index can be included only if a TEMP card was
input.

zkm

The z-factor value corresponding to the indicated


pressure (and temperature) value(s).

visckm

The viscosity value corresponding to the indicated


pressure (and temperature) value(s), cp (cp).

NOTE:

If the pressure or temperature values cannot fit on one card, then


continuation cards can be used; that is,
PRESSURE

R2003.4 - Landmark

pres1
...

pres2. . .
presk

3-151

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

3.11 Single Phase Injectors


00

00

The algorithm for single phase injectors described below is automatically


used for such a well unless ITUBE data has been input for the well.
The algorithm implemented in VIP-EXECUTIVE for handling tubinghead
pressure constraints for single phase injectors is based on the average
pressure and temperature method as described on pp. 103-104 of Gas
Production Operations by H. Dale Beggs (Reference 1).

3.11.1 Tubing Length Assignment (TUBE)


00

00

Must be defined if THP data are entered for an injector.


The TUBE data are used in conjunction with the DIAM data to relate
tubinghead pressure to bottomhole pressure.
TUBE
tl1
dzw1

00

. . .
. . .

tln
dzwn

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which tl and dzw values are being


entered (see Section 1.5.2).

tl

Effective tubing length, ft (m). Includes the


equivalent tubing length of any downhole
equipment.

dzw

Vertical distance from the wellhead to the first set of


perforations, ft (m).

NOTE:

3-152

wl
tl2
dzw2

1.

The number of tl and dzw values must equal the number of


wells in the well list.

2.

The bottomhole pressure printed in well reports is referenced


to a depth of wdat (see WLWDAT card, Section 3.6.5), which
must be measured from the same reference point as is used for
gridblock depths.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

3.11.2 Tubing Diameter/Friction Factor (DIAM)


00

00

Must be defined if THP data are entered for an injector.


The DIAM data are used in conjunction with the TUBE data to relate
tubinghead pressure to bottomhole pressure.
DIAM
diam1
eps1

00

wl
diam2
eps2

. . .
. . .

diamn
epsn

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which diam and eps values are


being entered (see Section 1.5.2).

diam

Inside diameter of the tubing, inches (centimeters).

eps

Tubing roughness factor, inches (centimeters).

NOTE:

1.

The number of diam and eps values must equal the number of
wells in the well list.

2.

Friction factors are calculated by the Jain equation (Reference


3).

3.11.3 Specify Density and Viscosity Values (WTRTHP)


00

00

The WTRTHP card applies to water injectors on tubinghead pressure


control.
The WTRTHP card is used to specify the density and viscosity values that
are input to the "average pressure and temperature method" for water
injectors on tubinghead pressure control. Internally calculated values are
used if this data is not entered.
WTRTHP
DENSITY
VISCOSITY

00

dens2
visc2

. . .
. . .

densn
viscn

Definitions:
wl

R2003.4 - Landmark

wl
dens1
visc1

List of water injection wells for which dens and visc


values may be specified (see Section 1.5.2).

3-153

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

DENSITY

Alpha label indicating that the following values are


water densities, gm/cc (gm/cc). Default is to
compute a value internally.

VISCOSITY

Alpha label indicating that the following values are


water viscosities, cp (cp). Default is to use the vw
input on the constants card in VIP-CORE (Section
2.2.4).

NOTE:

1.

The number of dens and visc values, if specified, must equal


the number of wells in the well list.

2.

Both the DENSITY and VISCOSITY cards need not be


specified. The program will accept either one or both.

3.12 Pattern Balancing (Not available in VIP-THERM)


3.12.1 Pattern Balancing Option (PATTN)
00

The PATTN card is used to specify whether the pattern balancing option is
to be used.

ON
PATTN

ATWAG
OFF

00

Defintions:
ON

Alpha label indicating that the pattern balancing


option is to be used.

ATWAG

Alpha label indicating that the pattern balancing


option with automatic WAG option is to be used.
This option is currently compatible only with the
miscible option.

OFF

Alpha label indicating that the pattern balancing


option will not be used. This is the default.

NOTE:

The pattern balancing option is not compatible with the following


options: the water voidage replacement option, the gas voidage
replacement option, and the general injection region option.
The PATNCI and PATNPP cards are required to define a pattern.
The NPTNMX parameter on the DIM card is used to define the

3-154

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Well Data

maximum number of patterns.


Currently, the ATWAG option is only available with the miscible
option. If the option is chosen, the ATWGVA, ATWGCL, and
ATWGCT cards must also be entered.

00

Example:
PATTN

00

ON

3.12.2 Assign Central Injection Wells to a Pattern or Turn Off Pattern


Balancing (PATNCI )
00

The PATNCI card is used to assign appropriate central injection wells to a


pattern. Each central injection well can only be assigned to one pattern.

PATNCI

00

npn

WAG ratio

ATWAG tcycle

voidf

wl

or

PATNCI

npn

WAG ratio

ATWAG tcycle

voidf

nw
lyrl
(data card may be repeated as necessary)

00

or
PATNCI

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

npn

OFF

Definitions:
npn

Pattern number to which the injection wells are


assigned.

WAG

Alpha label indicating that the injectors in a pattern


are a pair of WAG injectors (one water injector and
one gas injector).

ratio

WAG ratio at reservoir conditions.

ATWAG

Alpha label indicating that the injector in a pattern


is an automatic WAG (explicit) injector.

3-155

Well Data

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

tcycle

Automatic WAG cycle period, months.

voidf

Voidage factor for a pattern. Voidage times voidage


factor is the voidage injection target.

wl

List of injection wells for a pattern (see Section


1.5.2). Production from all layers will be used in the
voidage calculation.

nw

Injection well number or well name.

lyrl

List of layers to be used in the voidage calculation.

OFF

Alpha label indicating that the pattern balancing


option for the pattern will be turned off.

NOTE:

If the WAG option is selected, two wells, one water injector and one
gas injector, must be specified. Both wells must have the same
layers for the voidage calculation. The calculated voidage target
will be distributed to the WAG injectors according to the WAG
ratio.
If the WAG option is not selected and multiple injection wells are
assigned to a pattern, the voidage calculation layers specified for
each injector may not overlap.
The parameter ratio may be set to zero, implying a gas injector
only. But two wells must still be defined.

00

00

3-156

Example:
PATNCI
PATNCI
3
4
PATNCI
PATNCI

1
2
1
4
3
4

1.0
0.8
-3
-6
OFF
WAG

2.0

0.9

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

3.12.3 Assign a Peripheral Production Well and Production Fractions to


Multiple Patterns (PATNPP)
00

The PATNPP card is used to assign a peripheral production well to


multiple patterns.

PATNPP nw
pnl
(prodf1

00

EDGE ALL

INNER LIQUID
prodf2 ...

prodfn)

Definitions:
nw

Peripheral production well number or name.

EDGE

Alpha label indicating that the producer is a


boundary producer. The summation of the
production fractions over all patterns for each
boundary producer must be less than one.

INNER

Alpha label indicating that the producer is an


interior producer. This is the default. The
production fractions for each interior producer
must sum up to one over all patterns.

ALL

Alpha label indicating that the patterns voidage is


calculated using all three phases. This is the default.

LIQUID

Alpha label indicating that the patterns voidage is


calculated using liquid only.

pnl

List of patterns to which a peripheral productor is


being assigned (see Section 1.5.2).

prodf

Production fractions for the production well being


used in patterns voidage calculation. For an
interior producer, default is the inverse of the
number of patterns to which the well is assigned.
For a boundary producer, production fractions
must be specified.

NOTE:

If specified, the number of prodf values must equal the number of


patterns in the pattern list.
The production fractions must be specified when the EDGE option
is used.
If the INNER option is selected and the production fractions for a

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

production well are not specified, the default fraction for each
pattern is the inverse of the number of patterns to which the well is
assigned.

00

00

Example:
PATNPP
1
1
0.25
PATNPP
2
1 2
2*0.25
PATNPP
3
1 2 3 4
1 3
0.4 0.6

EDGE

EDGE

LIQUID

INNER

3.12.4 Same Perforations in Pattern Gas and Water Injectors (WAGPERF)


00

The WAGPERF card is used to insure that gas and water injectors in a
pattern have the same perforations. If the perforations in only one injector
are defined, the other injector will have the same perforations with the
same properties. If the perforations in both wells do not match, the
perforation data in one well (by default, the water well) is honored. The
keyword GASWELL stipulates that the gas well perforations are to be
honored instead.

WAGPERF

00

3-158

OFF

ON ( GASWELL )

Definitions:
OFF

Alpha label indicating that the same perforation


option is OFF. This is the default if the card is not
entered.

ON

Alpha label indicating that the same perforation


option is ON, with the water injector being the
honored one. This is the default when WAGPERF
with no other parameters is entered.

GASWELL

Alpha label indicating that the gas injector


perforation data is honored, instead of the water
injector.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

3.12.5 Voidage Calculation Based on GOR (PTNGOR)


00

The PTNGOR card is used to activate the option that voidage is to be


computed using liquid phases only if the producer gas-oil ratio is greater
than the user-specified value.
PTNGOR

00

ptngor

Definition:
ptngor

Gas-oil ratio, SCF/STB (SCM/STCM). If the


producer gas-oil ratio is greater than ptngor, liquid
voidage is to be used instead of total voidage.
Default is to use total voidage.

3.12.6 Hydrocarbon Volumes and Angles (ATWGVA)


00

The ATWGVA card is used to assign the hydrocarbon pore volumes and
angles for the wedges between a peripheral producer and pattern
injectors. This card must be input if the automatic WAG option is invoked.
ATWGVA
pnl
PIVOL
PIAGL

00

pivol1 pivol2 ...


piagl1 piagl2 ...

pivoln
piagln

Definitions:
nw

Peripheral production well number or well name.

pnl

List of patterns to which a peripheral producer is


being assigned.

pivol

Hydrocarbon volume for the wedge between the


producer and the injector of each pattern on the
specified pattern list, MSCF (SCM).

piagl

Wedge angle open to flow at the injector of each


pattern on the specified pattern list, radians.

NOTE:

R2003.4 - Landmark

nw

The number of pivol and piagl values must equal the number of
patterns in the pattern list.

3-159

Well Data

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

00

00

Example:
ATWGVA
1
PIVOL
PIAGL

8
2
3388000.
1.5708

6776000.
1.5708

3.12.7 MI Injection Target and Allocation Parameters (ATWGCL)


00

The ATWGCL card is used to specify the total MI injection target for the
automatic WAG option and some user-controlled category allocation
control parameters.
ATWGCL
MITAG
(PCTFQ
(PCTMI
(PCTMN

00

00

00

3-160

mitarg
pctfq)
nctmi)
nctmn)

Definitions:
mitarg

Total MI injection target for all automatic WAG


patterns, MCSF/month (SCM/month).

pctfq

Interval at which the allocation of pattern status


will be recalculated, months. Minimum is 4 months.

nctmi

Minimum number of allocation intervals a new


pattern should be kept at Very Favorable status.

nctmn

Minimum number of allocation intervals a pattern


should be kept at the current status following a
status change.

Example:
ATWCGL
MITAG
PCTFQ
PCTMI
PCTMN

96000.
12.
3
2

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

3.12.8 Category Definitions and Injection Fractions (ATWGCT)


00

The ATWGCT card is used to specify fractions of the total throughput for
each category and fraction of the total MI injection target allocated for
each category.
ATWGCT
pcttpf1
pctmif1

00

00

00

pcttpf3
pctmif3

Definitions:
pcttpfi

Fractions of the total throughput for the Very


Favorable, Normal, and Less Favorable categories,
respectively. Sum of the three must not exceed 1.0.

pctmifi

Fractions of the MI target allocated to the Very


Favorable, Normal, and Less Favorable categories,
respectively. Must sum up to 1.0.

Example:
ATWGCT
0.2
0.4
NOTE:

R2003.4 - Landmark

pcttpf2
pctmif2

0.5
0.5

0.2
0.1

Each of the automatic WAG patterns is assigned as a Very


Favorable (VF), Normal (N), Less Favorable (LF), or Suspended (S)
category based on the patterns returned MI ratio. The VF group is
defined as the best patterns (with lowest returned MI) whose
combined throughput rates (reservoir liquid + gas) total pcttpf1 of
the total throughput. This group is allocated pctmif1 of the
targeted MI. A suspended pattern will not receive any MI
allocation.

3-161

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3.13 Non-Darcy Gas Flow (Not available in VIP-THERM)


00

00

00

Two features modelling non-Darcy gas flow near wells are included in the
well model: (1) pressure dependent density and viscosity, and (2) rate
dependent well skin. These two features can be invoked separately.
A pressure dependent gas density and viscosity is specified by the
WNDGDV card.
A rate dependent skin factor can be specified for a well using the WDNDG
card or, for each perforation, using the FPERF card. When the rate
dependent skin factor option is specified, the well index cannot be zero. A
well index equal to zero is a special case which means adjusting the well
index to honor both the rate and bottomhole pressure constraints. In such
case, rate dependent skin factor does not have effective meanings. Thus, as
error message will print in the output and the simulation run will be
terminated.

3.13.1 Non-Darcy Gas Density and Viscosity Option (WNDGDV)


00

The WNDGDV card is used to specify the method for the calculation of
pressure dependent gas density and viscosity for the well model.

PP
WNDGDV

RG

(relerr

ndim)

STD

00

Definitions:
PP

Pseudo pressure option.

RG

Russel Goodrich option.

STD

Standard option. This is the default.

relerr

Maximum relative error to be used in the


integration of density to viscosity ratio for pseudo
pressure option. Default maximum relative error is
0.01.

ndim

Maximum number of intervals to be used in the


integration is 2(ndim-1). The default ndim is 7; thus
the default maximum number of intervals is 64.

NOTE:

3-162

The pseudo pressure method uses an integration average between


the gridblock pressure and the wellbore pressure adjusted to the
gridblock depth to calculate density to viscosity ratio. The

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

trapezoidal rule with Rombergs extrapolation method is used for


the integration.
The Russell Goodrich method uses an average of the gridblock
pressure and the wellbore pressure adjusted to the gridblock depth
to calculate the injection and production gas density and viscosity.
STD option uses the gridblock pressure to calculate the wellbore
viscosity and density. The bottomhole pressure is not included in
the calculation.

Relerr and ndim are used only when the PP option is selected.
00

Example:
WNDGDV PP 0.005 8

00

3.13.2 Specify Rate-Dependent Skin Factors for Non-Darcy Gas Flow


(WDNDG)
00

The WDNDG card is used to specify well rate dependent skin factors for
non-Darcy gas flow.
INVK

INVKH

CON

WDNDG

wd1

00

wd2

wdn

Definitions:
INVK

Inverse thickness option is used to allocate the well


skin factor to its perforations. This is the default.

INVKH

Inverse thickness-permeability option is used to


allocate the well skin factor to its perforations.

CON

Each perforation has the same rate dependent skin


factor (the input wd value).

wl

List of wells for which wd values are being entered


(see Section 1.5.2).

wd

Rate dependent skin factor, D/MSCF (D/SCM).

NOTE:

R2003.4 - Landmark

...

wl

The number of wd values must equal the number of wells in the


well list.

3-163

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

The perforation skin factors are calculated from the input well skin
factor. When new perforation information is specified in the FPERF
card, the program recalculates the skin factor for each perforation.

00

00

Example:
WDNDG
5*0.001

1 -5

3.14 Automatic Recompletion Units


3.14.1 Recompletion Unit Status and Limit Data (RCMPPERF)
00

The RCMPPERF card is used to define the automatic recompletion units


for wells. A TSTPRF card must be active for this option to be operational.
RCMPPERF
WELL
RCMPUNT
(other headings)
nw
unit
(other data)
(Data cards are repeated as necessary to describe all the
units for each applicable well.)

00

3-164

Definitions:
WELL

Column heading for nw - the well number which


must be entered for each data card. For multiple
units in the single well the alpha label X can be
substituted for the well number on each data card
after the first.

RCMPUNT

Column heading for unit - a recompletion unit for


this well. Values must lie between 1 and the largest
unit number specified for this well on the FPERF
card.

STATUS

Column heading for status - the producing status of


the performations in this unit. The possible values
are:
OPEN

Perforations are open to production


(i.e., perforation status remains
unchanged). This is the default.

AUTO

Perforations are currently closed.


The unit is eligible to be opened
when an open unit is shut for limit
violations.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Data

SHUT

R2003.4 - Landmark

Perforations are closed. They can be


opened only by subsequent
RCMPPERF data.

OILMIN

Column heading for oilmin - minimum total oil


rate for a unit, STB/D (STCM/D). A violation
causes the perforations in the unit to be closed and
another unit (if available) to be opened. Default is 0.

GASMIN

Column heading for gasmin - minimum total gas


rate for a unit, MSCF/D (SCM/D). A violation
causes the perforations in the unit to be closed and
another unit (if available) to be opened. Default is 0.

GASMAX

Column heading for gasmax - maximum total gas


rate for a unit, MSCF/D (SCM/D). A violation
causes the perforations in the unit to be closed and
another unit (if available) to be opened. Default is
1.E20.

WTRMAX

Column heading for wtrmax - maximum total


water rate for a unit, STB/D (STCM/D). A violation
causes the perforations in the unit to be closed and
another unit (if available) to be opened. Default is
1.E20.

GORMAX

Column heading for gormax - maximum total gasoil ratio for a unit, SCF/STB (SCM/STCM). A
violation causes the perforations in the unit to be
closed and another unit (if available) to be opened.
Default is 1.E20.

GLRMAX

Column heading for glrmax - maximum total gasliquid ratio for a unit, SCF/STB (SCM/STCM). A
violation causes the perforations in the unit to be
closed and another unit (if available) to be opened.
Default is 1.E20.

LGRMAX

Column heading for lgrmax - maximum total


liquid-gas ratio for a unit, STB/MMSCF (STCM/
MSCM). A violation causes the perforations in the
unit to be closed and another unit (if available) to be
opened. Default is 1.E20.

WCTMAX

Column heading for wctmax - maximum total


water-cut for a unit, fraction. A violation causes the
perforations in the unit to be closed and another
unit (if available) to be opened. Default is 1.

STMMAX

Column heading, in VIP-THERM only, for stmmaxmaximum total steam rate for a unit, STB/D

3-165

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

(STCM/D). A violation causes the perforations in


the unit to be closed and another unit, if available,
to be opened. Default is I.E.20.
SORMAX

Column heading, in VIP-THERM only, for


SORMAX-maximum total steam-oil ratio for a unit,
STB(CWE)/STB (STCM(CWE)/STCM). A violation
causes the perforations in the unit to be closed and
another unit, if available, to be opened. Default is
I.E.20.

This data may only be specified if the dimension nrcmun is greater


than zero.

NOTE:

At least one of the other headings must appear on the title card
along with the WELL and RCMPUNT headings.
Any number of the other headings may be specified, up to and
including all of them. For any unspecified status or limit, the
previously input value or the default value will be used.
The recompletion unit number must be less than or equal to the
maximum unit number specified for the well on the FPERF card.

00

Example:
RCMPPERF
WELL
1
X
X
X
X
2
X
X
X

00

RCMPUNT
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4

WCTMAX
0.95
0.90
0.95
0.95
0.99
0.85
0.85
0.85
0.85

STATUS
OPEN
AUTO
AUTO
AUTO
AUTO
OPEN
AUTO
AUTO
AUTO

OILMIN
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

3.14.2 Order for Opening Recompletion Units (RCMPOR)


00

The RCMPOR card is used to define the order in which recompletion units
should be considered for opening.
RCMPOR
iu1

3-166

wl
iu2

...

iuk

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00

Well Data

Definitions:
wl

List of wells to which this unit order list applies (see


see Section 1.5.2).

iu

Order in which the recompletion units should be


considered for opening when a currently open unit
is closed for a limit violation.

NOTE:

This data may only be specified if the dimension nrcmun is greater


than zero.
A unit number may not be specified more than once in the list.
The unit number must be less than or equal to the maximum unit
number specified for the well on the FPERF card.
An order list must be specified for a well if any units with status
AUTO are to be opened.

00

00

Example:
RCMPOR

1
5
1 2 3 4 5

3.15 WAG (Water-Alternating-Gas) Wells


3.15.1 WAG Injection Well Definition (WAG)
00

A WAG card must precede a QMAXWG card for WAG injectors.

WAG

00

RES

FSTD

FRES
STD

GATHER

( GLAST ) wl
FLOSTA
(KEYCMP) cwinj cginj ncycle(GFIRST)

( SHUTIN )
AREA
FIELD

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating units type:

R2003.4 - Landmark

STD

Standard conditions, STB/D (STCM/D) for


water injectors, MSCF/D (SCM/D) for gas injectors. This is the default.

RES

Reservoir conditions, rb/D (cm/D).

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00

00

FSTD

A fraction of the total surface production rate of


the injected phase within a specified level of the
well management hierarchy (see below).

FRES

A fraction of the total fluid withdrawal (at reservoir conditions) within a specified level of the
well management hierarchy (see below).

When FSTD or FRES is specified, the level in the well management


hierarchy upon which replacement is based may be specified. The well
management level may also be specified for MI injectors with STD or RES
specification to identify the level upon which the MI composition
determined from the MI plant in the major gas sales option is to be used
for the injection composition. In this case, YINJ cards for MI injectors
should be omitted and the MI plant calculation for the selected well
management level must be invoked (see PLANT card in Section 4.4). The
well management levels are:
GATHER

Gathering Center. This is the default for FSTD or


FRES specification.

FLOSTA

Flow station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field. This is the default for STD and RES specification with MI plant in the major gas sales
option.

If a gas conditioning plant in the major gas sales option is present, and
keyword DIST is specified in the GASCOND card, a portion of the FSTD
gas injectors may be assigned to receive the key component (component
icomp in the GASCOND card) removed from the sales gas stream using
the following keywords:
KEYCMP

cwinj

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Alpha label indicating that the key component


stream removed from the sales gas in the gas conditioning plant will be injected into the gas injectors specified in this WAG card. These gas
injectors must be specified as FSTD injectors and
a GASCOND card with keyword DIST must also
be specified.
Cumulative water injection volume per cycle, in
standard units, STB (STCM), if either STD or
FSTD is specified; in reservoir units, rb, if either
RES or FRES is specified. There is no default
value.

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cginj

Cumulative gas injection volume per cycle, in


standard units, MSCF (SCM), if either STD or
FSTD is specified; in reservoir units, rb, if either
RES or FRES is specified. There is no default
value.

ncycle

Total number of WAG cycles to be simulated.


There is no default value.

GFIRST

Alpha label indicating that the WAG cycling


starts with gas injection. Default is water to be
injected first.

GLAST

Alpha label indicating that after the WAG


cycling, injectors defined on this card will be
switched to a gas injector. Default is the wells will
be switched to a water injector.

SHUTIN

Alpha label indicating that after the WAG


cycling, injectors defined on this card will be
shut-in. Default is the wells will be switched to a
water injector.

wl

List of all injection wells with rates specified in


this manner (see Section 1.5.2).

NOTE:

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Well Data

1.

Optionally, exactly one of the labels STD, RES, FSTD, and FRES
may be specified. If none is specified, STD is the default.

2.

Optionally, if either FSTD or FRES is specified, exactly one of


the labels GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, and FIELD may be
specified. If none is specified, GATHER is the default.

3.

Optionally, if either STD or RES is specified and the major gas


sales option (with MI plants) for a well management level is
invoked, the well management level (label GATHER, FLOSTA,
AREA, or FIELD) may be specified to identify the level upon
which the calculated MI composition from the MI plant is to be
used as the injection composition. In this case, the injection
composition (YINJ card) may be omitted (the input of YINJ card
will cause the calculated MI composition to be ignored). If none
is specified, FIELD is the default.

4.

When a production well is converted to an injection well, any


previously input WLIMIT, GLIMIT, or QMIN data will be
ignored, and the ECOLIM unit will be set to the injection phase.
Also, if the producers bhp value is the default value 0 psia,
then the bhp value will be changed to 10,000 psia. Otherwise,
previously input BHP or THP data will be maintained.

5.

Anytime a WAG injection well is specified or respecified as


either STD or RES, and the wells are not to be identified as MI
wells (with MI plant in the major gas sales option), the

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composition of the injected gas must be defined using the YINJ


card.

00

6.

Optionally, if an FSTD WAG injection well is specified and a


GASCOND card with keyword DIST is also present, keyword
KEYCMP may be specified.

7.

Specifying a WAG card for a shut-in well will cause the well to
be turned back on.

8.

For WAG injectors, values of cwinj, cginj, and ncycle must be


specified. The simulator will automatically switch the wells
between water injection and gas injection based on the user
specified cumulative injection volumes per cycle (cwinj &
cginj). The WAG cycling may either start with water injection
(default) or gas injection (if GFIRST is specified). After ncycle
cycles, the wells will be switched to regular water injectors
(default), or regular gas injectors (if GLAST is specified), or
shut-in wells (if SHUTIN is specified). For WAG injectors,
QMAXWG cards must be used to specify both the maximum
water injection rate and the gas injection rate (i.e., QMAX cards
are omitted and replaced by QMAXWG cards). Optionally, a
WAG well may have the same bhp and wdat values (using a
standard BHP card) or different bhp and wdat values (using a
BHPWAG card) or water and gas injection. The user may also
specify the first timestep size after each changeover through a
DTWAG card.

Example:
WAG FSTD FIELD 300000. 450000. 30 GFIRST SHUTIN 21 -30

3.15.2 Maximum Rates for WAG Injectors (QMAXWG)


00

00

Must be preceded by a WAG card.


The QMAXWG card defines the maximum water and gas injection rates a
WAG injector is allowed to inject.
QMAXWG wl
qmaxw1 qmaxw2 ...
qmaxg1 qmaxg2 ...

00

Definitions:
wl

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qmaxwn
qmaxgn

List of wells for which qmaxw and qmaxg values


are being specified (see Section 1.5.2).

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qmaxw

Maximum water injection rate at which the WAG


injector is allowed to inject. Units are determined
by the WAG card. There is no default.

qmaxg

Maximum gas injection rate at which the WAG


injector is allowed to inject. Units are determined
by the WAG card. There is no default.

NOTE:

00

Well Data

1.

During water injection, the WAG well injects at a rate of


qmaxw unless this causes a violation of one of the other
constraints defined by the user. Similarly, the WAG well injects
at a rate of qmaxg during gas injection unless this causes a
violation of one of the other constraints defined by the user. In
these events, the constraint is observed, which causes a rate
reduction.

2.

The number of qmaxw and qmaxg values must equal the


number of wells in the well list.

3.

For the FSTD injection option, qmaxw or qmaxg is the


fraction of the total surface production rate of the injected
phase within the appropriate level. For the FRES injection
option, qmaxw or qmaxg is the fraction of the total reservoir
volume production rate within the appropriate level.

4.

For WAG injectors (WAG card), the QMAXWG card must be


used and the QMAX card must be omitted.

Example:
C
WAG STD 300000. 450000.
QMAXWG
21 -30
5*5000. 5*7000.
5*12000. 5*15000.

30

21

-30

3.15.3 Bottomhole Pressure for WAG Injectors (BHPWAG)


00

00

To invoke BHPWAG constraints, the user must define a productivity/


injectivity index (Section 3.6).
The BHPWAG card allows the user to define separate limiting bottomhole
pressures during water and gas injection for WAG injectors.
BHPWAG
bhpw1
wdatw1
bhpg1
wdatg1

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wl
bhpw2
wdatw2
bhpg2
wdatg2

...
...
...
...

bhpwn
wdatwn
bhpgn
wdatgn

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00

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which bhpw, wdatw, bhpg, and


wdatg values are being entered (see Section
1.5.2).

bhpw

Limiting bottomhole pressure for a WAG injector


during water injection, psia (kPa); i.e., maximum
allowed pressure for a WAG injector during
water injection. Default is 10,000 psia.

wdatw

Depth to which the limiting bottomhole pressure,


bhpw, is referenced, ft (m).

bhpg

Limiting bottomhole pressure for a WAG injector


during gas injection, psia (kPa); i.e., maximum
allowed pressure for a WAG injector during gas
injection. Default is 10,000 psia.

wdatg

Depth to which the limiting bottomhole pressure,


bhpg, is referenced, ft (m).

NOTE:

1.

The number of bhpw, wdatw, bhpg, and wdatg values must


equal the number of wells in the well list.

2. For WAG injectors, BHP and/or WLWDAT cards may be


entered instead of BHPWAG cards. If a BHP card is
entered, the same bhp values will be used for water and
gas injection. If a WLWDAT card is entered, the same
wdat values will be used for water and gas injection.

00

Example:
C Specify bhp for WAG Injectors
BHPWAG
1 -150
150*5000.
150*8800.
150*4500.
150*8800.

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Well Data

3.15.4 Injection Temperature for WAG injectors (TINJWAG, VIP-THERM


Only)
00

The TINJWAG card allows the user to define separate injection


temperatures during water and gas injection for WAG injectors in VIPTHERM. Steam quality and injection pressure for water injection are
specified with the QUAL and PINJ cards as for standard injectors.
TINJWAG wl
tinjw1 tinjw2...tinjwn
tinjg1 tinjg2...tinjgn

00

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which tinjw and tinjg are being


specified (see Section 1.5.2).

tinjw

Injection temperature for water injection,


degrees F (degrees C).

tinjg

Injection temperature for gas injection, degrees F


(degrees C).

3.15.5 Timestep Controls for WAG Injectors (DTWAG)


00

The DTWAG card defines the maximum first timestep sizes following
each changeover for WAG injectors specified in the WAG card.
DTWAG

00

00

dtwtr

Definitions:
dtwtr

The maximum first timestep size (days) following the changeover from gas injection to water
injection for WAG injectors, days.

dtgas

The maximum first timestep size (days) following the changeover from water injection to gas
injection for WAG injectors, days.

Example:
DTWAG

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dtgas

1.5

1.0

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3.16 WBSIM (Gridded Wellbore) Well Definition (Not


Available in VIP-THERM)
Horizontal flow into the wellbore (first vertical column of gridblocks) is
calculated through normal Darcy radial flow equations, with the addition
of an optional skin factor to adjust the transmissivity from gridblock 2 to
gridblock 1 in the perforated layer. The keyword, COMPERF, is used to
define the "perforations", which will then actually replace the reservoir
transport terms for flow between gridblock 2 (reservoir) and gridblock 1
(wellbore) for the specified layers. The initial setup is to have no
perforations at time zero. Perforations can be changed at any time in the
simulator through the use of this keyword input. It is important to note
that each set of COMPERF data are modifications to the perforations, and
are not complete replacements. They may be entered any number of times
throughout the simulator time.

3.16.1 WBSIM Well Perforations (COMPERF)


COMPERF

correl
[K]
[H]
[KH]
[K H]
[k]
[h]
[kh]
[k h]

(rough) (diam)

(vcmult)

(rdamp)

(card 1)

(SKIN)

(LEN)

(ROUGH)

(DIAM)

(card 2)

(skin)

(len)

(rough)

(diam)

(card 3)

[Repeat data card as necessary for subsequent perforations.]

Although the last four variables are optional, they are position dependent,
such that if a variable is to be introduced, all of the variables before it must
also be introduced.

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Well Data

Definitions:
correl

Name of the two-phase wellbore flow correlation to


be used. This must always be specified. The options
are:
NOSLIP

No phase slippage considered.

HAGEDO

Hagedorn and Brown

DUNROS

Dunns and Ross

BEGGS

Beggs and Brill

AZIZ

Aziz, Govier, Fogarasi

ORKISZ

Orkiszewski

GRIFFI

Griffith, Lau, Hon, Pearson

rough

Optional wellbore roughness, ft(m). If entered as -1.,


it will not be used. Otherwise, every interval [layer]
in the wellbore will be set to this value.

diam

Optional wellbore diameter, ft(m). If entered as -1.,


it will not be used. Otherwise, every interval [layer]
in the wellbore will be set to this value.

vcmult

Optional scale factor for the Turner minimum gas


flow velocity necessary to lift liquid drops. Default
value is 1.0.

rdamp

Optional damping factor for phase migration at


velocities below the minimum lift velocity. Default
is 1.0. At upward flow velocities less than the
minimum lift velocity, the mixture density gradient
is replaced by the following damped liquid and
vapor phase gradients in the respective phase
potentials.
vc v
ml = m + ( l m ) -------------------------------------------------
v c + ( rdamp 1 ) v
vc v
mg = m + ( g m ) -------------------------------------------------
v c + ( rdamp 1 ) v

Immediately following the COMPERF data entry line there must be


another line of keywords defining the types of data that will be entered
next in redefining the wellbore perforations.

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Definitions:

3-176

Column heading for l, the layer number for which


this perforation data applies.

Column heading for k, the permeability of this


perforation, md.

Column heading for h, the thickness of this


perforation, ft(m).

KH

Column heading for kh, the permeability-thickness


product of this perforation, md-ft(md-m).

SKIN

Column heading for skin, the skin factor for this


perforation.

LEN

Column heading for len, the actual wellbore length


within this layer, ft(m).

ROUGH

Column heading for rough, the wellbore roughness,


ft(m).

DIAM

Column heading for diam, the wellbore diameter


within this layer, ft(m).

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Well Data

3.16.2 Dynamic Vertical Flow Transport Parameters Calculation


All vertical flow transport parameters for the first column of gridblocks
(wellbore) are calculated dynamically for each timestep, with special
treatment for the phase mobilities. These calculations are as follows :

R2003.4 - Landmark

Phase mobilities for flow in the wellbore are based on the mixture
viscosity, instead of the phase viscosity.

If the gas flow velocity is greater than the minimum gas lift velocity,
the gravity gradients in the wellbore are based on the mixture density,
instead of the individual phase densities. If the gas flow velocity is less
than the minimum gas lift velocity, the damped phase gradients are
used instead of the individual phase gradients.

The pressure drop in the wellbore can be described as the sum of the
pressure drops due to friction, gravity, and kinetic energy. The kinetic
energy pressure loss is usually quite small and is neglected. At the
start of each timestep, the gas and liquid superficial velocities are
calculated based on the converged conditions at the end of the
previous timestep. From this, the Reynolds number and friction factor
are calculated for each segment from the specified correlation, after
which the average mixture velocity and then the equivalent Darcy
velocity are calculated. The effective wellbore vertical permeability
(Kwe) is then calculated, and held constant over the timestep.

Phase "relative permeabilities" in the wellbore are set equal to the


phase saturations, with the exception that krg = * Sg, where is
slippage factor greater than or equal to 1.0, which allows the gas phase
to flow at an equal or greater velocity than the liquid phase. The
slippage is obtained from the specified correlation.

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3.17 Automatic Cycle Control (VIP-THERM)


NOTE:

00

Note: An AUTOCYCLE card must be entered in the utility


data to use this option.

This option is designed to dramatically reduce the user effort required to


make predictive runs for cyclic steam operations,when the schedules of
the well cycles are controlled by measurable conditions. However,it is
implemented in general such that any process involving wells alternating
between injection and production can be automatically controlled.
Wells are automatically switched between injection and production based
on a user-selected set of available constraints. Each cycle consists of an
injection, a soak, and a production phase. The order of the cycle phases
may be specified, i.e. cycles may be defined as injection/soak/production
or as production/injection/soak. The latter allows automatic control of
the length of a primary production period, since all switching and well
constraints may be specified by cycle.
A VIP-EXEC Autocycle report is automatically written to the output file
on each status change (start, stop, phase switching, abort,etc.) for each
cyclic well, which gives well status, action taken, and the reason for the
action taken. For output purposes, the time at the end of any cyclic wells'
injection or production phase (tcpe, which is computed as described in the
following sections) is treated as if a TIME/DATE card were entered at
tcpe. For example, a PRINT WELLS TIME card will result in well
summaries printed to the output file at the end of each injection or
production phase for any cyclic well. A PRINT WELLS TNEXT card will
apply only at the first subsequent time at which a cyclic wells' injection or
production phase ends, or at the next input TIME/DATE card, whichever
occurs first.
Required data (CYCLETABLE, CYCLIC and CSTART) and optional data
(CSTOP and CPERF) are described in the following sections.

3.17.1 Cycle Tables (CYCLETABLE)


Each cycle table is assigned a cycle table number. Wells are defined as
cyclic and assigned to cycle table numbers with the CYCLIC card as
defined in the next section.
The cycle table specifies the well types of the injector (CINJ card and
producer (CPROD card), the constraints to be used for switching from
injection to (soak/) production (ITOP card), the constraints to be used for
switching from production to injection (PTOI card), and the values of the

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Well Data

switching constraints and well constraints (CYCLE data). Optionally,


constraints for aborting cyclic injection/production may be entered
(ABORT card), which if violated result in shutting the well in.
CYCLETABLE (PFIRST) ict
CINJ
W
STD
GATHER
G
RES
FLOSTA
FSTD
AREA
FRES
FIELD
CPROD W
STD
O
RES
G
MOLES
ALL
LIQUID
ITOP A IPLABEL1 A IPLABEL2 ... A IPLABELnip
0
O
O
PTOI A PILABEL1 A PILABEL2 ... A PILABELnip
O
O
O
(ABORT ALABEL1 ALABEL2 ... ALABELna)
CYCLE DTSOAK QMAXI BHPI DEPI (TINJ) (QUAL) (PINJ) QMAXP BHPP DEPP SLABELS
1

dtsoak qmaxi bhpi depi (tinj) (qual) (pinj) qmaxp bhpp depp

sl(ns)

( 2

dtsoak qmaxi bhpi depi (tinj) (qual) (pinj) qmaxp bhpp depp

sl(ns) )

( .

( .

(ncyc dtsoak

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

qmaxi bhpi depi (tinj)

(qual) (pinj)

qmaxp bhpp depp

sl(ns)

Definitions: (the constraint values in the CYCLE data, shown in lower


case, are defined along with their corresponding alpha labels)
PFIRST

Alpha label indicating that the cycle phase order is


injection/soak. The default order is injection/soak/
production.

ict

Cycle table number.

CINJ card

Alpha labels specifying the injector well type for the


cyclic well(s) assigned to this table. See Section 3.4.2
(INJ card) for label definitions.

CPROD card

Alpha labels specifying the producer well type for


the cyclic well(s) assigned to this table. See Section
3.4.1 (PROD card) for label definitions.

ITOP

Alpha label indicating that the following alpha labels


define the constraints to be used for switching from
injection to (soak/)production. The subscripts
shown in the format do not appear in the data deck.

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A, O

Each switching constraint label on the ITOP card


must be preceded by an A or an O. A indicates
'and', and O indicates 'or'. Switching will occur if all
of the 'and' constraints are violated or if any of the
'or' constraints are violated.

nip

The number of ITOP constraints specified. May be


any number greater than zero and less than or equal
to 4.

IPLABELn

Any of the following alpha labels, for n equals 1 to


nip, defining constraints to be used for switching
from injection to (soak/)production;
Switch if (and/or):

QMINI

Injection rate is less than or equal to qmini, STB/D


(STCM/D) for water injectors or MSCF/D (SCM D)
for gas injectors.

CMAX

Cumulative injection is greater than or equal to


cmax, MSTB (MSTCM) for water injectors or
MMSCF (MSCM) for gas injectors.

DTMINI

Injection phase length is greater than or equal to


dtmini, Days.

DTMAXI

Injection phase length is equal to dtmaxi, Days.

PTOI

Alpha label indicating that the following alpha


labels define the constraints to be used for
switching from production to injection. The
subscripts shown in the format do not appear in the
data deck.

A, O

Each switching constraint label on the PTOI card


must be preceded by an A or an O. A indicates
'and', and O indicates 'or'. Switching will occur if all
of the 'and' constraints are violated or if any of the
'or' constraints are violated.

npi

The number of PTOI constraints specified. May be


any number greater than zero and less than or equal
to 8.

PILABELn

Any of the following alpha labels, for n equals 1 to


npi, defining constraints to be used for switching
from production to injection;
Switch if (and/or):

QOMIN

3-180

Oil production rate is less than or equal to qomin,


STB/D (STCM/D).

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Well Data

QGMIN

Gas production rate is less than or equal to qgmin,


MSCF/D (SCM/D).

WCMAX

Water cut is greater than or equal to wcmax,


fraction. Note that the water cut includes all
produced steam in VIP-THERM.

OIRMAX

Ratio of cumulative produced oil in production


phase to cumulative injection in previous injection
phase is greater than or equal to oirmax, (MSTCM/
MSTCM CWE) for CINJ W or MSTB/MMSCF
(MSTCM/MSCM) for CINJ G.

GIRMAX

Ratio of cumulative produced gas in production


phase to cumulative injection in previous injection
phase is greater than or equal to girmax, MMSCF/
MSTB CWE (MSCM/MSTCM CWE) for CINJ W or
MMSCF/MMSCF (MSCM/MSCM) for CINJ G.

TMIN

Average wellblock temperature is less than or equal


to tmin, degrees F (degrees C). Allowed in VIPTHERM only

DTMINP

Production phase length is greater than or equal to


dtmini, Days.

DTMAXP

Production phase length is equal to dtmaxi, Days.

na

Number of abort constraint labels specified on the


ABORT card.

ABORT

Alpha label indicating that the na alpha labels


which follow define the constraints to be used for
aborting the cycles, shutting the well in. All abort
constraints except for DTMXPA are checked at the
end of each each production phase.

ALABELn

Any of the following alpha labels, for n equals 1 to


na:

DTMXPA

Abort if production phase length is greater than or


equal to dtmxpa.

QOAPMN

Abort if average oil production rate over the last set


of injection/soak/production phases is less than or
equal to qoapmn, STB/D (STCM/D).

QGAPMN

Abort if average gas production rate over the last


set of injection/soak/production phases is less than
or equal to qgapmn, MSCF/D (SCM/D).

WCAVMX

Abort if average water cut in the production phase


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(cumulative water produced / cumulative water


produced + cumulative oil produced) is greater
than or equal to wcavmx, STB/STB (STCM/STCM).

3-182

OIRMIN

Abort if ratio of cumulative oil produced in


production phase to cumulative injection in
previous injection phase is less than or equal to
oirmin, STB/STB (STCM/STCM) for CINJ W or
STB/MSCF (STCM/SCM) for CINJ G. This is
referred to as the oil-steam ratio (OSR) in cyclic
steam operations.

GIRMIN

Abort if ratio of cumulative gas produced in


production phase to cumulative injection in
previous injection phase is less than or equal to
girmin, MMSCF/MSTB (MSCM/MSTCM) for CINJ
W or STB/MSCF (MSCM/MSCM) for CINJ G.

ns

The total number of constraint labels specified on


ITOP, PTOI, and ABORT cards, ns = nip + npi + na.

CYCLE

First alpha label on column header card containing


alpha labels for all required well constraints and
containing the set of all ns alpha labels for
constraints specified on ITOP, PTOI, and ABORT
cards (SLABELS).

DTSOAK

Column header for length of soak phase dtsoak,


Days.
Required.

QMAXI

Column header for maximum injection rate qmaxi.


Units are determined by the CINJ card.
Required.

BHPI

Column header for maximum bottomhole pressure


during injection bhpi, psia (kPa).
Required.

DEPI

Column header for reference depth corresponding


to bhpi, depi, ft (m).
Required.

TINJ

Column header for injection temperature tinj,


degrees F (degrees C). Required in VIP-THERM, not
allowed otherwise.

QUAL

Column header for injected steam quality qual,


mass fraction steam. Required in VIP-THERM with
CINJ W, not allowed otherwise.

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NOTE:

Well Data

PINJ

Column header for injected steam pressure pinj,


psia (kPa). Required in VIP-THERM with CINJ W
when any cycle value for qual is equal to zero or
one, not allowed otherwise.

QMAXP

Column header for maximum production rate.


Units are determined by the CPROD card.
Required.

BHPP

Column header for maximum bottomhole pressure


during production bhpp, psia (kPa).
Required.

DEPP

Column header for reference depth corresponding


to bhpp, depp, ft (m).
Required.

ncyc

The number of cycles for which data are specified. If


equal to one, then the data are constant for all
cycles. If greater than one, then NCYCMX must be
specified on the DIM card.

sl(ns)

The values of the ns switching constraints, defined


above with their corresponding alpha labels.

1. Any number (greater than zero) of ITOP, PTOI, and ABORT


constraint labels may be entered in any order. Columns may be
defined on the CYCLE card in any order.
2. The program is dimensioned for a maximum of 10 cycle tables
and for a maximum of 1 cycle entry per cyclic table (ncyc = 1).
These dimensions may be changed through specification of
NCYCTM and NCYCMX on the DIM card.
3. Timestep size will be modified in order to exactly satisfy the
DTSOAK, O DTMINI, O DTMAXI, O DTMINP, and O DTMAXP
switching constraints. It is also modified to exactly satisfy the 'A'
DT constraints if all of the other 'A' constraints are satisfied at the
time the timestep size is computed. Timestep size is not altered to
attempt to satisfy any of the other switching constraints exactly;
they are simply checked for violation at the beginning of each
timestep. Therefore, the maximum timestep size should not be
greater than the maximum allowable error in the predicted lengths
of the cycle phases, unless the phase lengths are controlled only by
time constraints.
4. Other well constraints not included in the cycle table and
described in Section 3.5, for example WLIMIT, GLIMIT, PRFLIM,
YINJ, QSTMX, and GORPEN, may also be entered as desired or
required (YINJ is required for cyclic gas injectors), and they apply
to the appropriate cycle phase.

