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# SURVEY CALCULATIONS

## Survey calculations are used to

predict the position of the
wellbore relative to the surface
location

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Survey Calculations
Based on the properties of a
right triangle or the arc of a
circle
RIGHT TRIANGLE
Hypotenuse
90o

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Survey Calculations
Properties of a right triangle
RIGHT TRIANGLE
Angle A
Adjacent
Side

Hypotenuse

sin A =

opposite side
hypotenuse

cos A =

adjacent side
hypotenuse

opposite side
tan A =
adjacent side

Opposite Side
3

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Survey Calculations
Terminology used in this book
MD

## = Measured depth Length of the

wellbore measured by the drill string
TVD = True vertical depth Vertical
component of the measured depth
North = North component of the
horizontal departure

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Survey Calculations
East

## = East component of the

horizontal displacement

## = Delta meaning the difference in

Subscript 1 = The upper survey of two
survey points
Subscript 2 = The lower survey of the
two survey points
I = Inclination from vertical
5

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Survey Calculations
A

## = Azimuth of the survey (0 to 360

degrees)
r = Radius of curvature
VS = Vertical section
DLS = Dogleg severity
DEP = The departure in the horizontal
plane

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Survey Calculations
KB, RT, DF
KOP
Build Section
EOB or EOC
TVD, ft

Common
terminology for
a directional
profile

Tangent or Hold

Drop
Section

Vertical Section, ft
7

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POSITIONING
The earth is an oblate spheroid
(a squashed sphere) and maps
are flat, which makes it difficult
to map the earth

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Positioning
The earth is
divided into
latitude and
longitude
The

equator is 0
degrees latitude
and poles are 90
degrees
The length of a
degree of latitude
is always the
same
9

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Positioning
Meridians

or lines
of longitude run
from pole to pole
The equator is
divided up into 360
degrees
The distance
between meridians
changes depending
upon the latitude
10

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Positioning
Calculating the longitude and
latitude of a well on a map can
be complicated
Rectangular grids have been
developed for use in surveying
and mapping
A geodetic datum is a definition
of a model for the surface of the
earth which uses a grid
11

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Positioning
The NAD27 or North American
Datum 1927 is the most
commonly used datum for North
America (NAD83 is also used)
ED50 or European Datum 1950 is
the most commonly used datum
in the North Sea

12

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Positioning
A map projection is a
mathematical formula which has
been designed to convert the
latitude/longitude method of
positioning to a flat map
With a flat map, wellbores can be
spotted with an X Y coordinate
system (North, East)

13

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Positioning
The most commonly used map
projection is the Universal
Transverse Mercator (UTM)
The Lambert map projection is
also common throughout the
world and is the most common
in the USA

14

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UTM System
On most maps, the lines of
latitude and longitude are curved
The quadrangles formed by the
intersections of these lines are
of different sizes and shapes,
which complicates the locations
of points and the measurement
of directions

15

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UTM System
The UTM system tries to solve
this problem
The world is divided up into 60
equal zones, each 6 degrees
wide
The zones are from 84.5 degrees
North to 80.5 degrees south
Polar regions are covered by
other, special projections
16

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UTM System
Each zone has
its own origin at
the intersection
of its central
meridian and the
equator
The zone is
flattened and a
square grid
imposed on it
17

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UTM System
The outer edges
for the ellipsoid
are curved
The convergence
is the difference
between grid north
and true north
At the central
meridian, grid
north = true north
18

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UTM System
Each of the 60 zones are
numbered starting with one at
the 180th meridian
The areas east and west of the
Greenwich Meridian are covered
by zones 30 and 31, respectively
Zones increase to the east and
decrease to the west
19

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UTM System
Points on the earth may be
identified by its zone number, its
distance in meters from the
equator (northing) and its
distance in meters from a northsouth reference line (easting)

20

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UTM System
To avoid negative values of
eastings, the central meridian in
any zone is assigned the
arbitrary eastings value of
500,000 m
Along the equator a zone is
about 600,000 m wide, tapering
towards the polar regions
Eastings range in values from
approximately 200,000 to 800,000
21

UTM System

22

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UTM System
For points north of the equator,
northings are measured directly
in meters, with a value of zero at
the equator and increasing
toward the north

23

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UTM System
To avoid negative numbers in
the Southern Hemisphere, the
equator is assigned a value of
10,000,000 m and displacements
in the south are measured with
decreasing, but positive, values

24

UTM System

25

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Mapping
The surface location of a well is
positioned on a map
The surface location of the North and
East Coordinates may use the map
coordinates or they may be set as
zero North and zero East
When mapping directional wells, it is
important to know if the wells were
plotted based on true north or grid
north and what map reference was
used
26