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5. Options for treatment of production and injection wells


described in Section 3.4, such as WINJMOB, GINJMOB, ITNSTP,
ITNSTQ, and ITNGRE may be entered as desired and apply to the
appropriate cycle phase.
6. Cycling of any well will be automatically aborted for any well in
which the cumulative injection in an injection phase, or the
cumulative oil and gas production in a production phase, is zero.
7. If all defined wells are cyclic, then the run will be automatically
terminated after the cycling of all wells have either finished
(completed the specified maximum number of cycles in the
CYCLIC data), been aborted, or been stopped (CSTOP card).

3.17.2 Cyclic Well Definition (CYCLIC)


Cyclic wells are defined with the CYCLIC card analogously to definitions
of other well types with the PROD, INJ, or WAG cards. Their locations
and perforations are defined as for all wells by WELL and FPERF cards.
Subsets of the total number of perforations defined on the FPERF card
may be defined as open to injection or open to production using the
CPERF card as described in the next section.
Wells specified on the CYCLE card are assigned to cycle tables and are
assigned a maximum number of cycles to complete.
CYCLIC wl
ict1 ict2 ... ictn
ncyc1 ncyc2 ... ncycn

00

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which values are being specified


(see Section 1.5.2).

ict

Cycle table number.

ncyc

Maximum number of cycles to perform.

NOTE:

1. QMAX, QMIN, ECOLIM, BHP, TINJ, QUAL, and PINJ cards


should be omitted for cyclic wells. These constraints are
represented in the cycle table.
2. Wells completing the specified maximum number of cycles are
shut in.
3. The cycle table must be defined before a well is assigned to it.

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3.17.3 Cycle Phase Perforation Status (CPERF)


NOTE:

00

FPERF and CYCLIC data must precede CPERF data.

All perforations open to either injection or production are specified on the


FPERF card. The CPERF card may optionally be used to define the subset
of total perforations open to injection and to production, either statically
or by cycle number. If the number of cycles for which data is specified,
ncyc, is equal to one, then the data are constant for all cycles. All wells in
the well list on a single CPERF card must contain the same number of
perforations. A single set of perforation status values are specified which
apply to all wells in the well list.
CPERF wl
1
i1
X
p1
( 2
i1
( X
p1
( .
( .
( ncyc i1
( X
p1

i2
p2
i2
p2

...
...
...
...

inp
pnp
inp
pnp

)
)
)
)
)
)

i2 ... inp
p2 ... pnp

Definitions:

wl

List of wells for which values are being specified


(see Section 1.5.2).

np

The number of perforations per well.

ncyc

The number of cycles for which dataare specified. If


equal to 1, then the data are constant for all cycles. If
greater than one, then NCYCMX must be specified
on the DIM card.

Alpha label indicating productionperforation status


values follow for the cycle number defined on the
previous card.

i1 i2 .. inp Status for each of the np perforationsfor the cycle


injection phase in order of their definition on the
FPERF card. A value of 0 indicates closed, a value of
1 indicates open.
p1 p2 .. pnp Status for each of the np perforations for the
cycle production phase in order of their definition
on the FPERF card. A value of 0 indicates closed, a
value of 1 indicates open.

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NOTE:

1. The program is dimensioned by default for a maximum value of


ncyc of 1. This value may be changed with the NCYCMX
parameter on the DIM card.
2. If it is desired to change any of the FPERF data by cycle phase for
perforations which are open to both injection and production, then
two perforations should be defined in the same location in the
FPERF data, with injection properties assigned to one and
production properties assigned to the other. The CPERF card can
then be used to inject with injection perforation values and to
produce with production perforation values.
3. If a well using the CPERF option is reperforated with an FPERF
card, the status values are all reset to open. CPERF data may be reentered after the FPERF data.

3.17.4 Start Cycle (CSTART)


00

The CSTART card must follow all CYCLETABLE and CYCLIC data and
initiates the cycles by well or for all cyclic wells in the specified well
management levels. Optionally, cycling in the wells or well management
levels may be specified as starting after completion of all cycling in
another well or well management level.
CSTART

WELL
GATHER
FLOSTA
AREA
FIELD

(AFTER

inum

inuma)

Definitions:

inum

List of well or well management level names or


numbers to start cycling. The rules for inum are the
same as for well lists (see Section 1.5.2).

AFTER, inuma Optional alpha label indicating that the start


of cycling for each well or for each well in the well
management level in the inum list follows
completion of all cycling in the corresponding well
or well management level in the inuma list.
NOTE:

1. AFTER cannot be used with CSTART FIELD.


2. The inum value is arbitrary for CSTART FIELD; it may be
omitted.
3. A wells' cycling is completed when it has performed the

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Well Data

maximum specified number of cycles, when is has been aborted, or


when it has been stopped (CSTOP).
4. Specification of multiple CSTART cards which apply to the same
well will result in a warning message being written to the output
file, unless they are separated by a new CYCLIC specification for
the well (see note 5 below). The first input CSTART card (after the
CYCLIC card) which applies to a given well will be honored.
5. Any cyclic well may be restarted, beginning with cycle number
1, by re-entering CYCLIC and CSTART cards for the well. Any preexisting CPERF data for the well will be retained.

3.17.5 Stop Cycle (CSTOP)


00

The CSTOP card may appear anywhere in the recurrent data after the
corresponding CSTART card and terminates the cycle(s) for the specified
well(s) or for all wells in the specified well management level.
CSTOP

WELL
GATHER
FLOSTA
AREA
FIELD

inum

Definitions:

inum

NOTE:

List of well or well management level names or


numbers to stop cycling. The rules for inum are the
same as for well lists (see Section 1.5.2)

1. The first CSTOP card input which applies to a given well is


honored. Subsequent CSTOP cards applying to that well are
ignored.
2. Specifying a CSTOP card for a well which has not been started
by a CSTART card, or which has not started to cycle due to AFTER
constraints, will override the CSTART/AFTER cards, and will
result in a warning message being written to the output file.
3. A cyclic well that is stopped by a CSTOP card can be restarted by
subsequent input of CYCLIC and CSTART cards for the well. The
cycle number is reset to 1 in this case.

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3.18 Condensate Banking


00

00

In gas condensate reservoirs, a liquid phase appears near the wellbore


when the pressure in this region drops below the dewpoint. Initially, the
liquid is immobile. Gas relative permeability is also decreased. The
degree of decrease depends on the saturation of the liquid phase and the
shape of the gas relative permeability curve. In a normal coarse grid
system, the decline in gas productivity is underestimated because the gas
saturation used for well productivity calculations is that of the entire
gridblock. Condensate banking more closely approximates the loss of gas
productivity by integrating mobility from the bottomhole flowing
pressure to the gridblock pressure. Gas saturation can be related to the
pressure by certain simple assumptions.
To use condensate banking, both the CNDBNK and CNDBWL keywords
must be specified.
When velocity dependency is applied to wells, the condensate banking
option is automatically activated for every production well. The
parameters on the condensate banking control cards are ignored, except
for the number of intervals to be used for the numerical integration. By
default, four intervals are used in each phase region. Condensate banking
can be used with or without velocity effects.

00

3.18.1 Condensate Banking Calculation Parameters (CNDBNK)


00

The CNDBNK card is used to turn on the condensate banking option and
to adjust the numerical integration parameters. Usually, it is sufficient to
just use the CNDBNK keyword without any additional parameters, which
indicates that a trapezoid rule with four intervals will be used for the
integration.

CNDBNK

TRAP nint

ROM ndim ( eps )

Definitions:

3-188

TRAP

Numerical integration is performed using the


trapezoidal integration method. If the CNDBNK
keyword is entered with no other parameters, this is
the default method used.

nint

Number of integration intervals used for the


trapezoidal method. The default number of
intervals is 4.

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00

00

Well Data

ROM

Numerical integration is performed using the


Romberg method, which sets the number of
integration intervals depending on the maximum
relative error specified by eps.

ndim

The maximum number of integration intervals used


by the Romberg method is calculated as 2**(ndim1). The actual number of intervals used may be less
than this number, but it cannot exceed it. By
default, ndim is set to 7, which in turn sets the
maximum number of intervals to 64.

eps

The maximum relative error used to determine the


number of integration intervals appropriate for
Romberg integration. By default, eps is set to 0.01.
The ndim parameter must precede eps.

Example:
C Use default condensate banking integration parameters
CNDBNK

3.18.2 Selective Application of Condensate Banking (CNDBWL)


Condensate banking may be selectively turned on for a list of wells. It
may also be applied to all wells within a gathering center, a flow station,
an area, or the field. Condensate banking will not be automatically used
for any well by use of just the CNDBNK keyword.
To selectively apply condensate banking to particular wells, the CNDBWL
keyword is used in the following form:

CNDBWL

WELL

ON

OFF

wl

Definitions:

R2003.4 - Landmark

WELL

Indicates that condensate banking will be


selectively turned on or off for the wells in the
following list.

ON

Indicates condensate banking will be applied.

OFF

Indicates condensate banking will not be applied.

wl

List of wells for which the condensate banking data


applies (see Section 1.5.2).

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00

To selectively apply condensate banking to all the wells in a particular


well group hierarchy, the CNDBWL keyword is used in the following
form:

CNDBWL

GATHER
FLOSTA
AREA
FIELD

inum

ON

OFF

00

Definitions:

3-190

GATHER

Turn condensate banking on or off for the specified


gathering center.

FLOSTA

Turn condensate banking on or off for the specified


flow station.

AREA

Turn condensate banking on or off for the specified


area.

FIELD

Turn condensate banking on or off for the field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

ON

Turn condensate banking on for the specified well


group.

OFF

Turn condensate banking off for the specified well


group.

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3.19 Well Index Multipliers


00

The well index multiplier option allows the user to simulate the effect of
phenomena such as water scaling on the well index of producing wells.
The computed multiplier is determined from a table of multipliers as a
function of historical maximum water cut; i.e., the WI damage is
irreversible.

3.19.1 Assignment of WI Multiplier Tables (WIMUWL)


WIMUWL
itab1

00

wl
itab2...itabn

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which tables are being assigned (see


Section 1.5.2).

itab

Number of the WI multiplier table for this well.


Default is 0.

NOTE:

The number of itab values must equal the number of wells in the
well list.
A value of 0 for itab denotes that the multiplier option is disabled
for the well.

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3.19.2 WI Multiplier Tables (WIMULTAB)


WIMULTAB
WCUT
wcut1
.
.
.
wcutn

itab
WIMULT
wimult1
.
.
.
wimultn

00

Definitions:

00

itab

Number of the WI multiplier table being read.

WCUT

Alpha label indicating that this column contains


water-cut data. The order of the WCUT and
WIMULT columns may be reversed.

WIMULT

Alpha label indicating that this column contains WI


multipliers. The order of the WCUT and WIMULT
columns may be reversed.

wcut

Historical maximum water cut, fraction. Values


must increase monotonically and may be unequally
spaced.

wimult

WI multipliers.

3.19.3 Outer Iteration Number (ITNWIMULT)


00

The ITNWIMULT card is used to set the outer iteration number after
which the WI multiplier will not be updated.
ITNWIMULT

00

Definition:
itnwim

NOTE:

3-192

itnwim

Outer iteration number. Default is 1 and the


maximum value is 3.
In order to insure good material balance, if itnwim is greater than
1, the itnmin value on the ITNLIM card must be greater than
itnwim.

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00

00

Well Data

Example:
DIM

NWIMMX
2
WIMULTAB
WCUT
0.0
0.2
0.5
0.8
1.0
WIMULTAB
WCUT
0.0
0.1
0.3
0.6
0.7
1.0
WIMUWL
ITNWIMULT

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NWIMV
6
1
WIMULT
1.0
0.8
0.5
0.3
0.1
2
WIMULT
1.0
0.8
0.5
0.3
0.2
0.01
A-01 A-02
2
1
1

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Chapter

4
Well Management Level Data

00000

4.1 Introduction
00

Reporting of production/injection results and various production/


injection constraints may be given at the gathering center, flow station,
area, and/or field levels. (Only one field exists in the model. All areas are
attached to the field.) The following data cards set up the hierarchy among
the levels.

4.2 Well Management Levels


4.2.1 Well Management Level Definition (GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA)
GATHER
FLOSTA
AREA

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

igc
ifs
iar

(gcname)
(fsname)
arname

fsnum
areanm

(card 1)
(card 2)
(card 3)

Definitions:
GATHER

Alpha label indicating a gathering center is being


defined.

igc

Gathering center number.

gcname

Gathering center name. The first character in the


name must be alphabetic unless the name is
immediately preceded by the character #. Only the
first six (6) characters of the name are retained.
Default is blanks.

fsnum

Flow station number to which this gathering center


belongs. Default is 1.

FLOSTA

Alpha label indicating a flow station is being


defined.

ifs

Flow station number.

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fsname

Flow station name. The first character in the name


must be alphabetic unless the name is immediately
preceded by the character #. Only the first six (6)
characters of the name are retained. Default is
blanks.

areanm

Area number to which this flow station belongs.


Default is 1.

AREA

Alpha label indicating an area is being defined.

iar

Area number.

arname

Area name. The first character in the name must be


alphabetic unless the name is immediately
preceded by the character #. Only the first six (6)
characters of the name are retained. Default is
blanks.

4.2.2 Fraction of Time Management Level is Onstream (ONTIME)


00

00

00

Ontime factors do not apply to injection wells using either of the FSTD or
FRES reinjection options.
The ONTIME card is used to specify the fraction of the time that a well is
actually producing/injecting. The fraction is applied to the well rate after
the rate has been determined by QMAX or pressure constraints and after
the well minimum rate (QMIN), water cut (WLIMIT), and GOR (GLIMIT)
checks.
Ontime factors may be input at the well level or at any other level of well
management. The effective ontime factor for a well will be the one
specified at the lowest level of the well hierachy; that is, the first userspecified factor found in this order:
1. the well,
2. the appropriate gathering center,
3. the appropriate flow station,
4. the appropriate area,
5. the field.

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GATHER
FLOSTA

ONTIME

inum

AREA
FIELD

00

ALL
PROD
INJ

ontime

MULT
ALLWELLS

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified ontime factor applies:
GATHER

Gathering center.

FLOSTA

Flow station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

Alpha label indicating that the ontime value applies to:

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ALL

All the wells. This is the default.

PROD

Producing wells only.

INJ

Injecting wells only.

ontime

Fraction of the time that each well is actually


producing/injecting. Default is 1.0.

MULT

Alpha label indicating that the ontime factor


specified on this card will be a multiplier to any
previously specified ontime factor at the AREA
level or below. The value on this card will apply if
no ontime factors have previously been specified.
This may only be input if FIELD was entered.

ALLWELLS

Alpha label indicating that the ontime factor


applies to all wells of the appropriate type (ALL,
PROD, or INJ) in the field, superceding any
previously entered factor. This may only be input if
FIELD was entered.

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NOTE:

4-198

1.

One and only one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD


labels must be specified. There is no default. When FIELD is
specified the inum entry may be omitted or the value 1 may be
input; no other value will be accepted.

2.

One and only one of the ALL, PROD, or INJ labels may be
specified. If none is specified, ALL is assumed.

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4.3 Production and Injection Targeting


4.3.1 Production Target (PTARG)
00

A PTARG card is used to define a maximum production rate for a


gathering center, a flow station, an area, or the field.

GATHER
FLOSTA

PTARG

O
inum

qtarg

AREA
FIELD

00

LFTGAS
NOLFTGAS

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified maximum production rate applies:
GATHER

Gathering center.

FLOSTA

Flow station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

Alpha label indicating the maximum rate is based on:

R2003.4 - Landmark

Oil production, STB/D (STCM/D).

Water production, STB/D (STCM/D).

Gas production, MSCF/D (SCM/D).

Liquid production, STB/D (STCM/D).

qtarg

Maximum production rate.

LFTGAS

Alpha label indicating that the gas production


target qtarg also includes the amount of gaslift gas
used in the specified level of well management.
This option applies only when the label G is
specified.

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NOLFTGAS

00

Alpha label indicating that the gas production


target qtarg does not include gaslift gas. This is the
default. This option applies only when the label G is
specified.

Notes:
1. For predictive well management, a different format of PTARG card
should be used. Refer to Chapter 5 of this manual.
2. One and only one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD labels
must be specified. There is no default. When FIELD is specified the
inum entry may be omitted, or the value 1 may be input; no other
value will be accepted.
3. One and only one of the O, W, G or L labels must be specified. There is
no default. Separate maxima can be established for oil, water, gas, and
liquid by reading multiple PTARG cards.
4. The oil, water, gas and liquid maxima may be exceeded by the
tolerance factors specified on the TRGTOL card before violations
occur.
5. The maximum rate criteria are satisfied first at the gathering center
level, then the flow station level, then the area level, and finally at the
field level. The order in which phase targets are checked at any well
management level is determined by the data specified using the
TRGORD card. If the TRGORD card is not specified, the default order
is: oil, gas, liquid, water.
6. The method used to satisfy the maxima may be specified on the
TRGOPT card.
7. The LSCALE card may be used to specify how well rates should be
recomputed when reductions are necessary. The choices are linear
scaling or rigorous recomputation.
8. Wells whose rates have been reduced due to targeting are designated
by TARG in the production well summary.
9. Well rates will never be reduced below trgqmn, except possibly by the
AVG method.
10. The labels LFTGAS and NOLFTGAS apply only when the label G is
specified.

00

00

4-200

Example:
PTARG
PTARG
PTARG

FIELD
GATHER
AREA

1
2
1

O
L
G

150000
50000
10000

LFTGAS

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4.3.2 Production Target History Option (PTARGH)


00

A PTARGH card is used to activate the option that production targets are
honored, even if well production rates must be increased above their
specified maxima.

ON

PTARGH

OFF

00

Definitions:
ON

Alpha label indicating that the production target


history option is to be used.

OFF

Alpha label indicating that the production target


history option is not to be used. This is the default.

NOTE:

R2003.4 - Landmark

1.

When the PTARGH option is on and a production rate in a


member of a well management level falls below its userspecified production target (PTARG), a scaling algorithm is
used to increase the rates in appropriate wells. An appropriate
well is a well in the affected member of well management
whose production rate is at the specified well maximum
(QMAX).

2.

Only one pass through the appropriate wells is undertaken. If a


well cannot produce at its new increased rate, it will produce
what it can and the target will not be reached.

3.

When the PTARGH option is on, the LSCALE option must be


off; i.e., the perforation rates will be recalculated, not scaled.
OFF is the default value for LSCALE.

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4.3.3 Production Target Frequency (PTGFRQ)


00

The PTGFRQ card is used to control the frequency with which the ordered
lists of wells (i.e., GOR, WCUT) used in production targeting are created.

MONTHS
PTGFRQ

freq

DAYS
TSTEPS

00

Definitions:
freq

Frequency with which the ordered lists of wells


used in the production targeting calculations will be
created. Default is every timestep.

MONTHS

Alpha label that sets the unit for freq to months.

DAYS

Alpha label that sets the unit for freq to days.

TSTEPS

Alpha label that sets the unit for freq to timesteps.

NOTE:

1.

When the TEST card frequency for attempting to reopen one or


more shut-in wells causes the test to occur when the targeting
is being delayed by the PTGFRQ data, the test will be deferred
until the next time the full targeting algorithm is performed.

2.

Within the simulator the date on a DATE card is considered to


be the beginning of that day. For example, if output is desired
at the end of March 1988, the date card should contain 1/4/88
and not 31/3/88. Thus the MONTHS option on the frequency
card will force a timestep to start at the date 1/month/year.

4.3.4 Options for Reduction of Rates to Meet Target (TRGOPT)


00

4-202

A TRGOPT card is used in conjunction with the PTARG card to define the
method of reducing the phase rate of wells to meet the specified phase
targets.

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SCALE
AVG
O
TRGOPT

GOR

G
WCUT

WRATE

GRATE
AVGGOR

00

Definitions:

00

Alpha label indicating the option is specified for:

00

Oil phase.

Water phase.

Gas phase.

Liquid phase.

Alpha label indicating the action to be taken when the sum of the oil
deliverabilities of producing wells exceeds the specified phase targets:
SCALE

Scale the rates of all wells to exactly hit the target.


This is the default if the TRGOPT card is omitted for
oil and liquid targets. This option can be selected for
any phase target.

AVG

Reset the rates of appropriate wells to an average


rate. That is, if a wells oil rate is designated as
*

WPO i , then the reset rates will be


*

WPO i = min (WPOi , AVG),


where AVG has been computed to satisfy
Oil Target =

WPOi

This option can be selected for any phase target.

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GOR

Reduce the production rate of the highest GOR


wells to a user-specified minimum rate (TRGQMN
card) until the phase target is reached. This is the
default if the TRGOPT card is omitted for gas target.

WCUT

Reduce the production rate of the highest water-cut


wells to a user-specified minimum rate (TRGQMN

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card) until the phase target is reached. This is the


default if the TRGOPT card is omitted for water
target.
WRATE

Reduce the production rate of the highest water rate


wells to a user-specified minimum rate (TRGQMN
card) until the phase target is reached.

GRATE

Reduce the production rate of the highest gas rate


wells to a user-specified minimum rate (TRGQMN
card) until the phase target is reached.

AVGGOR

Reset the rates of appropriate wells to an average


rate based on GOR. The set of wells to be reduced
will be those whose GOR is above a calculated
target. This option can only be selected for gas
target.

NOTE:

One and only one of the O, W, G, or L labels must be specified.


There is no default. Separate options can be specified for oil, water,
gas, and liquid by reading multiple TRGOPT cards.
One and only one of the SCALE, AVG, GOR, WCUT, WRATE,
GRATE, or AVGGOR labels must be specified.
A wells rate is never reduced below trgqmn by the SCALE, GOR,
WCUT, WRATE, and GRATE methods. The AVG and AVGGOR
methods can drop a well below trgqmn, although it is highly
unlikely this would ever occur.
The options specified on a TRGOPT card for gas and water phase
targets are ignored when GASWAT has been chosen on the
TRGORD card. In this case the rate at the highest GOR well is
reduced to TRGQMN, then the rate of the highest water-cut well is
reduced to TRGQMN, then the next highest GOR well, then the
next highest water-cut well, etc., until the target(s) is (are) met.

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4.3.5 Order for Checking Phase Targets (TRGORD)


00

The TRGORD card is used in conjunction with the PTARG and TRGOPT
cards to define the order for reducing the various phase rates of wells to
meet specified phase production targets.

TRGORD

OIL

GAS

LIQUID

OIL

LIQUID

WATER

GASWAT

00

Definitions:

00

Alpha label indicating the option is specified for checking targets for:
OIL

Oil phase.

GAS

Gas phase.

LIQUID

Liquid phase.

WATER

Water phase.

GASWAT

Gas and water simultaneously. This method


involves decreasing rates of wells to TRGQMN
until the target(s) is (are) met in the following order:
highest GOR, highest water-cut, next highest GOR,
etc.

NOTE:

The default ordering is: OIL GAS LIQUID WATER


The TRGORD card can only be used in one of the formats described
above; i.e., either the four OIL, WATER, GAS, and LIQUID labels
must be specified or the OIL, LIQUID, and GASWAT labels must be
specified - each set of labels can be in any order. The order in which
phases are specified determines the order in which various phase
targets are checked at each level of well management, starting from
the gathering center.

4.3.6 Minimum Rate for Use in Targeting Calculations (TRGQMN)


00

R2003.4 - Landmark

A TRGQMN card is used to define the minimum rate to which the well
rate is cut back when a phase target is being satisfied at any well
management level.

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O
G

TRGQMN

wl

W
LIQUID
trgqmn1 trgqmn2 ... trgqmnn

00

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the minimum production rates are being
specified for:
O

Oil phase, STB/D (STCM/D).

Gas phase, MSCF/D (SCM/D).

Water phase, STB/D (STCM/D).

LIQUID

Liquid phase, STB/D (STCM/D).

wl

List of wells for which trgqmn values are being


specified (see Section 1.5.2).

trgqmn

Minimum rate to which the wells rate is cut back


when meeting a phase target. Default is 0.
The number of trgqmn values must equal the number of wells in
the well list.

NOTE:

00

Examples:
TRGQMN O 2 -14 18 22 24 -37 41
30*0.0

00

4.3.7 Well Rate Maximum Tolerances (TRGTOL)


00

The TRGTOL card is used to specify the factor by which each of the oil,
gas water, and liquid maxima may be exceeded before violations occur.
TRGTOL

00

opttol

wpttol

(lpttol)

Definitions:
opttol

4-206

gpttol

Factor by which oil maxima may be exceeded


before a violation occurs. Default is 0.05.

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gpttol

Factor by which gas maxima may be exceeded


before a violation occurs. Default is 0.05.

wpttol

Factor by which water maxima may be exceeded


before a violation occurs. Default is 0.05.

lpttol

Factor by which liquid maxima may be exceeded


before a violation occurs. Default is 0.05.

4.3.8 Injection Target (ITARG)


00

An ITARG card is used to define a maximum injection rate for a gathering


center, a flow station, an area, the field, or an injection region.

GATHER
FLOSTA
ITARG

inum

AREA

qtarg

FIELD
INJREG

00

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified maximum injection rate applies:
GATHER

Gathering center.

FLOSTA

Flow station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

INJREG

Injection region.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

Alpha label indicating the maximum rate is based on:


W

Water injection, STB/D (STCM/D).

Gas injection, MSCF/D (SCM/D).

qtarg

R2003.4 - Landmark

Maximum injection rate.

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NOTE:

00

1.

One and only one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, FIELD, or


INJREG labels must be specified. There is no default. When
FIELD is specified the inum entry may be omitted, or the value
1 may be input; no other value will be accepted.

2.

One and only one of the W or G labels must be specified. There


is no default. Separate maxima can be established for water and
gas by reading multiple ITARG cards.

3.

The maximum rate criteria are satisfied first at the gathering


center level, then the flow station level, then the area level, and
finally at the field level.

4.

All wells in the tested level are cut by the same factor if there is
an excess of injectivity (unless the UNIFORM option is used).

5.

Wells whose rates have been reduced due to targeting are


designated by WTAR (or GTAR) in the injection well summary.

6.

Well rates will never be reduced below qmin.

7.

When the injection region option is used, the ITARG cards for
the other well management levels (gathering center, flow
station, area) are ignored.

Example:
ITARG
ITARG
ITARG
ITARG

00

INJREG
INJREG
INJREG
INJREG

1
2
1
2

W
W
G
G

50000
50000
70000
70000

4.3.9 Well Rate Scaleback Options with Targeting (LSCALE)


00

An LSCALE card is used to change the procedure that is used to


recalculate the layer rates for multi-perforation wells whose rates are
being reduced to meet specified targets. The keyword LSCALE is derived
from linear scaling, and will determine whether the perforation rates are
scaled back linearly, or whether they are rigorously recalculated.

LSCALE

ON
OFF

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00

Definitions:

00

Alpha label indicating the procedure to be used:


ON

Use linear scaling of each of the perforation rates of


each well by its respective rate reduction factor.

OFF

Recalculate the perforation rates for each well based


on its reduced total well rate, maintaining an
equilibrium bottomhole flowing pressure profile.
This is the default procedure.

NOTE:

The specified procedure is used for both production targets and


injection targets.

4.3.10 Minimum Production Rates (PRDMIN)


00

A PRDMIN card is used to define a minimum production rate for a


gathering center, a flow station, an area, or the field. When this value is
violated in a member of one of these levels, this member is "shut-in". This
means that all of the producers, or all of the wells, attached to that
member of the well management hierarchy are shut-in.

GATHER
FLOSTA

PRDMIN

O
inum

AREA

prdmin

ALL
ONLY

FIELD

00

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified minimum production rate applies:
GATHER

Gathering center.

FLOSTA

Flow station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

R2003.4 - Landmark

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

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Alpha label indicating the minimum rate is based on:


Oil production, STB/D (STCM/D).

Water production, STB/D (STCM/D).

Gas production, MSCF/D (SCM/D).

prdmin

Minimum production rate.

ALL

Alpha label indicating all wells in member inum are


shut in if the minimum rate is not met. This is the
default.

ONLY

Alpha label indicating only the production wells in


member inum are shut in if the minimum rate is not
met.

NOTE:

4-210

1.

One and only one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD


labels must be specified. There is no default. When FIELD is
specified the inum entry may be omitted or the value 1 may be
input; no other value will be accepted.

2.

One and only one of the O, W, or G labels must be specified.


There is no default. Separate minima can be established for oil,
water, and gas by reading multiple PRDMIN cards.

3.

The minimum rate criteria are satisfied first at the gathering


center level, then the flow station level, and then the area level.

4.

The minimum rate criteria at the field level is checked after the
successful completion of each timestep. If any field minimum
constraint is violated, a restart record is written and the run is
terminated. This restart record contains the data from the
beginning of this timestep. This will happen regardless of
whether ALL or ONLY is specified.

5.

When starting from the restart record described in the previous


note, remember that the specified minima will still be in effect.
Unless the minima are decreased or more production brought
online, the field will immediately shut in.

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4.3.11 Minimum Injection Rates (INJMIN)


00

An INJMIN card is used to define a minimum injection rate for a gathering


center, a flow station, an area, or the field. When this value is violated in a
member of one of these levels, this member is "shut-in". This means that
all of the injectors, or all of the wells, attached to that member of the well
management hierarchy are shut-in.

GATHER
FLOSTA

INJMIN

inum

injmin

AREA

ALL
ONLY

FIELD

00

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified minimum injection rate applies:
GATHER

Gathering center.

FLOSTA

Flow station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

Alpha label indicating the minimum rate is based on:

R2003.4 - Landmark

Water injection, STB/D (STCM/D).

Gas injection, MSCF/D (SCM/D).

injmin

Minimum injection rate.

ALL

Alpha label indicating all wells in member inum are


shut in if the minimum rate is not met. This is the
default.

ONLY

Alpha label indicating only the water (or gas)


injection wells in member inum are shut in if the
minimum rate is not met.

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NOTE:

4-212

1.

One and only one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD


labels must be specified. There is no default. When FIELD is
specified the inum entry may be omitted or the value 1 may be
input; no other value will be accepted.

2.

One and only one of the W or G labels must be specified. There


is no default. Separate minima can be established for water and
gas by reading multiple INJMIN cards.

3.

The minimum rate criteria are satisfied first at the gathering


center level, then the flow station level, and then the area level.

4.

The minimum rate criteria at the field level is checked after the
successful completion of each timestep. If any field minimum
constraint is violated, a restart record is written and the run is
terminated. This restart record contains the data from the
beginning of the timestep. This will happen regardless of
whether ALL or ONLY is specified.

5.

When starting from the restart record described in the previous


note, remember that the specified minima will still be in effect.
Unless the minima are decreased or more injection brought
online, the field will immediately shut in.

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4.4 Gas Cycling (Not available in VIP-THERM)


4.4.1 Shrinkage Gas Specification (GASSKG)
00

The GASSKG card is used to specify the shrinkage gas rate to be removed
from the total surface production rate of gas for use with gas injectors on
the FSTD reinjection option.

GATHER
FLOSTA

GASSKG

inum

[QRATE q]

[FPROD f]

AREA
FIELD

00

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified shrinkage gas rate applies:
GATHER

Gathering center.

FLOSTA

Flow station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

QRATE

Shrinkage gas rate, MSCF/D (SCM/D).

Fixed rate.

FPROD

Fraction of the total surface production rate to be


used as the shrinkage gas rate.

Fraction of production rate.

NOTE:

One and only one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD


levels must be specified. There is no default. When FIELD is
specified the inum entry may be omitted, or the value 1 may be
input; no other value will be accepted.
Data specified at the lower level of well management will be added
to that at the higher level of well management.
If both the QRATE and FPROD labels are specified, the shrinkage

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gas rate is the specified rate plus the fraction of the surface
production rate. (q + f * the surface production rate).

00

Examples:
C ***** SHRINKAGE GAS RATE
C
GASSKG GATHER 1 QRATE 100. FPROD 0.1

00

4.4.2 Fuel Gas Specification (GASFUL)


00

The GASFUL card is used to specify the fuel gas rate to be removed from
the total surface production rate of gas for use with gas injectors on the
FSTD reinjection option.

GATHER
FLOSTA

GASFUL

inum

[QRATE q] [FPROD f] (PLANT)

AREA
FIELD

00

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified fuel gas rate applies:

4-214

GATHER

Gathering center.

FLOSTA

Flow station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

QRATE

Fuel gas rate, MSCF/D (SCM/D).

Fixed rate. If a GASCOND card is input and the


number of the member in the well management
level specified on this GASFUL card is also
specified on a PLANT card, q will be the amount
excluding component icomp identified or the
GASCOND card.

FPROD

Fraction of the total surface production rate to be


used as the fuel gas rate.

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Fraction of production rate. If a GASCOND card is


input and the number of the member in the well
management level specified on this GASFUL card is
also specified on a PLANT card, the production rate
to which the fraction applies will be the amount
excluding component icomp identified or the
GASCOND card.

PLANT

Alpha label indicating that the fuel gas specified on


this card will be removed from the outlet gas stream
of the MI plant. If this label is omitted, the fuel gas
will be removed from the production gas stream
(prior to any plant calculation).

NOTE:

One and only one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD


levels must be specified. There is no default. When FIELD is
specified the inum entry may be omitted, or the value 1 may be
input; no other value will be accepted.
Data specified at the lower level of well management will be added
to that at the higher level of well management.
If both the QRATE and FPROD labels are specified, the fuel gas rate
is the specified rate plus the fraction of the surface production rate.
(q + f * the surface production rate).
Up to two GASFUL cards may be input for any member of a well
management level: one with and the other without the alpha label
PLANT. In this case, two fuel gas streams will be removed: one
from the produced gas stream and the other from the outlet gas
stream of the MI plant.

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Examples:
C ***** FUEL GAS RATE
C
GASFUL GATHER 1 QRATE 200. FPROD 0.1
GASFUL GATHER 1 QRATE 300. PLANT

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4.4.3 Sales Gas Specification (GASSLS)


00

The GASSLS card is used to specify the sales gas rate to be removed from
the total surface production rate of gas for use with gas injectors on the
FSTD reinjection option.

GATHER
FLOSTA

GASSLS

inum [QSALES q][FPROD f] [FPO gor] (PLANT)

AREA
FIELD

00

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified sales gas rate applies:

4-216

GATHER

Gathering center.

FLOSTA

Flow station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

QSALES

Sales gas rate, MSCF/D (SCM/D).

Fixed rate.

FPROD

Fraction of the total surface production rate to be


used as the sales gas rate.

Fraction of production rate.

FPO

Fraction of the total surface oil production rate to be


used as the sales gas rate.

gor

Fraction of oil production rate in GOR units,


MSCF/STB (SCM/STCM).

PLANT

Alpha label indicating that a gas conditioning plant


will be included to process the sales gas where
component icomp on the PLANT card will be
removed from the sales gas stream. In this case, the
value q on this GASSLS card and the production
rate to which the fraction f applies represent the

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component icomp-free amount. The removed


component icomp amount will be recombined with
the reinjected gas stream.
NOTE:

One and only one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD


levels must be specified. There is no default. When FIELD is
specified the inum entry may be omitted, or the value 1 may be
input; no other value will be accepted.
Data specified at the lower level of well management will be added
to that at the higher level of well management.
The sales gas rate is the specified rate plus the fraction of the
surface gas production rate plus the fraction of the surface oil
production rate. (q + f * the surface gas production rate + gor * the
surface oil production rate). The default values for q, f, and gor are
zero.

00

Examples:
C ***** SALES GAS RATE
C
GASSLS GATHER 1 QSALES 500. FPROD 0.7
GASSLS GATHER 2 FPO 0.5

00

4.4.4 Makeup Gas Specification (GASMKP)


00

The GASMKP card is used to specify the maximum makeup gas rate to be
added to the pool of gas available for reinjection (produced minus sales
minus shrinkage minus fuel) for use with gas injectors on the FSTD
reinjection option.

GATHER
FLOSTA

GASMKP

inum

AREA

QMAKE q

FPROD f

QPOOL q

FSALES f

FIELD

00

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified makeup gas rate applies:

R2003.4 - Landmark

GATHER

Gathering center.

FLOSTA

Flow station.

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AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

QMAKE

Maximum makeup gas rate, MSCF/D (SCM/D).

QPOOL

Total injected gas rate, MSCF/D (SCM/D). The


maximum makeup gas rate would be: (pool rate +
sales rate + shrinkage rate + fuel rate - production
rate).

Gas rate.

FPROD

Fraction of the total surface production rate to be


used as the makeup gas rate.

FSALES

Fraction of the sales gas rate to be used as the


makeup gas rate.

Fraction of production rate.

NOTE:

One and only one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD


levels must be specified. There is no default. When FIELD is
specified the inum entry may be omitted, or the value 1 may be
input; no other value will be accepted.
Data specified at the lower level of well management will be added
to that at the higher level of well management.
Only one of the FPROD or FSALES labels can be specified.
If both the QMAKE and FPROD labels are specified, the makeup
gas rate is the specified rate plus the fraction of the production rate.
(q + f * the surface production rate).
If both the QMAKE and FSALES labels are specified, the makeup
gas rate is the specified rate plus the fraction of the sales gas rate. (q
+ f * the sales gas rate).
Neither the FPROD nor the FSALES labels can be specified with the
QPOOL label.
When the QPOOL option is specified, the makeup gas rate will not
be allowed to be negative. That is, the pool rate is not allowed to be
less than the production rate minus the sales rate minus the
shrinkage rate minus the fuel gas rate.
Either a YINJMK card or a YREINJ card must be specified for the
same member of the well management level input on the GASMKP

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card. The required volume of makeup gas at this composition will


be added to the produced gas available for reinjection to compute
the overall composition of the injected gas.

00

Examples:
C ***** MAKEUP GAS RATE
C
GASMKP GATHER 1 QMAKE 100. FPROD 0.2
GASMKP GATHER 2 QPOOL 300.

00

4.4.5 Makeup MI Specification (MIMKP)


00

For the four-component miscible option, the MIMKP card is used to


specify the makeup MI rate to be added to the pool of MI available for
reinjection for use with MI injectors on the FSTD reinjection option.

GATHER
FLOSTA

MIMKP

inum

QMAKE

AREA
FIELD

00

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified makeup MI rate applies:
Gathering center.

FLOSTA

Flow station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

QMAKE

Makeup MI rate, MSCF/D (SCM/D)

MI rate.

NOTE:

R2003.4 - Landmark

GATHER

1.

One and only one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD


levels must be specified. There is no default. When FIELD is
specified the inum entry may be omitted, or the value 1 may be
input; no other value will be accepted.

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00

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2.

Data specified at the lower level of well management will be


added to that at the higher level of well management.

3.

This card may be input only if the four-component miscible


option is invoked.

Example:
C*****MAKEUP MI RATE
C
MIMKP FIELD
QMAKE

500.

4.4.6 Effective Gas Injection Target (ETRGOP)


00

The ETRGOP card is used to select the method of checking the total gas
injection rate for each level of well management. The effective target is
defined as the minimum of the gas available for reinjection and the userspecified injection target.

ALL
ETRGOP

FIELD
NONE

00

Definitions:
ALL

Effective target is checked for all levels of well


management.

FIELD

Effective target is checked for the field level only.

NONE

Effective target is not used. This is the default.

NOTE:

When the ALL option is selected, the effective target instead of the
specified target will be checked at all levels of well management.
When the FIELD option is selected, the specified injection target
will be checked at each gathering center, flow station, and area. The
effective target will be checked at the field level. When the NONE
option is selected, the specified injection target will be checked at
each level of well management.
When the general injection region option is used, the ETRGOP card
will be neglected. The specified injection target will be checked in
each injection region. Then, the effective target will be checked at
the field level.

00

4-220

Examples:

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C *****EFFECTIVE TARGET
ETRGOP FIELD

00

4.4.7 Makeup Gas Composition (YINJMK)


00

The YINJMK card is used to specify the composition of the makeup gas for
use with gas injectors on the FSTD reinjection option.

GATHER
FLOSTA

YINJMK

inum

(PROD)

(card 1)

AREA
FIELD
yinjmk1

00

yinjmk2 . . . yinjmknc

(card 2)

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified gas composition applies:
Gathering center.

FLOSTA

Flow station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

PROD

Alpha label indicating that the composition of the


produced gas should be used as the composition of
the makeup gas. If a composition is input on the
following card, it will be ignored.

yinjmkk

Mole fraction of component k in the gas. A value


must be specified for each of the components, and
the values must sum exactly to 1.0. This data need
not be input if PROD was specified.

NOTE:

R2003.4 - Landmark

GATHER

1.

One and only one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD


labels must be specified. There is no default. When FIELD is
specified the inum entry may be omitted, or the value 1 may
be input; no other value will be accepted.

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2.

A YINJMK card or a YREINJ card for the appropriate level of


the well management hierarchy must be entered when the
GASMKP card is input.

3.

As many data cards (card 2) as necessary may be used to


specify a yinjmk value for each component.

4.4.8 Reinjected Gas Composition (YREINJ)


00

The YREINJ card is used to specify the composition of the reinjected gas
for use with gas injectors on either the FSTD or FRES reinjection option.

GATHER
FLOSTA

YREINJ

inum

(PROD)

AREA
FIELD
yreinj1

00

yreinj2 ...

yreinjnc

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified gas composition applies:
Gathering center.

FLOSTA

Flow station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

PROD

Alpha label indicating that the composition of the


produced gas should be used as the composition of
the reinjected gas. If a composition is input on the
following card, it will be ignored.

yreinjk

Mole fraction of component k in the gas. A value


must be specified for each of the components, and
the values must sum exactly to 1.0. This data need
not be input if PROD was specified.

NOTE:

4-222

GATHER

1.

One and only one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD


labels must be specified. There is no default. When FIELD is
specified the inum entry may be omitted, or the value 1 may

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Management Level Data

be input; no other value will be accepted.


2.

The data on the YREINJ card overrides the composition of the


reinjected gas calculated internally.

3.

A YINJMK card or a YREINJ card for the appropriate level of


the well management hierarchy must be entered when the
GASMKP card is input.

4.

As many data cards as necessary may be used to specify a


yreinj value for each component.

4.4.9 Liquid Recovery Factors (RECFAC)


00

The RECFAC card is used to specify the fraction of each component in the
gas stream that can be recovered as a liquid at the gas plant for use with
gas injectors on the FSTD reinjection option. Alternatively, if the fourcomponent miscible option is invoked, the input recovery factor for
component 3 will be treated as the MI recovery factor and the recovered
MI (plus makeup MI, if applicable) will be used for MI injectors (see INJ
card, Section 3.4.2).
RECFAC
recfac1 recfac2 . . . recfacnc

00

Definition:
recfack

NOTE:

Fraction of component k in the gas stream that can


be recovered as a liquid at the gas plant. A value
must be specified for each of the components. For
the four-component miscible option, recfac will be
treated as the MI recovery factor for MI reinjection.
1.

If the RECFAC card is not entered, the fractions are assumed to


be 0.0.

2.

As many data cards (card 2) as necessary may be used to


specify a recfac value for each component.

4.4.10 Invoke Major Gas Sales Option (PLANT)


00

R2003.4 - Landmark

The PLANT card is used to invoke the major gas sales option and to
specify the member of the well management hierarchy for which the

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major gas sales algorithm applies.

GATHER
ON

FLOSTA

OFF

AREA

PLANT

iwmll

FIELD

00

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the major gas sales option (NGLPLANT,
MIPLANT, or GASCOND card) is to be applied to the numbers of the
members in the well management level specified on this card:
ON

The major gas sales calculation is to be performed


for the well management level specified on this
card.

OFF

The major gas sales calculation will not be


performed for the well management level specified
on this card. This is the default.

Alpha label indicating well management level:


GATHER

Gathering Center.

FLOSTA

Flow station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

iwmll

NOTE:

00

00

4-224

List of numbers of the members in the specified


well management level. If FIELD is the specified
well management level, iwmll must be omitted.
The major gas sales calculation will be performed only for those
members of the well management hierachy explicitly appearing on
a PLANT card.

Examples:
PLANT ON GATHER 1 3 -6
PLANT ON FIELD

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Management Level Data

4.4.11 Gas Conditioning for Sales Gas and Fuel Gas (GASCOND)
GASCOND

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

icomp

(VENT)
(DIST idist)

Definition:
icomp

Hydrocarbon component number to be removed


from the sales gas stream in the gas conditioning
plant, if the keyword PLANT is specified on the
GASSLS card. Also, all input (GASFUL card) and
output fuel gas amounts will exclude amounts of
component icomp (i.e., component icomp-free
amounts).

VENT

Alpha label indicating that component icomp


removed from the sales gas stream will not be
combined with the reinjected gas stream and will be
vented.

DIST

Alpha label indicating that component icomp


removed from the sales gas stream will not be
combined with the reinjected gas stream and will be
uniformly distributed into a user-specified number
of FSTD gas injectors (Type A injectors identified by
keyword KEYCMP in the INJ card) using Method
idist. Keyword DIST may be specified only if a
GINJOP UNIFORM card is also specified.

idist

Integer 1 through 3 indicating method number for


the distribution of the reinjected gas stream and
component icomp stream into FSTD gas injectors.
In all three methods, component icomp stream will
be uniformly distributed into all above mentioned
Type A injectors. In Method 1, the reinjected gas
stream will be uniformly distributed into all FSTD
gas injectors not identified as Type A injectors (i.e.,
Type B injectors). In Method 2, the reinjected gas
stream will be distributed into all FSTD gas
injectors (i.e., all Type A and Type B injectors) with
the constraint that all injectors have the same total
gas (component icomp and/or reinjected gas)
injection rate. In Method 3, the reinjected gas stream
will be uniformly distributed into all FSTD gas
injectors (i.e., all Type A and Type B injectors). If the
component icomp and/or the reinjected gas rate
exceeds the total injectivity and cutback of the
injection rate is necessary, the component icomp
stream will be vented first.
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NOTE:

00

00

In the major gas sales option, the GASCOND card is used to


remove one component (e.g., CO2) from a sales gas stream. The
removed component amount will then either be recombined with
the reinjected gas (i.e., the outlet gas stream of the MI plant and any
available makeup gas), vented (through keyword VENT), or
uniformly distributed into Type A gas injectors (through keyword
DIST). The DIST option may be specified only if the UNIFORM
method in the gas reinjection option (GINJOP card) is chosen. If
both VENT and DIST are not specified, the component icomp
stream will be recombined with the reinjected gas stream for
reinjection. Furthermore, the input fuel gas amount on the
GASFUL card and the output fuel gas amount in the gas handling
report are component icomp-free amount.

Examples:
GASCOND 2

DIST 2

4.4.12 Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Plant Data Input (NGLPLANT)


00

The NGLPLANT card is used in the major gas sales option to allow the
produced gas stream (minus fuel and shrinkage gas) in any well
management level to be processed in an NGL plant to remove NGL from
the stream.
NGLPLANT
NKEY
ikey
(PLUS)
KEYCMP
vkcmp1
vkcmp2 ... vkcmpj ... vkcmpNI
(enter number of KEY component plus composition values for
interpolation. j=1 to number of interpolation points, NI)
PLNTRY
pr1,1 pr1,2 ...
pr1,j ...
pr1,NI
pr2,1 pr2,2 ...
pr2,j ...
pr2,NI
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
pri,1 pri,2 ...
pri,j ...
pri,NI
.
.
.
prNC,1 prNC,2 ...
prNC,j ...
prNC,NI
(enter the plant liquid molar recovery fractions for each
interpolation point, j=1 to number of interpolation values, NI and
repeat for all components, i=1 to the number of components, NC)

00

Definitions:
NKEY

4-226

Alpha label indicating that the key component


number or the key component plus fraction number
is to be read. The cards KEYCMP and PLNTRY
defined below should follow the NKEY card.

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R2003.4 - Landmark

Well Management Level Data

ikey

The number of the key component or the key


component plus fraction to be used in the liquid
recovery fraction table look up. In the key
component case, the mole fraction of the key
component is used for the table look up of
component liquid recovery values, whereas in the
key component plus fraction case, the sum of the
well stream over all mole fraction from the key
component plus all the following components are
used in the table look up.

PLUS

Alpha label indicating the key component plus


fraction is to be used in the table look up.

KEYCMP

Alpha label indicating the key component mole


fractions or the key component plus over all mole
fractions are to be entered. These are the key
component mole fractions or the sum of key
component plus mole fractions that are to be used
in the liquid recovery fraction table look up.

vkcmp

The value of the key component mole fraction or


the sum of the key component plus fraction to be
used as an interpolation value. There are NI
number of interpolation point values to be read.
They should be on one card and should cover the
range of values that are to be expected in the run.
The range of values on this card should be between
0. and 1. NI is determined by the number of values
read on the card. The vkcmp values on this card
must be in descending order.

PLNTRY

Alpha label indicating that the separate liquid


recovery fractions will be entered. The liquid
recovery fraction is the molar fraction of the
component that will be separated to the liquid
stream.

pr

The fraction of the component that will be


separated to the liquid stream in the NGL Plant.
The liquid recovery fractions are entered for each
component as a function of the key component
mole fraction or the key component plus mole
fraction and one value must be entered for NI
points and for each component. The data must be
ordered so that the liquid recovery fractions should
be entered for component 1 for all values of key
component plus fraction interpolation points (NI).
The next card is for component 2 recovery fractions
at NI points. This continues until all component

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

values have been read. In all there should be (NI *


NC) values read. The values must be between 0.
and 1.
NOTE:

In the major gas sales option, the produced gas stream in any well
management level may be processed in an NGL plant and/or a MI
plant to remove NGL and/or MI. Sales gas is then removed from
the output gas stream, and the remaining gas is combined with the
makeup gas to form the reinjected gas stream.
The feed composition of an NGL plant (or an MI plant if no NGL
plant included) is the composition of the total stock tank gas stream
for any well management level, while output NGL and gas streams
are determined by the molar liquid recovery fractions. If a
MIPLANT tables is also input, the output gas stream from the
NGLPLANT will be fed into the MIPLANT. The outlet MI
composition from the MI plant for well management level will be
used as the injection composition for MI injectors attached to the
level (see the INJ card).
A PLANT card must be entered to invoke the NGL calculation for
any well management level.
The feed, outlet liquid (NGL and gas rates and compositions can be
printed as part of the separator report using the keyword SEP on
the PRINT card.

00

00

4-228

Examples:
C=========================================
C NGL PLANT
C =========================================
NGLPLANT
NKEY 6 PLUS
KEYCMP
C DEFINE KEY COMPONENT PLUS FRACTIONS (NC = 6 TO 8)
C NUMBER OF INTERPOLATION POINTS (NI= 11)
.9999 .108 .104 .098 .075 .065 .047 .028 .018 .010 .000
PLNTRY
C DEFINE COMPONENT LIQUID RECOVERIES (NI = 11, NC =8)
.0240 .0240 .0240 .0220 .0170 .0140 .0100 .0050 .0030 .0020 .0020
.0070 .0070 .0070 .0060 .0050 .0040 .0030 .0010 .0010 .0000 .0000
.0610 .0610 .0590 .0560 .0430 .0370 .0270 .0140 .0090 .0060 .0060
.1790 .1790 .1750 .1690 .1370 .1220 .0920 .0550 .0400 .0290 .0290
.4680 .4680 .4640 .4530 .4000 .3710 .3050 .2200 .1770 .1480 .1480
.9960 .9960 .9960 .9960 .9940 .9930 .9890 .9790 .9690 .9590 .9590
1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Management Level Data

4.4.13 Miscible Injectant (MI) Plant Data Input (MIPLANT)


00

The MIPLANT card is used in the major gas sales option to allow the
produced gas stream (minus fuel and shrinkage gas) in any well
management level to be processed in an MI plant to remove MI from the
stream.
MIPLANT
NKEY
ikey
(PLUS)
KEYCMP
vkcmp1
vkcmp2 ... vkcmpj ... vkcmpNI
(enter number of KEY component plus composition values for
interpolation. j=1 to number of interpolation points, NI)
PLNTRY
pr1,1 pr1,2 ...
pr1,j ...
pr1,NI
pr2,1 pr2,2 ...
pr2,j ...
pr2,NI
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
pri,1 pri,2 ...
pri,j ...
pri,NI
.
.
.
prNC,1 prNC,2 ...
prNC,j ...
prNC,NI
(enter the plant liquid molar recovery fractions for each
interpolation point, j=1 to number of interpolation values, NI and
repeat for all components, i=1 to the number of components, NC)

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Definitions:
NKEY

Alpha label indicating that the key component


number or the key component plus fraction number
is to be read. The cards KEYCMP and PLNTRY
defined below should follow the NKEY card.

ikey

The number of the key component or the key


component plus fraction to be used in the liquid
recovery fraction table look up. In the key
component case, the mole fraction of the key
component is used for the table look up of
component liquid recovery values, whereas in the
key component plus fraction case, the sum of the
well stream over all mole fraction from the key
component plus all the following components are
used in the table look up.

PLUS

Alpha label indicating the key component plus


fraction is to be used in the table loop up.

KEYCMP

Alpha label indicating the key component mole


fractions or the key component plus over all mole
fractions are to be entered. These are the key
component mole fractions or the sum of key

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Well Management Level Data

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

component plus mole fractions that are to be used


in the liquid recovery fraction table look up.
vkcmp

The value of the key component mole fraction or


the sum of the key component plus fraction to be
used as an interpolation value. There are NI
number of interpolation point values to be read.
They should be on one card and should cover the
range of values that are to be expected in the run.
The range of values on this card should be between
0. and 1. NI is determined by the number of values
read on the card. The vkcmp values on this card
must be in descending order.

PLNTRY

Alpha label indicating that the separate liquid


recovery fractions will be entered. The liquid
recovery fraction is the molar fraction of the
component that will be separated to the liquid
stream.

pr

The fraction of the component that will be


separated to the liquid stream in the MI Plant. The
liquid recovery fractions are entered for each
component as a function of the key component
mole fraction or the key component plus mole
fraction and one value must be entered for NI
points and for each component. The data must be
ordered so that the liquid recovery fractions should
be entered for component 1 for all values of key
component plus fraction interpolation points (NI).
The next card is for component 2 recovery fractions
at NI points. This continues until all component
values have been read. In all there should be (NI *
NC) values read. The values must be between 0.
and 1.

NOTE:

In the major gas sales option, the produced gas stream in any well
management level may be processed in an NGL plant and/or a MI
plant to remove NGL and/or MI. Sales gas is then removed from
the output gas stream, and the remaining gas is combined with the
makeup gas to form the reinjected gas stream.
The feed composition of an NGL plant (or an MI plant if no NGL
plant included) is the composition of the total stock tank gas stream
for any well management level, while output NGL and gas streams
are determined by the molar liquid recovery fractions. If a
MIPLANT tables is also input, the output gas stream from the
NGLPLANT will be fed into the MIPLANT. The outlet MI
composition from the MI plant for well management level will be
used as the injection composition for MI injectors attached to the
level (see the INJ card).

4-230

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Well Management Level Data

A PLANT card must be entered to invoke the MI calculation for


any well management level.
The feed, outlet liquid (MI and gas rates and compositions can be
printed as part of the separator report using the keyword SEP on
the PRINT card. The MI plant summary table also contains the
reinjected lean gas composition.

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Examples:
C=========================================
C MI PLANT
C =========================================
MIPLANT
NKEY 6 PLUS
KEYCMP
C DEFINE KEY COMPONENT PLUS FRACTIONS (NC = 6 TO 8)
C NUMBER OF INTERPOLATION POINTS (NI= 11)
.9999 .108 .104 .098 .075 .065 .047 .028 .018 .010 .000
PLNTRY
C DEFINE COMPONENT LIQUID RECOVERIES (NI = 11, NC =8)
.0240 .0240 .0240 .0220 .0170 .0140 .0100 .0050 .0030 .0020 .0020
.0070 .0070 .0070 .0060 .0050 .0040 .0030 .0010 .0010 .0000 .0000
.0610 .0610 .0590 .0560 .0430 .0370 .0270 .0140 .0090 .0060 .0060
.1790 .1790 .1750 .1690 .1370 .1220 .0920 .0550 .0400 .0290 .0290
.4680 .4680 .4640 .4530 .4000 .3710 .3050 .2200 .1770 .1480 .1480
.9960 .9960 .9960 .9960 .9940 .9930 .9890 .9790 .9690 .9590 .9590
1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

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4.4.14 Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) Plant Data Input (LPGPLANT)


00

The LPGPLANT card is used in the major gas sales option to allow the
produced gas stream (minus fuel and shrinkage gas) or the outlet gas from
the NGLPLANT (if an NGLPLANT is specified) in any well management
level to be processed in an LPG plant to remove LPG from the stream.
LPGPLANT
NKEY
ikey
(PLUS)
KEYCMP
vkcmp1
vkcmp2 ....
vkcmpj ....
vkcmpNI
(enter number of key component or key component plus composition
values for interpolation. j=1 to number of interpolation points,
NI)
PLNTRY
pr1,1
pr1,2 ....
pr1,j ....
pr1,NI
pr2,1
pr2,2 ....
pr2,j ....
pr2,NI
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
pri,1
pri,2 ....
pri,j ....
pri,NI
.
.
.
.
.
.
prNC,1
prNC,2 ....
prNC,j ....
prNC,NI
(enter the plant liquid molar recovery fractions for each
interpolation point, j=1 to number of interpolation values, NI.
Repeat for all components, i=1 to the number of components, NC)

00

4-232

Definitions:
NKEY

Alpha label indicating that the key component


number or the key component plus fraction number
is to be read. The cards KEYCMP and PLNTRY
defined below should follow the NKEY card.

ikey

The number of the key component or the key


component plus fraction to be used in the liquid
recovery fraction table look up. In the key
component case, the mole fraction of the key
component is used for the table look up of
component liquid recovery values, whereas in the
key component plus fraction case, the sum of the
well stream over all mole fraction from the key
component plus all the following components are
used in the table look up.

PLUS

Alpha label indicating the key component plus


fraction is to be used in the table loop up.

KEYCMP

Alpha label indicating the key component mole


fractions or the key component plus over all mole
fractions are to be entered. These are the key
component mole fractions or the sum of key

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Management Level Data

component plus mole fractions that are to be used


in the liquid recovery fraction table look up.

R2003.4 - Landmark

vkcmp

The value of the key component mole fraction or


the sum of the key component plus fraction to be
used as an interpolation value. There are NI
number of interpolation point values to be read.
They should be on one card and should cover the
range of values that are to be expected in the run.
The range of values on this card should be between
0. and 1. NI is determined by the number of values
read on the card. The vkcmp values on this card
must be in descending order.

PLNTRY

Alpha label indicating that the separate liquid


recovery fractions will be entered. The liquid
recovery fraction is the molar fraction of the
component that will be separated to the liquid
stream.

pr

The fraction of the component that will be


separated to the liquid stream in the LPG Plant. The
liquid recovery fractions are entered for each
component as a function of the key component
mole fraction or the key component plus mole
fraction and one value must be entered for NI
points and for each component. The data must be
ordered so that the liquid recovery fractions should
be entered for component 1 for all values of key
component plus fraction interpolation points (NI).
The next card is for component 2 recovery fractions
at NI points. This continues until all component
values have been read. In all there should be (NI *
NC) values read. The values must be between 0.
and 1.

NOTE:

In the Major Gas Sales Option, the outlet gas stream of the NGL
plant (if specified) is processed in the LPG plant. If a MIPLANT
table is also input, the outlet gas stream from the LPG plant will be
fed into the MI plant. The feed, outlet liquid (LPG) and gas rates
and compositions can be printed as part of the separator report
using keyword SEP on the PRINT card.

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4.4.15 Maximum Feed Rate to NGL Plant (NGLFED)


00

The NGLFED card specifies the maximum feed rate to the NGL plant for
use with the NGLPLANT on the Major Gas Sales Option.

GATHER
FLOSTA

NGLFED

inum

QRATE

AREA
FIELD

00

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified maximum NGL feed rate applies:
GATHER

Gathering Center.

FLOSTA

Flow station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

QRATE

Maximum NGL feed rate, MSCF/D (SCM/D).

Maximum rate.

NOTE:

One and only one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD


levels must be specified. There is no default. When FIELD is
specified the inum entry may be omitted, or the value 1 may be
input; no other value will be accepted.
Data specified at the lower level of well management will be added
to that at the higher level of well management.

00

Examples:
C***** Maximum NGL Feed Rate
C
NGLFED
FIELD
QRATE

4-234

100000.

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Well Management Level Data

4.4.16 Maximum NGL Rate (NGLOUT)


00

The NGLOUT card specifies the maximum NGL rate from the NGL plant
for use with the NGLPLANT on the Major Gas Sales Option.

GATHER
FLOSTA

NGLOUT

inum

QRATE

AREA
FIELD

00

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified maximum NGL rate applies:
GATHER

Gathering Center.

FLOSTA

Flow station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

QRATE

Maximum NGL rate, MSCF/D (SCM/D).

Maximum rate.

NOTE:

One and only one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD


levels must be specified. There is no default. When FIELD is
specified the inum entry may be omitted, or the value 1 may be
input; no other value will be accepted.
Data specified at the lower level of well management will be added
to that at the higher level of well management.

00

Examples:
C***** Maximum NGL Rate
C
NGLOUT AREA
1

R2003.4 - Landmark

QRATE

10000.

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4.4.17 Maximum Feed Rate to LPG Plant (LPGFED)


00

The LPGFED card specifies the maximum feed rate to the LPG plant for
use with the LPGPLANT on the Major Gas Sales Option.

GATHER
FLOSTA

LPGFED

inum

QRATE

AREA
FIELD

00

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified maximum LPG feed rate applies:
GATHER

Gathering Center.

FLOSTA

Flow station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

QRATE

Maximum LPG feed rate, MSCF/D (SCM/D).

Maximum rate.

NOTE:

One and only one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD


levels must be specified. There is no default. When FIELD is
specified the inum entry may be omitted, or the value 1 may be
input; no other value will be accepted.
Data specified at the lower level of well management will be added
to that at the higher level of well management.

00

Examples:
C***** Maximum LPG Feed Rate
C
LPGFED
FIELD
QRATE

4-236

100000.

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Well Management Level Data

4.4.18 Maximum LPG Rate (LPGOUT)


00

The LPGOUT card specifies the maximum LPG rate from the LPG plant
for use with the LPGPLANT on the Major Gas Sales Option.

GATHER
FLOSTA

LPGOUT

inum

QRATE

AREA
FIELD

00

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified maximum LPG rate applies:
GATHER

Gathering Center.

FLOSTA

Flow station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

QRATE

Maximum LPG rate, MSCF/D (SCM/D).

Maximum rate.

NOTE:

One and only one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD


levels must be specified. There is no default. When FIELD is
specified the inum entry may be omitted, or the value 1 may be
input; no other value will be accepted.
Data specified at the lower level of well management will be added
to that at the higher level of well management.

00

Examples:
C***** Maximum LPG Rate
C
LPGOUT
AREA
1

R2003.4 - Landmark

QRATE

10000.

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4.5 Basic Gas Reinjection (GINJOP) (Not Available in VIPTHERM)


00

A gas reinjection option other than the standard option of a well injecting
a fraction of the production in a member in a well management level exists
in VIP-EXECUTIVE. Under the new option, maximum rates are specified
for the wells. If the sum of well injectivities exceeds the available
reinjection gas, the rates are decreased by resetting the gas injection rates
of appropriate wells to an average rate. That is, if a wells rate is
designated as WIGi, then the reset rates will be
*

00

00

00

WIG i = min (WIGi, AVG),


where AVG has been computed to satisfy
Gas Target =

WIGi

00

00

If the sum of well injectivities falls below the available reinjection gas, the
gas injection rates of appropriate wells are scaled-up.
The GINJOP card is used to define the gas reinjection option to be used.
GINJOP

STD

Alpha label indicating that the standard gas


reinjection option is to be used. This is the default.

UNIFORM

Alpha label indicating the gas reinjection option


with uniform distribution of rate to wells to match
the available reinjection gas rate will be used.

NOTE:

4-238

STD
UNIFORM

1.

The GINJOP UNIFORM card must be entered before any


QMAX cards.

2.

For the UNIFORM option gas injection wells must be specified


as either FSTD or FRES (INJ card), then assigned to the
appropriate level of well management.

3.

Also for the UNIFORM option the definition of qmax on the


QMAX cards is the maximum gas injection rate, even though
the well type is FSTD or FRES.

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4.6 Injection Regions (Not available in VIP-THERM)


00

00

00

Water and gas reinjection may be controlled through the use of injection
regions. These are separate and independent of the other levels of well
management to which water and gas injectors are assigned. Voidage
replacement, pressure maintenance and gas project prioritization are
allowed in the injection regions.
An injection region is defined by three dimensional grids. An injector can
be assigned to one region only. An injector which does not physically exist
within a region can still be assigned to it. If the user assigns gridblocks to
injection regions but not the injection wells, the program assigns the
injection region for the injector according to the location of the top
perforation. A producer may be completed in more than one region. The
program automatically matches the completion zones for a producer to
the corresponding regions.
The maximum water injection to the field is the minimum of the field
injection target, and the sum of the field production and the specified
water source (the IRSRCW card). The maximum gas injection to the field is
the minimum of the specified field injection target and the field available
gas. The field available gas is the field production plus gaslift gas (from
the previous timestep) plus makeup gas specified by the GASMKP card
plus makeup gaslift gas minus the shrinkage gas minus the fuel gas minus
the gaslift gas (at present timestep) minus the sales gas. If gaslift gas is not
part of the gas handling loop, the gaslift gas and makeup gaslift gas are
not included in the calculation.

4.6.1 Define the Injection Region Option (RINJOP)


00

The RINJOP card is used to define the injection region option to be used.

RINJOP

STD
INJREG

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

NODIST

UNIFORM

REDIST

PROPTN

Definitions:
STD

Alpha label indicating that the standard reinjection


option (with well management levels instead of
injection regions) is to be used. This is the default.

INJREG

Alpha label indicating that injection regions will be


used for water and gas injection.

NODIST

Alpha label indicating that the redistribution option


will not be used for injection regions. This is default.

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REDIST

Alpha label indicating that the redistribution option


will be used for injection regions.

UNIFORM

Alpha label indicating that equal amount of fluid


will be distributed to each voidage controlled
(FRES) well under the same region. This is default.

PROPTN

Alpha label indicating that the amount of fluid


distributed to each voidage controlled well in a
region will be proportional to the well injectivity.

NOTE:

The RINJOP INJREG card must be entered before any QMAX


cards.
For the INJREG option, injection wells under net voidage control
and/or pressure maintenance must be specified as FRES (INJ card),
but the well management level is ignored.
For the INJREG option, the definition of qmax on the QMAX card
is the maximum injection rate at reservoir condition when the well
type is FRES.
The NODIST, REDIST, UNIFORM, PROPTN options can be
selected only when the INJREG option is chosen.
For the REDIST option, the injection fluid available to each region is
the maximum field injection rate times the percentage for the
region specified in the IRPCTA card. If no percentages are input,
then each injection region will be assigned the fraction, 1/(number
of regions with defined voidage controlled wells). If the amount of
fluid injected in a region is less than the available amount for the
region, this extra amount of fluid will be redistributed to other
regions according to the regions injectivities.
For the PROPTN option, the amount of fluid calculated from the
voidage and pressure maintenance control is distributed to the
voidage controlled wells according to the injectivities.
For the UNIFORM option, the amount of fluid calculated from the
voidage and pressure maintenance control is equally distributed to
the voidage controlled wells.
When the PERCENT option in the IRDIST card is selected, the
amount of fluid calculated from the voidage and/or pressure
maintenance control is neglected. Therefore, neither PROPTN nor
UNIFORM option is used.

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00

Example 1:
C ***** INJECTION REGION OPTION
C
RINJOP INJREG

00

00

Well Management Level Data

Example 2:
***** INJECTION REGION WITH PROPTN OPTION
C
RINJOP INJREG PROPTN

00

4.6.2 Assign Name to Injection Region (INJRNM)


00

The INJRNM card is used to assign a name to an injection region.


INJRNM

00

00

nir

injrnm

Definitions:
nir

Injection region number.

injrnm

Injection region name. The first character in the


name must be alphabetic unless the name is
immediately preceded by the character #. Only the
first six (6) characters of the name are retained.
Default is blanks.

Examples:
INJRNM
INJRNM
INJRNM
INJRNM
INJRNM

00

1
2
3
4
5

lNJRO1
lNJRO2
lNJRO3
lNJRO4
lNJRO5

4.6.3 Maximum Source Water Injection Rate (IRSRCW)


00

The IRSRCW card is used to specify the maximum source water injection
rate available to the field, in conjunction with the injection region option.
IRSRCW

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irsrcw

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Definition:
irsrcw

00

Maximum source water injection rate available to


the field when using the injection region option,
STB/D (STCM/D). Default is 0.

Examples:
C ***** SOURCE WATER
C
IRSRCW 1000000

00

4.6.4 Assign Injection Wells to Injection Regions (INJRGR)


00

The INJRGR card is used to assign appropriate injection wells to injection


regions.
INJRGR
nir1

00

wl
nir2 . . . nirn

Definitions:
wl

List of injection wells for which injection region


numbers are being assigned (see Section 1.5.2).

nir

Injection region number to which the well is


assigned.

NOTE:

The number of nir values must equal the number of wells in the
well list.
The INJRGR card may be omitted if the INJREGN card has been
used to assign gridblocks to injection regions. In this case, wells
will be assigned to the appropriate injection region based on the
location of the first completion zone.
If FIELD distribution data are specified on the IRDIST card, both
the INJRGR and INJREGN cards maybe omitted. In this case all
appropriate injection wells will be assigned to injection region
number one.
If any INJRGR card has been entered, the program assumes that all
injectors have been explicitly assigned to regions. Thus, no injectors
will be assigned automatically based on the perforation locations.

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00

Examples:
INJRGR 15
1
INJRGR 16 38
2*2

00

4.6.5

Well Management Level Data

Distribution Percentage of Injection Rate to Injection Regions


(IRPCTA)
00

The IRPCTA card is used to assign injection rate distribution percentages


to injection regions.
IRPCTA
pct1

00

nir
pct2 . . . pctm

Definitions:
nir

List of injection regions to which the following


percentages apply. (The list nir has the same format
as the well list wl.) (see Section 1.5.2)

pct

Percentage to be used for appropriate distribution


of injection rate to the injection regions.

NOTE:

The number of pct values must equal the number of regions in the
injection region list.
If the percentage for a region will be required, then it should be
input. If no percentages are input, then each injection region will be
assigned the fraction 1/(number of areas with defined wells). The
percentage for a region is required when the PERCENT option is
used in the IRDIST card or when the REDIST option is selected in
the RINJOP card.
The sum of the percentages of all injection regions must be no
greater than 100.

4.6.6 Assign Gridblocks to Injection Regions (INJREGN)


00

The INJREGN card is used to assign gridblocks to injection regions.


INJREGN
nir
i1
i2
j1
j2
k1
k2
(data card may be repeated as necessary)

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Definitions:
nir

Injection region number to which gridblocks are


being assigned.

i1, i2

Gridblock range in the x direction.

j1, j2

Gridblock range in the y direction.

k1, k2

Gridblock range in the z direction.

NOTE:

If FIELD distribution data are specified on the IRDIST card, the


INJREGN card may be used to restrict which gridblocks will be
used for pressure and voidage calculations (using nir = 1). In this
case only injection region number one is used.
INJREGN data must be input for INJREG distribution using ALL or
LIQUID voidage (IRDIST card).

00

Examples:
C ***** INJECTION REGION
INJREGN 1
68 78 1 1 5 10

00

4.6.7 Specify How Distribution of Injection Fluid is to Occur (IRDIST)


00

The IRDIST card is used to specify how distribution of fluid is to occur in


the injection regions.

IRDIST

FIELD
INJREG

(TYPVDG)(PRMEXP)

TRGPRS RFRPRS
(TYPPRS)(VDGFCT)(INFLUX)
PGRAD DELTAP

trgprs
[inum]
(typvdg) (prmexp)
pgrad
(data card may be repeated as necessary)

00

00

4-244

rfrprs (typprs)(vdgfct)(influx)
deltap

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the corresponding datum on the following card(s)
is:
FIELD

Field number (must be 1). This label must follow


the IRDIST keyword.

INJREG

Number of the injection region to which the


remaining data apply. This label must follow the
IRDIST keyword.

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TYPVDG

Type of distribution of injection rate to the injection


region or the field.

PRMEXP

Exponent on the pressure maintenance term.

TRGPRS

Target pressure for pressure maintenance.

RFRPRS

Reference pressure for pressure maintenance.

PGRAD

Targeted rate of pressure decline or increase for


pressure maintenance.

DELTAP

Difference between reference pressure and target


pressure for pressure maintenance.

TYPPRS

Type of average pressure for pressure maintenance.

VDGFCT

Multiplying factor to be applied to the voidage.

INFLUX

Indicates that aquifer influx is to be subtracted from


the voidage.

inum

Field number (must be 1) or region number to


which the following data apply.

typvdg

Type of distribution of injection rate to the injection


regions. There is no default.
ALL

Voidage calculation using all three


phases.

LIQUID

Voidage calculation using liquid


only.

PERCENT

Use specified percentage(s).


(IRPCTA card.)

prmexp

Exponent of the pressure term. Stored value will be


integer. Specify the value 0 if pressure maintenance
option is not to be used. The alpha label X may be
specified to maintain current value. Default is 0.

trgprs

Target pressure to use for the pressure maintenance


option, psia (kPa). The alpha label X may be
specified to maintain current value. There is no
default.

rfrprs

Reference pressure to use for the pressure


maintenance option, psia (kPa). The alpha label X
may be specified to maintain current value. There is
no default.

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pgrad

Targeted rate of pressure increase/decline to use for


the pressure maintenance option, psi/day (kPa/
day). The alpha label X may be specified to
maintain current value. There is no default.

deltap

Difference between reference pressure and target


pressure to use for the pressure maintenance
option, psi (kPa). The alpha label X may be specified
to maintain current value. There is no default.

typprs

Type of average pressure to use with pressure


maintenance. The alpha label X may be specified to
maintain current value. There is no default.
PVWEIGHT

Pore volume-weighted average.

HCWEIGHT Hydrocarbon pore volume-weighted


average.
vdgfct

Multiplying factor to be applied to the voidage. The


alpha label X may be specified to maintain current
value. Default is 1.0.

influx

Indicates whether aquifer influx is to be subtracted


from voidage. The alpha label X may be specified to
maintain current value.

NOTE:

NO

Do not subtract aquifer influx from


voidage value. This is the default.

YES

Subtract aquifer influx from voidage


value.

IRDIST FIELD data will be used only if no IRDIST INJREG data


have been read.
Producers to be used for voidage calculations are determined by
their completion locations relative to the injection region gridblock
assignments. If a producer is completed in more than one region,
the actual production from the completions in each region will be
used to determine voidage for each region.
If FIELD distribution is input, but no INJREGN cards have been
input, then the entire field is treated as the injection region. If
INJRGR cards have also been omitted, all appropriate injection
wells are assigned to injection region one.
For the injection rate distribution type typvdg:
ALL or LIQUID must be specified for pressure maintenance.
When ALL or LIQUID are used with FIELD, the field injection

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rate at reservoir conditions is then allocated to the injection


regions using percentages.
When PERCENT is used with FIELD, the field injection rate at
surface conditions (the minimum of the field production rate plus
the injection source and the specified field injection target) is then
allocated to the injection regions using percentages.
The reference pressure rfrprs must exceed both the target pressure
trgprs and the computed average pressure.
The pairs of data rfrprs/trgprs and pgrad/deltap may not occur
on the same IRDIST card. These options are mutually exclusive.

00

Examples:
C
IRDIST

00

INJREG
1

TYPVDG
ALL

VDGFCT
1.0

INFLUX
NO

4.6.8 Forced Gas Injection Into Injection Regions (IRGAS)


00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

The IRGAS card is used to activate the forced gas injection option, in
conjunction with the injection region option, and to define the and
parameters for the forced gas regions.

or

IRGAS

nir

alpha1
beta1

alpha2 ...
beta2 ...

IRGAS

OFF
ON

alpham
betam

Definitions:
nir

List of injection regions to which the following


and parameters apply. (The list nir has the same
format as the well list wl.) (see Section 1.5.2)

OFF

Alpha label indicating that the forced gas injection


option is now inactive. The alpha and beta
parameters will be retained in case the option is
ever reactivated.

ON

Alpha label indicating that the forced gas injection


option is to be reactivated.

alpha

parameter for a forced gas region. See Notes for


an explanation of its usage.

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parameter for a forced gas region. See Notes for


an explanation of its usage.

beta

NOTE:

The number of alpha and beta values must equal the number of
regions in the injection region list.
The values of alpha and beta must lie between 0. and 1., inclusive.
The sum of the beta values over all forced gas regions must be 1.
Wells defined as forced gas injectors inject gas even if pressure
maintenance criteria are violated. Such an option is useful when the
flaring of excess produced gas is not allowed.
Under the forced gas option (IRGAS card specified), the forced gas
injectors are those gas injectors for which FRES is specified on the
INJ card. FRES gas injectors may only exist in forced gas regions;
i.e., those for which s and s are specified. No FRES gas injector
may exist in a non-forced gas region.
The injection gas rate is distributed to the injection regions as
follows:

Define:
R

entire reservoir

forced gas regions

parameter for each forced gas region

parameter for each forced gas region

qGI

well gas injection rate for non-FRES wells

QGI

non-FRES injection rate in each region, =qGI

QGI

total gas injection rate in each region

QGP

total gas production rate from each region

net
Q GPF

net field gas production rate

QGP ( i ) ( sales + fuel + shrinkage ) + makeup

i R

QRINJ

gas production rate minus non-FRES gas


injection rate
net

Q GPF

QGI ( i )

i R

For each non-forced gas injection region k,

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Q GI ( k ) = Q GI ( k )
For each forced gas injection region i,

( i )Q GP ( i )

Q GI ( i ) = -------------------------------------- min ( j )Q GP ( j ), Q RINJ


jF

( j )QGP ( j )

j F

+ ( i ) Q RINJ min ( j )Q GP ( j ), Q RINJ

jF

+ Q GI ( i )
Note that in all cases

QGI ( i )

net

= Q GPF

i R

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4.6.9 Select Gas Project Prioritization Option (PRIOP)


00

The PRIOP card is used to activate the gas prioritization option within the
general injection region option. The INJREG label must have been input
on the RINJOP card to use this option.

ON

PRIOP

OFF

00

00

Definitions:
ON

Alpha label indicating that the gas prioritization


option will be used.

OFF

Alpha label indicating that the gas prioritization


option is not used. This is the default.

Examples:
C ***** GAS PRIORITIZATION OPTION
C
PRIOP ON

00

4.6.10 Assign Name to Gas Project (PROJNM)


00

The PROJNM card is used to assign a name to a gas project.


PROJNM

00

00

00

nproj

projnm

Definitions:
nproj

Project number.

projnm

Project name. The first character in the name must


be alphabetic unless the name is immediately
preceded by the character #. Only the first six (6)
characters of the name are retained. Default is
blanks.

Examples:
C ***** NAME OF THE GAS PROJECT

00

PROJNM
PROJNM
PROJNM

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C
1
2
3

MGI
IMGI
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4.6.11 Assign Gas Injection Wells to Projects (PROJWL)


00

The PROJWL card is used to assign the appropriate gas injection wells to
the projects.
PROJWL
nproj1

00

wl
nproj2 . . . nprojn

Definitions:
wl

List of gas injection wells for which projects are


being assigned (see Section 1.5.2).

nproj

Project number to which the well is assigned.


The number of nproj values must equal the number of wells in the
well list.

NOTE:

Only a gas injection well can be assigned to a project. The FRES


well type in the injection region option is a net voidage injection
well. Since water injection follows gas injection in the prioritization
option, the user cannot specify FRES gas injection wells in the
option.

00

Examples:
C ASSIGN GAS INJECTORS TO PROJECTS
PROJWL 1 -4
1212

00

4.6.12 Prioritize Gas Projects (PRIIR)


00

The PRIIR card is used to prioritize gas projects in injection regions. If a


priority is to be skipped in an injection region, the user should specify
project 0 for that priority.

INJREG

PRIIR

irl

FIELD
nproj1

00

nproj2

nprojn

Definitions:
FIELD

R2003.4 - Landmark

...

Field option is used to prioritize the projects.

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INJREG

Injection region option is used to prioritize the


projects.

irl

List of injection regions to which prioritization is


being assigned (the injection region list irl has the
same format as the well list wl). (see Section 1.5.2)

nprojn

Assign a project number to priority n.

Examples:
C ***** PRIORITIZE PROJECTS
C
PRIIR INJREG 1 -3
1 3 4 2 5
PRIIR INJREG 4
1 0 3 4 5

4.7 Voidage Injection by Guide Rate (Not available in VIPTHERM)


00

00

4-252

A guide rate voidage injection scheme has been implemented in VIPEXECUTIVE. The INJ and the QMAX cards are modified when the new
scheme is used. The FRES and FSTD options define the wells under new
voidage replacement control. The GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, and FIELD
option on the INJ card indicates the well management level upon which
the gas injection composition is based. The QMAX card specifies the
maximum injection rate even though the well type is FRES or FSTD.
Two input option cards, INJTAR and INJGR, are added. The INJTAR card
specifies the injection target and the INJGR card specifies the guide rate.

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4.7.1 Maximum Injection Target for a Group (INJTAR)


00

The INJTAR card is used to specify the maximum injection target for a
group.

RSTD
GATHER
RRES
FLOSTA

INJTAR

inum

W
G

AREA

FSTD

qtarg

FRES
FIELD
FRESN

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the maximum injection rate applies:
GATHER

Gathering Center.

FLOSTA

Flow Station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

Water injection.

Gas injection.

RSTD

Rate specified is at surface condition, STB/D


(STM3/D) for water and MSCF/D (SM3/D) for gas.

RRES

Rate specified is at reservoir condition, RB/D (M3/


D).

FSTD

Rate specified is a fraction of the phase production


rate.

FRES

Rate specified is a fraction of total voidage.

FRESN

Rate specified is a fraction of net voidage.

qtarg

The maximum injection rate if either the RSTD or


RRES option is used. The fraction of the production
rate if either the FSTD, FRES, or FRESN option is
used.

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NOTE:

If the RSTD or FSTD option is used, then the well should be defined
with the FSTD option on the INJ card. If the RRES, FRES, or FRESN
option is used, then the well should be defined with the FRES
option on the INJ card.
One and only one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD
labels must be specified. There is no default. When FIELD is
specified the inum entry may be omitted, or the value 1 may be
input; no other value will be accepted.
One and only one of the W or G labels must be specified. There is
no default.
One and only one of the RSTD, RRES, FSTD, FRES, or FRESN
labels must be specified. There is no default.

4.7.2 Injection Guide Rate for a Group (INJGR)


00

The INJGR card is used to specify the injection guide rate for a group.

GURTS

grate

GURTR

grate

VOID

WELL
GATHER

INJGR

inum

FLOSTA
AREA

00

00

4-254

VOIN

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the injection guide rate applies:
WELL

Well.

GATHER

Gathering Center.

FLOSTA

Flow Station.

AREA

Area.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

Water injection.

Gas injection

GURTS

Guide rate in surface units will be input, STB/D or


MSCF/D (STCM/D or SCM/D).

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GURTR

Guide rate in reservoir units will be input, rb/D


(rcm/D).

VOID

Guide rate is set to voidage.

VOIN

Guide rate is set to net voidage.

grate

Guide rate for GURTS and GURTR options.

NOTE:

If the VOID or VOIN option is used, then the guide rate need not be
specified and will be ignored if it is input.
For WELL, only the GURTS or GURTR option can be chosen.
One and only one of the WELL, GATHER, FLOSTA, or AREA
labels must be specified. There is no default.
One and only one of the W or G labels must be specified. There is
no default.
One and only one of the GURTS, GURTR, VOID, or VOIN
labels must be specified. There is no default.

4.8 Water Injection Pumps (Not available in VIP-THERM)


00

00

Groups of water injectors are commonly controlled by the same pump


system, especially in offshore situations, where a large number of injectors
are often driven from one pump system on an offshore platform. The
discharge pressures of these pump systems vary (usually decreasing) with
flow rate delivered, so it is inappropriate to assume that water injectors
coupled to such a pump system operate at a constant tubinghead pressure
independent of the total flow rate delivered by the pump system.
Water injectors connected to a common injection pump system can be
modeled accurately in VIP-EXECUTIVE by using the water injector pump
system option. Injectors connected to a common pump system must be
defined within the same gathering center. This gathering center is then
assigned to a table of pump discharge pressure (thp) versus flow rate
using the IPUMP card. Finally the pump characteristics may be defined
using the PMPTAB card. The user may define multiple pump tables and
assign more than one gathering center to the same pump table in much the
same way that bottomhole pressure tables are now used.

4.8.1 Assign Injector Pump Characteristics Tables (IPUMP)


00

R2003.4 - Landmark

IPUMP data must be defined along with PMPTAB data if gathering center
water injectors are to be controlled by pump characteristics tables.

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The IPUMP card allows the user to assign a table of water injector pump
characteristics to the water injectors in a gathering center.
IPUMP
ipmp1

00

gl
ipmp2

. . .

ipmpn

Definitions:
gl

List of gathering centers for which the ipmp values


are being entered. (The gathering center list gl has
the same format as well lists wl). (see Section 1.5.2)

ipmp

Number of the pump table (PMPTAB card) that


defines the pump characteristics for this gathering
center.
The number of ipmp values must equal the number of gathering
centers in the gathering center list.

NOTE:

4.8.2 Water Injection Pump Discharge Pressure (PMPTAB)


00

00

A PMPTAB card must be defined if an IPUMP card is entered for a


gathering center.
PMPTAB data are used to relate a water injection pump discharge
pressure (tubinghead pressure) to the flow rate delivered by the pump.
PMPTAB
QPMP
q1
.
.
.
qn

00

4-256

npmp
THP
thp1
.
.
.
thpn

Definitions:
npmp

Number of the pump table being read.

QPMP

Alpha label indicating that this column contains


pump flow rates.

THP

Alpha label indicating that this column contains


pump discharge pressures.

Pump flow rates, STB/D (STCM/D).

thp

Pump discharge pressures, psia (kPa).

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NOTE:

1.

The number of pump flow rates and pump discharge pressure


values must be less than or equal to NPMPV (see DIM data).

2.

The total number of pump tables must be less than or equal to


NPMPMX (see DIM data).

4.8.3 Convergence Criteria (WTRPUMP)


00

The WTRPUMP card allows the user to set the convergence criteria for the
water injection pump algorithm.
WTRPUMP

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

itnpmp

pmptol

Definitions:
itnpmp

Maximum number of pump pressure iterations.


Default is 10.

pmptol

Rate tolerance for convergence of the pump


pressure iterations, STB/D (STCM/D). Default is 10
STB/D.

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4.9 Gaslift
00

To invoke gaslift, THP data must also be defined.

4.9.1 Gaslift Allocation (QLIFT)


00

A QLIFT card is used to explicitly place a well on gaslift, to take a well off
gaslift, or to explicitly allocate the amount of lift gas going to the well.
QLIFT
qlift1

00

wl
qlift2 . . .

qliftn

Definitions:
wl

List of production wells for which qlift values are


being specified (see Section 1.5.2).

qlift

The rate, MSCF/D (SCM/D), at which lift gas is


injected into a production well:
A positive value causes a constant allocation of lift
gas to the well.
A zero value takes the well off gas lift.
A negative value causes invocation of an automatic
allocation procedure for the well. (See QLIFTA card)

NOTE:

4-258

1.

The number of qlift values must equal the number of wells in


the well list.

2.

If a well is on gaslift, one of the following indicators appears in


the GAS LIFT STATUS column of the production well
summary:
SPEC

Specified, a positive qlift value has been


supplied.

GLRTAB

Optimal GLR table used to allocate lift


gas rate; a negative qlift value has been
supplied.

PFMCRV

Performance curve algorithm used to


allocate lift gas rate; a negative qlift
value has been supplied.

*VLE

Gaslift removed from well due to


violation of minimum gaslift efficiency
constraint GLEFMN.

Landmark - R2003.4

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Well Management Level Data

3.

R2003.4 - Landmark

*GLE

Gaslift removed from well based on lift


efficiency when a gaslift gas shortage
occurs; a negative qlift value has been
supplied.

*WCT

Gaslift removed from well based on


water-cut when a gaslift gas shortage
occurs; rate originally calculated using
optimum LGR table.

*SCL

Gaslift gas rate scaled back due to a


gaslift gas shortage; a negative qlift
value has been supplied.

*HIT

Gaslift gas removed from well that was


designated on the PFMCRV option hit
list.