Mapping

27

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Survey Calculations
Survey calculations are used to
determine the position of the
wellbore relative to the surface
location or a map coordinate

28

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Survey Calculations
Most common survey methods
Tangential
Balanced

Tangential
Average Angle
Radius of Curvature
Minimum Curvature

## All of the survey equations are

presented in Table 2-1 (page 2-7)
for easy reference
29

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Survey Calculations
Tangential method uses only the
lower survey point and is the least
accurate survey method
I2

30

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Survey Calculations
The tangential method assumes
the wellbore course is a straight
line tangent to the lower
inclination or azimuth
Tangential method equations
DTVD = DMD cosI 2

31

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Survey Calculations
The balanced tangential survey
method assumes the wellbore course
is two straight lines with half the
wellbore course tangent to the upper
survey point and the other half to the
lower survey point

32

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Survey Calculations
The balance tangential is an
accurate survey method but
seldom used
Balanced tangential equations
DMD
(cos I1 + cos I2 )
DTVD =
2

DMD
[(sin I1 cos A1 ) + (sin I2 cos A2 )]
DNorth =
2
DMD
[(sin I1 sin A1 ) + (sin I2 sin A2 )]
DEast =
2
33

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Survey Calculations
The average angle method
assumes the wellbore course is
a straight line tangent to the
average angle
I1 + I 2

34

I1

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Survey Calculations
The average angle method is
accurate as long as the surveys are
not too far apart and there is no large
change in azimuth at low inclinations
Average angle equations
I +I
DTVD = DMD cos 1 2
2

I +I
A + A2
DNorth = DMD sin 1 2 cos 1

2
2
I +I
A + A2
DEast = DMD sin 1 2 sin 1

2
2
35

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Survey Calculations
Radius of curvature assumes
that the wellbore course is an arc
of a circle
Used for planning but not for
final survey

36

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Survey Calculations
Radius of curvature has
problems when inclinations and
azimuths are equal because the
radius of curvature is infinite
Radius of curvature also has
problems when the well walks
past north

37

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Survey Calculations
Radius of curvature equations
(
180 )(DMD )(sin I 2 - sin I1 )
DTVD =
p (I 2 - I1 )
2
(
180 ) (DMD )(cos I1 - cos I 2 )(sin A2 - sin A1 )
DNorth =
p 2 (I 2 - I1 )(A2 - A1 )
180 2 (DMD )(cos I1 - cos I 2 )(cos A1 - cos A2 )
DEast =
p 2 (I 2 - I1 )(A2 - A1 )
180(DMD )(cos I1 - cos I 2 )
DDEP =
p (I 2 - I1 )
I 2 - I1
DMD =
Br
38

r =

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180
(p )(DLS )

Survey Calculations
Minimum Curvature is the
balanced tangential method but
the straight lines are smoothed
into an arc by a correction factor

39

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Survey Calculations
Minimum curvature is suitable
for a computer or programmable
calculator
The inclinations and azimuths
must be changed to radians
before entering them in the
equations
It is the most common survey
method used today
40

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Survey Methods
Minimum curvature equations
DMD
DTVD =
(cos I1 + cos I 2 )(FC )
2

DMD
DNorth =
[(sin I 2 cos A2 ) + (sin I1 cos A1 )](FC )
2

DMD
DEast =
[(sin I 2 sin A2 ) + (sin I1 sin A1 )](FC )
2

## D1 = cos(I 2 - I1 ) - {sin I 2 sinI1 [1 - cos(A2 - A1 )]}

1
D2 = tan -1 2 - 1
D1

FC =

2
D2
tan

D2
2

41

## Note: inclination and azimuth must be

entered in radians
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Survey Calculations
Every survey calculation must
start somewhere
The beginning is the tie-in point
The

## surface location and the KB or

RT elevation may be the tie-in point
Maybe a gyro was run in the surface
hole prior to starting the directional
drilling, then the tie-in will be the last
survey of the gyro
42

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Survey Calculations
The coordinates of the surface
location must also be determined
For

## many land wells, the depth will be

zero at the KB, RT or DF
The North and East Coordinates may
be zero and zero
The North and East Coordinates may
also be the map coordinates especially
when drilling from a pad or platform
43

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Survey Calculations
Example 2
Tangential Method
At

## 0 and 1,000 feet the inclination is

0, therefore, the wellbore position is
0 North and 0 East.
A survey at 1,100 feet shows the
inclination to be 3 in the N21.7E
direction (Azimuth = 21.7). Calculate
the position of the wellbore at 1,100
feet.
44

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Survey Calculations
DMD = MD2 - MD1

DMD = 100'

Using

calculate TVD

## DTVD = (DMD )(cosI 2 )

DTVD = (100 )(cos 3 )

DTVD = 99.86'

45

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Survey Calculations
Calculate

## TVD2 = DTVD + TVD1

TVD2 = 99.86 + 1000

TVD2 = 1099.86'

Calculate

North

## DNorth = (DMD )(sin I 2 )(cos A2 )

DNorth = (100 )(sin 3 )(cos 21.7 )

DNorth = 4.86'
46

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Survey Calculations
Calculate

## North2 = DNorth + North1

North2 = 4.86'+0'

North2 = 4.86'

Calculate

the East

## DEast = (DMD )(sin I 2 )(sin A2 )

DEast = (100 )(sin 3 )(sin 21.7 )

DEast = 1.94'
47

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Survey Calculations
Calculate

## East 2 = DEast + East1

East 2 = 1.94'+0'
East 2 = 1.94'

## The process is repeated until all

the surveys are calculated
48

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Survey Calculations
Average Angle Method
Calculate

## the position of the wellbore

at 1,400 feet using the average angle
method and the survey data at 1,300
feet in Table 2-6

## DMD = MD2 - MD1

DMD = 1,400'-1,300' = 100'

49

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Survey Calculations
The

## azimuth at 1,400 feet is 20.30

I1 + I 2
DTVD = DMD cos

2
9 + 12
DTVD = 100 cos
= 98.33'
2
TVD2 = DTVD + TVD1
TVD2 = 98.33'+1,298.80' = 1397.13'

50

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Survey Calculations
I1 + I 2
A1 + A2
DNorth = DMD sin
cos

2
2
9 + 12
23.3 + 20.3
DNorth = 100 sin
= 16.92'
cos
2
2

## North2 = DNorth + North1

North2 = 16.92'+21.57' = 38.49'
I1 + I 2
A1 + A2
DEast = DMD sin
sin

2
2
9 + 12
23.3 + 20.3
sin

= 6.77'
2
2

51

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Survey Calculations
East 2 = DEast + East1
East 2 = 6.77'+9.19' = 15.96'

Calculate

## the position of the wellbore

at 1,500 feet using the radius of
curvature method and the survey data
at 1,400 feet in Table 2-7

52

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Survey Calculations
DMD = MD2 - MD1
DMD = 1,500'-1,400' = 100'

The

## azimuth at 1,500 feet is 23.30

(
180 )(DMD )(sin I 2 - sin I1 )
DTVD =
p (I 2 - I1 )
DTVD =

p (15 - 12)

## TVD2 = DTVD + TVD1

TVD2 = 97.23'+1,397.08' = 1494.31'

53

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Survey Calculations
2
(
180 ) (DMD )(cos I1 - cos I 2 )(sin A2 - sin A1 )
DNorth =
p 2 (I 2 - I1 )(A2 - A1 )
2
(
180 ) (100 )(cos 12 - cos 15)(sin 23.3 - sin 20.3)
DNorth =
= 21.67'
2
p (15 - 12)(23.3 - 20.3 )

## North2 = DNorth + North1

North2 = 21.67'+38.47' = 60.14'

54

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Survey Calculations
2
(
180 ) (DMD )(cos I1 - cos I 2 )(cos A1 - cos A2 )
DEast =
p 2 (I 2 - I1 )(A2 - A1 )
2
(
180 ) (100 )(cos 12 - cos 15 )(cos 20.3 - cos 23.3 )
DEast =
= 8.67'
2
p (15 - 12)(23.3 - 20.3 )

## East 2 = DEast + East1

East 2 = 8.67'+15.95' = 24.62'

55

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Survey Calculations

56

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Survey Calculations
Results of the survey
calculations in Example 2-2
Method

TVD

North

East

Tangential

## 4364.40 1565.23 648.40

Balanced Tangential

Average Angle

## 4370.80 1543.28 639.32

Radius of Curvature

## 4370.69 1543.22 639.30

Minimum Curvature

57

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Survey Calculations
Relative difference between
survey calculation methods
Method

TVD

North

East

Tangential

-6.30

+22.18

+8.60

Balanced Tangential

-0.24

-0.07

-0.03

Average Angle

+0.10

+0.23

-0.48

Radius of Curvature

-0.01

+0.17

-0.50

Minimum Curvature

+0.00

+0.00

+0.00

58

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Survey Methods
Class Problem - Problem #3 on
page 2-31
MD1

= 100
MD2 = 200
I1 = 1o
I2 = 1o
A1 = 0o
A2 = 180o
Calculate the TVD, North and East
coordinate using the average angle
method and the radius of curvature
method (not minimum curvature)
59

Survey Methods
RESULTS

60

Method

TVD

Average Angle

99.98

0.00

1.75

Radius of Curv.