GLRMIN

Gaslift gas rate reduced to honor the


specified glr minimum; rate originally
calculated using the PFMCRV
algorithm.

GLRMAX

Gaslift gas rate reduced to honor the


specified glr maximum; rate originally
calculated using the PFMCRV
algorithm.

The gaslift rate is used by the program only to determine the


flowing bottomhole pressure which corresponds to the userspecified tubinghead pressure limit. Gaslift is otherwise
transparent to the user; i.e., the gaslift rate is NOT included in
daily gas production. Gaslift can be used only on wells for
which a THP card is entered.

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4.9.2 Gaslift Gas Source (QLIFTA)


00

00

00

To invoke automatic gaslift for a well, a QLIFT card with a negative


value must be defined.
A QLIFTA card is used to specify the amount of available gaslift gas for
automatic allocation, the allocation method and the fraction of produced
gas also available as gaslift gas. The source of available gaslift gas is not
specified, merely its volume. The data are order dependent. If an item is
left off it is set to its default value, overriding any previously input value.

GATHER
FLOSTA

QLIFTA

inum

qlifta

AREA
FIELD

00

00

4-260

OPTTAB
TABGLE
TABWC
TABSCL
PFMCRV

ALLWLS
LFTWLS

(gasfct)

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified gaslift gas data apply:
GATHER

Gathering center.

FLOSTA

Flow station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

qlifta

Amount of gaslift gas per day available for injection


into all of the production wells which are on
automatic allocation of gaslift gas, MSCF/D (SCM/
D).

OPTTAB

Alpha label indicating that optimal GLR tables are


to be used to compute the gaslift gas injection rate
for each well on automatic allocation of gaslift gas.
(See GLRTAB card)

TABGLE

Alpha label indicating that wells will be shut in


based on gaslift efficiency when a gaslift shortage

Landmark - R2003.4

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Well Management Level Data

exists. The gaslift gas injection rates are computed


using the optimal GLR tables.
TABWC

Alpha label indicating that wells will be shut in


based on water cut when a gaslift shortage exists.
The gaslift gas injection rates are computed using
the optimal GLR tables.

TABSCL

Alpha label indicating that gaslift gas injection rates


will be scaled back when a gaslift shortage exists.
The gaslift gas injection rates are computed using
the optimal GLR tables.

PFMCRV

Alpha label indicating that the performance curve


option is to be used to calculate gaslift gas rates.

ALLWLS

Alpha label causing a fraction of the gas produced


from this member of the well management
hierarchy during one timestep to be used as
additional gaslift gas during the next timestep. This
is the default.

LFTWLS

Alpha label causing a fraction of the gas produced


from only those wells in this member of the well
management hierarchy on gaslift during one
timestep to be used as additional gaslift gas during
the next timestep.

gasfct

Fraction of the produced gas to be used as gaslift


gas. Default is zero.

NOTE:

R2003.4 - Landmark

1.

One and only one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD


labels must be specified. There is no default. When FIELD is
specified the inum entry may be omitted, or the value 1 may
be input; no other value will be accepted.

2.

Gaslift gas is automatically allocated among those wells for


which a negative qlift value was entered on a QLIFT card.

3.

The gaslift gas calculation using the optimal GLR tables is done
during the first outer iteration of each timestep. The calculated
gaslift gas rate is used for subsequent iterations.

4.

For each well on automatic allocation, the gaslift gas rate is


checked against the allowable maximum defined on the
GLGMAX card. If a violation occurs the rate is reset to the
maximum.

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4.9.3 Optimal GLR Tables for Gaslift (GLRTAB)


00

GLRTAB data are used to relate gas-liquid (or gas-oil) ratio to flow rate
and water cut (and possibly pressure) for the computation of gaslift gas
rates. More than one well can refer to the same GLRTAB.
GLRTAB
QLIQ

nglr

q1

q2 . . . qk

QO
WCUT

wcut1

(PRESSURE

pres1 (pres2 . . . presm))


IQLIQ

IWCUT

(wcut2 . . . wcutl)

(IPRES)

IQO
iwcut1
.
.
.
iwcutl

00

4-262

iq1
.
.
.
iqk

GLR
GOR

(ip1)
.
.
.
(ipm)

glr1
.
.
.
glrlkm

Definitions:
nglr

Number of the optimal GLR table being read.

QLIQ

Alpha label indicating that values on this card are


liquid rates (oil plus water). This must be used with
GLR.

QO

Alpha label indicating that values on this card are


oil rates. This must be used with GOR.

Liquid or oil rates, STB/D (STCM/D). Values can


be unequally spaced.

WCUT

Alpha label indicating that water-cut values are


read on this card.

wcut

Water-cut values, fraction. Values can be unequally


spaced.

PRESSURE

Alpha label indicating that pressure values are read


on this card. This card is optional.

pres

Pressure values, psia (kPa). Values can be unequally


spaced.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

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IWCUT

Alpha label indicating that the values read in the


column under this heading are water-cut indices.

IQLIQ

Alpha label indicating that the values read in the


column under this heading are liquid rate indices.
This must be used with QLIQ.

IQO

Alpha label indicating that the values read in the


column under this heading are oil rate indices. This
must be used with QO.

IPRES

Alpha label indicating that the values read in the


column under this heading are pressure indices.
This label can be included only if a PRESSURE card
was input.

GLR

Alpha label indicating that the values read in the


column under this heading are gas-liquid ratios.
This must be used with QLIQ.

GOR

Alpha label indicating that the values read in the


column under this heading are gas-oil ratios. This
must be used with QO.

iwcutl

Index referring to the l-th water-cut value read.

ipm

Index referring to the m-th pressure value read.


This index can be included only if a PRESSURE card
was input.

iqk

Index referring to the k-th rate value read.

glrlkm

The gas-liquid (gas-oil) ratio value corresponding to


the indicated water-cut, rate, and pressure values,
SCF/STB (SCM/STCM).

4.9.4 Optimal GLR Table Pointer for Gaslift (GLRTBP)


00

00

This card is used in conjunction with the GLRTAB card.


A GLRTBP card is used to specify the optimal GLR table to which a well
on automatic allocation of gaslift gas points.
GLRTBP
iglrtb1

00

Definitions:
wl

R2003.4 - Landmark

wl
iglrtb2 . . . iglrtbn

List of production wells for which iglrtb values are


being specified (see Section 1.5.2).
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iglrtb

NOTE:

The number of the optimal GLR table (GLRTAB


card) that defines the gas-liquid ratio, including lift
gas, for this well.
1.

The number of iglrtb values must equal the number of wells in


the well list.

2.

If an iglrtb value has not been specified for a well, the GLR
table pointer value used will be the same as the BHP table
pointer input on the ITUBE card.

4.9.5 Maximum Well Gaslift Gas Rate (GLGMAX)


00

00

A GLGMAX card is used to limit the gaslift gas rate for a well whose lift
rate is allocated automatically.
GLGMAX Card for WELLS
GLGMAX

00

WELL
wl
glgmax1 glgmax2 . . . glgmaxn

GLGMAX card for WELL MANAGEMENT LEVELS

GATHER
FLOSTA

GLGMAX

inum

glgmax

AREA
FIELD

00

00

Definitions for wells:


wl

List of wells for which maximum gaslift gas rates


are being specified (see Section 1.5.2).

glgmax

Maximum gaslift gas rate for the well MSCF/D


(SCM/D).

Definitions for well management levels:


Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified maximum gaslift gas rate applies:

4-264

GATHER

Gathering center.

FLOSTA

Flow station.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Management Level Data

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

glgmax

Maximum gaslift gas rate, MSCF/D (SCM/D).


Default is 0.

NOTE:

1.

If GLGMAX is specified at the well level, the number of glgmax


values must equal the number of wells in the well list.

2.

If GLGMAX is specified by well management level, one and


only one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD labels
must be specified. There is no default. When FIELD is specified
the inum entry may be omitted, or the value 1 may be input;
no other value will be accepted.

3.

Only wells on automatic allocation of lift gas are checked


against the maximum.

4.9.6 Minimum Well Gaslift Gas Rate (GLGMIN)


00

00

A GLGMIN card is used to limit the gaslift gas rate for a well whose lift
rate is allocated automatically.
GLGMIN Card for WELLS
GLGMIN

00

WELL
wl
glgmin1 glgmin2 . . . glgminn

GLGMIN card for WELL MANAGEMENT LEVELS

GATHER
GLGMIN

FLOSTA

inum

glgmin

AREA
FIELD

00

Definitions for wells:


wl

R2003.4 - Landmark

List of wells for which minimum gaslift gas rates


are being specified (see Section 1.5.2).

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glgmin

00

Minimum gaslift gas rate for the well MSCF/D


(SCM/D).

Definitions for well management levels:


Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified minimum gaslift gas rate applies:
GATHER

Gathering center.

FLOSTA

Flow station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

glgmax

Maximum gaslift gas rate, MSCF/D (SCM/D).


Default is 0.

NOTE:

1.

If GLGMIN is specified at the well level, the number of glgmin


values must equal the number of wells in the well list.

2.

If GLGMIN is specified by well management level, one and


only one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD labels
must be specified. There is no default. When FIELD is specified
the inum entry may be omitted, or the value 1 may be input;
no other value will be accepted.

3.

Only wells on automatic allocation of lift gas are checked


against the minimum.

4.9.7 Additive Correction to GLR Tables (GLRADD)


00

00

This card is used in conjunction with the GLRTAB card.


The GLRADD card is used to provide an additive correction term to the
value of gas-liquid (or gas-oil) ratio obtained from the optimal GLR tables.
GLRADD
glradd1

00

glraddn

Definitions:
wl

4-266

wl
glradd2. . .

List of production wells for which glradd values are


being specified (see Section 1.5.2).

Landmark - R2003.4

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glradd

NOTE:

Additive correction to apply to the value of gasliquid (or gas-oil) ratio obtained from the optimal
GLR tables for the well, SCF/STB (SCM/STCM).
Value may be positive or negative. Default is 0.0
SCF/STB.
The number of glradd values must equal the number of wells in
the well list.

4.9.8 Time Interval for Gaslift Gas Rate Calculations (TESTGL)


00

The TESTGL card is used to specify the time interval between gaslift gas
rate calculations for automatic allocation of gaslift gas.
TESTGL

00

tincg

Definition:
tincg

NOTE:

Time interval between gaslift gas rate calculations


for automatic allocation of gaslift gas, days. Default
is 0 days, causing calculations every timestep.
The calculations are scheduled for the time at which the TESTGL
card is read plus tincg days. Until the simulation reaches that time,
no calculations will be performed. Timesteps are not adjusted to hit
the time exactly. Once the calculations are done, the new scheduled
time will be tincg days farther into the simulation.

4.9.9 Minimum Gaslift Efficiency (GLEFMN)


00

The GLEFMN card is used to specify a minimum gaslift efficiency to test


against each well on gaslift.
GLEFMN

00

Definition:
glefmn

R2003.4 - Landmark

glefmn

Minimum gaslift efficiency, STB/MMSCF (STCM/


MSCM); if the gaslift efficiency of a well, calculated
as oil production rate/gaslift gas rate, drops below
glefmn, the well will be taken off gaslift.

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4.9.10 Performance Curve Option Data (PFMCRV)


00

The PFMCRV option enables the user to calculate gaslift gas rates based
on the lift efficiencies of the wells, where lift efficiency is defined as the
incremental oil produced (STB/D) per increment of gaslift gas (MMSCF/
D).
PFMCRV
(GLRMIN
(GLRMAX
(LIFTEFF
(MAXSCALE

glrmin)
glrmax)
eff)
scale)

EFFSCL

ON

TOTGAS

ON

(HITLIST

wl)

OFF

OFF

WGLRMIN
wglr 1

OUTFILE

w
wglr 2

TIME
TNEXT
OFF

wglr n

(freq)

00

00

4-268

Definitions:
glrmin

Minimum gas-liquid ratio with which to compare


the gas-liquid ratio at the performance curve
operating points, SCF/STB (SCM/STCM). The
wells gaslift gas rate will be reset to honor this
minimum. Default is 0.

glrmax

Maximum gas-liquid ratio with which to compare


the gas-liquid ratio at the performance curve
operating points, SCF/STB (SCM/STCM). The
wells gaslift gas rate will be reset to honor this
maximum. Default is 1.E10.

eff

Desired lift efficiency of the allocated gaslift gas rate


(i.e., the slope of the performance curve at the
optimal operating point), BOPD/MMSCF (STCM/
MSCM). Default is 10 BOPD/MMSCF.

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

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scale

Maximum scaleback factor to use in the algorithm


for reducing gaslift gas rates to meet target, fraction.

EFFSCL

Alpha label indicating whether the uniform lift


efficiency scaleup option is to be used.

TOTGAS

HITLIST

ON

Keyword indicating the option is on.

OFF

Keyword indicating the option is off.


This is the default.

Alpha label indicating how lift efficiency is to be


calculated.
ON

Keyword indicating lift efficiency is


to be calculated as a function of total
gas (produced gas plus gaslift gas).

OFF

Keyword indicating lift efficiency is


to be calculated as a function of
gaslift gas. This is the default.

Alpha label indicating that the specified wells on


this card are to have their gaslift gas rates removed
when the total allocated lift rate exceeds the
available lift gas.
wl

WGLRMIN

OUTFILE

Alpha label indicating that the following data are


minimum gas-liquid ratios below which the wells
are not to be reduced during the scale-back step of
reducing gaslift gas rates.
wl

List of wells for which gas-liquid


ratio values are being specified (see
Section 1.5.2).

wglr

Minimum gas-liquid ratios, SCF/


STB (SCM/ STCM). Default is 0.

Alpha label indicating that for the gaslift gas


optimization option (Section 4.10) performance
curve data for each well is to be written to the file
named <casename>_pfmcrv.out.
TIME

R2003.4 - Landmark

List of wells on the hit list - each well


must be named, ranges of wells will
not be accepted.

Alpha label that causes the file to be


written each time the DATE or TIME
card is encountered.

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NOTE:

TNEXT

Alpha label that causes the file to be


written only the next time a DATE or
TIME card is encountered.

OFF

Alpha label that causes the file not to


be written. This is the default.

freq

A number that causes the file to be


written after every freq timestep
(each timestep cut counts as a
timestep).

Usage of this option requires that the BHPTAB wellbore hydraulics


tables have been input with a sufficient range to cover all of the oil,
water, and total gas (produced reservoir gas plus gaslift gas) rates
that may be encountered with the gaslift calculations. It should be
noted that the wellbore hydraulics algorithm will extrapolate
outside of the table range, if necessary. Warning messages are
printed for table extrapolations. This feature provides the user with
a mechanism for determining gaslift gas allocation without having
to generate optional gas-liquid/gas-oil ratio tables. An internal
table is generated and user-supplied data determines the point at
which the gaslift gas rate is found.
The data related to the HITLIST, MAXSCALE and WGLRMIN
keywords is ignored when the EFFSCL option is turned on.
When WGLRMIN data is entered, the number of gas-liquid ratio
values must equal the number of wells in the well list.

4.9.11 Gaslift Gas in Gas Handling Loop (GLGOP)


00

The GLGOP card is used to assign the gaslift gas as part of the gas
handling loop.

GLGOP

OPEN
CLOSE

00

00

4-270

Definitions:
OPEN

Gaslift gas in part of the gas handling loop.

CLOSE

Gaslift gas is not included in the gas handling loop.


This is the default.

Reinjection volumes are calculated based on the sum of produced and


gaslift gas. At any given time, the amount of gas in the loop will be:

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

00

00

Well Management Level Data

[produced + makeup - shrinkage - fuel + previous gas lift +


makeup gas lift = sales + injection + current gas lift]
Examples:
C ***** GASLIFT GAS IS PART OF THE GAS HANDLING LOOP
C
GLGOP OPEN

00

4.9.12 Makeup Gaslift Gas Specification (QLIFTM)


00

The QLIFTM card is used to specify the makeup gaslift gas rate, when
gaslift gas is part of the gas handling loop (GLGOP OPEN).

GATHER
FLOSTA

QLIFTM

inum

qrate

(frate)

AREA
FIELD

00

00

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the level of well management hierarchy to
which the makeup gaslift gas rate applies:
GATHER

Gathering Center.

FLOSTA

Flow Station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

qrate

Makeup gaslift gas rate, MSCF/D (SCM/D).

frate

Fraction of the surface production rate.


If both qrate and frate are specified, the makeup gaslift gas rate is
the specified rate plus the fraction of the surface production rate.
(qrate + frate * the surface production rate).

NOTE:

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Examples:
C ***** MAKEUP GASLIFT GAS RATE

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QLIFTM
QLIFTM

GATHER 1 100. 0.1


GATHER 2 50.

4.10 Multi-level Optimization of Gaslift Gas Utilization


4.10.1 Introduction
00

The primary function of this algorithm is to optimize (i.e., minimize) the


gaslift gas required to meet the specified oil targets at any specified group
level. It can only be used for oil phase targets. The optimization is
performed by finding the maximum common gaslift gas operating
efficiency at which the target rate can be met.

4.10.2 Specifications
00

00

00

4-272

There are several specifications required to invoke the optimization.


These are:

QLIFTA (Section 4.9.2) data specifying PFMCRV for each level at


which the optimization is requested.

PTARG (Section 4.3.1) data specifying an O (oil) target for the level.

PFMCRV (Section 4.9.10) data introduced, including the optional


OUTFILE label.

EFFSCL (Section 4.9.10) efficiency scaling specified.

One or more wells on automatic gaslift gas allocation, (see QLIFT,


Section 4.9.1).

For each well on automatic gaslift gas allocation using the performance
curve option, a performance curve is constructed at the start of each
specified Newton iteration, describing the relationship of oil production
rate versus gaslift gas utilized. These curves will be used in the
optimization algorithm to determine the maximum common operating
efficiency (minimum total gaslift gas requirement) required to meet the oil
target. No gaslift gas will be used if the target can be met without any
gaslift gas.
In order to have smooth and continuous relationships for the gaslift
performance for the wells, a multi-segmented second-order curve fit is
employed for the function of oil rate versus the log of gaslift gas rate. The
derivative of this function is then used to determine the current operating
efficiency at any gaslift gas rate within the interval.

Landmark - R2003.4

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4.10.3 Gaslift Optimization Outer Iteration Number (ITNGLG)


ITNGLG

nitglg

nitglg

Maximum number of iterations per timestep at


which to perform the gaslift gas optimization
algorithm. Default is 1.

4.11 Automatic Well Workovers


00

00

00

00

00

00

This section describes an automatic well workover package.


The parameter NRIGTOT must be greater than zero on the DIM card to
activate the automatic workover module.
Required data for this option to be functional are: RIGDEF, WRKRTO,
WRKFRQ, and WRKCOEF.
The user should refer to the DIM card for additional dimensioned
variables used for workovers. The workover report can be obtained by
using the keyword WRKRPT on the OUTPUT card.
When using the GLIMIT or WLIMIT card, the PLUG option can not be
used with the new workover module.
The PRFLIM option cannot be used with the automatic workover module.

4.11.1 Workover Rig Definition (RIGDEF)


00

The RIGDEF card is used to define the workover rigs available at any well
management level and all levels below it. Rigs can be added or removed at
any time.

GATHER
ADD
FLOSTA

RIGDEF

inum

irigs
REPLACE

AREA

wktim

mvtim

ALL
SUBTRACT

FIELD

00

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified rig is available:
GATHER

R2003.4 - Landmark

Gathering Center.

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FLOSTA

Flow Station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

ADD

Alpha label indicating irigs rigs should be added to


the number of rigs available.

REPLACE

Alpha label indicating the rigs specified should


replace any previously specified rigs for this
member of well management.

SUBTRACT

Alpha label indicating irigs rigs should be


subtracted.

irigs

Number of rigs.

ALL

Alpha label indicating all rigs currently assigned


are to be subtracted.

wktim

Time required to complete a workover, days.

mvtim

Time required to move a rig, days.


ALL can be used only with SUBTRACT. If irigs is used to subtract
rigs, they are subtracted from the bottom of the list.

NOTE:

The data wktim and mvtim are required for ADD and REPLACE.
One and only one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD
labels must be specified. There is no default. When FIELD is
specified the inum entry may be omitted, or the value 1 may be
input; no other value will be accepted.

4.11.2 Relative Number of Workovers (WRKRTO)


00

The WRKRTO card defines the relative number of each type of workover
to perform.
WRKRTO

00

gclrto

wclrto

Definitions:
opnrto

4-274

opnrto

Number of opening workovers. Default is 0.

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gclrto

Number of gas closing workovers. Default is 0.

wclrto

Number of water closing workovers. Default is 0.

NOTE:

First opnrto opening workovers will be performed, followed by


gclrto gas closing workovers, followed by wclrto water closing
workovers, followed by opnrto opening workovers, etc. A value of
zero implies no workovers of that type are to be performed.

If this card is omitted no workovers will be performed.

4.11.3 Workover Calculation Frequency (WRKFRQ)


00

The WRKFRQ card is used to specify the frequency with which the
workover calculations are performed when predictive well management
(PWM) is not used. The workover calculations are automatically
performed whenever PWM calculations are done.

MONTHS
WRKFRQ

freq

DAYS
TSTEPS

00

Definitions:
freq

Frequency with which the workover calculations


will be performed. Default is 99999 timesteps.

MONTHS

Alpha label that sets the unit for freq to months.

DAYS

Alpha label that sets the unit for freq to days.

TSTEPS

Alpha label that sets the unit for freq to timesteps.

NOTE:

R2003.4 - Landmark

Within the simulator the date on a DATE card is considered to be


the beginning of that day. For example, if output is desired at the
end of March 1988, the date card should contain 1/4/88 and not
31/3/88. Thus the MONTHS option on the frequency card will
force a timestep to start at the date 1/month/year.

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4.11.4 Elapsed Time Between Workovers (WRKDLT)


00

00

The WRKDLT card is used to define the elapsed time between the end of a
workover and the beginning of the next.
WRKDLT Card for WELLS
WRKDLT
delt1

00

WELL
wl
delt2. . .deltn

WRKDLT Card for WELL MANAGEMENT LEVELS

GATHER
FLOSTA

WRKDLT

inum

delt

AREA
FIELD

00

Definitions: for wells


wl

List of wells for which elapsed times are being


specified (see Section 1.5.2).

delt

Elapsed time that must occur between the end of a


workover and the beginning of the next workover
on a well, days. Default is 0.

00

The number of delt values must equal the number of wells in the well list.

00

Definitions: for well management levels


Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified elapsed time applies:

4-276

GATHER

Gathering Center.

FLOSTA

Flow Station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

delt

Elapsed time that must occur between the end of a


workover and the beginning of the next workover

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on a well under the specified well management


level, days. Default is 0.
NOTE:

Elapsed times can be input at the well level or at any other level of
well management. The effective elapsed time for a well will be the
one specified at the lowest level of the well hierarchy: i.e., the first
user-specified number found in the order: well, the appropriate
gathering center, the appropriate flow station, the appropriate area,
and the field.
If WRKDLT is specified by well management level one and only
one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD labels must be
specified. There is no default. When FIELD is specified the inum
entry may be omitted or the value 1 may be input; no other value
will be accepted.

4.11.5 Workover Failure Rate (WRKFAIL)


00

The WRKFAlL card defines the failure rate of workovers.


WRKFAIL

00

ifail

Definition:
ifail

00

Frequency of workover failure. Default is 0.

Every ifail-th workover will fail, if ifail is positive. A non-positive value


implies that workovers never fail.

4.11.6 Well Limit for Automatic Shutoffs (WRKWLM)


00

The WRKWLM card defines global gas-oil ratio and water-cut limits
below which a well will not be considered a candidate for automatic
shutoffs for gas and water, respectively.
WRKWLM

00

wctwlm

Definitions:
gorwlm

R2003.4 - Landmark

gorwlm

Well gas-oil ratio limit below which a well will not


be considered a candidate for automatic gas shutoff,
SCF/STB (SCM/STCM). Default is wells are always
eligible.

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wctwlm

Well water-cut limit below which a well will not be


considered a candidate for automatic water shutoff,
fraction. Default is wells are always eligible.

4.11.7 Workover Benefit Function Limits (WRKLIM)


00

The WRKLIM card is used to define workover benefit function limits.

00

WRKLIM Card for WELLS


WRKLIM
(OPMIN
(GPMIN
(WPMIN
(MINQO
(MINQG
(MINQW
(MAXWCUT
(MAXGOR
(MINWCUT
(MINGOR
(WSMIN
(GSMIN

00

WELL
opmin1
gpmin1
wpmin1
minqo1
minqg1
minqw1
mxwc1
mxgor1
mnwc1
mngor1
wsmin1
gsmin1

opmin2
gpmin2
wpmin2
minqo2
minqg2
minqw2
mxwc2
mxgor2
mnwc2
mngor2
wsmin2
gsmin2

wl
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

opminn)
gpminn)
wpminn)
minqon)
minqgn)
minqwn)
mxwcn)
mxgorn)
mnwcn)
mngorn)
wsminn)
gsminn)

WRKLIM Card for WELL MANAGEMENT LEVELS

GATHER
WRKLIM

FLOSTA

inum

AREA
FIELD
(OPMIN
(GPMIN
(WPMIN
(MINQO
(MINQG
(MINQW
(MAXWCUT
(MAXGOR
(MINWCUT
(MINGOR
(WSMIN
(GSMIN

00

Definitions: for wells


wl

4-278

opmin)
gpmin)
wpmin)
minqo)
minqg)
minqw)
mxwc)
mxgor)
mnwc)
mngor)
wsmin)
gsmin)

List of wells for which workover limit data is being


specified (see Section 1.5.2).

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

00

00

Well Management Level Data

opmin

Minimum workover benefit value for oil


perforations, STB/D (STCM/D). Default is 0.

gpmin

Minimum workover benefit value for gas


perforations, MSCF/D (SCM/D). Default is 0.

wpmin

Minimum workover benefit value for water


perforations, STB/D (STCM/D). Default is 0.

minqo

Minimum oil rate in an openable (oil) perforation,


STB/D (STCM/D). Default is 0.

minqg

Minimum gas rate in an openable (gas) perforation,


MSCF/D (SCM/D). Default is 0.

minqw

Minimum water rate in an openable (water)


perforation, STB/D (STCM/D). Default is 0.

mxwc

Maximum water cut in an openable (oil or gas)


perforation, fraction. Default is 1.

mxgor

Maximum gas-oil ratio in an openable (oil)


perforation, SCF/STB (SCM/STCM). Default is
1.E20.

mnwc

Minimum water cut in a shutable (water)


perforation, fraction. Default is 0.

mngor

Minimum gas-oil ratio in a shutable (gas)


perforation, SCF/STB (SCM/STCM). Default is 0.

wsmin

Minimum workover benefit value for water


shutoffs, STB/D (STCM/D). Default is 0.

gsmin

Minimum workover benefit value for gas shutoffs,


MSCF/D (SCM/D). Default is 0.

The number of opmin, gpmin, wpmin, minqo, minqg, minqw, mxwc,


mxgor, mnwc, mngor, wsmin, and gsmin values must equal the number
of wells in the well list.
Definitions: for well management levels
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified data applies:

R2003.4 - Landmark

GATHER

Gathering Center.

FLOSTA

Flow Station.

AREA

Area.

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FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

opmin

Minimum workover benefit value for oil


perforations, STB/D (STCM/D). Default is 0.

gpmin

Minimum workover benefit value for gas


perforations, MSCF/D (SCM/D). Default is 0.

wpmin

Minimum workover benefit value for water


perforations, STB/D (STCM/D). Default is 0.

minqo

Minimum oil rate in an openable (oil) perforation,


STB/D (STCM/D). Default is 0.

minqg

Minimum gas rate in an openable (gas) perforation,


MSCF/D (SCM/D). Default is 0.

minqw

Minimum water rate in an openable (water)


perforation, STB/D (STCM/D). Default is 0.

mxwc

Maximum water cut in an openable (oil or gas)


perforation, fraction. Default is 1.

mxgor

Maximum gas-oil ratio in an openable (oil)


perforation, SCF/STB (SCM/STCM). Default is
1.E20.

mnwc

Minimum water cut in a shutable (water)


perforation, fraction. Default is 0.

mngor

Minimum gas-oil ratio in a shutable (gas)


perforation, SCF/STB (SCM/STCM). Default is 0.

wsmin

Minimum workover benefit value for water


shutoffs, STB/D (STCM/D). Default is 0.

gsmin

Minimum workover benefit value for gas shutoffs,


MSCF/D (SCM/D). Default is 0.

NOTE:

Workover limit values can be input at the well level or at any other
level of well management. The effective values for a well will be the
one specified at the lowest level of the well hierarchy; i.e., the first
user-specified number found in the order: well, the appropriate
gathering center, the appropriate flow station, the appropriate area,
and the field.
If WRKLIM is specified by well management level, one and only
one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD labels must be
specified. There is no default. When FIELD is specified the inum

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Well Management Level Data

entry may be omitted or the value 1 may be input; no other value


will be accepted.

4.11.8 Group Numbers for "Group 1" (WRKGP1)


00

00

The WRKGP1 card is used to define the "Group 1" group number in which
a well lies. This allows more flexibility in the use of the benefit functions.
WRKGP1 Card for WELLS
WRKGP1

00

WELL
wl
igp11 igp12 . . . igp1n

WRKGP1 Card for WELL MANAGEMENT LEVELS

GATHER
FLOSTA

WRKGP1

inum

igp1

AREA
FIELD

00

Definitions: for wells


wl

List of wells for which group numbers are being


specified (see Section 1.5.2).

igp1

"Group 1" group number for the well. Default is


NWRKG1+1.

00

The number of igp1 values must equal the number of wells in the well list.

00

Definitions: for well management levels


Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified "Group 1" group number applies:
GATHER

Gathering Center.

FLOSTA

Flow Station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

R2003.4 - Landmark

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

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igp1

NOTE:

"Group 1" group number for each well under the


specified well management level. Default is
NWRKG1+1.
"Group 1" group numbers can be input at the well level or at any
other level of well management. The effective "Group 1" group
number for a well will be the one specified at the lowest level of the
well hierarchy; i.e., the first user-specified number found in the
order: well, the appropriate gathering center, the appropriate flow
station, the appropriate area, and the field.
If WRKGP1 is specified by well management level, one and only
one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD labels must be
specified. There is no default. When FIELD is specified the inum
entry may be omitted or the value 1 may be input; no other value
will be accepted.

4.11.9 Group Numbers for "Group 2" (WRKGP2)


00

00

The WRKGP2 card is used to define the "Group 2" group number in which
a well lies. This allows more flexibility in the use of the benefit functions.
WRKGP2 Card for WELLS
WRKGP2

00

WELL
igp21

wl
igp22 . . . igp2n

WRKGP2 Card for WELL MANAGEMENT LEVELS

GATHER
WRKGP2

FLOSTA

inum

igp2

AREA
FIELD

00

00

4-282

Definitions: for wells


wl

List of wells for which group numbers are being


specified (see Section 1.5.2).

igp2

"Group 2" group number for the well. Default is


NWRKG2+1.

The number of igp2 values must equal the number of wells in the well list.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

00

Well Management Level Data

Definitions: for well management levels


Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified "Group 2" group number applies:
GATHER

Gathering Center.

FLOSTA

Flow Station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

igp2

"Group 2" group number for each well under the


specified well management level. Default is
NWRKG2+1.

NOTE:

"Group 2" group numbers can be input at the well level or at any
other level of well management. The effective "Group 2" group
number for a well will be the one specified at the lowest level of the
well hierarchy; i.e., the first user-specified number found in the
order: well, the appropriate gathering center, the appropriate flow
station, the appropriate area, and the field.
If WRKGP2 is specified by well management level one and only
one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD labels must be
specified. There is no default. When FIELD is specified the inum
entry may be omitted or the value 1 may be input; no other value
will be accepted.

R2003.4 - Landmark

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4.11.10 Group 1 Default Coefficients (WRKCF1)


00

WRKCF1 card for GROUPS


WRKCF1

00

WRKCF1 card for WELLS


WRKCF1

00

00

00

00

WELL
wl
coef11 coef12 . . . coef1n

Definitions: for groups


gl

List of groups for which "Group 1" coefficients are


being specified (see Section 1.5.2).

coef1

"Group 1" coefficients for each well in the group.


Default is 1.

The number of coef1 values must equal the number of groups in the group
list.
Definitions: for wells
wl

List of wells for which "Group 1" coefficients are


being specified (see Section 1.5.2).

coef1

"Group 1" coefficient to use for the well. Default is 1.

The number of coef1 values must equal the number of wells in the well
list.
NOTE:

4-284

GROUP
gl
coef11 coef12 . . . coef1n

The default values for "Group 1" coefficients for each well in the
group can be specified by using the first form of the card.
Subsequently, the defaults can be changed for specific wells by
specifying coefficients by well.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Management Level Data

4.11.11 Group 2 Default Coefficients (WRKCF2)


00

WRKCF2 card for GROUPS


WRKCF2

00

WRKCF2 card for WELLS


WRKCF2

00

00

00

00

WELL
wl
coef21 coef22 . . . coef2n

Definitions: for groups


gl

List of groups for which "Group 2" coefficients are


being specified (see Section 1.5.2).

coef2

"Group 2" coefficients for each well in the group.


Default is 1.

The number of coef2 values must equal the number of groups in the group
list.
Definitions: for wells
wl

List of wells for which "Group 2" coefficients are


being specified (see Section 1.5.2).

coef2

"Group 2" coefficient to use for the well. Default is 1.

The number of coef2 values must equal the number of wells in the well
list.
NOTE:

R2003.4 - Landmark

GROUP
gl
coef21 coef22 . . . coef2n

The default values for "Group 2" coefficients for each well in the
group can be specified by using the first form of the card.
Subsequently, the defaults can be changed for specific wells by
specifying coefficients by well.

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4.11.12 Coefficients for Workover Benefit Functions (WRKCOEF)


00

WRKCOEF Card for WELLS


WRKCOEF WELL
A
B
C
D
E

00

wl
a1
b1
c1
d1
e1

a2
b2
c2
d2
e2

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

an
bn
cn
dn
en

WRKCOEF Card for WELL MANAGEMENT LEVELS

GATHER
WRKCOEF

FLOSTA

inum

a b c d e

AREA
FIELD

00

4-286

Definitions: for wells


wl

List of wells for which benefit function coefficients


are being specified (see Section 1.5.2).

Alpha label indicating coefficients for oil


perforations.

Alpha label indicating coefficients for gas


perforations.

Alpha label indicating coefficients for water


perforations.

Alpha label indicating coefficients for gas shutoff.

Alpha label indicating coefficients for water shutoff.

Oil perforation coefficients for wells. Default is 0.

Gas perforation coefficients for wells. Default is 0.

Water perforation coefficients for wells. Default is 0.

Gas shutoff coefficients for wells. Default is 0.

Water shutoff coefficients for wells. Default is 0.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

00

00

Well Management Level Data

The number of a, b, c, d and e values must equal the number of wells in


the well list.
Definitions: for well management levels
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified workover benefit function coefficients apply:
Gathering Center.

FLOSTA

Flow Station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

Oil perforation coefficient for each well under the


specified well management level. Default is 0.

Gas perforation coefficient for each well under the


specified well management level. Default is 0.

Water perforation coefficient for each well under


the specified well management level. Default is 0.

Gas shutoff coefficient for each well under the


specified well management level. Default is 0.

Water shutoff coefficient for each well under the


specified well management level. Default is 0.

00

Note:

00

The benefit functions for workovers are defined as:

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

GATHER

BFop =GP1i * GP2j * ( a * Op+ b * Gp+c * Wp)


BFgs =GP1i * GP2j * ( d * Gs )
BFws =GP1i * GP2j * ( e * Ws )
where:
BFop

opening benefit function,

BFgs

gas shutoff benefit function,

BFws

water shutoff benefit function,

GP1i

i-th Group 1 coefficient (WRKCF1),

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GP2j

j-th Group 2 coefficient (WRKCF2),

Op

workover benefit for oil perforations, defined as the


sum of oil rates in openable perforations,

Gp

workover benefit for gas perforations, defined as


the sum of gas rates in openable perforations,

Wp

workover benefit for water perforations, defined as


the sum of water rates in openable perforations,

Gs

workover benefit for gas shutoffs, defined as the


sum of gas rates in shutable perforations,

Ws

workover benefit for water shutoffs, defined as the


sum of water rates in shutable perforations.

00

Only one of the coefficients a, b and c can be nonzero.

00

The coefficients b and d cannot both be nonzero.

00

The coefficients c and e cannot both be nonzero.

00

00

Benefit function coefficients can be input at the well level or at any other
level of well management. The effective coefficient values for a well will
be the one specified at the lowest level of the well hierarchy; i,e., the first
user-specified number found in the order: well, the appropriate gathering
center, the appropriate flow station, the appropriate area, and the field.
If WRKCOEF is specified by well management level, one and only one of
the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD labels must be specified. There is
no default. When FIELD is specified the inum entry may be omitted or the
value 1 may be input; no other value will be accepted.

4.11.13 Debug Output (WRKDBG)


00

The WRKDBG card is used to obtain debug output during the workover
calculations.
WRKDBG

00

kwrkdb

Definition:
kwrkdb

Level of debug output:


3

4-288

Well and workover reports are


printed after completion of

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Management Level Data

workovers, If set to -3, the rig


distribution table is also printed.
2

Workover report is printed after


completion of workovers, If set to -2,
the rig distribution table is also
printed.

Rig distribution table is printed at


the end of input.

No debug output. This is the default.

4.12 Fluid Tracking (Not available in VIP-THERM)


4.12.1 Fluid Tracking Option (TRACK)
00

00

The TRACK card is required to use the fluid tracking option.


The TRACK card is used to define data relating to the fluid tracking
option.
TRACK
(WTC
(WTV
(CONDENSATE
(TRKTOL
(NOWELL)
(TRCKOF)

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

wtc1
wtv1

wtc2
...
wtv2
...
retrog
trktlo

wtcnfl)
wtvnfl)
cgas)
trktlg)

Definitions:
wtc

Weighting factor for each tracked fluid used in the


calculation of the mass transfer terms for
condensation. Default is 1.0.

wtv

Weighting factor for each tracked fluid used in the


calculation of the mass transfer terms for
vaporization. Default is 1.0.

retrog

Number of the retrograde tracked fluid.

cgas

Number of
retrograde.

trktlo

Oil phase residual tolerance. If the tolerance is


violated, a warning message is written. Default is
0.00001.

the

tracked

fluid

which

forms

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trktlg

Gas phase residual tolerance. If the tolerance is


violated, a warning message is written. Default is
0.00001.

NOWELL

Alpha label specifying that production information


on the well level will not be written into the track
file. Default is to write the information.

TRCKOF

Turns off tracking from this point on.


The number of wtc and/or wtv values must equal the number of
tracked fluids.

NOTE:

4.12.2 Tracked Fluid Number (YINJT)


00

The YINJT card allows the user to specify the number of the tracked fluid
into which the injected gas will go.
YINJT
yinjt1

00

wl
yinjt2 ...

yinjtn

Definitions:
wl

List of gas injection wells for which yinjt values are


being specified (see Section 1.5.2).

yinjt

Number of the tracked fluid into which the injected


gas will go. Default is 0, indicating that the injected
gas will not be tracked.

NOTE:

The number of yinjt values must equal the number of wells in the
well list.

4.12.3 Activates Tracked Fluid Composition Output (OPRSYS)


00

The OPRSYS card activates the output of produced tracked fluid


compositions, by pressure system, to Fortran unit 37. This output can only
be obtained for predictive well management cases (PREDICT card) and
the frequency of output is controlled by the WTRACK card. It should be
entered in the TRACK data group.
OPRSYS

4-290

(GATHER)

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00

Definition:
GATHER

00

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Well Management Level Data

Alpha label that causes output to be by pressure


system, on a gathering center level. The default is
that output will be on a flow station level.

Information in the output file is organized in the form of time records.


Each time record contains the following information (format):
ITIME,TIME
NC,NFLTRK,NGCFS,NPRSYS
start ISYS loop (ISYS=1 ,NPRSYS)
ISYS
start IGC loop (IGC=1 ,NGCFS)
IGC (for LFSTRK=.TRUE.)
IGC (for LFSTRK=.FALSE.)
((ZZ(I,J,IGC,ISYS) ,I=1 ,NC) ,J=1 ,NFLTRK)
((YY(I,J,IGC,ISYS) ,I=1 ,NC) ,J=1 ,NFLTRK)
end ISYS loop
end IGC loop

(I10,E15.7)
(4l5)
(PSYS ,I5)
(FLST ,I5)
(GC ,I5)
(8E15.7)
(8E15.7)

where:
ITIME

Time step number.

TIME

Time from the start of simulation, days,

NC

Number of hydrocarbon components.

NFLTRK

Number of tracked fluids.

NGCFS

A number equal to the number of gathering stations


or flow stations depending on the value of the
logical LFSTRK.

NPRSYS

Number of pressure systems.

LFSTRK

Logical variable, which is set to .TRUE. when the


output on the flow station level is requested
(default). Otherwise, LFSTRK is set to .FALSE.

ZZ(I,J,K,L)

Total molar production rate (moles/day) of the


component I, produced as the track fluid J, from the
flow station (gathering center) K, and pressure
system L.

YY(I,J,K,L)

Gas molar production rate (moles/day) of the


component I, produced as the track fluid J, from the
flow station (gathering center) K, and pressure
system L.

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4.13 Water Tracking (Not available in VIP-THERM)


4.13.1 Tracked Water Mixing Parameter (FTWMIX)
00

The FTWMIX card allow the user to specify how much of the insitu
(connate) water in a block will be considered mobile, in calculating the
fractional flow of each tracked water type. The irreducible water
saturation (Swirr) can be completely bypassed, or can be partially
replaced by other water types. This does not affect total water flow, but
only the allocation of this water flow among the various tracked water
types.
FTWMIX

00

ftwmix

Definition:
Tracked water mixing parameter; 0.0 ftwmix 1.0.
A value of 0.0 implies that insitu water below the
irreducible water saturation for the block is
immobile. A value of 1.0 implies that all of the
insitu water is mobile and that Swirr will be
composed of a mix of tracked water types. Any
value in between will yield a linear combination of
the two. The default is 1.0.

ftwmix

4.13.2 Tracked Water Type Number (WINJT)


00

The WINJT card allows the user to specify the index number of the
tracked water type into which the injected water will go.
WINJT
winjt1

00

winjtn

Definitions:
wl

List of water injection wells for which winjt values


are being specified (see Section 1.5.2).

winjt

Number of the tracked water type into which the


injected water will go. Default is 0, indicating that
the injected water will not be tracked.

NOTE:

4-292

wl
winjt2 ...

The number of winjt values must equal the number of wells in the
well list.

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Chapter

5
Predictive Well Management1

00000

5.1 Introduction
00

00

00

00

00

00

This section describes the data required to use the predictive well
management (PWM) option in VIP-EXECUTIVE. The PREDICT card must
appear on every run, including any history runs, of a sequence of runs in
which predictive well management may be used. A WMITN card with a
value greater than zero is required to invoke the PWM calculations. The
variable dimensioned arrays used in PWM are described in the DIM card.
THP and PTARG cards are used in both basic well management and
predictive well management. If used for PWM data specifications, the
formats described in this section should be used.
When the PRINT FIELD option is selected and PWM is active, in addition
to the field production and injection reports, a report of production by
pressure system will be printed.
This section is divided into three parts: the first part describes the
keywords common to both "NEW" PWM and "MGOR" PWM; the second
part describes the keywords used in NEW PWM; and the third part
describes the keywords used in MGOR PWM.
The number of pressure systems (NPRSYS on the DIM card) must be two
for MGOR PWM.
Artificial lift is available only for pressure system one in MGOR PWM.

1. Not available in VIP-THERM

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5.2 Keywords Common to NEW PWM and MGOR PWM


5.2.1 Predictive Well Management (PREDICT)
00

If the PREDICT card is entered, it must occur along with other utility
data.

PREDICT

NEW
MGOR

00

00

00

Definitions:
PREDICT

Alpha label that causes arrays that will be used in


predictive well management to be defined.

NEW

"NEW" predictive well management algorithm.


This is the default.

MGOR

"MGOR" predictive well management algorithm.

The PREDICT card must appear on every run, including any history runs,
of a sequence of runs in which predictive well management may be used.
The predictive well management package will not be executed unless a
nonzero value for the number of outer iterations using predictive well
management is specified in the recurrent data (see WMITN card).

5.2.2 Number of Outer Iterations Each Timestep (WMITN)


00

The WMITN card must be entered to use predictive well management.