99.98

0.00

1.11

Minimum Curv.

100.00

0.00

0.00

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Survey Calculations
Average Angle Method
I1 + I 2
DTVD = DMD cos

1 + 1
DTVD = (200 - 100 ) cos
= 99.98
2
I +I
A + A2
DNorth = DMD sin 1 2 cos 1

2
2
0 + 180
1 + 1
DNorth = (200 - 100 ) sin
= 0.00
cos
2
2

61

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Survey Calculations
Average Angle Method
I1 + I 2
A1 + A2
DEast = DMD sin
sin

2
2
0 + 180
1 + 1
DEast = (200 - 100 ) sin
= 1.75
sin
2
2

62

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Survey Calculations
RADIUS OF CURVATURE METHOD
(
180 )(DMD )(sin I 2 - sin I1 )
DTVD =
p (I 2 - I1 )

(
180 )(200 - 100 )(sin(1.001) - sin(1))
DTVD =
= 99.98
p (1.001 - 1)
2
(
180 ) (DMD )(cos I1 - cos I 2 )(sin A2 - sin A1 )
DNorth =
p 2 (I 2 - I1 )(A2 - A1 )
2
(
180 ) (200 - 100 )(cos(1) - cos(1.001))(sin(180 ) - sin(0 ))
DNorth =
= 0.00
2
p (1.001 - 1)(180 - 0 )

63

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Survey Calculations
RADIUS OF CURVATURE METHOD
180 2 (DMD )(cos I1 - cos I 2 )(cos A1 - cos A2 )
DEast =
p 2 (I 2 - I1 )(A2 - A1 )
180 2 (200 - 100 )(cos(1) - cos(1.001))(cos(0 ) - cos(180 ))
1.11
DEast =
2
p (1.001 - 1)(180 - 0 )

64

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Survey Methods
MINIMUM CURVATURE METHOD
D1 = cos(I 2 - I1 ) - {sin I 2 sin I1 [1 - cos(A2 - A1 )]}
D1 = cos(0.0175 - 0.0175 ) - {sin(0.0175 ) sin(0.0175 ) [1 - cos(3.1416 - 0.000 )]}
D1 = 0.999391

1
D2 = tan -1 2 - 1
D1

D2 = tan

65

-1

(0.999391)2 - 1 = 0.034907

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Survey Methods
MINIMUM CURVATURE METHOD
2
D2
FC =
tan

D2
2

FC =

2
0.034907
tan
= 1.000102
0.034907
2

DMD
DTVD =
(cos I1 + cos I 2 )(FC )
2
200 - 100
DTVD =
(cos(0.0175 ) + cos(0.0175 ))(1.000102 )
2

DTVD = 100.00
66

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Survey Methods
MINIMUM CURVATURE METHOD
DMD
DNorth =
[(sin I 2 cos A2 ) + (sin I1 cos A1 )](FC )
2
200 - 100
DNorth =
[(sin(0.0175 ) cos(3.1416 )) + (sin(0.0175 ) cos(0.000 ))](1.000127 )
2

DNorth = 0.00

DMD
DEast =
[(sin I 2 sin A2 ) + (sin I1 sin A1 )](FC )
2
200 - 100
DEast =
[(sin(0.0175 ) sin(3.1416 )) + (sin(0.0175 ) sin(0.000 ))](1.000127 )
2

DEast = 0.00

67

Survey Methods
RESULTS

68

Method

TVD

Average Angle

99.98

0.00

1.75

Radius of Curv.

99.98

0.00

1.11

Minimum Curv.

100.00

0.00

0.00

Survey Methods
North

Radius of
Curvature 1.11 E
Average
Angle 1.75 E
West

East

Minimum
Curvature 0.00 E
South
69

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Survey Calculations
Closure distance and direction is
the North and East coordinate
expressed as polar coordinates
rather than rectangular
coordinates
Closure distance is a2 + b2 = c2

70

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Survey Calculations
Closure distance and direction
equations
ClosureDistance =

(North )2 + (East )2

East
ClosureDirection = Tan -1

North

## Must subtract the surface

location from the North and East
71

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Survey Calculations
Vertical section is the horizontal
length of a projection of the
borehole into a specific vertical
plane and scaled with the
vertical depth

72

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Survey Calculations
Vertical section equations
VS = cos ( Azvs - Azcl ) (Closure Distance )