WMITN

00

5-294

nitn

(ipwmspn)

Definition:
nitn

Number of outer iterations in each timestep that


will use predictive well management. Default is 0.

ipwmspn

Frequency of predictive well management calls


with which surface pipeline network calculations
will be done. Default is to do the surface pipeline
network calculations every call to predictive well
management. This value may be entered only if the
surface pipeline network option has been licensed.

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Predictive Well Management

The WMITN card and the PREDICT card supply the enabling data for
predictive well management. Both are necessary to use this option.
The WMITN card defines the number of outer iterations in each timestep
that will use the predictive well management set of routines to calculate
well rates and bottomhole pressures.
It is recommended that the number of iterations be held to a small value,
say 1 or 2. Larger values will probably degrade convergence considerably.

5.2.3 Pressure Systems and Lift Methods Available (PWMGC)


00

The PWMGC card is used to define which pressure systems and artificial
lift methods are available in each gathering center. Producers in gathering
centers with LIFT specified, for which no qlift has been input, will
automatically have a negative qlift assigned.
PWMGC

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

GATHER
igc1
X
igc2
.
.

SYSTEM
sysnmi
sysnmj
sysnmk
.
.

(LIFT)
(liftnm)
(liftnm)
(liftnm)
.
.

Definitions:
GATHER

Alpha label indicating that the first entry on


subsequent cards defines the gathering center
number.

SYSTEM

Alpha label indicating that the second entry on


subsequent cards defines a pressure system
available to the gathering center.

LIFT

Alpha label indicating that the third entry on


subsequent cards, if entered, defines an artificial lift
method attached to the pressure system.

igc

Gathering center number. For each gathering center


the igc number may only be specified once.

Alpha label indicating that the data on this card


applies to the most recently specified gathering
center number.

sysnm

Pressure system name.

liftnm

Artificial lift method name.

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5.2.4 Tubinghead Pressure (THP)


THP
wl
sysnm1 thp11
sysnm2 thp21
.
.
.

00

thp12. . .thp1n
thp22. . .thp2n
.
.
.
.
.
.

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which thp values are being entered


(see Section 1.5.2).

sysnm

Name of the pressure system to which the thp


values on this card apply.

thp

Tubinghead pressure limit when the well points to


the appropriate pressure system, psia (kPa).

NOTE:

For predictive well management a tubinghead pressure value must


be specified for each well for each pressure system to which the
well may be produced.
The number of thp values on any of the cards must equal the
number of wells in the well list.
To invoke THP constraints for a well, the user must also define a
productivity index, BHPTAB data, and ITUBE / SYSTB data.

5.2.5 Production Target Data (PTARG)


00

A PTARG card is used to define a maximum production rate for a


gathering center, a flow station, an area, or the field, or for the subunits
sysnm within each entity.

GATHER
TOTAL
FLOSTA
PTARG
inum
SYSNM
AREA
FIELD

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O
G qtarg (coil cwat cgas (cwct)) LFTGAS
NOLFTGAS
W
VEL

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Predictive Well Management

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the level of well management hierarchy to
which the specified maximum production rate applies:
GATHER

Gathering center.

FLOSTA

Flow station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

Alpha label indicating to which subunit (or total) the maximum rate
applies:
TOTAL

Alpha label indicating the maximum rate applies to


the specified member as a whole, not to a particular
pressure system. This is the default.

sysnm

Name of the pressure system to which the


maximum rate applies.

Alpha label indicating the maximum rate is based on:

R2003.4 - Landmark

Oil production, STB/D (STCM/D).

Water production, STB/D (STCM/D).

Gas production, MSCF/D (SCM/D).

VEL

Velocity, user-defined units (see NOTE below).

qtarg

Maximum production rate or velocity.

coil

Coefficient of the oil rate term; velocity option


only.

cwat

Coefficient of the water rate term; velocity option


only.

cgas

Coefficient of the gas rate term; velocity option


only.

cwct

Minimum water cut for velocity option to be


invoked. Optional.

LFTGAS

Alpha label indicating that the gas production


target qtarg also includes the amount of gaslift gas
used in the specified level of well management.
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This option applies only when the label G is


specified.
NOLFTGAS

NOTE:

Alpha label indicating that the gas production


target qtarg does not include gaslift gas. This is the
default. This option applies only when the label G is
specified.

In predictive well management mode, one and only one of TOTAL


or sysnm may be specified. If neither is input TOTAL is assumed.
Separate maxima can be established for each pressure system by
inputting multiple PTARG cards.
One and only one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD
labels must be specified. There is no default. When FIELD is
specified the inum entry may be omitted, or the value 1 may be
input; no other value will be accepted.
One and only one of the O, W, G, or VEL labels must be specified.
There is no default. The label VEL applies only when the label
GATHER is specified. Separate maxima can be established for oil,
water and gas by reading multiple PTARG cards.
The oil, water and gas maxima may be exceeded by the tolerance
factors specified on the TRGTOL card before violations occur.
The labels LFTGAS and NOLFTGAS apply only when the label G is
specified.
The values coil, cwat, cgas, and, optionally, cwct, must be entered
if and only if the label VEL is specified.
When the velocity option is invoked, the following velocity is
computed: coil x (oil rate) + cwat x (water rate) + cgas x (gas rate).
This quantity is then checked against the qtarg value in the same
manner as the production maxima. If cwct is entered, the
computed watercut must be larger than this in order for the
velocity to be checked.

00

00

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Examples:
PTARG
PTARG
PTARG

FIELD
GATHER
AREA

1
2
1

TOTAL
SYS1
LPSYS

G
W
G

6861
50000
100000

LFTGAS

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5.2.6 Frequency of PWM Calculations (PWMFRQ)

MONTHS
PWMFRQ

freq

DAYS
TSTEPS

00

00

00

Definitions:
freq

Frequency with which the PWM calculations will be


performed. Default is 99999 timesteps.

MONTHS

Alpha label that sets the unit for freq to months.

DAYS

Alpha label that sets the unit for freq to days.

TSTEPS

Alpha label that sets the unit for freq to timesteps.

The PWMFRQ card is used to specify the additional frequency with which
the PWM algorithm is performed. The PWM algorithm is automatically
performed at every DATE/TIME card.
Within the simulator the date on a DATE card is considered to be the
beginning of that day. For example, if output is desired at the end of
March 1988, the date card should contain 1/4/88 and not 31/3/88. Thus
the MONTHS option on the frequency card will force a timestep to start at
the date 1/month/year.

5.2.7 Bottomhole Pressure Tables (SYSTB)


00

The SYSTB card specifies the bottomhole pressure table to be used when a
well points to a pressure system with or without lift.
SYSTB wl
sysnm1 (liftnm1)itb11itb12. . .itb1n
sysnm2 (liftnm2)itb21 itb22. . .itb2n

00

Definitions:
wl

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List of wells for which table pointers are being


assigned (see Section 1.5.2).

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sysnm

Name of the pressure system to which the table


pointers on this card apply.

liftnm

Name of the artificial lift method to which the table


pointers on this card apply.

itb

Bottomhole pressure table pointer.

NOTE:

The number of table pointers on each card must equal the number
of wells in the well list.
If a pointer for a well for a lift method is not input, the table pointer
will default to the value for the appropriate pressure system.
If a pointer for a well for a pressure system is not input, the table
pointer will default to the value specified on the ITUBE card for the
well.

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5.2.8 Define Pressure Systems for Wells During History (HISTSYS)


00

00

The HISTSYS card is used to define the pressure system for each well
during the history period. This data is used to print production reports by
pressure system during the history period.
HISTSYS Card for WELLS
HISTSYS WELL wl
sysnm1 sysnm2 . . . sysnmn

00

HISTSYS Card for WELL MANAGEMENT LEVELS

GATHER
HISTSYS

FLOSTA

inum

sysnm

AREA
FIELD

00

00

00

Definitions: for wells


wl

List of wells for which pressure systems are being


specified (see Section 1.5.2).

sysnm

Pressure system name for the well.

The number of sysnm values must equal the number of wells in the well
list.
Definitions: for well management levels
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierachy to
which the specified pressure system name applies:

R2003.4 - Landmark

GATHER

Gathering Center.

FLOSTA

Flow Station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

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inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

sysnm

Pressure system name for each well under the


specified well management level.

NOTE:

Pressure system names can be input at the well level or at any other
level of well management. The effective pressure system for a well
will be the one specified at the lowest level of the well hierarchy;
i.e., the first user-specified number found in the order: well, the
appropriate gathering center, the appropriate flow station, the
appropriate area, and the field.
If HISTSYS is specified by well management level, one and only
one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD labels must be
specified. There is no default. When FIELD is specified the inum
entry may be omitted or the value 1 may be input; no other value
will be accepted.

5.2.9 Defining Pressure Systems (PRSYS)


00

The PRSYS card defines the names of the PWM pressure systems.
PRSYS

00

sysnm1 sysnm2. . . sysnmNPRSYS

Definition:
sysnm

NOTE:

00

00

5-302

sysnm1 is the name of the pressure system with the


lowest tubinghead pressure, sysnm2 is the name of
the pressure system with the next higher
tubinghead pressure, etc.
The pressure system names can be up to six (6) characters long. If
this card is omitted the pressure systems are denoted as SYS1,
SYS2, ...,SYSn. The user can selectively use default names by
specifying X for a name in the above card.

Examples:
If NPRSYS = 3, the following are valid PRSYS cards:
PRSYS
SYSTM1
SYSTM2 SYSTM3
PRSYS
LOWPRS
X
HIGHPR (here X = SYS2)
PRSYS
SYS1
SYS2
SYS3

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5.2.10 Artificial Lift Method Names (ARTLFT)


00

The ARTLFT card defines the names of the artificial lift methods.
ARTLFT alftnm1 alftnm2 ... alftnmNPWMAL

00

Definition:
alftnm

00

Name of artificial lift method #n

The artificial lift method names can be up to six (6) characters long. If this
card is omitted, the default name for lift method #1 is GASLFT.

5.2.11 Tolerance for Production Rates (PWMTLP)


00

The PWMTLP card is used to define the tolerance within which the rates
in non-PWM timesteps must fall. It also defines the action to perform if a
violation occurs.

GATHER
PWMTLP

FLOSTA

inum

AREA

ALL

TOTAL
sysnm

O
G
W

FIELD

STOP
NONPWM

tolr1

WARN
WMAN

STOP
TRGPWM

tolr2

WARN
WMAN

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Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified data applies:
GATHER

Gathering Center.

FLOSTA

Flow Station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

ALL

Alpha label indicating the tolerance applies to all


members in the specified well management level.

TOTAL

Alpha label indicating the data applies to the


specified member as a whole, not to a particular
pressure system. This is the default.

sysnm

Name of the pressure system to which the data


applies.

Alpha label indicating the tolerance applies to the rates:


O

Oil production

Gas production.

Water production.

NONPWM

Alpha label indicating the data on this card applies


to the comparison of the rates from non-PWM
timesteps to the PWM timestep.

tolr1

Tolerance within which the rate for a non-PWM


timestep must fall. That is, a violation occurs if
(RATE(PWM) - RATE(NON-PWM))/RATE(PWM) > tolr1
Default is to not do the comparison if the
NONPWM card is not input.

5-304

TRGPWM

Alpha label indicating the data on this card applies


to the comparison of the rates from non-PWM
timesteps to the targets.

tolr2

Tolerance within which the rate for a non-PWM


timestep must fall. That is, a violation occurs if

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(RATE(NON-PWM) - TARGET) / TARGET > tolr2


Default is to not do the comparison if the TRGPWM
card is not input.
Alpha label indicating the action to take if a violation occurs:
STOP

Write a restart record and stop the run.

WARN

Write a warning message and continue the run.

WMAN

Repeat this timestep performing the PWM


algorithm.

NOTE:

One and only one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD


labels must be specified. There is no default, When FIELD is
specified the inum entry may be omitted or the value 1 may be
input; no other value will be accepted.
One and only one of the O, W, or G labels must be specified. There
is no default.
One and only one of TOTAL or sysnm may be specified. If neither
is input TOTAL is assumed. Separate tolerances can be established
for each pressure system by inputting multiple PWMTLP cards.
Either one or both of the NONPWM and TRGPWM cards may be
input.

5.2.12 Oil Incremental Benefit with Gaslift (PWMOBN)


00

The PWMOBN card is used to specify the oil incremental benefit with
gaslift.
PWMOBN bnf

00

Definition:
bnf

R2003.4 - Landmark

Fraction of the non-lifted oil rate above which


gaslift must improve in order to be eligible. Default
is 0.05.

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5.2.13 Maximum PWM Timestep Size (DTPWM)


00

The DTPWM card is used to specify the maximum allowable timestep size
for a predictive well management timestep.
DTPWM

00

dtpwm

Definition:
dtpwm

Maximum allowable timestep size that can be used


for a predictive well management timestep, days.
Default is no size restriction.

5.2.14 Write PWM Report to File (PWMFILE)


00

The PWMFILE card is used to request a report of pressure system


production rates written in spreadsheet format to FORTRAN Unit 63.

PWMFILE

00

5-306

TIME

TNEXT ( freq )

OFF

Definitions:
TIME

Alpha label that causes the file to be written each


time a TIME or DATE card is encountered. Default
is not to write on the basis of TIME or DATE cards.

TNEXT

Alpha label that causes the file to be written only


the next time a TIME or DATE card is encountered.
Default is not to write on the basis of the next TIME
or DATE card.

OFF

Alpha label that causes the file not to be output. It is


equivalent to specifying a frequency of 99999.

freq

A number that causes the file to be written after


every freq timesteps (each timestep cut counts as
one timestep). Default is 99999.

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NOTE:

At least one of the values, TIME, TNEXT, OFF, or freq must appear
on the PWMFILE card. Either TIME or TNEXT may appear with
freq.
The records are written to FORTRAN Unit 63, which may not be
saved unless the appropriate commands are added to the job
control stream.

5.2.15 Debug Output (PWMDBG)


00

The PWMDBG card is used to obtain debug output during the PWM
calculations.
PWMDBG

00

(NEXTONLY)
(ALL)

Definitions:
idbg

idbg

R2003.4 - Landmark

idbg

Level of debug output for "NEW" PWM":


3

Well and well management output for each


pass.

Well management output for each pass.

Well management output for each step.

No debug output. This is the default.

Level of debug output for "MGOR" PWM:


4

Information at the operating points for the wells


specified on the WPWMDB card, plus the
reports for lesser values of idbg.

Well management report each time rates are


decreased to honor targets, plus the reports for
lesser values of idbg.

Well management report at the end of each


iteration of incremental gas-oil ratio value, plus
the report at the completion of the algorithm.

Well management report at the completion of


the algorithm.

No debug output. This is the default.

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NEXTONLY

Alpha label indicating the debug output will be


printed for the next PWM calculations only. This is
the default.

ALL

Alpha label indicating the debug output will be


printed for all subsequent PWM calculations.

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5.3 Keywords for NEW PWM


5.3.1 Minimum Oil Rate for Producers (QOMIN)
00

00

00

The QOMIN card is used to define the minimum oil rate a well must have
in order to flow into any pressure system.
Each producing well must have a QOMIN value or QGMIN value, or
both, specified.
QOMIN Card for WELLS
QOMIN

00

WELL
wl
qomin1 qomin2 . . . qominn

QOMIN card for WELL MANAGEMENT LEVELS

GATHER
QOMIN

FLOSTA

inum

qomin

AREA
FIELD

00

00

00

Definitions: for wells


wl

List of wells for which minimum oil rates are being


specified (see Section 1.5.2).

qomin

Minimum oil rate for the well during PWM


categorization, STB/D (STCM/D).

The number of qomin values must equal the number of wells in the well
list.
Definitions: for well management levels
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified minimum oil rate applies:

R2003.4 - Landmark

GATHER

Gathering Center.

FLOSTA

Flow Station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

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inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

qomin

Minimum oil rate for each well under the specified


well management level during PWM
categorization, STB/D (STCM/D).

NOTE:

Minimum oil rate values can be input at the well level or at any
other level of well management. The effective minimum value for a
well will be the one specified at the lowest level of the well
hierarchy; i.e., the first user-specified number found in the order:
well, the appropriate gathering center, the appropriate flow station,
the appropriate area, and the field.
If QOMIN is specified by well management level, one and only one
of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD labels must be
specified. There is no default. When FIELD is specified the inum
entry may be omitted or the value 1 may be input; no other value
will be accepted.

5.3.2 Minimum Gas Rate for Producers (QGMIN)


00

00

00

The QGMIN card is used to define the minimum gas rate a well must have
in order to flow into any pressure system.
Each producing well must have a QOMIN value or QGMIN value, or
both, specified.
QGMIN Card for WELLS
QGMIN

00

WELL
wl
qgmin1 qgmin2 . . . qgminn

QGMIN Card for WELL MANAGEMENT LEVELS

GATHER
QGMIN

FLOSTA

inum

qgmin

AREA
FIELD

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00

00

00

Predictive Well Management

Definitions: for wells


wl

List of wells for which minimum gas rates are being


specified (see Section 1.5.2).

qgmin

Minimum gas rate for the well during PWM


categorization, MSCF/D (SCM/D).

The number of qgmin values must equal the number of wells in the well
list.
Definitions: for well management levels
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified minimum gas rate applies:
GATHER

Gathering Center.

FLOSTA

Flow Station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

qgmin

Minimum gas rate for each well under the specified


well management level during PWM
categorization, MSCF/D (SCM/D).

NOTE:

Minimum gas rate values can be input at the well level or at any
other level of well management. The effective minimum value for a
well will be the one specified at the lowest level of the well
hierarchy; i.e., the first user-specified number found in the order:
well, the appropriate gathering center, the appropriate flow station,
the appropriate area, and the field.
One and only one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD
labels must be specified. There is no default. When FIELD is
specified the inum entry may be omitted or the value 1 may be
input; no other value will be accepted.

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5.3.3 PWM Calculation Steps (PWMSTEP)


00

The PWMSTEP card is used to specify all the data needed to perform steps
2 and 3 of the new predictive well management.
PWMSTEP 2
PASS
ipass
(REMOVE)
BENEFIT bennam (a b c d e f g h i j)
PAFACT pa1 pa2 . . . paNPWMPA
PMFACT pm1 pm2 . . . pmNPWMPM

GATHER
WMGL

FLOSTA
AREA
FIELD

PRSYS
GORM
GLRM
WCUT
EXCLUDE

sysnm
gorm
glrm
wcut
W

CUTOFF
ACTION

AVG
SCALE

(card 1)

CATEGORY

NOLIFTREQ
LIFTREQ
LIFTONLY
MUSTFLOW

MUSTLIFT
ALL
sysnm
.
.
ENDCATEGORY
PASS
ipass (REMOVE)
.
ENDSTEP

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PWMSTEP
PASS
BENEFIT
PAFACT
PMFACT

Predictive Well Management

(STOP)
(WARN)
ipass (REMOVE)
bennam (a b c d e f g h i j)
pa1 pa2 . . . paNPWMPA
pm1 pm2 . . . pmNPWMPM

GATHER
FLOSTA

WMGL

AREA
FIELD

PRSYS

sysnm
TOTAL

PHASE

PASS
.
.
.
ENDSTEP

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

SHUT

SCALE

AVG

ipass

(REMOVE)

Definitions: for PWMSTEP 2 card


PASS

Alpha label indicating data for a pass is to be


input.

ipass

Pass number. The value of ipass can not be


greater than NPWMPS.

REMOVE

Alpha label indicating the designated pass


ipass should be removed from this step.

bennam

Benefit function name. See notes below for


benefit function definitions.

a,...,j

Benefit function coefficients. See notes below.

PAFACT

Alpha label indicating the factors to be used for


each producing area are on this card. If the card
is not input, the factors default to 1.

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pa

Producing area factor. Default is 1.

PMFACT

Alpha label indicating the factors to be used for


each producing mechanism are on this card. If
the card is not input, the factors default to 1.

pm

Producing mechanism factor. Default is 1.

WMGL

Alpha label indicating the level of the well


management hierarchy to which the data for
this pass applies is on this card.

Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy:

5-314

GATHER

Gathering Center.

FLOSTA

Flow Station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

PRSYS

Alpha label indicating the system to be filled


during this pass.

sysnm

Name of the pressure system to be filled.

GORM

Alpha label indicating the maximum


producing GOR for wells in this pass is input
on this card. This card replaces any previously
specified GLRM data for this pass.

gorm

Maximum producing GOR for wells in this


pass, SCF/STB (SCM/ STCM).

GLRM

Alpha label indicating the maximum


producing GLR for wells in this pass is input on
this card. This card replaces any previously
specified GORM data for this pass.

glrm

Maximum producing GLR for wells in this


pass, SCF/STB (SCM/ STCM).

WCUT

Alpha label indicating the maximum


producing water-cut for wells in this pass is
input on this card.

wcut

Maximum producing water-cut for wells in this


pass, fraction.

EXCLUDE W

Alpha labels indicating that water rate


constraints are not to be checked during this
pass.

ACTION

Alpha label indicating the procedure for


meeting the target.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Predictive Well Management

CUTOFF

Assign wells in benefit


function order until target is
met. This is the default.

AVG

Reset the rates of the highest


rate wells to an average rate to
meet the target. All eligible
wells are considered.

SCALE

Scale all eligible wells to meet


the target.

CATEGORY
ENDCATEGORY

Alpha labels indicating the well hydraulic


categories that are eligible to be considered on
this pass are input between these two cards.

NOLIFTREQ

Alpha label indicating, for the pressure system


categories specified on the following card(s),
wells are eligible under nolift conditions only
(i.e., do not consider lift rates in this pass). This
is the default.

LIFTREQ

Alpha label indicating, for the pressure system


categories specified on the following card(s),
wells are eligible under both lift and nolift
conditions (i.e., if applicable the wells may
appear twice in the benefit function list: for lift
and non-lift rates).

LIFTONLY

Alpha label indicating, for the pressure system


categories specified on the following card(s),
wells are eligible under lift conditions only (i.e.,
only consider gas lift rates for wells).

MUSTFLOW

Alpha label indicating that the wells


categorized as MUSTFLOW on the PWMCAT
card are the eligible wells for this pass. The
ALL option must be used.

The following three options are used for determining the eligible
categories for the current pass:

R2003.4 - Landmark

MUSTLIFT

Alpha label indicating wells that can only flow


when lifted are eligible on this pass.

ALL

Alpha label indicating all well hydraulic


categories, including MUSTLIFT, are eligible on
this pass (i.e., every unassigned well in the list
is considered).

sysnm

Name of the pressure system category to be


included on this pass (i.e. , select wells which
can flow to the pressure system sysnm).

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ENDSTEP

00

Alpha label indicating the end of the


PWMSTEP data. Required.

Definitions: for PWMSTEP 3 card


Alpha label indicating the action to take if any targets remain in
violation following step 3:
STOP

Write a restart record and stop the run.

WARN

Write a warning message and continue the run.

PASS

Alpha label indicating data for a pass is to be


input.

ipass

Pass number. The value of ipass cannot be


greater than NPWMPS.

REMOVE

Alpha label indicating the designated pass ipass


should be removed from this step.

bennam

Benefit function name. See notes below for


benefit function definitions.

a,...,j

Benefit function coefficients. See notes below.

PAFACT

Alpha label indicating the factors to be used for


each producing area are on this card. If the card
is not input, the factors default to 1.

pa

Producing area factor. Default is 1.

PMFACT

Alpha label indicating the factors to be used for


each producing mechanism are on this card. If
the card is not input, the factors default to 1.

pm

Producing mechanism factor. Default is 1.

WMGL

Alpha label indicating the level of the well


management hierarchy to which the data for
this pass applies is on this card.

Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy:

5-316

GATHER

Gathering Center.

FLOSTA

Flow Station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

PRSYS

Alpha label indicating the system to be filled


during this pass.

sysnm

Name of the pressure system to be filled.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Predictive Well Management

TOTAL

Alpha label indicating the entire well


management level member is to be checked.

PHASE

Alpha label indicating which phase target is to


be checked and the action to be taken during
this pass are input on this card.

Alpha label indicating the phase target to be checked:


O

Oil target.

Water target.

Gas target.

Alpha label indicating the action to take if a violation occurs:


SHUT

Shut-in wells in the benefit function order.

SCALE

Scale all eligible wells to meet the target.

AVG

Reset the rates of the highest rate wells to an


average rate.

ENDSTEP

NOTE:

Alpha label indicating the end of the PWMSTEP


data. Required.

Multiple sets of pass data can be input for each PWMSTEP card.
The following data is required for each specified pass: BENEFIT,
WMGL, PRSYS, PHASE and CATEGORY.
Data for pass 1 must be specified.
The action CUTOFF must be used if LIFTREQ or LIFTONLY are
specified on the CATEGORY card (in step 2).
The category ALL must be used if MUSTFLOW is specified on the
CATEGORY card (in step 2).
The following is the list of available benefit functions:
BF1: PMi *PAj *(a*Qo +b*GOR+c*WCUT+d*GLGOR)
BF2: PMi * PAj * ( a + b*Qg + c*Qo + d*Qw + e*Qglg) /
( f + g*Qg + h*Qo + i*Qw + j*Qglg)
BF3: PMi* PAj* (a+Qo)**b* ( c+GOR )** d*
( e +WCUT )**f * ( g +GLGOR )**h
For benefit function BF3, the exponents b, d, f and h should be
integer values. If not, they are internally set to the nearest integer.

R2003.4 - Landmark

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5.3.4 Producing Area Number (PWMWPA)


00

00

The PWMWPA card is used to define the producing area in which a well
lies. This allows more flexibility in the use of the benefit functions.
PWMWPA Card for WELLS
PWMWPA WELL wl
ipa1
ipa2 . .. ipan

00

PWMWPA Card for WELL MANAGEMENT LEVELS

GATHER
FLOSTA

PWMWPA

inum

ipa

AREA
FIELD

00

Definitions: for wells


wl

List of wells for which producing area numbers are


being specified (see Section 1.5.2).

ipa

Producing area number for the well. Default is


NPWMPA+1.

00

The number of ipa values must equal the number of wells in the well list.

00

Definitions: for well management levels


Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified producing area number applies:
GATHER

Gathering Center.

FLOSTA

Flow Station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

5-318

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Predictive Well Management

ipa

NOTE:

Producing area number for each well under the


specified well management level. Default is
NPWMPA+1.
Producing area numbers can be input at the well level, or at any
other level of well management. The effective producing area
number for a well will be the one specified at the lowest level of the
well hierarchy; i.e., the first user-specified number found in the
order: well, the appropriate gathering center, the appropriate flow
station, the appropriate area, and the field.
If PWMWPA is specified by well management level, one and only
one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD labels must be
specified. There is no default. When FIELD is specified the inum
entry may be omitted or the value 1 may be input; no other value
will be accepted.

5.3.5 Producing Mechanism (PWMWPM)


00

00

The PWMWPM card is used to define the producing mechanism for a


well. This allows more flexibility in the use of the benefit functions.
PWMWPM Card for WELLS
PWMWPM WELL wl
ipm1
ipm2 . . . ipmn

00

PWMWPM Card for WELL MANAGEMENT LEVELS

GATHER
PWMWPM

FLOSTA

inum

ipm

AREA
FIELD

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Definitions: for wells


wl

List of wells for which producing mechanism


numbers are being specified (see Section 1.5.2).

ipm

Producing mechanism number for the well. Default


is NPWMPM+1.

The number of ipm values must equal the number of wells in the well list.

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Definitions: for well management levels


Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierarchy to
which the specified producing mechanism number applies:
GATHER

Gathering Center.

FLOSTA

Flow Station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

ipm

Producing mechanism number for each well under


the specified well management level. Default is
NPWMPM+1.

NOTE:

Producing mechanism numbers can be input at the well level or at


any other level of well management. The effective producing
mechanism number for a well will be the one specified at the
lowest level of the well hierarchy; i.e., the first user-specified
number found in the order: well, the appropriate gathering center,
the appropriate flow station, the appropriate area, and the field.
If PWMWPM is specified by well management level, one and only
one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD labels must be
specified. There is no default. When FIELD is specified the inum
entry may be omitted or the value 1 may be input; no other value
will be accepted.

5.3.6 Define Well Category (PWMCAT)


00

The PWMCAT card is used to explicitly define the PWM category for a
well.

PWMCAT

( MUSTFLOW ) sysnm

(liftnm) wl

DECLASS

00

Definitions:
sysnm

5-320

Name of the pressure system to which the wells are


explicitly categorized.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Predictive Well Management

MUSTFLOW

Alpha label indicating that the wells listed on this


card are eligible when MUSTFLOW is specified on
the CATEGORY card in the PWMSTEP 2 data. Also,
these wells are not eligible for rate reduction during
the Step 3 process.

DECLASS

Alpha label indicating that the wells are to be


declassified; i.e., remove any previous explicit
categorization.

liftnm

Name of the artificial lift method to which the wells


are additionally categorized.

wl

List of wells which are being explicitly categorized


(see Section 1.5.2).

5.3.7 MUSTFLOW Well Specification (MUSTFLOW)


00

The MUSTFLOW card is used to affect the eligibility of wells when


MUSTFLOW is specified on the CATEGORY card in the PWMSTEP 2 data.
Also, MUSTFLOW wells are not eligible for rate reduction during the Step
3 process.

MUSTFLOW

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

ON
OFF

wl

Definitions:
ON

Alpha label indicating that the wells listed on this


card are to be considered MUSTFLOW wells. This is
the default if neither ON nor OFF is specified.

OFF

Alpha label indicating that the wells listed on this


card are not to be MUSTFLOW wells.

wl

List of wells which are either being assigned or


unassigned as MUSTFLOW wells (see Section
1.5.2).

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5.3.8 Minimum Oil Rate for Wells on Gaslift (QOMINL)


00

00

The QOMINL card is used to define the minimum oil rate a well on gaslift
must have in order to flow into any pressure system.
QOMINL Card for WELLS
QOMINL WELL wl
qominl1 qominl2... qominln

00

QOMINL Card for WELL MANAGEMENT LEVELS

GATHER
FLOSTA

QOMINL

inum

qominl

AREA
FIELD

00

00

00

Definitions: for wells


wl

List of wells for which minimum oil rates are being


specified (see Section 1.5.2).

qominl

Minimum oil rate for the well on gaslift during


PWM categorization, STB/D (STCM/D).

The number of qominl values must equal the number of wells in the well
list.
Definitions: for well management levels
Alpha label indicating the level of the well management hierachy to
which the specified minimum oil rate applies:

5-322

GATHER

Gathering Center.

FLOSTA

Flow Station.

AREA

Area.

FIELD

Field.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Predictive Well Management

inum

Number of the member in the specified well


management level.

qominl

Minimum oil rate for each well under the specified


well management level on gaslift during PWM
categorization, STB/D (STCM/D).

NOTE:

Minimum oil rate values can be input at the well level or at any
other level of well management. The effective minimum value for a
well will be the one specified at the lowest level of the well
hierarchy; i.e., the first user-specified number found in the order:
well, the appropriate gathering center, the appropriate flow station,
the appropriate area, and the field.
If the qominl value is not specified for a well, the qomin value
will be used.
One and only one of the GATHER, FLOSTA, AREA, or FIELD
labels must be specified. There is no default. When FIELD is
specified the inum entry may be omitted or the value 1 may be
input; no other value will be accepted.

5.3.9 Execute Normal Targeting Procedure (PWMTRG)


00

The PWMTRG card is used to force the execution of the normal targeting
procedure for checking well management level production constraints,
even during PWM iterations.

PWMTRG

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

ON
OFF

Definitions:

00

ON

Alpha label indicating that the normal targeting


procedure should be used to check production
constraints.

00

OFF

Alpha label indicating that the normal targeting


procedure should not be used. This is the default if
the card is not entered.

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5.3.10 Frequency of Pressure System Switching (PRSDLT)


00

The PRSDLT card is used to define the length of time a well must be
assigned to a pressure system before it can be switched to another.
PRSDLT

00

00

frqsys1

frqsys2 ...frqsysNPRSYS

Definition:
frqsys

Length of time a well must be assigned to this


pressure system before it can be switched to another
pressure system, days. The alpha label X may be
entered instead of a value to indicate the value
should not be changed.

5.3.11 Well Rate Control (PWMWCN)


00

The PWMWCN card is used to specify how wells are to be handled during
non-PWM iterations and timesteps. Wells are either considered
bottomhole pressure controlled wells, where the bottomhole pressure
limit is the value from the last PWM iteration, or rate controlled.

PWMWCN

00

5-324

BHP
OIL
WATER
GAS
LIQUID

Definitions:
BHP

Alpha label indicating that the wells should be


treated as bottomhole pressure controlled. This is
the default.

OIL

Alpha label indicating that the wells should be


treated as oil rate controlled.

WATER

Alpha label indicating that the wells should be


treated as water rate controlled.

GAS

Alpha label indicating that the wells should be


treated as gas rate controlled.

LIQUID

Alpha label indicating that the wells should be


treated as liquid rate controlled.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Predictive Well Management

5.4 Keywords for MGOR PWM


5.4.1 Separator Battery Numbers (SYSSEP)
00

The SYSSEP card is used to specify the separator battery number to be


used when a well points to a pressure system.
SYSSEP wl
sysnm1 ibt11ibt12...ibt1n
sysnm2 ibt21ibt22...ibt2n

00

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which separator battery numbers


are being assigned (see Section 1.5.2).

sysnm

Name of the pressure system to which the separator


battery numbers on this card apply.

ibt

Separator battery number.

NOTE:

The number of separator battery numbers on each card must equal


the number of wells in the well list.
If a battery number for a well for a pressure system is not input, the
separator battery number will default to the value specified on the
WELL card for the well.

5.4.2 MGOR Option Data (PRMGOR)


00

The PRMGOR card is used to specify the data needed to execute the
marginal gas-oil ratio (MGOR) option of the predictive well management
algorithm.
PRMGOR

(FGRBGN)(FGRINC)(WCUTLM)(FIXGL)(EFF)

ON

OFF

(fgrbgn)(fgrinc)(wcutlm)

00

ON
OFF

Definitions:
fgrbgn

R2003.4 - Landmark

Initial value of field total incremental gas-oil ratio


(TIGOR) at which to start the well assignment,
SCF/STB (SCM/STCM). Default is 1000 SCF/STB.

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fgrinc

TIGOR increment to use during the algorithm,


SCF/STB (SCM/STCM). Default is 500 SCF/STB.

wcutlm

Water-cut value above which a well will not be


allowed to produce, fraction. Default is 1.

FIXGL

Indicates the method of placing wells on gaslift:

EFF

ON

Fixed gaslift gas rate. Wells are either on


gaslift at the rate corresponding to the
user-specified efficiency or not at all.

OFF

Variable gaslift gas rate. The allocated


gaslift gas rate may range from zero to the
rate corresponding to the user-specified
efficiency. This is the default.

Indicates the method of determining the lift


efficiency to use in the gaslift gas calculations under
the performance curve option:
ON

User-specified table of water-cut versus


efficiency (EFFTAB card).

OFF

User-specified value (PFMCRV card). This


is the default.

5.4.3 Water-Cut Versus Efficiency Table (EFFTAB)


00

EFFTAB data are used to relate lift efficiency to the water-cut of the well.
EFFTAB
WCUT
wcut1
wcut2
.
wcutn

00

5-326

EFF
eff1
eff2
effn

Definitions:
WCUT

Alpha label indicating that this column contains


water-cut values.

EFF

Alpha label indicating that this column contains lift


efficiency values.

wcut

Water-cut values, fraction.

eff

Lift efficiency values for use in the performance


curve option, BOPD/MMSCF (STCM/MSCM).

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Predictive Well Management

NOTE:

An EFFTAB card must be input if the EFF ON option is specified on


the PRMGOR card.
The number of water-cut (or efficiency) values must be no greater
than 100.

5.4.4 Specify Wells Included in Well Debug Report (WPWMDB)


00

The WPWMDB card specifies the wells for which debug output is desired
when the well debug option is specified on the PWMDBG card.
WPWMDB

00

Definitions:
wl

R2003.4 - Landmark

wl

List of wells for which debug output is requested


(see Section 1.5.2).

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Landmark - R2003.4

Chapter

6
Output Control

00000

6.1 Introduction
00

VIP-EXECUTIVE can generate a variety of output:


1. Timestep Summaries
2. Iteration Summaries
3. Array Reports
4. Well, Well Layer, Well Status Change, and Perf Status Change
Summaries
5. Separator Reports
6. Production/Injection Reports at any well management level
7. Potential production/injection reports.
8. Simulation Statistics
9. Region Summaries
10. Well RFT Reports
11. Restart Records
12. VDB File for Post-Processing Well and Array Data
13. Plot Files for Post-Processing Well Data
14. Map Files for Post-Processing Array Data
15. Relative Permeability Files for Pseudo Function Generation
16. Echo printing of time-dependent input data

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

The user can control the content and frequency of output of all items
except the timestep summaries.

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6.2 Print/Map Arrays and Parameters (OUTPUT, MAPOUT)


00

00

The OUTPUT card and MAPOUT card are used to specify which arrays
are to be printed and written to the map file, respectively. The OUTPUT
card is also used to enter parameters which cause specific actions to be
taken.
The MAPOUT card may be entered only if a MAP card was specified in
the VIP-CORE data set.
OUTPUT
MAPOUT
MAPOUT

00

6-330

array1 ... arraym


array1 ... arrayk
NONE

param1 . . . paramn

Definitions:
OUTPUT

Alpha label that causes the specified arrays to be


included in the array report, or the specified action
to occur.

MAPOUT

Alpha label that causes the specified arrays to be


written to the map file.

NONE

Alpha label that causes no arrays to be written to


the map file.

array

Alpha label of those arrays being defined on either


an OUTPUT card or a MAPOUT card:
P

Pressure.

PSAT

Saturation pressure.

PDAT

Datum pressure.

SO

Oil saturation.

SW

Water saturation.

SG

Gas saturation.

SOM

Normalized mobile oil saturation.

SWM

Normalized mobile water saturation.

RS

Solution gas-oil ratio.

RV

Solution oil-gas ratio.

BOF

Oil formation volume factor.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

R2003.4 - Landmark

Output Control

BG

Gas formation volume factor.

GOR

Total gas-oil ratio.

WCUT

Water cut.

RSW

Solution gas-water ratio. Available


only when the CO2 option is in use.

VISO

Oil phase viscosity.

VISG

Gas phase viscosity.

DENO

Oil phase density.

DENG

Gas phase density.

PV

Pore volume including compaction


effects.

TX

X direction transmissibility
including compaction effects.

TY

Y direction transmissibility
including compaction effects.

TZ

Z direction transmissibility
including compaction effects.

TR

R direction transmissibility
including compaction effects.

TTHETA

Angular-direction transmissibility
including compaction effects.

ITRAN

Transmissibility region.

KRO

Relative permeability of the oil


phase. Keywords KROX+, KROX-,
KROY+, KROY-, KROZ+, KROZ- can
be used for directional relative
permeabilities in X+, X-, Y+, Y-, Z+,
Z- directions, respectively.

KRG

Relative permeability of the gas


phase. Keywords KRGX+, KRGX-,
KRGY+, KRGY-, KRGZ+, KRGZ- can
be used for directional relative
permeabilities in X+, X-, Y+, Y-, Z+,
Z- directions, respectively.

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KRW

Relative permeability of the water


phase. Keywords KRWX+, KRWX-,
KRWY+, KRWY-, KRWZ+, KRWZcan be used for directional relative
permeabilities in X+, X-, Y+, Y-, Z+,
Z- directions, respectively.

ISAT

Relative permeability/capillary
pressure table pointers.

ISATI

Imbibition relative permeability/


capillary pressure table pointers.

API

API gravity of the liquid phase.


Available only when the PVT
interpolation option is in use.

TEX

Matrix-fracture exchange
transmissibility (VIP-DUAL only).

IFT

Interfacial tension. Available only


when the IFT option is in use.

PHFLAG

Phase equilibrium condition, (see


GIBBS, Section 8.1.1). Available only
when the GIBBS option is in use.

HG

Fractional height of gas-oil contact in


a block (VE cases only).

HW

Fractional height of water-oil contact


in a block (VE cases only).

FLOWO

Flow of oil out of the 6 faces:


negative I, positive I, negative J,
positive J, negative K, positive K. Six
arrays are written.

FLOWG

Flow of gas out of the 6 faces:


negative I, positive I, negative J,
positive J, negative K, positive K. Six
arrays are written.

FLOWW

Flow of water out of the 6 faces:


negative I, positive I, negative J,
positive J, negative K, positive K. Six
arrays are written.

OIP

Total oil volume, surface conditions.

GIP

Total gas volume, surface conditions.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

R2003.4 - Landmark

Output Control

WIP

Total water volume, surface


conditions.

FGIP

Free gas volume.

OCIP

Condensate in free gas.

TDL

-X, +Y diagonal transmissibility


including compaction effects,
available only with NINEPT option.

TDR

+X, +Y direction diagonal


transmissibility including
compaction effects, available only
wth NINEPT option.

PVMUL

Pore volume multiplier, ratio of


current value to reference value.

PVMULW

Water-induced pore volume


multiplier, ratio of current value to
reference value.

TXMUL

X-direction transmissibility
multiplier, ratio of current value to
reference value.

TYMUL

Y-direction transmissibility
multiplier, ratio of current value to
reference value.

TZMUL

Z-direction transmissibility
multiplier, ratio of current value to
reference value.

TRMUL

R-direction transmissibility
multiplier, ratio of current value to
reference value.

TTMUL

Angular direction transmissibility


multiplier, ratio of current value to
reference value.

CN

Capillary number. Available only


when the VELCTY CN option is in
use.

FNDG

Non-Darcy gas flow mobility


multiplication factor. Available only

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when the VELCTY NDARCY option


is in use.
PTHLD

Threshold pressure.

STBDT

Maximum IMPES stable timestep


size.

SAL

Water salinity. Available only when


the PVTWSAL tables are entered in
VIP-CORE.

The following array names are valid on OUTPUT


and MAPOUT cards only in VIP-THERM:
T

Temperature.

00

TXT

X-direction thermal transmissibility.

00

TYT

Y-direction thermal transmissibility.

00

TZT

Z-direction thermal transmissibility.

00

TRT

R-direction thermal transmissibility.

00

TTT

Theta-direction thermal
transmissibility.

00

DENW

Liquid water phase density.

00

VISW

Liquid water phase viscosity.

00

HLOS

Heat loss rate.

00

CHLOS

Cumulative heat loss.

00

SOR

Steam-oil ratio.

00

HOIL

Oil phase enthalpy.

00

HGAS

Gas phase enthalpy.

00

HWAT

Water phase enthalpy.

Flow rate arrays. A FLOWS card


must be input in VIP-CORE (VIPCORE Section 2.2.19.3) in order to
print these arrays. , , and are
unit, phase, and direction symbols
which are specified as follows. may
be omitted to print phase flows in all
directions. and may be omitted

00

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Output Control

to print flows of all phases in all


directions
= V, N, M

00

= O, G, or W for oil, gas, or liquid water phase.

00

00

00

= X(R)

flow in from i-1 for cartesian (radial)


grid.

= Y(T)

flow in from j-1 for cartesian (radial)


grid

=Z

00

00

00

param

R2003.4 - Landmark

for volumetric, molar, or mass flow


rate.

=E

flow in from i+1, j-1 for cartesian grid


with 9-point.

=W

flow in from i-1, j-1 for cartesian grid


with 9-point.

Alpha label on an OUTPUT card causing an action


to be taken:
SHFTOG

Instructs the program to shift all oil


and gas production/injection units
by a factor of 1000 for output
purposes. For example, cumulative
gas production will change from
MMSCF to BSCF.

SHFTW

Instructs the program to shift all


water production/injection units by
a factor of 1000 for output purposes.
For example, water production rate
will change from STB/D to MSTB/
D.

TSSUM

Causes a timestep summary that


includes all timesteps to be printed
at the end of the run. FORTRAN
Unit 15 is used to store the timestep
summary data. Once this keyword is
specified it cannot be turned off and
is not affected by subsequent
OUTPUT cards.

TSSUMG

Causes a timestep summary of gas


lift usage to be printed at the end of
the run. Once this keyword is

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specified it cannot be turned off and


is not affected by subsequent
OUTPUT cards.

6-336

TSSMFG

Causes a timestep summary of flared


gas (gas available for reinjection not
actually injected) to be printed at the
end of the run. Once this keyword is
specified it cannot be turned off and
is not affected by subsequent
OUTPUT cards.

TSSDAT

Causes the date instead of the


timestep number and the time in
days to be printed on the timestep
summary at the end of the run. Once
this keyword is specified, it cannot
be turned off and is not affected by
subsequent OUTPUT cards.

WELRPT

Causes a report of well status


changes to be printed at the end of
the run. Once this keyword is
specified, it cannot be turned off and
is not affected by subsequent
OUTPUT cards.

PRFRPT

Causes a report of perforation status


changes to be printed at the end of
the run. Once this keyword is
specified, it cannot be turned off and
is not affected by subsequent
OUTPUT cards.

CPUWMG

Causes a report of CPU time within


well management to be printed as
part of the PRINT SIM simulation
statistics report. Once this keyword
is specified, it cannot be turned off
and is not affected by subsequent
OUTPUT cards.

CNVFAIL

Causes the detailed iteration


summary to be printed when a
convergence failure occurs. This
option is on unless turned off by use
of the CNVFLOFF keyword.

CNVFLOFF

Turns off the printing of the detailed


iteration summary when a
convergence failure occurs.

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Output Control

HCPVTS

Causes hydrocarbon-pore-volumeweighted average pressure to be


printed in the timestep summaries
instead of total-pore-volumeweighted average pressure.

WRKRPT

Causes an automatic workover


report to be printed at the end of the
run. Once this keyword is specified,
it cannot be turned off and is not
affected by subsequent OUTPUT
cards.

RCMRPT

Causes a report of recompletion unit


status changes to be printed at the
end of the run. Once this keyword is
specified, it cannot be turned off and
is not affected by subsequent
OUTPUT cards.

PCDON

Causes condensate rate and


condensate yield to be printed in
well, gathering center, flow station,
area, field, and well group
compositional summaries.

PCDOFF

Turns off the printing of condensate


rate and condensate yield in well,
gathering center, flow station, area,
field, and well group compositional
summaries.

PCCD

Causes cumulative condensate


volume to be printed in well,
gathering center, flow station, area,
field, and well group compositional
summaries. Once this keyword is
specified, it cannot be turned off and
is not affected by subsequent
OUTPUT cards.

RCDON

Causes condensate rate and


condensate yield to be printed in
region compositional summary.

RCDOFF

Turns off the printing of condensate


rate and condensate yield in region
compositional summary.

RCCD

Causes cumulative condensate


volume to be printed in region

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compositional summary. Once this


keyword is specified, it cannot be
turned off and is not affected by
subsequent OUTPUT cards.

NOTE:

LCDON

Causes condensate rate and


condensate yield to be printed in
well layer compositional summary.

LCDOFF

Turns off the printing of condensate


rate and condensate yield in well
layer compositional summary.

1.

If a MAP card was specified in VIP-CORE and the MAPOUT


card is either omitted or entered with no subsequent keywords,
the 4 arrays P, SO, SG, and SW are, by default, written to the
map file. In VIP-THERM, T is also written by default.

2.

To turn off the writing of any of the arrays listed in this section,
specify the card MAPOUT NONE.

3.

If the OUTPUT card is omitted or entered with no subsequent


keywords, no array reports are printed.

4.

All of the alpha labels must appear on one OUTPUT/


MAPOUT card. If necessary the continuation character > can
be used.

5.

The order of the alpha labels is not significant. All are optional.

6.

Each OUTPUT/MAPOUT card supersedes and replaces the


previous OUTPUT/MAPOUT card.

7.

For output of arrays RS, RV, BOF, BG, GOR, SOR, WCUT, OIP,
GIP, FGIP, or OCIP, separator battery assignments must be
made for each reservoir region (REGSEP card) except for dead
oil runs in VIP-THERM.

8.

The options PCDON, RCDON, LCDON, PCDOFF, RCDOFF,


LCDOFF, PCCD, and RCCD are used to specify whether the
condensate rates, condensate yields, and cumulative
condensate volumes are included in the output of
compositional summaries specified by the PRINT card options
WELCMP, WLLCMP, GCCMP, FSCMP, ARCMP, REGCMP,
FLDCMP, and WGPCMP.
These condensate printing options should be selected carefully
because they require additional flash calculations which could
significantly increase the CPU time. The cumulative well/
region condensate volume is zero when the PCCD/RCCN
option is first specified unless the CCNDN option is used on
the CPLOT card. If the CCNDN option and any of the well,
gathering center, flow station, area, or field classes are selected
on the CPLOT card, the cumulative well condensate volume is

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Output Control

calculated starting from time zero. Likewise, if the CCNDN


option and the REGION class are selected on the CPLOT card,
the cumulative region condensate volume is calculated starting
from time zero.

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Examples:
OUTPUT P SW
MAPOUT
TX

SG
SOM

DENO

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6.3 Array Print Windows (OUTWINDOW)


00

00

The OUTWINDOW card is used to specify windows within the grid


system for which values of the arrays listed on the OUTPUT, OUTX,
OUTY, OUTZ, etc. cards are to be printed.
Currently the frequency of array printing is controlled by the PRINT
ARRAYS card and each array requested on any of the OUTPUT-type cards
is printed in its entirety for every grid. When windows are specified the
frequency is still controlled by the PRINT ARRAYS card; for each
requested array on the OUTPUT-type cards, all specified windows of
gridblock values are printed.

ADD
DELETE wname

OUTWINDOW

(gridname)

ii

i2
NX

j1

j2
NY

k1

k2
NZ

ONLYCHILDREN

( wname )
ALSOCHILDREN

.
.
.
ENDWINDOW

00

Definitions:
ADD

Alpha label indicating that the specified windows


are added to the current list. The default is to
replace the current list with the specified windows.

DELETE

Alpha label indicating that the listed windows are


to be removed from the current list. It is an error if
no such named window exists. No data cards or
ENDWINDOW card may be entered when DELETE
is used.

wnamei

Alphanumeric name of the window to be deleted


from the list. At least one name must be input after
the DELETE label.

gridname

Name of the grid refinement to which this window


applies. If not specified, the window is assumed to
apply to the root grid.

Gridblock locations, relative to gridname, are defined by indices I, J, K


in reference to the (x, y, z) or (r, , z) grid. The gridblocks contained in
the window are those lying in the portion of the grid defined by:

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Output Control

i1 I i2
j1 J j2

00

k1 K k2
NX

Alpha label indicating that the value of i2 should be


set to nx (or nr).

NY

Alpha label indicating that the value of j2 should be


set to ny (or ntheta).

NZ

Alpha label indicating that the value of k2 should be


set to nz.

ONLYCHILDREN Alpha label indicating that a window is not


created for the blocks in grid gridname, but
windows are created for each child grid that exists
within this set of blocks. Each window thus
created will have the same name.
ALSOCHILDREN Alpha label indicating that, in addition to creating
a window in grid gridname, windows are created
for each child grid that exists within this set of
blocks. Each window thus created will have the
same name.
wname

Alphanumeric name of this window or set of


windows.

ENDWINDOW

Alaph label indicating the end of the window data.


This card may not be entered if the DELETE data is
entered.

NOTE:

If neither ONLYCHILDREN nor ALSOCHILDREN is specified, a


single window is created.
The maximum number of windows is 250.

00

Example:
OUTWINDOW
ROOT
GASCAP

3
3
4

7
NX
4

2
3
7

5
NY
7

1
2
1

NZ
4
NZ

WIN1
WIN2
ALSOCHILDREN WIN3

ENDWINDOW

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6.4 Content and Frequency of Printed Output (PRINT)


00

The PRINT card allows the user to control the content and frequency of
printed output. If the PRINT card is omitted, only the timestep summaries
and the simulation statistics report at the end of the run are printed.

PRINT

00

param1 param2 . . . paramn

TIME
TNEXT
OFF

( freq )

Definitions:
param

6-342

Alpha label of those report(s) being defined:


ITER

Detailed iteration summary. For


IMPES only, the residuals will not be
recomputed after convergence. This
is the default.

ITERL

Detailed iteration summary. This


option forces the residuals to be
recomputed after convergence.

WELLS

Well production summary and well


injection summary.

WSTRM

Include in the TSFM surface facility


report the compositions of various
production streams for each well.
The facility report is automatically
printed whenever PRINT WELLS is
active and only if the TSFM surface
facility model option is in use.

REGIONS

Region report. To compute fluids-inplace the hydrocarbon moles in each


region are flashed to the surface.

REGBLK

Region report. To compute fluids-inplace the hydrocarbon moles in each


gridblock are flashed to the surface.
The surface quantities are summed
over the regions. This is the method
used by VIP-CORE to compute
initial fluids-in-place.

REGOG

Region report. Same as REGIONS


except that reservoir oil and gas

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Output Control

compositions are printed instead of


total compositions and total moles
for each phase are added.

R2003.4 - Landmark

REGBOG

Region report. Same as REGBLK


except that reservoir oil and gas
compositions are printed instead of
total compositions and total moles
for each phase are added.

ARRAYS

Array reports.

SEP

Separator battery report, with


compositional and volumetric
information at all stages and at
surface conditions.

SEPS

Short form of the separator battery


report, with information only for
surface conditions.

FIELD

Field production and injection


summaries. In addition to the field
production and injection reports, a
report of production by pressure
system will be printed if predictive
well management is active.

WLLYR

Well production and injection


summaries detailed by layers for
active wells only. Also controls the
plot records written; i.e., only the
layers for active wells are written to
the plot file. Also controls the special
layer output reports for WBSIM
runs.

WLLYRS

Well production and injection


summaries, detailed by layers for all
wells. Also controls the plot records
written; i.e., the layers for all wells
are written to the plot file. Also
controls the special layer output
reports for WBSIM runs.

WLGRP

Well production and injection


summaries, for well groups defined
by the user (see the WLGRP card for
details).

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Output Control

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GCLYR

Gathering center production and


injection summaries detailed by
layers.

WLHIS

Well production and injection


histories written to FORTRAN Unit
40.

FSLYR

Flow station production and


injection summaries detailed by
layers.

ARLYR

Area production and injection


summaries detailed by layers.

FLLYR

Field production and injection


summaries detailed by layers.

WLPOT

Well potential production summary


and well potential injection
summary.

FLPOT

Field potential production summary


and field potential injection
summary.

WELCMP

Well production and injection


compositional summaries.

WLLCMP

Well production and injection


compositional summaries detailed
by well perforations.

GCCMP

Gathering center production and


injection compositional summaries.

FSCMP

Flow station production and


injection compositional summaries
detailed by gathering centers.

ARCMP

Area production and injection


compositional summaries detailed
by gathering centers.

REGCMP

Region production and injection


compositional summaries.

FLDCMP

Field production and injection


compositional summaries detailed
by gathering centers.

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Output Control

WGPCMP

Well group production and injection


compositional summaries detail by
wells.

RFT

Well RFT report. For vertical wells


the report includes gridblock
information for each layer. For
deviated wells this information is
printed only for each perforation.

RFTFILE

Well RFT report written to


FORTRAN Unit 18.

FACUTL

Facility utilization summary.


Information will be printed for any
well management entity for which
production targets were specified.

FACFIL

Facility utilization summary written


to FORTRAN Unit 57.

MGOR

Marginal gas-oil ratio report.


Available only if the PREDICT
MGOR option has been specified.

SIM

Simulation statistics. This report is


automatically printed at the end of
the run. The report includes time
simulated, timestep information,
and, when available, CPU
information for the current run and
for cumulative simulation runs.

TSSUM

Timestep summary report. This


parameter is used to control the
frequency of entries in the timestep
summary report produced at the end
of the run.

SSSUM

Spread sheet summary report


written to FORTRAN Units 72-77.
The files to be written and the
quantities written on each file are
controlled by the SSSUM card.

SSSUMR

Same as SSSUM except that each


time a file is written, it is rewound
and the header, if requested, is
written at the top.

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Well production and injection


summaries detailed by layers written
to FORTRAN Unit 1

TRACK

Tracking output on FORTRAN unit


17.

TRACKW

Water tracking report.

FLUX

Boundary flux summaries.

TIME

Alpha label that causes all reports named on this


card to be printed each time a TIME or DATE card is
encountered. Default is not to print on the basis of
TIME or DATE cards.

TNEXT

Alpha label that causes all reports named on this


card to be printed only the next time a TIME or
DATE card is encountered. Default is not to print on
the basis of the next TIME or DATE card.

OFF

Alpha label that causes all reports named on this


card to not be printed. It is equivalent to specifying
a frequency of 99999.to

freq

A number that causes reports named on this card to


be printed after every freq timesteps (each timestep
cut counts as one timestep). Default is 99999.

NOTE:

6-346

WLSUM

1.

At least one of the report labels given above must appear on


the PRINT card. If a report label appears on more than one
PRINT card, the frequency specified on the last PRINT card
applies.

2.

At least one of the values, TIME, TNEXT, OFF, or freq, must


appear after the report label(s) on the card. Either TIME or
TNEXT may appear with freq, but not with each other.

3.

Different frequencies of printing can be used for each report


label.

4.

Any number of PRINT cards may appear in any data group.

5.

If an ARRAYS label is specified on the PRINT card, but no array


names are specified on an OUTPUT card, then no array reports
are printed.

6.

For the RFT/RFTFILE reports the OUTRFT card must be used


to specify the wells to be included.

7.

For compositional summaries (i.e., the WELCMP, WLLCMP,


GCCMP, FSCMP, ARCMP, REGCMP, FLDCMP, and WGPCMP
options), the user can use the options PCDON, RCDON,

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Output Control

LCDON, PCDOFF, RCDOFF, LCDOFF, PCCD, and RCCD on


the OUTPUT card to specify whether the condensate rates,
condensate yields, and cumulative condensate volumes will be
included in the output.
8.

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Three additional output reports will be printed when using the


WBSIM option. These are all printed at the same frequency as
the PRINT WLLYR report. These include: [1] an output table at
the start of the timestep containing the effective wellbore
permeability for the step, Moody friction factor, mixture
density, delta-P friction, phase velocities, critical velocities
[minimum gas flow velocities to lift insitu liquids], Reynolds
numbers, and alpha and beta parameters for all of the wellbore
segments, [2] an output table at the end of the timestep for the
wellbore perforations, showing the production/injection rates
and gas-oil ratios and water cuts, production and injection
cumulatives, and reservoir and wellbore pressures, and [3] an
output table presenting a profile of all of the wellbore
segments, containing the insitu saturations, average densities
and viscosities, alpha and beta flow parameters, effective
wellbore permeabilities, and wellbore pressures.

Examples:
PRINT REGION TIME

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6.5 Buildup Pressure Output Control (BUILDUP)


BUILDUP wl
time1
comp1
grad1

00

... timen
... compn
... gradn

Definitions:
wl

List of wells for which buildup data is specified (see


Section 1.5.2).

time

Time in hours for shut in.

comp

Total compressibility of fluids and formation near


the well, psi-1 (kPa-1). A value of zero causes the
compressibility to be computed internally. The
compressibility comp is given by
comp = cr + Soco + Sgcg + Swcw ,
where cr, co, cg, and cw are the compressibilities of
rock, oil, gas, and water, respectively, and So, Sg,
and Sw are oil, gas, and water saturations,
respectively.

grad

00

00

00

6-348

Average gradient of fluids in the well measured in


the field, psi/ft (gm/cc). A value of zero causes the
gradient to be computed internally.

This option computes and writes to a formatted results file corrected


buildup pressures for wells. This information is written on Fortran unit 30.
The calculation of buildup pressure in multi-layered wells is based on a
development of the Peaceman equations. When a BUILDUP card appears
in a recurrent data group, the requested information will be output at the
time corresponding to the next TIME or DATE card only. Buildup pressure
is calculated for each perforated layer in requested wells at the shut in
time specified by the user. The number of time, comp and grad values
must equal the number of wells in the well list.
In field tests a single buildup pressure is measured for a well, not for each
perforation. Therefore, a single buildup pressure must be obtained from
the layer values. There is no unique weighting method to determine the
single buildup-pressure value. The weighting scheme adopted here is the
production-rate-weighted buildup pressure.
Note that the total compressibility and the density should be the estimated
values obtained in the field during the buildup test. Users should be
cautious in using the default values computed by the simulator.

Landmark - R2003.4

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Output Control

6.6 Write Files (WPLOT, WMAP, WMAPOLD, WREST, WFLUX,


WFILE, WCPLOT)

writef

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

TIME
TNEXT
OFF

( freq )

writef can be one of the following:


WPLOT, WMAP, WMAPOLD, WREST, WFLUX, WFILE, WCPLOT
Definitions:
TIME

Alpha label that causes the appropriate file or


record to be written each time a TIME or DATE card
is encountered. Default is not to write on the basis
of TIME or DATE cards.

TNEXT

Alpha label that causes the appropriate file or


record to be written only the next time a TIME or
DATE card is encountered. Default is not to write
on the basis of the next TIME or DATE card.

OFF

Alpha label that causes the appropriate file or


record to not be output. It is equivalent to
specifying a frequency of 99999.

freq

A number that causes the appropriate file or record


to be written after every freq timesteps (each
timestep cut counts as one timestep). Default is
99999.

WPLOT

The WPLOT card controls the writing of data to the


vdb file or to the plot file (FORTRAN Unit 11) that
can be used to plot the production/injection
performance of individual wells, well management
levels, regions, and the field. These plots are
generated by a plotting program that is separate
from VIP-EXECUTIVE. WPLOT can only be used
if a PLOT card was included in the utility data.

WMAP

The WMAP card invokes the writing of array data


to the vdb file or to the map file (FORTRAN Unit
27). Maps of this array data are generated by a
program that is separate from VIP-EXECUTIVE.
WMAP can only be used if a MAP card was
included in the initialization data.

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WMAPOLD

The WMAPOLD card invokes the writing of


SIMOUT map files on FORTRAN Unit 9 (output of
selected array data). Maps of this array data are
generated by a program that is separate from VIPEXECUTIVE. WMAPOLD can only be used if a
MAPOLD card was included in the initialization
data.

WREST

The WREST card controls the writing of restart


records on FORTRAN Unit 2. If no WREST cards
are used, no user-specified restart records are
written during the recurrent portion of the
simulation. A restart record is automatically written
after initialization.

WFLUX

The WFLUX card controls the writing of a file, on


FORTRAN Unit 16, that contains boundary flux
data for input into a subsequent simulation model.
WFLUX can only be used if a FLUX card was
included in the initialization data.

WFILE

The WFILE card controls the writing of a special


well file to FORTRAN Unit 71.

WCPLOT

The WCPLOT card controls the writing of data to


the vdb file or to the cplot file (FORTRAN Unit 26)
that can be used to plot the production/injection
compositional performance of individual wells,
well management levels, regions, and the field.
These plots are generated by a plotting program
that is separate from VIP-EXECUTIVE. WCPLOT
can only be used if a CPLOT card was included in
the initialization data.

NOTE:

At least one of the values, TIME, TNEXT, OFF, or freq, must


appear on the writef card. Either TIME or TNEXT may appear
with freq.
Files will not be saved unless the appropriate commands are added
to the job control stream. Information is only written out to the
appropriate file when one of the writef commands is encountered.

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00

Output Control

Examples:
To write data out to the PLOT file at every TIME (or DATE card)
and every 30 timesteps:

00

WPLOT TIME 30

00

6.7 Save Temporary Restarts (WLASTR)

WLASTR

00

TIME
TNEXT
OFF

( freq )

Definitions: As defined for WREST (Section 6.6).


NOTE:

The WLASTR option writes restart records according to the time or


frequency specified retaining only the last restart record written,
essentially to provide a recovery mechanism for jobs that terminate
abnormally due to time limits, etc. It supplements rather than
replaces the restart records written as a result of the WREST card(s).
At each time a restart record is written, if the previous restart
record was a temporary one (one written by a WLASTR card) it is
first removed before the current restart record is written.
Restart records written by a WLASTR card do not replace ones
written by WREST cards.

6.8 Write Fluid Tracking Data (WTRACK)

WTRACK (INPLACE)

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

TIME
TNEXT
OFF

( freq )

Definitions:
INPLACE

Alpha label indicating that reservoir in-place


tracked fluid moles should also be written to the
file.

TIME

Alpha label that causes a record to be written each


time a TIME or DATE card is encountered. Default

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is not to write records on the basis of TIME or DATE


cards.
TNEXT

Alpha label that causes a record to be written only


the next time a TIME or DATE card is encountered.
Default is not to write records on the basis of the
next TIME or DATE card.

OFF

Alpha label that causes the record not to be output.


It is equivalent to specifying a frequency of 99999.

freq

A number that causes records to be written after


every freq timesteps (each timestep cut counts as
one timestep). Default is 99999.

NOTE:

The WTRACK card controls the writing of fluid tracking results


into a separate file. WTRACK can only be used if a TRACK

card was included in the initialization data.


At least one of the values, TIME, TNEXT, OFF, or freq, must
appear on the WTRACK card. Either TIME or TNEXT may appear
with freq.
Tracking records are written on FORTRAN Unit 17, but may not be
saved unless the appropriate commands are added to the job
control stream.
If no WTRACK cards are used, no tracking records are written.

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Output Control

6.9 Print/Map Mole Fractions (OUTX, OUTY, OUTZ, OUTXT,


OUTYT, OUTZT, MAPX, MAPY, MAPZ, MAPXT, MAPYT,
MAPZT)
outf

00

00

cmpidk

outf can be one of the following:


OUTX, OUTY, OUTZ, OUTXT, OUTYT, OUTZT
MAPX, MAPY, MAPZ, MAPXT, MAPYT, MAPZT
Definitions:
cmpid

Alpha label identifying a component whose mole


fractions will be included in the array reports/map
file. Only those components named will be printed/
mapped.

OUTX

Print liquid mole fractions.

OUTY

Print vapor mole fractions.

OUTZ

Print overall hydrocarbon mole fractions.

OUTXT

Print tracked liquid mole fractions.

OUTYT

Print tracked vapor mole fractions.

OUTZT

Print tracked overall hydrocarbon mole fractions.

MAPX

Map liquid mole fractions.

MAPY

Map vapor mole fractions.

MAPZ

Map overall hydrocarbon mole fractions.

MAPXT

Map tracked liquid mole fractions.

MAPYT

Map tracked vapor mole fractions.

MAPZT

Map tracked overall hydrocarbon mole fractions.

NOTE:

R2003.4 - Landmark

cmpid1 cmpid2 ...

1.

If the user wishes to print/map arrays of mole fractions, they


must explicitly select the components to be output on one of the
above cards.

2.

When the tracked mole fraction arrays are requested, the order
of printing is: all requested components for tracked fluid 1, all
requested components for tracked fluid 2, etc.

6-353

Output Control

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

3.

In VIP-THERM, H2O may be specified for cmpid on the


OUTY, OUTYT, MAPY, or MAPYT cards for the water mole
fraction in the vapor phase.

6.10 Format of Mole Fraction Array Print (ALLCOMP)


00

The ALLCOMP card is used to specify how mole fraction arrays (selected
with OUTX, OUTY, OUTZ, OUTXT, OUTYT, OUTZT) are to be printed.
The default mode is to print each component of a mole fraction array
individually. When ALLCOMP is specified, all requested components of a
mole fraction array (e.g. liquid mole fraction) are printed in a vertical
column for each gridblock.

ALLCOMP

00

ON
OFF

Definitions:
ON

Alpha label indicating that all requested


components of a mole fraction array are printed in a
vertical column for each gridblock. This is the
default if neither ON nor OFF is specified.

OFF

Alpha label indicating that all requested


components of a mole fraction array are printed
individually. This is the default when no
ALLCOMP card is entered.

6.11 Tracked Water Type Fractions (OUTWT, MAPWT)


OUTWT
MAPWT

00

Definitions:
tknamw

6-354

tknamw1tknamw2...tknamwk
tknamw1tknamw2...tknamwn

Alpha label identifying the tracked water type for


which the fractional saturations of that fluid will be
included in the array reports/map file. Only those
tracked water types named will be printed/
mapped.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Output Control

6.12 Specify Which Separator Batteries to Process (OUTSEP)


00

The user may control the amount of output produced by the program for
separator battery reports by specifying which batteries should be
processed. If no battery designation follows the OUTSEP label, no battery
report will be printed.

OUTSEP

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

ALL

DEF

idfbat
ALL

Definitions:
ibat

List of user-defined separator batteries. No VIPCORE generated default separator batteries can be
specified here.

ALL

Alpha label indicating that reports for all userdefined separator batteries should be generated.

DEF

Alpha label indicating that the remaining data on


the OUTSEP card apply to default separator
batteries.

idfbat

List of default separator batteries. A value of -npvt,


where npvt is the number of a PVT table (VIPENCORE) or npvt is 1 (VIP-COMP), will cause the
use of one of the default separator batteries defined
by VIP-CORE.

ALL

Alpha label indicating that reports for all default


separator batteries should be generated.

NOTE:

00

ibat

Each OUTSEP card supersedes and replaces the previous OUTSEP


card.

Example:
OUTSEP 1

6-355

Output Control

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

6.13 Reservoir Region Separator Battery Assignment (REGSEP)


00

00

The REGSEP card is used to assign separator batteries to output regions


for surface volume calculations. If the number of separators is increased
for this run, then a REGSEP card will be required to handle region
assignment.
In order to calculate surface volumes to be included in region reports, VIPEXECUTIVE must have a separator battery assignment for each reservoir
region. The battery assignments are also needed if the arrays RS, GOR,
WCUT, OIP, GIP, FGIP, or OCIP are to be printed or mapped.
REGSEP ibat1...ibatnreg

00

Definitions:
ibat

Separator battery number for each output region.


Alternatives include the battery number of a
separator input in the separator data (Surface
Separation Data), a value of -npvt which accesses a
default separator, and a value of 0:
ibati

=
=
=

nbat (input battery)


-npvt (default separator)
0

A value of 0 will result in the default value -1 being


used for surface volume calculations in VIP-CORE,
and no surface volumes will be reported for that
region report in the simulation modules.
nreg

NOTE:

6-356

Maximum output region number defined in the


IREGION data.
REGSEP data is passed from VIP-CORE to the simulation module,
but under certain circumstances the value may be changed. If a
default separator battery was specified in VIP-CORE, and REGSEP
is not input in the simulation module, then the value from VIPCORE will be changed to 1 if Separator 1 has been input or -1 if
Separator 1 has not been input. If any other default separator is
desired for a region, then the REGSEP card must be specified in the
simulation module. To specify a default separator ibat should be
set to -npvt, where npvt is a PVT table number (VIP-ENCORE) or
npvt is 1 (VIP-COMP).

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Output Control

6.14 Compute Potentials for Plot File (PLOTPTN)


00

The PLOTPTN card controls whether well and well management level
potential production and injection rates are computed for inclusion in the
plot file. If PLOTPTN ON has not been specified, the 5 potential rate
variables in the plot files will have value zero.

PLOTPTN

ON
OFF

00

Definitions:
ON

Alpha label indicating potential production and


injection rates are to be included in the plot files.

OFF

Alpha label indicating potential production and


injection rates are to show as zeroes in the plot files.
This is the default.

6.15 Printout Processed Well Cards (PRINTOUT)


00

The PRINTOUT card controls the printout of the processed well and table
data cards.

PRINTOUT

ON
OFF

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Definitions:
ON

Alpha label indicating all processed recurrent data


cards are to be printed. This is the default.

OFF

Alpha label indicating that the printing of well and


tabular data will be suppressed.

6-357

Output Control

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

6.16 Logical Unit for Timestep Summary Output (IPRTSS)


00

The IPRTSS card is used to define the FORTRAN logical unit onto which
the end-of-run timestep summary output will be written. This summary
output is identical to the timestep summary in the main output file and is
controlled by the TSSUM and TSSDAT keywords on the OUTPUT card
and the TSSUM keyword on the PRINT card.
IPRTSS iunit

00

Definition:
iunit

NOTE:

FORTRAN logical unit number for the timestep


summary report. Default is to not write this
summary to a file.
The user should specify a unit number that is not used for another
file. It is suggested that unit 80 be used for the unit number.

6.17 Specify Wells Included in Well RFT Report (OUTRFT)


00

The OUTRFT card is used to specify the wells to be included in the well
RFT report (RFT or RFTFILE on the PRINT card).
OUTRFT wl

00

Definition:
wl

NOTE:

6-358

List of wells for which an RFT report will be


generated.
Each OUTRFT card supersedes and replaces the previous OUTRFT
card.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Output Control

6.18 Spreadsheet Files (SSSUM)


00

00

00

00

The SSSUM card is used to specify options and variables to appear in the
spreadsheet summary files. By specifying separate SSSUM cards, a
spreadsheet summary file may be obtained for each of the following: field,
area, flow station, gathering center, well, region. The FORTRAN units
used are, respectively, Unit 72, Unit 73, Unit 74, Unit 75, Unit 76, Unit 77.
All variables that are plotted can be written to be the spreadsheet
summary files. The frequency of the output is controlled by the SSSUM
parameter on the PRINT card.
The member number, time, and member name are automatically written
in the first three fields of each requested spreadsheet file.
A maximum of 33 variables may be written to any spreadsheet summary
file.
The optional SSSID card is used to specify an alphanumeric run
identification label, up to eight characters, which can be written to the
spreadsheet files as specified by the RUNID keyword. This label is useful
when spreadsheet data from different runs are combined in a single file by
the user. This option is only available in VIP-THERM.
(SSSID sssid)
FIELD
AREA
SSSUM

FLOSTA

(TAB)(HEADER)

(RUNID) varnm1

varnm2

... varnmn

GATHER
WELL
REGION

00

Definitions:
Alpha label indicating the spreadsheet summary file to which the
subsequent data applies:

R2003.4 - Landmark

FIELD

Field.

AREA

Area.

FLOSTA

Flow station.

GATHER

Gathering center.

WELL

Well.

REGION

Output region.

6-359

Output Control

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

TAB

Alpha label indicating that the columns will be


separated by a tab character. Omission will result in
columns separated by a comma.

HEADER

Alpha label indicating that a title line, column


header line, and a units line should be included in
the file at each time.

RUNID

Alpha label indicating that the run identification


label specified on the SSSID card will be written as a
column in the spreadsheet file. Available only in
VIP-THERM.

varnm

Alpha label specifying one or more of the following


variables:
The following may be used for any of the files:
DATE

Calendar date.

TSNUM

Timestep number.

QGP

Gas production rate.

QOP

Oil production rate.

QWP

Water production rate.

QGI

Gas injection rate.

QWI

Water injection rate.

CGP

Cumulative gas production.

COP

Cumulative oil production.

CWP

Cumulative water production.

CGI

Cumulative gas injection.

CWI

Cumulative water injection.

The following may be used for any file except


REGION:

6-360

GLG

Gaslift gas injection rate.

CGLG

Cumulative gaslift gas injection.

MGOR

Marginal gas-oil ratio.

POTQGP

Gas potential production rate.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Output Control

POTQOP

Oil potential production rate.

POTQWP

Water potential production rate.

POTQGI

Gas potential injection rate.

POTQWI

Water potential injection rate.

OGR

Oil-gas ratio.

WGR

Water-gas ratio.

WCUT

Water cut.

GOR

Gas-oil ratio.

WOR

Water-oil ratio.

SAL

Water salinity.

The following may be used for FIELD only:


PZ

P/Z (Equal to P in VIP-THERM).

The following may be used for FIELD or REGION


only:
TPVP

Total PV-weighted average pressure.

HCPVP

Hydrocarbon PV-weighted average


pressure.

HCPVPD

HCPV-weighted average pressure at


datum.

GIP

Gas-in-place.

OIP

Oil-in-place.

WIP

Water-in-place.

OREC

Percent oil recovery.

GREC

Percent gas recovery.

AQNFLX

Water influx from analytical aquifers.

The following may be used for WELL only:


PERF1P

R2003.4 - Landmark

Gridblock pressure of first


perforation.

6-361

Output Control

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

PAVE

Mobility-weighted average well


pressure.

BHP

Well bottomhole pressure.

THP

Well tubinghead pressure.

DRDWNP

Well average drawdown pressure.

BLDP

Well buildup pressure.

ONTIME

Ontime factor.

DAYSP

Days well has produced.

DAYSI

Days well has injected.

PLFS

TSFM plant liquid flow stream.

CPLFS

TSFM cumulative plant liquid flow


stream.

PRGAS

TSFM plant residual gas.

CPRGAS

TSFM cumulative plant residual gas.

EQWL

TSFM equivalent total wellstream.

CEQWL

TSFM cumulative equivalent total


wellstream.

GCNAME

Name of gathering center to which


well belongs.

GCNUM

Number of gathering center to which


well belongs.

The following may be used for WELL or GATHER


only:
FSNAME

Name of the flow station to which


well/gathering center belongs.

FSNUM

Number of the flow station to which


well/gathering center belongs.

The following may be used for WELL, GATHER, or


FLOSTA only:
ARNAME

6-362

Name of area to which well/


gathering center/flow station
belongs.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Output Control

ARNUM

Number of areas to which well/


gathering center/flow station
belongs.

The following may be used for GATHER, FLOSTA,


AREA, or FIELD only:
WELLS

Number of active:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Total wells.
Producers.
Gaslift producers.
Water injectors.
Gas injectors.

The following may be used for FIELD or AREA


only:
GFO

Gas field operations (single or


multiple contracts):
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

varnm

DCQ.
ACQ.
Potential gas production rate.
Gas sales rate.
Cumulative sales gas.
Number of cycles in first pass.

Additional alpha labels specifying variables valid in


VIP-THERM only:
The following may be used for any of the files:
QEP

Energy production rate.

QSTP

Steam production rate.

QRLP

Reservoir liquid production rate.

QEI

Energy injection rate.

CEP

Cumulative energy production.

CSTP

Cumulative steam production.

CRLP

Cumulative reservoir liquid


production.

CEI

Cumulative energy injection.

The following may be used for FIELD or REGION


only:

R2003.4 - Landmark

6-363

Output Control

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

EIP

Energy in place.

STIP

Steam in place.

QHL

Heal loss rate.

CHL

Cumulative heat loss.

PVSI

Pore volumes steam injected.

PVOP

Pore volumes oil produced.

FIOP

Fraction of initial oil produced.

The following may be used for REGION only:

6-364

QRGP

Reservoir gas production rate.

QROP

Reservoir oil production rate.

QRWP

Reservoir water production rate.

QRSP

Reservoir steam production rate.

QRGI

Reservoir gas injection rate.

QRWI

Reservoir H2O injection rate.

CRGP

Cumulative reservoir gas


production.

CROP

Cumulative reservoir oil production.

CRWP

Cumulative reservoir water


production.

CRSP

Cumulative reservoir steam


production.

CRGI

Cumulative reservoir gas injection.

CRWI

Cumulative reservoir H2O injection.

QBGP

Boundary reservoir gas outflow rate.

QBOP

Boundary reservoir oil outflow rate.

QBWP

Boundary reservoir water outflow


rate.

QBSP

Boundary reservoir steam outflow


rate.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

R2003.4 - Landmark

Output Control

QBEP

Boundary energy outflow rate.

QBGI

Boundary reservoir gas inflow rate.

QBOI

Boundary reservoir oil inflow rate.

QBWI

Boundary reservoir water inflow


rate.

QBSI

Boundary reservoir steam inflow


rate.

QBEI

Boundary Energy outflow rate.

CBGP

Cumulative boundary reservoir gas


outflow.

CBOP

Cumulative boundary reservoir oil


outflow.

CBWP

Cumulative boundary reservoir


water outflow.

CBSP

Cumulative boundary reservoir


steam outflow.

CBEP

Cumulative boundary energy


outflow

CBGI

Cumulative boundary reservoir gas


inflow.

CBOI

Cumulative boundary reservoir oil


inflow.

CBWI

Cumulative boundary reservoir


water inflow.

CBSI

Cumulative boundary reservoir


steam inflow.

CBEI

Cumulative boundary energy inflow.

6-365

Output Control

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

NOTE:

00

1.

All of the alpha labels must appear on one SSSUM card. If


necessary the continuation character > can be used.

2.

One and only one of the FIELD, AREA, FLOSTA, GATHER,


WELL, or REGION labels must be specified.

3.

Except for TAB and HEADER, the order of the alpha labels is
the order the variables will appear in the file.

4.

The member number, simulation time, and member name are


automatically written in the first three fields of the file.

5.

Each SSSUM card for a specific level (FIELD, etc) supersedes


and replaces the previous SSSUM card for that level.

6.

A FLOWS card must be input in the initialization utility data in


order to write the region boundary rates and cumulatives (QB*
and CB*) in VIP-THERM.

Example:
SSSUM WELL TAB HEADER DATE QOP BHP
SSSUM FIELD HEADER TAB DATE COP PZ

00

6.19 Well Average Pressure Calculation (OUTPAVG)


00

The OUTPAVG card is used to specify the method for computing the well
average pressure in the production/injection summaries and output to the
plot file. The choices are mobility-weighted datum pressure average or
one of several patterns.
OUTPAVG

STD

or
OUTPAVG

PATTERN

(DATUM)
(GRIDBLOCK)

OUTPAVG

PATTERN

(DATUM)
(GRIDBLOCK)

iptn1

iptnNZ

iptn

or

00

. . .

(card 2)

Definitions:
STD

6-366

(card 1)

Alpha label indicating that the mobility-weighted


datum pressure average is to be computed. This is
the default.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Output Control

PATTERN

Alpha label indicating one of the possible patterns


is to be used to compute the well average pressure.

DATUM

Alpha label indicating that the well average datum


pressure is to be computed. This is the default for a
pattern calculation.

GRIDBLOCK

Alpha label indicating that the well average


gridblock pressure is to be computed.

iptn

Pattern type:

NOTE:

Square pattern of size 1 gridblock by 1


gridblock

5-spot pattern

Square pattern of size 3 gridblocks by 3


gridblocks

Square pattern of size 5 gridblocks by 5


gridblocks

Square pattern of size 7 gridblocks by 7


gridblocks

Square pattern of size 9 gridblocks by 9


gridblocks

Exclude this layer from the calculation.

1.

In the second format, the iptn pattern will be used for each
block in the well.

2.

Each OUTPAVG card supersedes and replaces the previous


OUTPAVG card.

3.

All perforations are used in the calculation, including inative or


shut-in perforations.

6.20 Print Well Indices (PRWI)


00

The PRWI card causes an immediate printout of the well index for each
well.
PRWI

R2003.4 - Landmark

6-367

Output Control

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

6.21 Print Well Properties Summary (PRWSTA)


00

The PRWSTA card causes an immediate printout of the well properties for
each well.
PRWSTA

6-368

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Output Control

6.22 Track File Format (TFORM)


00

The TFORM card is used to control the format of fluid tracking results file,
the writing of which is controlled by the WTRACK card.
TFORM

00

[FORM]
[BINARY]

Definitions:
TFORM

Keyword indicating that the track file format is to


be specified. If the TFORM card is omitted,
formatted records are written to the track files (.trk
and .tps files).

FORM

Keyword indicating that formatted records are to be


written to the track files.

BINARY

Keyword indicating that binary records are to be


written to the track files.

NOTE:

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

The TFORM card should appear only once (before the first DATE or
TIME card) in each restart run, and different formats may be
specified for successive restart runs. Since this information is stored
in the restart record, this card needs only appear once (at time zero)
if the same format is to be used throughout the entire simulation.

Examples:
C TO SPECIFY BINARY TRACK FILES
TFORM BINARY

6-369

Output Control

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

6.23 Boundary Flux File Format (FXFORM)


FXFORM [FORM]
[BINARY]

00

Definitions:
FORM

Alpha label indicating that a formatted flux file is to


be written or read-in. This is the default.

BINARY

Alpha label indicating that a binary flux file is to be


written or read-in.

NOTE:

00

The FXFORM card specifies either formatted or binary flux file is to


be written (in the output mode of the boundary flux option) or
read-in (input mode of the boundary flux option).

Examples:
C***** Boundary Flux File Format
FXFORM
BINARY

6.24 Print by Cross-Sections (CROSS)


00

The CROSS card causes arrays to be printed by cross-sections (vertical


planes), instead of by areal planes. This card is necessary only if the user
wishes to change the printout from what was used in VIP-CORE.

CROSS

00

6-370

ON
OFF

Definitions:
ON

Alpha label indicating that arrays are to be printed


by cross-sections (vertical planes). This is the
default if neither ON nor OFF is specified.

OFF

Alpha label indicating that arrays are to be printed


by areal planes.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Output Control

6.25 Grouping Wells (WLGRP)


00

The WLGRP card is used to define well groups which are used for
reporting purposes and/or for easily setting maximum well rates. The
well group report will be printed when the keyword WLGRP is included
on the PRINT card. The QMAXGR card (see following section) is used to
set the maximum rate for all wells in a group.
WLGRP
wl

00

grpnum (grpnam)

Definitions:
grpnum

Group number.

grpnam

Group name of up to six (6) characters. The first


character in the name must be alphabetic unless the
name is immediately preceded by the character #.

wl

List of wells belonging to the group. If the group


number is equal to zero, then the well numbers
included in the well list are removed from all well
groups.

NOTE:

00

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Well groups can be formed or modified by means of new WLGRP


cards. At least one WLGRP card should be included for each group.
This card specifies the group number, the group name, and the list
of wells belonging to the group. Each well can belong to only one
group. If a well was included in one group and then it is included
in a second group, this well is automatically deleted from the first
group. If several WLGRP cards are included with the same group
number, then all wells specified in these cards will belong to one
group. To remove a well from the group, the number of this well
should be included in the WLGRP card with a zero group number.

Examples:
In this example, the names GROUP_1 and GROUP_2 are assigned
to Group 1 and Group 2. Initially Wells 25, 26, 29, 2, 6, and 12 are
included in Group 1 and Wells 27, 28, and 30 are included in Group
2. Then Well 29 is removed from Group 1, Well 31 is added to
Group 2, and Well 26 is moved from Group 1 to Group 2.
WLGRP 1 GROUP_1
25 26 29
WLGRP 1
2 6 12
WLGRP 2 GROUP_2

6-371

Output Control

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

27 28 30
PRINT WLGRP TIME
...
...
...
DATE 1 7 1987
WLGRP 0
29
WLGRP 2
26, 31

00

6.26 Group Specification of Maximum Well Rates (QMAXGR)


00

The QMAXGR card used to set the maximum well rates for all wells in a
well group defined with the WLGRP card. The QMAX and QMAXGR
cards are order-dependent.
QMAXGR grp

00

00

qmaxgr

Definitions:
grp

Group name or group number.

qmaxgr

Maximum well rate to assign to each of the wells in


the well group. For each well the unit of this rate
depends on the wells type. That is, whatever unit
would have applied on the QMAX card applies
here.

6.27 Plot File Well Specification (PLOTLIST)


00

The PLOTLIST card is used to specify which wells are to be included in


the well plot file and/or the well layer plot file.

PLOTLIST

00

6-372

WELL
WLLYR

ON
O FF

ALL
wl

Definitions:
WELL

Alpha label indicating that the data on this card


applies to the well plot file.

WLLYR

Alpha label indicating that the data on this card


applies to the well layer plot file.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Output Control

ON

Alpha label indicating that the specified wells are to


be included in the plot file.

OFF

Alpha label indicating that the specified wells are to


be excluded from the plot file.

ALL

Alpha label indicating that the data on this card


applies to all wells.

wl

List of wells to which the data on this card applies


(see Section 1.5.2).

NOTE:

1. If the PLOTLIST card is not entered, all wells are included in the
plot file.
2. To restrict the wells on the plot file, all wells must first be
excluded (OFF), then the desired wells included (ON).

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Example:
PLOTLIST
PLOTLIST

WELL
WELL

OFF
ON

ALL
D*

6-373

Output Control

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

6.28 Spreadsheet Well Specification (SPRLIST)


00

The SPRLIST card is used to specify which wells are to be included in the
well spreadsheet file.

SPRLIST WELL

00

00

6-374

ALL
wl

Definitions:
WELL

Alpha label indicating that the data on this card


applies to the well spreadsheet file.

ON

Alpha label indicating that the specified wells are to


be included in the spreadsheet file.

OFF

Alpha label indicating that the specified wells are to


be excluded from the spreadsheet file.

ALL

Alpha label indicating that the data on this card


applies to all wells.

wl

List of wells to which the data on this card applies


(see section 1.5.2).

NOTE:

00

ON
O FF

1.

If the SPRLIST card is not entered, all wells are included in the
spreadsheet file.

2.

To restrict the wells on the spreadsheet file, all wells must first
be excluded (OFF), then the desired wells included (ON).