73

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Survey Calculations
E

Vertical section
projected into
the North
South and East
West planes

2000
4000
6000
8000
10,000
12,000

-1000
-1000

-3000

-3000
-5000
74

-7000

-5000
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Survey Calculations

75

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Survey Calculations

76

Much
more
difficult to
do a
vertical
section for
this well

Designer
Well

Final
Wellbore

0
250
500
750
1000
1250
1500
1750
2000
2250

Pilot Hole

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Dogleg Severity
Dogleg severity is a measure of
the amount of change in the
inclination and/or azimuth of a
borehole, usually expressed in
degrees per 100 feet or degrees
per 30 meters course length

78

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Dogleg Severity
If I1 = 2o, I2 = 4o and MD = 100,
then the dogleg severity would
be
(
4 - 2)
DLS =
= 2 / 100'
100

If I1 = 2 , I2 = 4 and MD = 50,
then the dogleg severity would
be
o

(
4 - 2) 2
DLS =
x = 4 / 100'
50

79

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Dogleg Severity
If I1 = 10o, I2 = 10o, A1 = 10o, A2 =
o
20 and MD = 100, what would
the dogleg severity be?
o
1.74 /100

80

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Dogleg Severity

Curvature at 90 degrees

Curvature at 10 degrees
81

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Dogleg Severity
For a change in azimuth, the
dogleg severity is a function of
the sine of the inclination (A x
sin I)

82

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Dogleg Severity
Dogleg severity equations
(English Units)
100
-1
DLS =
Cos {(Sin I 1 Sin I 2 )[(Sin A1 Sin A2 ) + (Cos A1 Cos A2 )] + (Cos I 1 Cos I 2 )}
DMD

DLS =

1
2
DMD

I - I
+ Sin 2 1
2

100 with 30
83

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Dogleg Severity
To make it a little easier to
understand, the dogleg severity is
approximately equal to the vectorial
sum of the change in inclination and
the change in azimuth
The equation does not work well at
low inclinations
DLS =

84

100
DMD

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Dogleg Severity
DLS

a +b =c
2

(I2 - I1 )

100
DLS =
DMD

(I2 - I1 )

I +I

+ sin 2 1 (A2 - A1 )
2

I +I
sin 2 1 (A2 - A1 )
2

the above means
85

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Dogleg Severity
Class Problem - Problem #1
page 3-13
Calculate

## the dogleg severity for the

following surveys

86

MD1 = 100

MD2 = 200

I1 = 1

I2 = 1

A1 = 0o

A2 = 180o
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Dogleg Severity
DLS equations
100
-1
DLS =
cos {(sin I1 sin I 2 )[(sin A1 sin A2 ) + (cos A1 cos A2 )] + (cos I1 cos I 2 )}
DMD
100

-1
DLS =
cos {(sin(1) sin(1))[(sin(0 ) sin(180 )) + (cos(0 ) cos(180 ))] + (cos(1) cos(1))}
200 - 100
DLS = 2.00 / 100'

DLS =

1
2
DMD

DLS =

(2)(100 )

(200 - 100 )

I - I
+ sin 2 1

2
2

sin -1

2
2

87

Survey Methods
North

Radius of
Curvature 1.11 E

West

East

Minimum
Curvature 0.00 E
South
88

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Dogleg Severity
Problems caused by doglegs
Torque

and drag
Keyseats and casing wear
Fatigue

89

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Dogleg Severity
Torque and drag
are caused by
the friction
between the drill
string and the
wall of the hole
Higher tension
and doglegs
result in higher
torque and drag
90

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Dogleg Severity
Keyseats and
casing wear are
caused by the
drill string being
rotated in a
dogleg with
higher tension

91

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Dogleg Severity
Fatigue is
caused by
rotating the drill
string in a bend
The cyclic
stresses cause
fatigue

92

Dogleg Severity
The endurance
limit is the
amount of
bending stress
that can be
tolerated
without causing
fatigue with no
tension
93

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Dogleg Severity
As the amount of tension
increases in a dogleg, the
amount of bending that can be
tolerated before causing fatigue
decreases

94

Dogleg Severity
4.9

50

7.3

Figure 11-9,
page 11-12 of
Chapter 11

100

95

Dogleg Severity

96

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Dogleg Severity
The bending stress can be
estimated from Equation 3-4
s = (218 )(D )(DLS )
b

## In Example 3-5, calculate the

maximum dogleg severity with
no tension
97

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Dogleg Severity
s b = (218 )(D p )(DLS )

(DLS ) =
(DLS ) =

98

sb

( )

(218 ) D p

18000
= 18.3 o / 100 feet
(218 )(4.5)