Example:
SPRLIST
SPRLIST

WELL
WELL

OFF
ON

ALL
PROD*

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Output Control

6.29 Results File Formats


00

00

The PLOT, CPLOT and MAP files written out by VIP-EXECUTIVE can be
post-processed by a variety of programs. To facilitate user access to these
files, the content and formats are described below. Each line corresponds
to a different record. The "Type" column specifies the variable type for
each field in the record. The "Format" column specifies the format used to
write the record to a formatted file.
The meanings of the symbols in the "Type" column are:
C*4
C*6
C*8
C*20
C*80
I
R

CHARACTER*4
CHARACTER*6
CHARACTER*8
CHARACTER*20
CHARACTER*80
INTEGER
REAL

6.29.1 Plot File Organization


Once, at top of file
Type Format

Record

C*6
C*20
C*80
C*80
C*80
I
C*8
I

10A6
2A20
A80
A80
A80
10I5
10A8
10I5

C*4

18A4

PLOT <FORM | BIN> 1.1.1 <simulator><simulator version> [DUAL]


<casename><case parent>
<title1>
<title2>
<title3>
<# classes> <day> <month> <year> <nx> <ny> <nz> <# comps>
<class #1 name> <class #2 name> ...
<# variables in class #1> <# variables in class #2> ...
Loop for each class
TIME <variable #1 name> <variable #2 name> ...
end loop for class

Repeated for each requested time


Data for each class is output only if requested

00

00

Type Format Record


C*8
R
C*8
R

WELL Class
WELL
<timestep #> <time> <# wells> <max # wells> 1
Loop for each well
8A8
<well name> <well #> 0 <1st perf i><1st perf j><gc #><fs #><area #>
1P6E13.6
<variable #1 value> < variable #2 value> ...
end loop for well
A8
5G15.5

R2003.4 - Landmark

6-375

Output Control

C*8
R
C*8
C*8
R

C*8
R
C*8
R

C*8
R
C*8
R

C*8
R
C*8
R

C*8
R
C*8
R

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

WLLYR Class
A8
WLLYR
5G15.5
<timestep #> <time> <# wells> <max # wells> <max # perfs>
Loop for each well
8A8
<well name><well #><# perfs><1st perf i><1st perf j><gc#><fs #><area #>
Loop for each perf
2A8
<perf gridblock #> <layer name>
1P6E13.6
<variable #1 value> <variable #2 value> ...
end loop for perf
end loop for well
GATHER Class
GATHER
<timestep #> <time> <# gathering centers> <max # gcs> 1
Loop for each gathering center
8A8
<gc name> <gc #> 0 0 0 <gc #> <fs #> <area #>
1P6E13.6
<variable #1 value> <variable #2 value> ...
end loop for gathering center
A8
5G15.5

FLOSTA Class
FLOSTA
<timestep #> <time> <# flow stations> <max # fss> 1
Loop for each flow station
8A8
<fs name> <fs #> 0 0 0 0 <fs #> <area #>
1P6E13.6
<variable #1 value> <variable #2 value> ...
end loop for flow station
A8
5G15.5

AREA Class
AREA
<timestep #> <time> <# areas> <max # areas> 1
Loop for each area
8A8
<area name> <area #> 0 0 0 0 0 <area #>
1P6E13.6
<variable #1 value> <variable #2 value> ...
end loop for area
A8
5G15.5

REGION Class
REGION
<timestep #> <time> <# regions> <max # regions> 1
Loop for each region
8A8
<region name> <region #> 0 0 0 0 0 0
1P6E13.6
<variable #1 value> <variable #2 value> ...
end loop for region
A8
5G15.5

C*8
R
C*8
R

FIELD Class
A8
FIELD
5G15.5
<timestep #> <time> 1 1 1
8A8
FIELD 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
1P6E13.6 <variable #1 value> <variable #2 value> ...

C*8

A8

6-376

STOP (only at end-of-file)

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

NOTE:

Output Control

See the PLOT card in Utility Data for a list of valid Class names.
The current set of variable names can be obtained from the example
below.
Well Pressures written to the PLOT file depend on parameters set
during the run. By default, PTOP is the pressure of the top
perforated block, PAVE is a mobility weighted block pressure at
datum (mobility of the well production/injection phase) and BHP
is the bottomhole flowing pressure at datum (DRDN is (PAVEBHP)). The datum depth defaults to the depth of the first
equilibration region, but can be set with a BHP or THP card. These
pressures are modified by the OUTPAVG and BUILDUP cards. In
contrast, all layer pressures are at depth.
The variables beginning with the character "?" denote temporary
positions in the plot file. These may be used for future development
without changing the size of the plot records.

00

Examples:

00

Plot File - Based on "PLOT ALL FILE"

PLOT FORM 5.0.0 EXEC v1998r


TEST
VIP TEST MODEL
EXAMPLE FOR DOCUMENTATION PURPOSES
7
1
1 1992
18
6
3
3
WELL
WLLYR
GATHER FLOSTA AREA
REGION FIELD
39
25
26
25
27
23
35
TIMEQGP QOP QWP QGI QWI CGP COP CWP CGI CWI PTOPPAVEBHP THP DRDNPBLDQGLG
CGLGDYSPDYSIMGORPLF CPLFPRG CPRGETW CETWPQGPPQOPPQWPPQGIPQWIOGR WGR ?TM1
?TM2?TM3?TM4?TM5
TIMEIX JY KZ QOP QGP QWP GOR WC PRESPDATBHP QGI QWI ROP RGP RWP RGI
RWI DTOPDBOTPLOSPWDPPLENPANVPANA
TIMEQGP QOP QWP QGI QWI CGP COP CWP CGI CWI CGV QGLGCGLGMGORPQGPPQOPPQWP
PQGIPQWIOGR WGR ?TM1?TM2?TM3?TM4?TM5
TIMEQGP QOP QWP QGI QWI CGP COP CWP CGI CWI QGLGCGLGMGORPQGPPQOPPQWPPQGI
PQWIOGR WGR ?TM1?TM2?TM3?TM4?TM5
TIMEQGP QOP QWP QGI QWI CGP COP CWP CGI CWI QGLGCGLGMGORPQGPPQOPPQWPPQGI
PQWIOGR WGR QSG CSG ?TM1?TM2?TM3?TM4?TM5
TIMECGP COP CWP CGI CWI PAVDPAVTPAVHGIP OIP WIP QOP QGP QWP QGI QWI OGR
WGR ?TM1?TM2?TM3?TM4?TM5
TIMEQGP QOP QWP QGI QWI CGP COP CWP CGI CWI PAVTPAVHGIP OIP WIP QGLGCGLG
MGORP/Z PQGPPQOPPQWPPQGIPQWIOGR WGR ORECGRECQSG CSG ?TM1?TM2?TM3?TM4?TM5
WELL
14.000
274.00
3.0000
20.000
1.0000
PRD
8
0
5
2
1
1
1
1.280376E+02 5.242931E+02 9.459076E+01 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 3.521548E+04
1.439770E+05 2.142366E+04 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 2.724752E+03 2.693599E+03
2.453844E+03 0.000000E+00 2.397549E+02 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
2.740000E+02 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 4.094837E+03 7.387733E+01 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
INJ1
1
0
3
3
1
1
1
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 5.495544E+02 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 1.422169E+05 2.819950E+03 2.750626E+03
2.837861E+03 0.000000E+00-8.723476E+01 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 2.740000E+02 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00

R2003.4 - Landmark

6-377

Output Control

0.000000E+00
INJ6
6
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
2.761008E+03
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
WLLYR
14.000
INJ1
1
255
K3
3.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
5.495544E+02
5.754000E+03
0.000000E+00
INJ6
6
39
K1
3.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
5.700000E+03
0.000000E+00
PRD
8
23
K1
5.000000E+00
2.515996E+02
0.000000E+00
5.700000E+03
0.000000E+00
131
K2
5.000000E+00
2.349711E+02
0.000000E+00
5.733000E+03
0.000000E+00
GATHER
14.000
1
1.943243E+03
1.943689E+06
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
FLOSTA
14.000
1
1.943243E+03
1.943689E+06
0.000000E+00
3.650234E+03
0.000000E+00
AREA
14.000
1
1.943243E+03
1.943689E+06
0.000000E+00
3.650234E+03
0.000000E+00
REGION
14.000
1
5.332544E+05
2.661513E+03
1.942356E+03
0.000000E+00
FIELD
14.000

6-378

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0
3
3
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 6.894230E+04
0.000000E+00-9.733106E-01
2.740000E+02 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
274.00
1
3.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
5.780000E+03
1
3.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
5.727000E+03
2

3.0000
3

3.000000E+00
2.819950E+03
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
3

20.000
1

0.000000E+00
2.750626E+03
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00

1.000000E+00
2.775718E+03
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
5

1
1
1
2.594420E+02 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 2.775718E+03
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00

100.00
1

0.000000E+00
2.907185E+03
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00

0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
5.557241E+02
0.000000E+00

0.000000E+00
2.760035E+03
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00

0.000000E+00
2.760035E+03
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00

0.000000E+00
2.776692E+03
2.778621E+02
0.000000E+00
1

0.000000E+00
2.594420E+02
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00

2.000000E+00
6.610653E-02
3.322876E+02
5.733000E+03

1.000000E+00
2.724752E+03
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00

2.913259E+02
2.686124E+03
2.085887E+01
0.000000E+00

7.329747E+01
2.492472E+03
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00

2.062178E+01
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00

2.000000E+00
2.409918E-01
2.639768E+02
5.766000E+03

2.000000E+00
2.754788E+03
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00

2.329666E+02
2.703844E+03
7.481309E+01
0.000000E+00

5.474043E+01
2.504788E+03
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00

7.396899E+01
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00

274.00
0
7.093291E+03
2.220256E+05
0.000000E+00
3.650234E+03
0.000000E+00

1.0000
5.0000
1.0000
0
0
1
1
1
1.114112E+03 2.594420E+02 3.353396E+03 5.335137E+05
6.894230E+04 8.946251E+05 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
5.733261E+01 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00

274.00
0
7.093291E+03
2.220256E+05
0.000000E+00
5.733261E+01

1.0000
5.0000
1.0000
0
0
0
1
1
1.114112E+03 2.594420E+02 3.353396E+03 5.335137E+05
6.894230E+04 8.946251E+05 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00

274.00
0
7.093291E+03
2.220256E+05
0.000000E+00
5.733261E+01
0.000000E+00

1.0000
5.0000
1.0000
0
0
0
0
1
1.114112E+03 2.594420E+02 3.353396E+03 5.335137E+05
6.894230E+04 8.946251E+05 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00

274.00
0
1.944172E+06
2.658203E+03
1.114112E+03
0.000000E+00

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0
0
0
0
0
2.220256E+05 6.894230E+04 8.946251E+05 2.651545E+03
1.711230E+07 6.371604E+07 3.296248E+07 7.094940E+03
2.594420E+02 3.353396E+03 3.116205E+00 3.051307E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00

274.00

1.0000

1.0000

1.0000

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

FIELD
1
1.943243E+03
1.943689E+06
1.711230E+07
2.860177E+03
3.650234E+03
0.000000E+00
STOP

0
7.093291E+03
2.220256E+05
6.371604E+07
0.000000E+00
5.733261E+01
0.000000E+00

Output Control

0
0
1.114112E+03
6.894230E+04
3.296248E+07
0.000000E+00
3.116205E+00
0.000000E+00

0
0
0
2.594420E+02 3.353396E+03
8.946251E+05 2.661513E+03
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
3.051307E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00

5.335137E+05
2.658203E+03
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00

6.29.2 Compositional Plot File Organization


Once, at top of file
Type Format

Record

C*6
C*20
C*80
C*80
C*80
I
C*8
I

10A6
2A20
A80
A80
A80
10I5
10A8
10I5

C*4

18A4

PLOT <FORM | BIN> 5.0.0 <simulator><simulator version> [DUAL]


<casename><case parent>
<title1>
<title2>
<title3>
<# classes> <day> <month> <year> <nx> <ny> <nz> <# comps>
<class #1 name> <class #2 name> ...
<# variables in class #1> <# variables in class #2> ...
Loop for each class
TIME <variable #1 name> <variable #2 name> ...
end loop for class

Repeated for each requested time


Data for each class is output only if requested

00

00

Type Format Record


C*8
R
C*8
R

C*8
R
C*8
C*8
R

WELL Class
WELL
<timestep #> <time> <# wells> <max # wells> 1
Loop for each well
8A8
<well name> <well #> 0 <1st perf i><1st perf j><gc #><fs #><area #>
1P6E13.6
<variable #1 value> < variable #2 value> ...
end loop for well
WLLYR Class
A8
WLLYR
5G15.5
<timestep #> <time> <# wells> <max # wells> <max # perfs>
Loop for each well
8A8
<well name><well #><# perfs><1st perf i><1st perf j><gc#><fs #><area #>
Loop for each perf
2A8
<perf gridblock #> <layer name>
1P6E13.6
<variable #1 value> <variable #2 value> ...
end loop for perf
end loop for well
A8
5G15.5

R2003.4 - Landmark

6-379

Output Control

C*8
R
C*8
R

C*8
R
C*8
R

C*8
R
C*8
R

C*8
R
C*8
R

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

GATHER Class
A8
GATHER
5G15.5
<timestep #> <time> <# gathering centers> <max # gcs> 1
Loop for each gathering center
8A8
<gc name> <gc #> 0 0 0 <gc #> <fs #> <area #>
1P6E13.6
<variable #1 value> <variable #2 value> ...
end loop for gathering center
FLOSTA Class
A8
FLOSTA
5G15.5
<timestep #> <time> <# flow stations> <max # fss> 1
Loop for each flow station
8A8
<fs name> <fs #> 0 0 0 0 <fs #> <area #>
1P6E13.6
<variable #1 value> <variable #2 value> ...
end loop for flow station
AREA Class
A8
AREA
5G15.5
<timestep #> <time> <# areas> <max # areas> 1
Loop for each area
8A8
<area name> <area #> 0 0 0 0 0 <area #>
1P6E13.6
<variable #1 value> <variable #2 value> ...
end loop for area
REGION Class
A8
REGION
5G15.5
<timestep #> <time> <# regions> <max # regions> 1
Loop for each region
8A8
<region name> <region #> 0 0 0 0 0 0
1P6E13.6
<variable #1 value> <variable #2 value> ...
end loop for region

C*8
R
C*8
R

FIELD Class
A8
FIELD
5G15.5
<timestep #> <time> 1 1 1
8A8
FIELD 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
1P6E13.6 <variable #1 value> <variable #2 value> ...

C*8

A8

6-380

STOP (only at end-of-file)

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

NOTE:

Output Control

See the CPLOT card in uility data for a list of valid Class names.
The current set of variable names can be obtained from the example
below.

00

Examples:

00

Cplot File - Based on "CPLOT ALL FILE"

PLOT FORM 5.0.0 EXEC v1998r


TEST
VIP TEST MODEL
EXAMPLE FOR DOCUMENTATION PURPOSES
7
1
1 1992
18
6
3
3
WELL
WLLYR
GATHER FLOSTA AREA
REGION FIELD
21
14
21
21
21
21
21
TIMEQ1P Q2P Q3P C1P C2P C3P X1P X2P X3P Y1P Y2P Y3P Q1I Q2I Q3I C1I C2I
C3I QCDPYCDPCCDP
TIMEQ1P Q2P Q3P X1P X2P X3P Y1P Y2P Y3P Q1I Q2I Q3I QCDPYCDP
TIMEQ1P Q2P Q3P C1P C2P C3P X1P X2P X3P Y1P Y2P Y3P Q1I Q2I Q3I C1I C2I
C3I QCDPYCDPCCDP
TIMEQ1P Q2P Q3P C1P C2P C3P X1P X2P X3P Y1P Y2P Y3P Q1I Q2I Q3I C1I C2I
C3I QCDPYCDPCCDP
TIMEQ1P Q2P Q3P C1P C2P C3P X1P X2P X3P Y1P Y2P Y3P Q1I Q2I Q3I C1I C2I
C3I QCDPYCDPCCDP
TIMEQ1P Q2P Q3P C1P C2P C3P X1P X2P X3P Y1P Y2P Y3P Q1I Q2I Q3I C1I C2I
C3I QCDPYCDPCCDP
TIMEQ1P Q2P Q3P C1P C2P C3P X1P X2P X3P Y1P Y2P Y3P Q1I Q2I Q3I C1I C2I
C3I QCDPYCDPCCDP
WELL
14.000
274.00
3.0000
20.000
1.0000
PRD
8
0
5
2
1
1
1
3.405392E+02 2.014404E+02 6.630428E+02 9.365748E+04 5.532673E+04 1.820668E+05
1.112212E-02 2.304266E-01 7.584513E-01 9.841481E-01 3.693783E-03 1.215812E-02
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
INJ1
1
0
3
3
1
1
1
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
INJ6
6
0
3
3
1
1
1
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
5.450015E+02 1.021878E+02 3.406259E+01 1.448249E+05 2.715467E+04 9.051556E+03
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
WLLYR
14.000
274.00
2.0000
20.000
100.00
INJ6
6
1
3
3
1
1
1
39
K1
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 5.450015E+02 1.021878E+02 3.406259E+01
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
PRD
8
2
5
2
1
1
1
23
K1
1.947711E+02 1.122778E+02 3.679337E+02 1.112236E-02 2.312086E-01 7.576690E-01
9.840874E-01 3.720505E-03 1.219207E-02 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
131
K2
1.457680E+02 8.916255E+01 2.951092E+02 1.112182E-02 2.294493E-01 7.594289E-01
9.842236E-01 3.660599E-03 1.211581E-02 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
GATHER
14.000
274.00
1.0000
5.0000
1.0000
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
5.145818E+03 2.819694E+03 8.822700E+03 1.412639E+06 7.732170E+05 2.416716E+06
1.112383E-02 2.394468E-01 7.494294E-01 9.829879E-01 4.237121E-03 1.277496E-02
5.450015E+02 1.021878E+02 3.406259E+01 1.448249E+05 2.715467E+04 9.051556E+03

R2003.4 - Landmark

6-381

Output Control

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

0.000000E+00
FLOSTA
14.000
1
5.145818E+03
1.112383E-02
5.450015E+02
0.000000E+00
AREA
14.000
1
5.145818E+03
1.112383E-02
5.450015E+02
0.000000E+00
REGION
14.000
1
5.145818E+03
1.112475E-02
5.450015E+02
0.000000E+00
FIELD
14.000
FIELD
1
5.145818E+03
1.112383E-02
5.450015E+02
0.000000E+00
STOP

0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
274.00
0
2.819694E+03
2.394468E-01
1.021878E+02
0.000000E+00

1.0000
5.0000
1.0000
0
0
0
1
1
8.822700E+03 1.412639E+06 7.732170E+05 2.416716E+06
7.494294E-01 9.829879E-01 4.237121E-03 1.277496E-02
3.406259E+01 1.448249E+05 2.715467E+04 9.051556E+03
0.000000E+00

274.00
0
2.819694E+03
2.394468E-01
1.021878E+02
0.000000E+00

1.0000
5.0000
1.0000
0
0
0
0
1
8.822700E+03 1.412639E+06 7.732170E+05 2.416716E+06
7.494294E-01 9.829879E-01 4.237121E-03 1.277496E-02
3.406259E+01 1.448249E+05 2.715467E+04 9.051556E+03
0.000000E+00

274.00
0
2.819694E+03
2.394976E-01
1.021878E+02
0.000000E+00

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0
0
0
0
0
8.822700E+03 9.051556E+03 0.000000E+00 0.000000E+00
7.493776E-01 9.834299E-01 4.013149E-03 1.255697E-02
3.406259E+01 1.448249E+05 2.715467E+04 9.051556E+03
0.000000E+00

274.00
0
2.819694E+03
2.394468E-01
1.021878E+02
0.000000E+00

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0
0
0
0
0
8.822700E+03 1.412639E+06 7.732170E+05 2.416716E+06
7.494294E-01 9.829879E-01 4.237121E-03 1.277496E-02
3.406259E+01 1.448249E+05 2.715467E+04 9.051556E+03
0.000000E+00

6.29.3 Map File Organization


VIP-CORE

00

Type Format

Record

C*6
C*80
C*80
C*80
I
R
C*8
I
C*4
C*4
C*8
C*8
R

10A6
A80
A80
A80
8I5
G15.5
2A8
2I5
18A4
18A4
10A8
A8
3G15.5

1P6E13.6

C*8

A8

MAP <FORM | BIN> 1.0.1 <simulator><simulator version> [DUAL]


<title1>
<title2>
<title3>
2 <day><month><year><nx><ny><nz><# comps>
<inner radius for radial model; 0. otherwise>
INIT RECURR
<# of INIT arrays> <# of RECURR arrays>
<INIT array #1 name><INIT array #2 name> ...
<RECURR array #1 name><RECURR array #2 name> ...
<component #1 name> <component #2 name> ...
INIT
0 0.0 <# of INIT arrays>
Loop for each INIT array
<array value i> , i = 1, ..., number of gridblocks
end loop for INIT array
STOP

6-382

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Output Control

Simulation Modules - Repeated for each requested time


Type Format

Record

C*8
R

A8
3G15.5

1P6E13.6

C*8
R

A8
3G15.5

3I5

C*8

A8

RECURR
<timestep #><time><# of RECURR arrays>
Loop for each RECURR array
<array value i>, i = 1, ..., number of gridblocks
end loop for RECURR array
WLOC
<timestep #><time><number of perforations>
Loop for each perforation
<well number><perforation status><gridblock number>
end loop for perforation
STOP (only at end-of-file)
NOTE:

00

Perforation Status values are as follows


0Shut in
1Gas Injector
2Water Injector
3Solvent Injector
4Producer

00

Examples:

00

CORE Map File Format -Based on "MAPOLD P SG SW FORM"

MAP
FORM 1.0.1 CORE v1998r
VIP TEST MODEL
EXAMPLE FOR DOCUMENTATION PURPOSES
2

1
1 1992
18
6
3
3
.00000E+00
INIT
RECURR
54
3
DX DY DZ DEP DZN POR KX KY KZ ISATIPVTIEQUTMX TMY TMZ ?FX ?FY DXB
DYB DZB DZBNMDEPPVR TXR TYR TZR MLTXMLTYMLTZP
SG SW SWM PSATSO SOM
PDATX1 Y1 Z1 X2 Y2 Z2 X3 Y3 Z3 PV TX TY TZ API KH GOC WOC
P
SG SW
LIGHT
HEAVY1 HEAVY2
INIT
.00000E+00
.00000E+00
54.000
6.220000E+02 6.220000E+02 6.220000E+02 6.220000E+02 6.220000E+02
6.220000E+02
.....
.....
STOP

R2003.4 - Landmark

6-383

Output Control

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00

EXEC Map File Format - Based on "MAPOLD P SG SW FORM"

RECURR
.00000E+00
.00000E+00
3.0000
2.952821E+03 2.952821E+03 2.952821E+03 2.953362E+03
2.951562E+03 2.940778E+03 2.933616E+03 2.926477E+03
.....
.....
WLOC
.00000E+00
.00000E+00
.00000E+00
RECURR
14.000
274.00
3.0000
2.760746E+03 2.757746E+03 2.762810E+03 2.761857E+03
2.753419E+03 2.737406E+03 2.730219E+03 2.720897E+03
.....
.....
WLOC
14.000
274.00
4.0000
8
4
23
8
4 131
1
2 255
6
1
39
STOP

6-384

2.953904E+03 2.953904E+03
2.924697E+03 2.922384E+03

2.756173E+03 2.758267E+03
2.715025E+03 2.713665E+03

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Output Control

6.29.4 Hydrocarbon Track File Organization


00

The hydrocarbon track file is written by the simulation modules.


Information in a track file is organized in the form of records. There are
three types of records: the header record, the production time record, and
the in-place time record. The frequency of output of these records is
controlled through use of the WTRACK card.

Header Record - Written only once at time = 0.


Type Format

Record

I
C*80
C*6
I
R*8,I
R*8
R*8

<# tracked fluids> <max # wells> <max # gcs> <# comps>


<title1> <title2> <title3>
<tracked fluid #1 name> <tracked fluid #2 name> ...
<day> <month> <year>
0.0 <number of gridblocks>
<flag array value i>, i = 1, ..., number of gridblocks
<initial gas saturation value i>, i = 1, ..., number of gridblocks

4I10
A80
10A6
3I5
F12.3,I10
8E15.7
8E15.7

In-Place Time Record - Repeated for each requested time


Type Format

Record

C*8 A8
R*8,I F12.3,I10

IN PLACE
<time> <number of gridblocks>
Loop for each gridblock
BLOCK <gridblock number>
Loop for each tracked fluid
<tracked gas mole fraction value i>, i = 1, ..., # components
End loop for tracked fluid
<gas mole fraction value i>, i = 1, ..., # components
Loop for each tracked fluid
<tracked total mole fraction value i>, i = 1, ..., # components
End loop for tracked fluid
<total mole fraction value i>, i = 1, ..., # components
End loop for gridblock
<gas saturation value i>, i = 1, ..., number of gridblocks

C*6,I A6,I5
R*8

8E15.7

R*8

8E15.7

R*8

8E15.7

R*8

8E15.7

R*8

8E15.7

R2003.4 - Landmark

00

00

6-385

Output Control

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Well Production Time Record - Repeat for each requested time


Output if NOWELL has not been specified with TRACK card.

00

Type Format

Record

C*8 A8
R*8,I F12.3,I10

WELLS
<time> <# wells>
Loop for each well
WELL <well #>
Loop for each tracked fluid
<tracked gas mole fraction value i>, i = 1, ..., # components
End loop for tracked fluid
<gas mole fraction value i>, i = 1, ..., # components
Loop for each tracked fluid
<tracked total mole fraction value i>, i = 1, ..., # components
End loop for tracked fluid
<total mole fraction value i>, i = 1, ..., # components
End loop for well

C*4,I A4,I5
R*8

8E15.7

R*8

8E15.7

R*8

8E15.7

R*8

8E15.7

Production Time Record - Repeated for each requested time


Type Format

Record

C*8 A8
R*8,I F12.3,I10

GATHER
<time> <# gcs>
Loop for each gathering center
GC <gc #>
Loop for each tracked fluid
<tracked gas mole fraction value i>, i = 1, ..., # components
End loop for tracked fluid
<gas mole fraction value i>, i = 1, ..., # components
Loop for each tracked fluid
<tracked total mole fraction value i>, i = 1, ..., # components
End loop for tracked fluid
<total mole fraction value i>, i = 1, ..., # components
End loop for gathering center

C*4,I A4,I5
R*8

8E15.7

R*8

8E15.7

R*8

8E15.7

R*8

8E15.7

6-386

00

Landmark - R2003.4

Chapter

7
Simulator Control

00000

7.1 Timestep Control


00

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

VIP-EXECUTIVE moves the reservoir model through a succession of


timesteps. The interval of time between states is called the timestep.
Within each timestep the simulator performs outer iterations, that is,
Newton iterations, to resolve the non-linear changes in pressures and
saturations which may occur over the timestep. In most cases inner
iterations are performed within each outer iteration to iteratively solve
the linearized system of equations for the changes in reservoir variables
between successive Newton steps. (If the direct linear solver is used, then
no inner iterations are required.)
VIP-EXECUTIVE can select its own timesteps. They are constrained only
by (1) the maximum changes in reservoir variables specified on the DT
card, or (2) by gridblock throughput limitations when the IMPES
formulation is used (see IMPSTAB card). Timestep size is altered
automatically to hit exactly the times or dates on TIME or DATE cards.
Under automatic timestep control maximum pressure, saturations, vapor
fraction, and total composition changes sometimes are exceeded slightly
to save the work required to repeat the timestep.
The number of outer iterations (Newton steps) performed during a
timestep is governed by the ITNLIM, TOLD, and TOLR cards. The TOLD
and TOLR cards establish two sets of criteria for convergence of a
timestep. The TOLD card specifies one set of convergence criteria based on
the maximum changes in the primary unknowns over the last Newton
step. Convergence of the outer iterations over a timestep is achieved when
none of the changes in P, S, (Sw), V (Sg), or Z which occurred
during the previous iteration are larger in absolute value than the
corresponding tolerances established on the TOLD card. A second set of
tests for convergence is defined by the TOLR cards. When the material
balance error for each phase in each gridblock is less than the tolerances
specified on the TOLR card, the conservation equations are assumed to
have been solved and the timestep is concluded. The TOLD tests are
independent of the TOLR tests. Either set of convergence tests can signal
convergence of the timestep even if the other has not yet been satisfied.
The ITNLIM card specifies the minimum and maximum number of outer
iterations to be used for a timestep, as well as bounding limits for the
maximum changes in the primary unknowns for any Newton step. Should
any of these limits be exceeded, VIP-EXECUTIVE will damp the entire

7-387

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

solution vector, such that the reduced changes now honor the maximum
changes specified on the DT card, and then perform another outer
iteration. For this reason, an excessively small value for any of the
iteration limits slows or even prevents convergence. Failure to converge
the outer iterations of a timestep within itnmax outer iterations will
normally cause the timestep to be repeated. A timestep will also be
repeated if the tolerances on the DT card are exceeded, if the maximum
changes are being checked (see the optional second line following the DT
card below).

7.1.1 Timestep Controls (DT)


00

The DT card defines the timestep size and the maximum changes allowed
during the timestep.
DT

dt

dtmin

dtmax

dpmax
BOTH
DTONLY
MAXONLY
NONE p

(dtmpmx)

BOTH
DTONLY
MAXONLY

NONE T

dsmax
BOTH
DTONLY
MAXONLY
NONE

dvmax

dzmax

(dtswmx)(card 1)

BOTH
BOTH
DTONLY
DTONLY
MAXONLY
MAXONLY
NONE v
NONE z
s

BOTH
DTONLY
MAXONLY

NONE

tsw

(card 2)

00

7-388

Definitions:
dt

Timestep size, days. A negative value triggers the


use of automatic timestep control. Here, the next
timestep is +dt in length; thereafter, the program
chooses timestep size within user constraints. Omit
the remaining variables on this card if dt is positive.

dtmin

Minimum timestep size, days. Default is 1 day.

dtmax

Maximum timestep size, days. Default is 100 days.

dpmax

Maximum pressure change allowed during a timestep, psia (kPa). Default is 300 psia for the IMPES
formulation; 500 psia for the implicit formulation.

dtmpmx

Maximum temperature change allowed during a


timestep, F(C). Default is 100F. Enter only in VIPTHERM.

dsmax

Maximum saturation change allowed during a


timestep using the IMPES formulation. Maximum
change in water saturation allowed during a
timestep using the implicit formulation. Default is
0.03 for the IMPES formulation; 0.1 for the implicit
formulation.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

dvmax

Maximum change in vapor fraction allowed during


a timestep using the IMPES formulation. Maximum
change in gas saturation allowed during a timestep
using the implicit formulation. Default is 0.04 for
the IMPES formulation; 0.1 for the implicit
formulation.

dzmax

Maximum change in total mole fraction allowed


during a timestep. Default is 0.03 for the IMPES
formulation; 0.1 for the implicit formulation.

dtswmx

Maximum tracked water saturation change allowed


during a timestep. Default is 0.1.

BOTH

Alpha label indicating that the appropriate


maximum will be used for both checking the
maximum change over the timestep and timestep
size calculation. This is the default for a problem
using the IMPES formulation.

DTONLY

Alpha label indicating that the appropriate


maximum will be used for timestep size calculation
only. The maximum change check will be ignored.
This is the default for a problem using the implicit
formulation.

MAXONLY

Alpha label indicating that the appropriate


maximum will be used for checking the maximum
change over the timestep only. The timestep size
calculation will ignore this constraint.

NONE

Alpha label indicating that the appropriate


maximum will be ignored completely.

NOTE:

R2003.4 - Landmark

Simulator Control

1.

The DT card may contain dt only, all values through dpmax,


all values through dzmax, or all values. No other combinations
are allowed.

2.

A value of zero may be input for dt. At time = 0, this causes the
first timestep to be of size dtmin and subsequent timestep
sizes to be under automatic timestep control. At time > 0, the
timestep size calculation remains under automatic timestep
control, allowing the user to change the other parameters
without having to set the timestep size.

3.

Timestep size is altered automatically to coincide exactly to the


times or dates specified on TIME and DATE cards, even when
fixed timesteps are used.

4.

Under automatic timestep control the maximum pressure,


saturation, vapor fraction (gas saturation) and composition
changes specified on the DT card are sometimes exceeded by a

7-389

Simulator Control

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

small amount to save the work required to repeat the timestep.


If they are exceeded by a large amount (MAXOVR card), the
timestep will be repeated. The maximum number of timesteps
cuts is three by default, but it may be respecified using the
TCUT card.
5.

Card 2 is an optional card that allows the user to control when


the maximum constraints will be used. The data is order
dependent; e.g., if an alpha is needed for dvmax, then one
must also be specified for dpmax and dsmax.

6.

The optional last parameter can be specified to enable timestep


control as a function of the maximum changes in the saturation
of any of the tracked water types. This parameter will be used
in the timestep size calculation only, and will not result in a
timestep cut-back if its value is exceeded during a timestep.

7.1.2 Timestep Size After Rate Changes (DTQMAX)


00

The DTQMAX card defines the timestep size to use for the first timestep
following well rate changes (QMAX/QMULT cards).
DTQMAX

00

dtqmax

Definition:
dtqmax

NOTE:

7-390

Timestep size to be used for the first timestep


following the input of rate changes (QMAX/
QMULT cards), days.
1.

The value of dtqmax will apply only if automatic timestep


control is on.

2.

If no dtqmax value is input, or if a value less than or equal to 0


is specified, automatic timestep size selection will be used.

3.

If a DT card is entered at the same time as rate changes, the


value of dt on that card will be honored.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Simulator Control

7.1.3 Outer Iteration Controls (ITNLIM)


ITNLIM itnmin itnmax (dplim) (dtlim) (dswlim) (dvlim) (dzlim)

00

Definitions:
itnmin

Minimum number of outer iterations per timestep


required before convergence is allowed. Default
is 1.

itnmax

Maximum number of outer iterations per timestep.


Failure to converge will normally cause the
timestep to be repeated. Default is 10.

dplim

Maximum pressure change allowed during any


single outer iteration, psia (kPa). Default is 450 psia
for the IMPES formulation; 750 psia for the implicit
formulation.

dtlim

Maximum temperature change allowed during any


single outer iteration, F(C). Default is 150F. Enter
only in VIP-THERM.

dswlim

Maximum change in water saturation allowed


during any single outer iteration. Default is 0.045
for the IMPES formulation; 0.15 for the implicit
formulation.

dvlim

Maximum change in vapor fraction allowed during


any single outer iteration using the IMPES
formulation. Maximum change in gas saturation
allowed during any single outer iteration using the
implicit formulation. Default is 0.06 for the IMPES
formulation; 0.15 for the implicit formulation.

dzlim

Maximum change in total composition allowed


during any single outer iteration using the IMPES
formulation. Maximum change in primary phase
composition allowed during any single outer
iteration using the implicit formulation. Default is
0.045 for the IMPES formulation; 0.15 for the
implicit formulation.

NOTE:

R2003.4 - Landmark

For each of the maximum changes on this card, if the value is not
entered but the corresponding maximum change is entered on the
DT card, then the default value is set to the product of the value on
the DT card and MAXOVR (MAXOVR card).

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Simulator Control

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

7.1.4 Control Convergence Failures and Timestep Cuts (TCUT)


00

The TCUT card is used to control simulator treatment of convergence


failures and timestep cuts.

( nctol )

nfails

TCUT

OFF

00

Definitions:
nfails

Maximum number of convergence failures


permitted during a single timestep. Default is 3.

OFF

Alpha label that causes the simulator to ignore


convergence failures.

nctol

Maximum number of timestep cuts for any reason


permitted during a single timestep. Default is 3.

NOTE:

00

00

7-392

1.

After each convergence failure the timestep size is cut by a


factor of 2 and the timestep is retried, if OFF was not specified.

2.

After nctol-1 timestep cuts in a single timestep, the timestep


size is set equal to dtmin (see DT card).

3.

If a convergence failure occurs for a timestep size of dtmin, an


additional attempt is made using a timestep size of 0.1*dtmin.

4.

If more than nfails convergence failures (or possibly nfails+1;


see note 3) or more than nctol timestep cuts occur during a
single timestep, the run is terminated and a restart record is
written at the end of the last successful timestep.

5.

The keyword OFF causes the simulator to ignore convergence


failures in determining the acceptability of a timestep. The
result of the timestep will be accepted (subject to the tolerances
on the DT card) without regard to the inadequate closure of the
material balance equations. This will frequently lead to poor
material balances in the model.

6.

If it was not already printed, an iteration summary will be


printed for a timestep that has a convergence failure unless the
CNVFLOFF keyword has been specified on the OUTPUT card.

Example:
TCUT 10 10

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Simulator Control

7.1.5 Control Treatment of IMPES Stability (IMPSTAB)


00

The IMPSTAB card is used to control simulator treatment of IMPES


stability restrictions. By default, the simulator calculates the maximum
timestep size for which IMPES is a stable formulation (based on
volumetric and molar throughput) and forces the timestep to be no larger
than this value.

ststar
IMPSTAB

(V98)

OFF
ON

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

( stslim )
( NOCUTS )

( mxstsc )

( FLOWIN )

Definitions:
V98

Alpha label that causes the version 98 algorithm to


be used.

ststar

Fraction of the maximum stable IMPES timestep to


use as the target for each calculation of timestep
size. Default is .9.

OFF

Alpha label that causes the simulator to ignore


IMPES stability restrictions.

ON

Alpha label that causes the simulator to take IMPES


stability restrictions into account using the most
recent values of ststar, stslim, and mxstsc.

stslim

Largest fraction of the maximum stable IMPES


timestep at which the simulator is permitted to run.
Default is 1.0.

NOCUTS

Alpha label that causes the simulator to ignore


violations of the stslim limit.

mxstsc

Maximum number of timestep reductions due to


violation of the stslim limit on a single timestep.
Default is 3.

FLOWIN

Alpha label indicating that flow both into and out of


blocks is to be checked for stability. Default is to
only check the flow out of blocks.

7-393

Simulator Control

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

NOTE:

1.

Unless OFF is specified, for each timestep the timestep size will
be set equal to ststar times the maximum stable IMPES
timestep, provided that this timestep would satisfy the
constraints imposed by the DT card.

2.

Unless OFF or NOCUTS is specified, the simulator will enforce


the stslim limit. If the chosen timestep exceeds stslim times
the maximum stable IMPES timestep, it is immediately
reduced to the target value. This reduction is not counted as a
timestep cut.

3.

After mxstsc-1 timestep reductions on a single timestep, the


timestep size is set equal to dtmin (see DT card).

4.

If more than mxstsc reductions are required on a single


timestep due to the stslim limit, the run is terminated and a
restart record is written at the end of the last successful
timestep.

5.

The maximum stable IMPES timestep is constrained by the


total volumetric throughput (based on a Buckley-Leverett-type
analysis) and by the possible composition changes for each
phase in each gridblock. Complete details are available in a
separate document. Inactive blocks are ignored.

6.

The parameters are order-dependent and must be specified if


subsequent parameters are input.

7.1.6 Maximum Variable Change Overshoot (MAXOVR)


00

The MAXOVR card is used to control when a timestep cut occurs due to
maximum variable changes over a timestep. If any variable changes
relative to its maximum allowed (from the DT card) more than the factor
specified on this card, a timestep cut will occur. Does not aply to VIPTHERM.
MAXOVR

00

maxovr

Definition:
maxovr

7-394

Maximum variable change factor above which a


timestep cut will occur. Default is 1.5.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Simulator Control

7.1.7 Convergence Tolerance on Unknowns (TOLD)


TOLD tolp (tolt) tols tolv tolz

00

Definitions:
tolp

Convergence tolerance used to test the pressure


changes occurring in each gridblock during each
Newton (outer) iteration, psia (kPa). Default is 0.1
psia.

tolt

Convergence tolerance used to test the changes in


temperature occurring in each gridblock during
each outer iteration, F(C). Default is 100F. Enter
only in VIP-THERM.

tols

Convergence tolerance used to test the changes in


water saturation occurring in each gridblock during
each outer iteration. Default is 0.0001.

tolv

Convergence tolerance used to test the changes in


vapor fraction (IMPES) or gas saturation (implicit)
occurring in each gridblock during each outer
iteration. Default is 0.0001.

tolz

Convergence tolerance used to test the changes in


total composition (IMPES) or primary phase
composition (implicit) occurring in each gridblock
during each outer iteration. Default is 0.0001.

NOTE:

R2003.4 - Landmark

1.

Convergence is achieved when none of the pressure,


saturation, vapor fraction (gas saturation), or composition
changes occurring over the previous iteration are larger in
absolute value than the corresponding tolerances.

2.

The TOLD tests are independent of the TOLR tests. If either set
of convergence tests is satisfied no further outer iterations are
performed and the timestep is concluded.

3.

A negative value for a tolerance causes that variable to be


ignored in the convergence check.

4.

A zero value for any of the tolerances forces non-convergence


based on maximum changes.

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7.1.8 Convergence Tolerance on Residuals (TOLR)


00

The TOLR card is used to define a set of convergence tolerances based on


how well the conservation equations are resolved. Separate tolerances are
specified for the water material balance equation and for the sum of the
hydrocarbon material balance equations, and they can be in terms of
relative reduction or absolute values. For the relative reductions, the
values are relative to the largest residuals encountered during the first
itnmax/2 outer iterations, which is normally the residuals at the start of
the first iteration. If relative reductions are being used and the maximum
residual is less than 1E-4, the relative reduction for that constituent will
not be required.

TOLR

00

7-396

tolrw

tolhc (tole)

( ABSTOL )
( RELTOL )

( ABSRES )
( RELRES )

(SUM) (MAX)

Definitions:
tolrw

Convergence tolerance used to test the water


"residual". This tolerance measures how well the
water material balance equation for each gridblock
has been solved. Default is 0.001.

tolhc

Convergence tolerance used to test the hydrocarbon


"residual". This tolerance measures how well the
hydrocarbon material balance equations for each
gridblock have been solved. Default is 0.001.

tole

Convergence tolerance used to test the energy


balance residual. This tolerance measures how
well the energy balance equations for each
gridblock have been solved. Default is 0.001. Enter
only in VIP-THERM.

ABSTOL

Alpha label indicating that the water and


hydrocarbon residuals are to be checked directly
against tolrw and tolhc, respectively. This is the
default in VIP-COMP or VIP-ENCORE if the TOLR
card is input but neither ABSTOL nor RELTOL are
specified.

RELTOL

Alpha label indicating that the water and


hydrocarbon residuals must be decreased from the
values at the beginning of the timestep by at least
the factors tolrw and tolhc, respectively. This is the
default in VIP-THERM, and this is the default in
VIP-COMP or VIP-ENCORE if no TOLR card is
input.

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

ABSRES

Alpha label indicating that the residuals to be


checked are calculated simply as the maximum
residuals over all gridblocks. This is the default.

RELRES

Alpha label indicating that the residuals to be


checked are calculated as the maximum over all
gridblocks of the water residual divided by the
water volume (tolrw), the hydrocarbon residual
divided by the number of hydrocarbon moles
(tolhc), and, in VIP-THERM, the energy residual
divided by the total energy (tole).

SUM

Alpha label indicating that convergence is to be


achieved if the sum over all gridblocks of the water,
hydrocarbon, and energy residuals (absolute) are
reduced below the tolerances as defined by the
ABSTOL/RELTOL settings. This is the default in
VIP-THERM.

MAX

Alpha label, valid only in VIP-THERM, indicating


that only the maximum residuals over all
gridblocks are to be checked, as is the default in
VIP-COMP and VIP-ENCORE.

NOTE:

R2003.4 - Landmark

Simulator Control

1.

When the residual error in each material balance equation in


each gridblock (or over all gridblocks, for the SUM option)
satisfies the appropriate tolerance, the equations are assumed
to have been solved and the timestep is concluded.

2.

The TOLR tests are independent of the TOLD tests. If either set
of convergence tests is satisfied, no further outer iterations are
performed and the timestep is concluded.

3.

For the combination of ABSTOL and ABSRES, the units of


tolrw and tolhc are STB/D (STCM/D) and lb-moles/D (lbmoles/D), respectively. In VIP-THERM, the unit of tole is Btu/
D (kj/D).

4.

For fluid tracking cases, the recommended tolerance type is


ABSTOL RELRES.

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7.1.9 Saturation Convergence Tolerance for OPTMBL and VOLBAL


(TOLSCN)
TOLSCN

00

errsat

Definition:
errsat

Convergence tolerance used to test the saturation


constraint equation. Default is 0.005.
When using the OPTMBL option or the VOLBAL option, errsat is
used to test for convergence of the saturation constraint equation.

NOTE:

7.1.10 Well Convergence Tolerance for OPTMBL and VOLBAL (TOLWCN)


TOLWCN

00

errwel

Definition:
errwel

Convergence tolerance used to test the well


constraint equation. Default is 0.00001 for OPTMBL
and 0.01 for VOLBAL.
When using the OPTMBL option or the VOLBAL option, errwel is
used to test for convergence of the well constraint equation.

NOTE:

7.1.11 Maximum Allowable Material Balance Error (ABORT)


00

The ABORT card defines the maximum allowable material balance error.
When this is reached, the program automatically terminates. This
automatic termination control is activated only by data entry.
ABORT

00

7-398

ew

ehc

ee

Definitions:
ew

Maximum allowed water material balance error


before the program terminates.

ehc

Maximum allowed hydrocarbon material balance


error before the program terminates.

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ee

Maximum allowed energy balance error before the


program terminates. Enter only in VIP-THERM.

NOTE:

00

1.

Both values ew and ehc must be included on the card in the


above order. A zero entry is ignored. An ee value is also
required for VIP-THERM.

2.

The program compares the normalized cumulative balance


error to these constraints at the end of each timestep.

Example:
ABORT 0.001 0.001

00

7.1.12 Minimum BHP Damping Factor (CBHPMN)


00

The CBHPMN card is used to set the minimum BHP damping factor. A
value of 1.0 will cause the CHKBHP subroutine to be ignored. Allowed
values are 0 cbhpmn 1.0.
CBHPMN

00

cbhpmn

Definitions
cbhpmn

Minimum BHP damping factor. Default is 0.05.

7.1.13 Table Extrapolation Control (CHKTAB)

PVT
CHKTAB

BHP

(nex)

ALL
NONE

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Definitions:
PVT

Alpha label that allows the simulator to extrapolate


the PVT/K-value table during look-ups.

BHP

Alpha label that allows the simulator to extrapolate


the BHP table during look-ups.

ALL

Alpha label that allows the simulator to extrapolate


both the PVT/K-value and BHP tables during lookups. This is the default.

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00

7-400

NONE

Alpha label that causes the simulator to stop rather


than extrapolate outside the table boundaries.

nex

Number of table extrapolations allowed before run


is terminated. Default is 0.

The CHKTAB card is used to control the action taken when table look-ups
require extrapolation outside the range of the defined data. This is
generally not encouraged and can lead to convergence problems. By
default, extrapolation warning messages are printed in the output file,
along with the offending values. If the NONE option is specified then the
model will write a restart record at the end of the last acceptable timestep
and the run will be terminated. The PVT, BHP and ALL options will write
warning messages until nex extrapolations have been performed, then the
run will be terminated (as above). A value of zero for nex will suppress
run termination. Tables checked for extrapolation include the black-oil
PVT/K-value tables (end of timestep only) and the wellbore hydraulics
(BHPTAB tables (every occurrence)).

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7.2 Matrix Solution Options


00

00

For each outer iteration, VIP-EXECUTIVE must solve one or more large
linear systems of equations. This step is usually the most expensive
activity performed during an outer iteration. The choice of matrix solver
can have a very large impact on the overall cost of the simulation. VIPEXECUTIVE offers both direct and iterative matrix solvers for this task.
Direct Solver
GAUSS

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Gaussian elimination with the D4 ordering of


unknowns.

Iterative Solvers
BLITZ

Preconditioned Generalized Minimum Residual


Method (Reference 5).

EXCEL

Generalized Incomplete Factorization


Preconditioning.

A matrix solver should probably be specified at the beginning of every


simulation run, but it may be defaulted. At time = 0, the default is BLITZ
for single grid runs and CBLITZ for multigrid runs. At time > 0 the matrix
solver choice and parameters are retrieved from the restart file.
EXCEL and BLITZ are available for both the IMPES and fully implicit
formulation options. With certain restrictions, BLITZ and EXCEL can be
invoked for reservoir models that use either the FAULT option or the
PINCHOUT option. Each of these options generates nonstandard
connections between gridblocks.
A connection is standard when a gridblock, identified by the coordinates
(i, j, k), connects to an adjoining gridblock with coordinates of one of the
forms:
(i-1,
(i+1,
(i,
(i,
(i,
(i,

j,
k)
j,
k)
j-1,
k)
j+1,
k)
j,
k-1)
j,
k+1)

A nonstandard connection is called logically vertical when the connection


exists between gridblock (i, j, k) and one of the gridblocks:
(i-1,
(i+1,
(i,
(i,

j,
j,
j-1,
j+1,

*)
*)
*)
*)

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00

where * denotes any value less than or equal to NZ other than k. A


nonstandard connection to any other gridblock is called logically
nonvertical.

7.2.1 Gaussian Elimination (GAUSS)


00

Invokes Gaussian elimination.


GAUSS

NOTE:

1.

Use of Gaussian elimination maximizes the probability of


successful convergence, but it also tends to increase computer
time and storage requirements.

2.

This option does not allow for faults.

7.2.2 Iterative Solver (EXCEL)


00

EXCEL is an iterative solver, available for both the IMPES and fully
implicit options. It will handle all types of nonstandard connections,
including logically nonvertical ones. For an explanation of this method,
see Reference 4.

EXCEL

00

7-402

( ITER )
( NOITER )

(ilu)

(north)

(rtol)

(nit)

Definitions:
ITER

Alpha label indicating that an EXCEL iteration


summary should be printed.

NOITER

Alpha label indicating that an EXCEL iteration


summary should not be printed. This is the default.

ilu

Incomplete factorization level in EXCEL. Default is


0.

north

Number of orthogonalizations used in EXCEL.


Minimum value is 4, maximum value is 20. Default
is 10.

rtol

Tolerance for convergence of EXCEL. Default is


0.001.

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Simulator Control

nit

Maximum number of iterations allowed in EXCEL.


Minimum value is 5. Default is 25.

NOTE:

The ITER/NOITER label is optional and may be omitted. The other


parameters are order-dependent and must be specified if
subsequent parameters are input.

7.2.3 Iterative Solver (BLITZ)


00

BLITZ is an iterative solver, available for both the fully implicit and IMPES
options. For an explanation of this method, see Reference 5.
BLITZ

00

param1 . . .
value1 . . .

paramn
valuen

(card 1)
(card 2)

Definitions:
ITER

A BLITZ iteration summary should be printed. No


entry should be made on card 2 corresponding to
this entry.

NOITER

A BLITZ iteration summary should not be printed.


This is the default. No entry should be made on
card 2 corresponding to this entry.

NORTH

Maximum number of orthogonalizations for the


generalized conjugate residual method in BLITZ.
Default is 10.

RTOL

Norm (EUCLIDEAN) residual reduction ratio


convergence criterion in BLITZ. Default is .005.

NIT

Maximum number of iterations allowed in BLITZ.


Default is 20.

JLUN

Preconditioning option in BLITZ for multi-variable


equations (IMPLICIT):
0
=
Reduced system/diagonal scaling.
1
=
Reduced system/ILU(0).
2
=
Line Gauss-Seidel.
3
=
Modified Nested Factorization, Option 1.
4
=
Diagonal scaling.
5
=
MVP default, Option 1.
6
=
MVP, Option 2
Default is 1 without faults and 2 with faults.

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JLU1

Preconditioning option in BLITZ for single-variable


equations (IMPES or CPR):
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

D4 Gauss (direct solution).


Reduced system/diagonal scaling.
Reduced system/ILU(0).
Line Gauss-Seidel.
Modified Nested Factorization, Option 1.
Modified Nested Factorization, Option 2.
Modified Nested Factorization, Option 3.
MVP, Options .
MVP, Option 2.

If the reservoir model does not have faults, default


is 1 for IMPES and 3-D constrained pressure
residual problems and is -1 for 2-D constrained
pressure residual problems. With faults, the default
is 3.
PTOL

Residual norm reduction ratio convergence


criterion for pressure solution (for implicit
formulation with jcor=1). Default is .005.

JCOR

Constraint option associated with the pressure


solution (available with implicit formulation only if
jcpr=1; always available with IMPES formulation):
0
=
no constraints.
1
=
use line constraints.
Default is 1.

JCPR

Constrained pressure residual method option


(implicit formulation only):
0
=
no pressure predictor step.
1
=
use pressure predictor step.
Default is 1.

JOPTN

Ordering option for line constraints for multivariable equations (IMPLICIT):


0 = Automatic determination.
3-D Problems:
1 = XYZ
2 = YXZ

3 = XZY
4 = ZXY

5 = YZX
6 = ZYX

2-D Problems:
1 = XY or XZ
2 = YX or ZX

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Simulator Control

Default is 0 for unfaulted problems. With faults,


default is 2 for 2-D problems, 4 for 3-D problems
with NY NX, and 6 otherwise.
JOPT1

Ordering option for line constraints for singlevariable equations (IMPES or CPR):
0 = Automatic
3-D Problems:
1 = XYZ
2 = YXZ

3 = XZY
4 = ZXY

5 = YZX
6 = ZYX

2-D Problems:
1 = XY or XZ
2 = YX or ZX
Defaults are the same as joptn.
JGAUS

Solution method for line constraints when jcor=1:


0 = Iterative solution
1 = Direct solution
Default is 0 for 3-D problems. Must be 1 for 2-D
problems.

ADJTOL

Turns on the adjustable linear tolerance algorithm


with default values for TOLMN, TOLMX, TOLST and
TOLEX. No entry should be made on card 2
corresponding to this entry.

R2003.4 - Landmark

TOLMN

Turns on the adjustable linear tolerance algorithm and


specifies the minimum value of linear tolerance to be
used throughout the simulation. Default is RTOL so that,
if RTOL is defaulted, then TOLMN defaults to 5.E-03 but,
if RTOL is specified, then TOLMN is set to the specified
RTOL value. TOLMN must range between 0.0 and 1.0.

TOLMX

Turns on the adjustable linear tolerance algorithm and


specifies the maximum value of linear tolerance to be
used throughout the simulation. Default is 0.5. TOLMX
must range between 0.0 and 1.0.

TOLST

Turns on the adjustable linear tolerance algorithm and


specifies the value of linear tolerance to be used in the
first Newton step of each timestep.
Default is
max(TOLMX, 5 * RTOL). TOLST must be less than
TOLMX and greater than or equal to 0.0.

TOLEX

Turns on the adjustable linear tolerance algorithm and


specifies the value of the exponent in the power law used
to control the reduction of the linear solver tolerance as

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the Newton iteration nears convergence. Default is 3.0.


TOLEX must be nonnegative.
NOTE:

00

A less storage intensive algorithm may be requested by specifying


a negative value for NORTH. For example, to specify six
orthogonalizations with this algorithm, use NORTH=-6. This
algorithm will cause an increased amount of execution time,
approximately equal to an extra iteration.

Examples

00

BLITZ

ITER

00

BLITZ

ITER

NIT
15

TOLST
0.3

00

BLITZ

ADJTOL

PTOL

RTOL

1.E-5

1.E-4

00

JLUN
3

7.2.4 Bad Solution Indicator (SLVCUT)


00

The SLVCUT card is used to activate the option to have the solver return a
bad solution indicator when convergence seems to be failing or very slow.
In this case, a convergence failure is assumed and the timestep will be
repeated, potentially saving a large number of iterations.

SLVCUT

00

7-406

ON
O FF

(itn)

Definitions:
ON

Alpha label indicating that the timestep will be


repeated when the solver returns a bad solution
indicator after Newton iteration itn. This is the
default if the card is entered without specifying ON
or OFF.

OFF

Alpha label indicating that the option is off. This is


the default if the SLVCUT card is not entered.

itn

Newton iteration after which the bad solution


indicator would be returned. Default is 1.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Simulator Control

7.3 Implicit Well Options


7.3.1 Implicit Well Calculations in IMPES Grids (IMPWEL)
00

The IMPWEL card is used to specify the level of implicitness in the well
rate equations to be used for wells within IMPES grids. The default is
OFF, which uses the standard IMPES formulation for the wells, with the
rates implicit in pressure, only. If the feature is set to ON, the well rate
equations will be implicit in saturations, also. This requires additional
work in reducing the possible well constraint equations, but in most cases,
it will result in larger, stable timestep sizes for runs involving IMPES
grids.

IMPWEL

00

ON
O FF

Definitions:
ON

Alpha label indicating that well constraint


equations are to be set up and that these equations
are to be implicit in both pressure and relative
permeabilities.

OFF

Alpha label indicating that well constraint


equations are to be set up and that these equations
are to be implicit in pressure only. This is the
default.

NOTE:

1.

The implicit well option may not be used with the following
options:

2.

R2003.4 - Landmark

VE
CO2 in water

If IMPWEL is used in conjunction with OPTMBL and if any


FRES or FSTD reinjection wells are active, it is recommended to
also set ITNSTQ to 1 iteration, in order to reduce the number of
outer iterations that might result when the production rates are
updated. The well convergence tolerance, TOLWCN, applies to
both production and injection wells

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7.4 Interactive Suspend Option


00

00

00

00

00

00

00

7-408

The INTERACTIVE card allows the user to suspend execution at the


beginning of the current timestep. Execution will resume when the
program detects the existence of a file named
vip_interactive_resume in the directory in which the program is
running. The content of the file does not matter, only its existence.
Optionally, through the FILE keyword on the INTERACTIVE card, a file
may be specified that contains recurrent data to be read immediately upon
resumption of execution. If any errors are detected in the data in this file,
or if the file does not exist at the time execution is resumed, execution will
go back into suspend mode.
The default is for suspension to occur at the beginning of every timestep
once the option has been turned on. The BATCH keyword on the
INTERACTIVE card instructs the program to only suspend at the
beginning of this timestep. Normal execution will resume after this one
suspension.
The BATCH card causes the interactive suspend option to be immediately
turned off. This card would be input in the file designated by FILE on the
INTERACTIVE card or possibly in the original dataset at a future TIME or
DATE card.
Two files are created in the running directory by this option. The file
named vip_interactive_status is created at the time of the
suspension. It contains the current time-of-day and current date. It will
also indicate if any errors were found in the specified data file. These
errors are written to a file named vip_interactive_errors.
Note that the entire block of data that contains the INTERACTIVE card is
read before execution is suspended. The only data that will be read when
execution is resumed is the data contained in the file designated by FILE
on the INTERACTIVE card.
It is important to remember that the three files
vip_interactive_status, vip_interactive_resume, and
vip_interactive_errors exist only in the directory in which the
program is running. They will not be in the working directory from which
a remote-execution job was submitted.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Simulator Control

7.4.1 Interactive Card (INTERACTIVE)


INTERACTIVE (BATCH) (FILE filenm)

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Definitions:
INTERACTIVE

Alpha label indicating that the interactive suspend


option is on.

BATCH

Alpha label indicating that the execution should


suspend only at the beginning of this timestep.
Normal execution resumes after this one
suspension. The default is to suspend execution at
the beginning of each timestep.

FILE

Alpha label indicating that a file containing


recurrent data is being specified that should be read
when execution is resumed.

filenm

The pathname to the file from which data should be


read.

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7.4.2 BATCH Card (BATCH)


BATCH

00

Definition:
BATCH

00

00

Alpha label indicating that the interactive suspend


option is to be immediately turned off.

Examples
Run starts at 1/1/2000. Suspend execution after each of first 2 years. Enter
new data each time.

00

START

DATE 1
1
2001
INTERACTIVE BATCH FILE /home/user/data

DATE

2001

00

DATE 1
1
2002
INTERACTIVE BATCH FILE /home/user/data

00

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Simulator Control

7.5 Interactive Recurrent Data Changes


00

Changes to the recurrent data can be made while the simulation is in


progress.
1. The user needs the process identification (pid) of the run so as to be
able to send a signal to the process. The pid can be obtained by issuing
the unix ps command on the machine that is executing the
simulation. The pid is also written to Fortran Unit 15 which is referred
to as the timestep summary file elsewhere. The user can type the unix
head command on the timestep summary file and get the pid from
the first line of the file.
2. The user then sends the unix hangup signal to the process by the
following unix command.
kill -HUP pid

Once the simulator receives the hangup signal it will continue


executing the current timestep, then searches the recurrent data file for
the last DATE (TIME) line read, writes relevant information to the
output (Fortran Unit 6) file, and suspends itself.
3. The user should then edit the output file, or use the unix tail
command to read the program messages and find which lines of the
recurrent data file may be changed. In general any line following and
including the last line read may be changed, while none of the
preceding lines should be changed.
4. When the user is finished with the data changes, the simulation can be
continued by sending the unix continue signal to the process.
kill -CONT pid

5. The user should check the output file to see if the data changes have
been accepted and that the run is progressing.
NOTE:

R2003.4 - Landmark

The hangup signal may be used repeatedly during a run. Recurrent


data changes are not required to continue a run.

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Landmark - R2003.4

Chapter

8
Miscellaneous Options

00000

8.1 Energy Minimization Phase Equilibrium (VIP-COMP)


8.1.1 Invoking the Gibbs Algorithm (GIBBS)
GIBBS (tcrit) (maxitr) (tskip) (tpbyp) (txbyp) (tfbyp) (itngbs)

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Definitions:
tcrit

Tolerance value in the test for the critical condition.


Default is 0.15.

maxitr

Maximum number of iterations allowed in the


Gibbs energy minimization process. Default is 30.

tskip

Tolerance value in the test to skip the phase


equilibrium calculations for two-phase blocks.
Default is 0.05.

tpbyp

Tolerance value for block pressure change, psi


(kPa). Default is 1 psi.

txbyp

Tolerance value for composition change. Default is


0.01.

tfbyp

Tolerance value for the stability function. Default is


0.015.

itngbs

Maximum number of outer iterations that phase


stability test is performed on for single-phase
hydrocarbon gridblocks. Default is 5.

This card invokes the phase stability test and Gibbs energy minimization
algorithm for phase equilibrium calculations. The GIBBS card
automatically activates the feature which identifies gridblocks near the
critical point and allows large changes of oil saturation, gas saturation,
and vapor fraction in these blocks during simulation. All parameters on
the card are optional, but they are order dependent and must be specified
through the last value required. Parameters not specified will be set equal
to their defaults. PHFLAG on the OUTPUT card will print the phase

8-413

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equilibrium condition in each gridblock for the IMPES formulation. Codes


are as follows:

00

8-414

0.

Two phase block.

1.

Single-phase block. The fluid is gas.

1.1

Single-phase block. The fluid is gas and is


determined to be far from the two-phase region.

1.5

Single-phase block. The fluid is supercritical and is


far from the critical point.

2.

Single-phase block. The fluid is oil.

2.1

Single-phase block. The fluid is oil and is


determined to be far from the two-phase region.

-3.

Two-phase block. The fluid is near the critical point


at the end of the timestep.

-3.5

Two-phase block. The fluid is near the critical point


at the beginning of the timestep.

-1.

Single-phase block. The fluid is supercritical. The


fluid is near the critical point at the end of the
timestep.

-1.25

Single-phase block. The fluid is supercritical. The


fluid is near the critical point at the beginning of the
timestep.

-1.5

Single-phase block. The fluid is gas and is near the


critical point.

-2.5

Single-phase block. The fluid is oil and is near the


critical point.

-1.75

Single-phase block. The fluid is gas. The fluid has


changed phase during the timestep.

-2.75

Single-phase block. The fluid is oil. The fluid has


changed phase during the timestep.

For a simulation run starting at time = 0 and the GIBBS card was input in
VIP-CORE, the GIBBS option will automatically be on unless a GIBOFF
card is specified in the initial set of recurrent data. The default values
noted above will be used if no GIBBS card is input.

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VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Miscellaneous Options

8.1.2 Turning Off the Gibbs Algorithm (GIBOFF)


GIBOFF

00

The GIBOFF card is used to turn off the Gibbs energy minimization
algorithm from this timestep onward. The Gibbs algorithm may only be
reinvoked by respecifying the GIBBS card.

8.2 Successive Substitution Flash Data (VIP-COMP)


8.2.1 Definition of Flash Calculation Method (FLASH)
00

The FLASH card allows the user to define the flash calculation method
and maximum allowable iterations for reservoir and surface flashes. The
two available methods are accelerated successive substitution and
Newton-Raphson with successive substitution preconditioning. The
default method for reservoir flashes is accelerated successive substitution.
The default method for surface flashes is Newton-Raphson.

FLASH

maxss

maxnr

RES

(ACC)

SURF

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Definitions:
maxss

Maximum number of successive substitution


iterations allowed for a flash calculation. Default is
5 for flashes to surface conditions and 20 for flashes
to reservoir conditions.

maxnr

Maximum number of Newton-Raphson iterations


allowed for a flash calculation. Default is 10 for
flashes to surface conditions and 0 for flashes to
reservoir conditions.

RES

Alpha label indicating that the data on this card


applies to flashes to reservoir conditions.

SURF

Alpha label indicating that the data on this card


applies to flashes to surface conditions.

ACC

Alpha label indicating that accelerated successive


substitution flash calculations will be performed.

8-415

Miscellaneous Options

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

NOTE:

1.

One and only one of the RES or SURF labels must be specified.
There is no default. Separate FLASH cards can be input for RES
and SURF.

2.

If a FLASH card with the RES option is not input, then ACC
(accelerated successive substitution) is the default. If a FLASH
card with the SURF option is not input, accelerated successive
substitution calculations are not performed. When a FLASH
card is input, ACC must be specified to invoke the option.

8.2.2 Control of Flash Calculations (KMAX)


00

00

8-416

VIP-EXECUTIVE allows the input of data which controls the use of the
accelerated successive substitution flash calculation. By default, phase
behavior calculations are imbedded in the Newton-Raphson mass balance
calculations. Only when a block becomes two-phase, and a flash
calculation is to be performed, is the accelerated successive substitution
preconditioning used. However, for difficult fluids near their critical point,
it may be advantageous to provide a more robust flash treatment. The data
cards described below should be entered only for fluids that have shown
some difficulty in phase behavior convergence. The use of this data may
significantly affect computation time.

KMAX

KMAX2

KAC

KAC2

kmax

kmax2

kac

kac2

PSAT
NOPSAT

(SS)

(EST)

(card 1)

(card 2)

Definitions:
KMAX

Alpha label for maximum iterations during


preconditioning for gridblocks becoming twophase.

KMAX2

Alpha label for maximum iterations during


preconditioning for mass balance calculations.

KAC

Alpha label for maximum acceleration steps to be


performed during preconditioning for gridblocks
becoming two-phase.

KAC2

Alpha label for maximum acceleration steps to be


performed during preconditioning for mass balance
calculations.

PSAT

Alpha label indicating that the saturation pressure


calculation will be performed for all single phase
blocks. This is the default.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

00

NOPSAT

Alpha label indicating that the saturation pressure


calculation will be bypassed for blocks that have
previously failed the saturation pressure
calculation.

SS

Alpha label indicating that phase equilibrium


calculations in the mass balance calculation should
be bypassed. This option should be used only for
near-critical fluids that have not converged without
this option.

EST

Alpha label indicating that the flash calculation


should use estimates of initial K-values from a
correlation instead of from current phase
compositions at the beginning of phase behavior
calculations. This option should be used only for
near-critical fluids which have difficulty
converging.

kmax

Maximum number of iterations during


preconditioning for gridblocks becoming twophase. If X is entered for this field, the default value
is 50. If this card is not entered, the default value is
15.

kmax2

Maximum number of iterations during


preconditioning for mass balance calculations. If X
is entered for this field, the default value is 50. If this
card is not entered, the default value is 0.

kac

Maximum number of acceleration steps during


preconditioning for gridblocks becoming twophase. If X is entered for this field, the default value
is 10. If this card is not entered, the default value is
2.

kac2

Maximum number of acceleration steps during


preconditioning for mass balance calculations. If X
is entered for this field, the default value is 10. If this
card is not entered, the default value is 1.

Examples:

00

(1)

00

is equivalent to

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Miscellaneous Options

KMAX
X

KMAX
50

KMAX2
X

KAC
X

KAC2
X

KMAX2
50

KAC
10

KAC2
10

8-417

Miscellaneous Options

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

(2)

00

Omitting the data cards from input is equivalent to:


KMAX
15

00

NOTE:

KMAX2
0

KAC
2

KAC2
1

Any occurrence of this data supersedes previous occurrences of this


data.

8.3 Gas Percolation Algorithm (GASPERC) (Not available in


VIP-THERM)
OFF

GASPERC

ON

00

Definitions:
OFF

Alpha label that causes the gas percolation


algorithm to not be used. This is the default if the
card is not input.

ON

Alpha label that causes the gas percolation


algorithm to be used.

8.4 Gas Remobilization Option (GASRMON) (Not available in


VIP-THERM)
00

The gas remobilization option models the remobilization of trapped gas


resulting from gas expansion during pressure blowdown. The option may
be turned on any time during the simulation. To invoke this option, gas
remobilization tables must be input in the initialization module input data
set (see Section 4.3.9, Gas Remobilization Option, of the VIP-CORE
Reference Manual).
GASRMON

00

grmdsw

Definitions:
GASRMON

8-418

Alpha label indicating that the gas remobilization


option is invoked at the time specified in the
preceding TIME/DATE card. This option may only
be invoked once in a simulation run and may not be
turned off after it is invoked.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Miscellaneous Options

grmdsw

NOTE:

00

A gridblock is subject to remobilization calculation only if all of the


following conditions are met at the time this option is invoked.
1.

The water saturation must be greater than the historical


minimum water saturation (Swmin) plus the user-controlled
incremental saturation (grmdsw), i.e., Sw > Swmin + grmdsw.

2.

The gas saturation must be less than or equal to the trapped gas
saturation (Sgtr,m) corresponding to the gridblock historical
maximum gas saturation (Sgmax,m), i.e., Sg Sgtr,m(Sgmax,m).

3.

The gridblock historical maximum gas saturation must be


greater than its critical gas saturation, i.e., Sgmax,m > Sgc,m.

Example:
00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Incremental water saturation increase (from the


gridblock historic minimum water saturation) as a
fraction of total pore volume beyond which a
gridblock may be considered as a gas expansion
gridblock and hence is subject to remobilization
calculation. The default value for grmdsw is 0.02.

TIME
3650.
C
C
Turn on Gas Remobilization Option
C
GASRMON 0.05

8-419

Miscellaneous Options

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

8.5 Modified Lands Constant for Hysteresis (MODLAND)


00

The MODLAND card is used to specify the form of Lands constant to use
for both gas phase and oil phase hysteresis in calculating the trapped
saturations.

MODLAND

00

ON
OFF

Definitions:
ON

Alpha label indicating that the modified Lands


constant is to be used. This is the default if neither
ON nor OFF is specified.

1
1
C = --------------------------- --------------------------S nwr S nwc S nwi S nwc
OFF

Alpha label indicating that the original Lands


constant is to be used:

1
1
C = ---------- ---------S nwr S nwi
This is the default if the MODLAND card is not
specified.
NOTE:

Snwr=
Snwi=
Snwc=

8-420

residual non-wetting phase saturation.


maximum historical non-wetting phase
saturation.
critical non-wetting phase saturation.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Miscellaneous Options

8.6 Modifying VIP-CORE Array Data


00

OVER and VOVER cards may be used to modify certain gridblock arrays
that are read or computed in VIP-CORE. The OVER card is used to apply a
constant arithmetic operation to a portion of the grid system. The VOVER
card modifies the specified array data with an individual value for each
changed gridblock.

8.6.1 Override Modification (OVER)


00

The OVER card is used to apply a constant arithmetic operation to a


portion of the grid system. Only one title card is required, but the data
cards may be repeated as necessary. The parentheses indicate optional
values. They are not part of the data. Array names are shown in
parentheses since any combination of the arrays can appear on the title
card. Do not use parentheses during input. The array names can appear in
any order. The order of #vs on the data cards corresponds to the order of
the array names. Although several array names can appear on the OVER
card, it is generally less confusing to have "sets" of OVER cards, with each
set modifying only one array.

OVER (ITRAN) (ISAT) (ISATI)

TX TY

TR TTHETA

i1 i2 j1 j2 k1 k2 #v (#v) (#v) (#v)


(Repeat card 2 as necessary)

00

(card 2)

Definitions:
OVER

R2003.4 - Landmark

(TZ)(TKWEXP)(card 1)

Alpha label indicating that changes are to be made


to the specified arrays:
ISAT

Relative permeability/capillary
pressure table pointers.

ISATI

Imbibition relative permeability/


capillary pressure table pointers
for hysteresis.

ITRAN

Transmissibility region identifier.

TX(TR)

X(R) direction transmissibilities.

8-421

Miscellaneous Options

00

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

TY(TTHETA)

Y(Theta) direction
transmissibilities.

TZ

Z direction transmissibilities.

TKWEXP

Fractional flow exponent for


extraneous tracked water types.

Gridblock locations are defined by indices I, J, K in reference to the


(x,y,z) or (r,,z) grid. Modifications are applied to array elements lying
in the portion of the grid defined by:
i1
j1
k1

00


J
K

i2
j2
k2
An operator that describes how the array is to be
modified. Any of the following symbols may be
used:
+
/
*
=
LE
GE

add
subtract
divide
multiply
equal
values larger than v will be set equal to v
values smaller than v will be set equal to v

There are no spaces between the operator and the


value, #v. except when # is LE or GE.
v

The value to be applied to the indicated portion of


the corresponding array by using the specified
operation.

8.6.2 Override Modification, VIP-DUAL (OVER)


00

The following are additional arrays available when the DUAL option is
invoked. Their use and effect is analogous to the normal use of the OVER
card.

OVER (ITRANF) (ISATF)(ISATIF)


i1 i2 j1 j2 k1 k2 #v (#v) (#v)
(Repeat card 2 as necessary)

00

8-422

TXF TYF
TRF TTHETF

(TZF) (TEX)(card 1)
(card 2)

Definition:

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

OVER

Miscellaneous Options

Alpha label indicating that changes are to be made


to the specified arrays:
ISATF

Fracture relative permeability/


capillary pressure table pointers.

ISATIF

Fracture imbibition relative


permeability/capillary pressure
table pointers for hysteresis.

ITRANF

Fracture transmissibility region


identifier.

TXF (TRF)

X(R)-direction fracture
transmissibilities.

TYF(TTHETF)

Y(Theta)-direction fracture
transmissibilities.

TZF

Z-direction fracture
transmissibilities.

TEX

Exchange transmissibilities.

8.6.3 Individual Value Override Modification (VOVER)


00

The VOVER card modifies the specified array data with an individual
value for each changed gridblock. A minimum of two cards must follow
the VOVER card. The first contains the locations describing the gridblocks
to be changed. The second card contains the altered values for those
gridblocks. A new VOVER card and its corresponding data cards are read
for each different portion of the grid system being altered.
VOVER
array
i1 i2 j1 j2 k1 k2 (op)
values as necessary

00

Definitions:
array

One of the following array names to be altered:


ITRAN

R2003.4 - Landmark

(card 1)
(card 2)
(card 3)

Transmissibility region identifier.

ISAT

Relative permeability/capillary
pressure table pointers.

ISATI

Imbibition relative permeability/


capillary pressure table pointers
for hysteresis.

8-423

Miscellaneous Options

00

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

TX(TR)

X(R) direction transmissibilities.

TY(TTHETA)

Y(Theta) direction
transmissibilities.

TZ

Z direction transmissibilities.

TKWEXP

Fractional flow exponent for


extraneous tracked water types.

Gridblock locations are defined by indices I, J, K in reference to the


(x,y,z) or (r,,z) grid. Modifications are applied to array elements lying
in the portion of the grid defined by:
i1
j1
k1

00

op


J
K

i2
j2
k2
an optional keyword that defines the operation to
apply to the array. Any of the following labels may
be used:
ADD
SUB
DIV
MULT
EQ

00

Enough values must be read to replace all array elements in the


designated portion of the grid. The number of values required is:
(k2 - k1 + 1) * (j2 - j1 + 1) * (i2 - i1 + 1) .

00

00

The order of replacement is by x-direction (r-direction) rows. All rows


for the first xy (r) plane are entered in order of increasing J index,
followed by the remaining planes in order of increasing K index.
NOTE:

8-424

Add.
Subtract.
Divide.
Multiply.
Equal. This is the default.

Only one array can be changed with each VOVER card.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Miscellaneous Options

8.6.4 Individual Value Override Modification, VIP-DUAL (VOVER)


00

The following are additional arrays available when the DUAL option is
invoked. Their use and effect is analogous to the normal use of the
VOVER card.
VOVER
array
i1 i2 j1 j2 k1 k2 (op)
values as necessary

00

(card 1)
(card 2)
(card 3)

Definitions:
array

One of the following array names to be altered:


ISATF

Fracture relative permeability/


capillary pressure table pointers.

ISATIF

Fracture imbibition relative


permeability/capillary pressure
table pointers for hysteresis.

ITRANF

Fracture transmissibility region


identifier.

TXF(TRF)

X(R) direction fracture


transmissibilities.

TYF(TTHETF)

Y(Theta) direction fracture


transmissibilities.

TZF

Z direction fracture
transmissibilities.

TEX

Exchange transmissibilities.

8.6.5 Modifying Fault Connection Transmissibilities (FTRANS)


00

The FTRANS card may be used to modify the transmissibilities across


arbitrary connections between gridblocks. No new fault connections may
be established. The data must specify a VIP-CORE generated fault
connection or a standard connection. If a standard connection is specified,
the regular transmissibility array will be changed (this could also have
been accomplished using OVER/VOVER).
FTRANS
i1 j1 k1 i2 j2 k2 t tt
(repeat as necessary)

R2003.4 - Landmark

(card 1)
(card 2)
(card 3)

8-425

Miscellaneous Options

00

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Definitions:
i1

X(R) direction index for the block on the "left" of the


fault.

j1

Y(Theta) direction index for the block on the "left" of


the fault.

k1

Z direction index for the block on the "left" of the


fault.

i2

X(R) direction index for the block on the "right" of


the fault.

j2

Y(Theta) direction index for the block on the "right"


of the fault.

k2

Z direction index for the block on the "right" of the


fault.

Transmissibility for the connection across the fault.


This replaces any other transmissibility defined for
the pair of blocks. Units for t are the same as those
for transmissibilities read for the standard
transmissibility arrays.

tt

Thermal transmissibility for the connection across


the fault. This replaces any other transmissibility
defined for the pair of blocks. Units for tt are the
same as those for thermal transmissibilities read for
the standard arrays. Enter in VIP-THERM only
(required).

8.6.6 Modifying Fault Connection Transmissibilities, VIP-DUAL


(FTRANF)
00

The FTRANF card may be used to modify the transmissibilities across


arbitrary connections between fracture gridblocks. No new fault
connections may be established. The data must specify a VIP-CORE
generated fault connection or a standard connection. If a standard
connection is specified, the regular transmissibility array will be changed
(this could also have been accomplished using OVER/VOVER).
FTRANF
i1 j1 k1 i2 j2 k2 t
(repeat as necessary)

8-426

(card 1)
(card 2)
(card 3)

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Miscellaneous Options

Definitions:
i1

X(R) direction index for the fracture block on the


"left" of the fault.

j1

Y(Theta) direction index for the fracture block on


the "left" of the fault.

k1

Z direction index for the fracture block on the "left"


of the fault.

i2

X(R) direction index for the fracture block on the


"right" of the fault.

j2

Y(Theta) direction index for the fracture block on


the "right" of the fault.

k2

Z direction index for the fracture block on the


"right" of the fault.

Transmissibility for the connection across the fault.


This replaces any other transmissibility defined for
the pair of fracture blocks. Units for t are the same
as those for transmissibilities read for the standard
fracture transmissibility arrays.

8-427

Miscellaneous Options

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

8.7 Named Fault/Region Transmissibility Multiplier (MULTFL)


The MULTFL keyword is used to modify the transmissibilities between
grid blocks that have been assigned a name. Grid blocks can be assigned a
name using the FNAME parameter on the MULT ( Section 1.6), FAULTS
(Section 6.2), OVER (Section 7.2) and VOVER (Section 7.4) options in VIPCORE. Both standard and non-standard transmissibility connections if
any are multiplied.

00

MULTFL fname tmul


(Repeat as necessary)

Definition:

00

MULTFL

Alpha character keyword.

fname

Name or number identifying the fault or group of


grid block to be operated upon.

tmul

Transmissibility multiplier.

8.8 Inter/Intra Region Transmissibility Multiplier (MULTIR)


The MULTIR keyword is used to modify the transmissibilities between
and within regions. The transmissibility regions are defined using the
ITRAN(F) array data (Section 5.26 in VIP-CORE. In VIP-EXEC, the
ITRAN(F) array can be modified using the OVER (Section 8.6.2) and
VOVER options (Section 8.6.3).

00

MULTIR
itr1 itr2 tmul (X) (Y) (Z)
(Repeat as necessary)

Definition:

8-428

00

itr1, itr2

Positive integer values identifying


transmissibility regions. The transmissibility
regions are defined using the ITRAN(F) arrays
(Section..). When itr1 and itr2 are different, the
transmissibilities between these regions are
multiplied by tmul wherever they are in contact.
When itr1 and itr2 are equal the transmissibilities
within the region are multiplied by tmul.

tmul

Transmissibility multiplier between regions itr1


and itr2 wherever they are in contact.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Miscellaneous Options

XYZ

NOTE:

Directions for applying the multiplier. The letters


are order independent and spaces are optional.
Default XYZ.
The MULTIR option in VIP-EXEC always operates on both
standard and non-standard connections.

8.9 Pressure Threshold for Limiting Grid Block to Grid Block


Flow (PTHLD)
00

00

The PTHLD keyword is used to define threshold pressures for limiting


flow between grid blocks that are part of an identifiable interface. Flow
across any interface connection will not occur until the phase potential
difference across the connection exceeds the threshold pressure. The phase
potential difference to flow will be reduced by the threshold pressure.
Grid blocks can be assigned to an interface using the FNAME parameter
on the MULT (Section 1.6), FAULTS (Section 6.2), OVER (Section 7.2) and
VOVER (Section 7.4) options in VIP-CORE. Interfaces can also be defined
between transmissibility regions. Transmissibility regions are defined
using the ITRAN(F) array data (Section 5.25 and Section 5.26 in VIPCORE. In VIP-EXEC, the ITRAN(F) array can be modified using the OVER
(Section 8.6.2) and VOVER options (Section 8.6.3). The threshold pressure
applies to both standard and non-standard connections. The threshold
pressure arrays can be printed or mapped using PTHLD on the OUTPUT
or MAPOUT keywords.
PTHLD fname Pthreshold

or
PTHLD

itr1 itr2

Ptreshold
EQUIL

(Repeat as necessary)

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

Definition:
PTHLD

Alpha character keyword.

fname

Name or number identifying the fault or group of


grid blocks that describe an interface.

itr1, itr2

Positive integer values identifying


transmissibility regions. Transmissibility regions
are defined using the ITRAN(F) arrays (). The
threshold pressure will apply to all connections

8-429

Miscellaneous Options

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

across the interface defined by itr1 and itr2. Itr1


and itr2 cannot be the same.
Pthreshold

Value of threshold pressure.

EQUIL

This will calculate threshold pressures for each


connection at the interface such that there will
be no flow at initial conditions. The threshold
pressuresaresettothemaximumphasepotential
difference for a particular connection.
This option is only allowed at time = 0.0.

NOTE:

00

00

00

8-430

Pressure threshold values for a particular interface replace


any previous values assigned to that interface.

Example:
PTHLD NW-SE 100
PTHLD 1 2 200
PTHLD 2 3 EQUIL
If any connection across the named interface NW-SE,are also shared across
regions 1 and 2, or 2 and 3, then the pressure threshold values for these
connections will be those from the latest specification.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Miscellaneous Options

8.10 Phase Identification (PHASID)


When two hydrocarbon phases first appear in a gridblock, by default the
simulator identifies the denser phase as the oil phase and the other phase
as the gas phase. In some cases, especially when CO2 is injected, the
evolving gas phase may actually be initially denser than the oil phase.
After a short time, the gas phase would again become less dense than the
oil phase. The symptom of this phenomenon is the appearance of a gas
phase during the simulation that is denser than the oil phase. To prevent
this from happening, the PHASID option provides an alternative means
for identifying the oil or gas phases, based on composition. By default, the
PHASID keyword (with no other parameters) will identify the phase with
the greatest mole fraction of the heaviest component as the oil phase.
Alternatively, the user can tag the oil or gas phase as the one that contains
the greatest mole fraction of any one component.

00

PHASID OIL cmpid


GAS

Definitions:

00

00

OIL

Alpha label indicating that the oil phase will be


identified as the phase that has the greatest mole
fraction of component cmpid.

GAS

Alpha label indicating that the gas phase will be


identified as the phase that has the greatest mole
fraction of component cmpid.

cmpid

The alphanumeric component identifier. This


identifier must have been previously identified on
the COMPONENTS input card of VIP-CORE.

Examples:
C Identify the oil phase as the phase that has the greatest mole
fractionof C the heaviest component.
PHASID
C Identify the gas phase as the phase that has the greatest mole
fraction of C component CO2:
PHASID GAS CO2

00

00

R2003.4 - Landmark

8-431

Miscellaneous Options

8-432

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Landmark - R2003.4

Chapter

9
Polymer Option (VIP-POLYMER)1

00000

9.1 Polymer Physical Property Data


00

The polymer physical property data for VIP-POLYMER can be introduced


at any point within the recurrent data. However the data can only be read
once.

9.1.1 Change Default Dimensions (DIM)


00

00

If entered the DIM card(s) must immediately follow the RUN/


STORAGE card, or be the first card(s) in the deck.
The POLYMER option allows additional changes to the default
dimensions.
DIM

00

param1 param2 . . .
size1 size2 . . .

paramn
sizen

(card 1)
(card 2)

Definitions:
param

Alpha labels of those dimension parameters being


defined.

NCPDIM

Number of polymer concentration points for each


salinity curve in the reconstructed polymer
properties tables. Default is 51.

NCPMAX

Maximum number of different polymer property


regions. Default is 1.

NESMAX

Maximum number of salinity curves in each


polymer properties table. Default is 1.

NSLUG

Maximum number of steps in a polymer slug.


Default is 4. See PSLUG card.

size

The value or size of the corresponding parameter.

1. Available as a separately licensed option. Not available in VIP-THERM.

R2003.4 - Landmark

9-433

Polymer Option (VIP-POLYMER)

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

9.1.2 Polymer Mode (POLYMER)


00

The POLYMER card must be followed by the polymer physical property


cards. The POLYMER card puts the model in the polymer mode and will
subsequently solve the polymer and electrolyte equations and include the
polymer physical properties in the calculations.
POLYMER

9.1.3 Polymer Concentration/Salinity Table (POLYT)


00

The polymer concentration/salinity table defines the rock and fluid


properties that depend on polymer concentration and salinity: polymer
phase viscosity at zero shear rate, polymer adsorption, and the
permeability reduction factor. These properties can be alternatively
defined by functions as described in Section 9.1.4.
POLYT
ESALT
csep
CP
cp

00

00

9-434

npt
PERM
perm
VP0
vp0

(NOPRTI)
POR
por
CPADS
cpads

(PRTR)

RK
rk

(card
(card
(card
(card
(card

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Definitions:
POLYT

Alpha label indicating that the data on the


following cards are the polymer concentration/
salinity table.

npt

The table number. This value corresponds to the


values of the IPOLYT array defined by either an
OVER or VOVER card. (Section 9.6).

NOPRTI

Alpha label indicating that the following table will


not be printed on output. Default prints table.

PRTR

Alpha label indicating that the reconstructed table


will be printed on output. Default does not print the
reconstructed table.

The values shown on Card 3 must appear in the order shown.


csep

Effective salinity of the following table values,


meq/ml.

perm

Absolute permeability for the permeability


reduction factor input on the following cards, md.

Landmark - R2003.4

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

Polymer Option (VIP-POLYMER)

por

00

The values on Card 5 must appear in the order shown.

00

There must be a minimum of two Card 5 data cards.


cp

Polymer concentration, ppm. Values must increase


consecutively.

vp0

Polymer phase viscosity at zero shear rate, cp.


Values must increase with increasing polymer
concentration.

cpads

Polymer adsorption, lb/ac-ft (g/m3) of bulk


reservoir volume. Values must increase with
increasing polymer concentration. Polymer
adsorption is instantaneous and irreversible.

rk

Permeability reduction factor, defined as the


permeability to brine divided by the permeability to
polymer solution. Values must increase with
increasing polymer concentration. Permeability
reduction is only applied to the aqueous phase and
is considered irreversible.

NOTE:

R2003.4 - Landmark

Porosity for the permeability reduction factor input


on the following cards, fraction.

1.

Cards 2 through 5 can be repeated as necessary up to NESMAX


times for each POLYT card. The values of csep within a
particular table must increase consecutively, and a zero value is
not allowed. The POLYT card can be repeated NCPMAX times.
NESMAX and NCPMAX are defined by the DIM card (Section
9.1.1).

2.

The use of the POLYT table option to define the polymer/


salinity dependent properties disallows the use of the function
option POLYF.

9-435

Polymer Option (VIP-POLYMER)

VIP-EXECUTIVE REFERENCE MANUAL

9.1.4 Polymer Concentration/Salinity Functions (POLYF)


00

The polymer concentration/salinity functions define the rock and fluid


properties that depend on polymer concentration and salinity: polymer
phase viscosity at zero shear rate; polymer adsorption; and the
permeability reduction factor. These properties can be alternatively
defined by tables as described in Section 9.1.3.
POLYF
AP1
ap1
ADP1
adp1
BRK
brk

00

00

00

00

00

AP3
ap3
BP
bp

SSLOPE
sslope

(rkmax)

(card
(ca