You are on page 1of 10

03/03/2016

AdiponectinWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Adiponectin
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

gendomaincontaining

edon1c28.

4%20or%20Q6GTX4%20or%20Q8K3R4%20or%20Q6QWE7%20or%20Q0P415),RCSB
K660,Q15848,Q76C76,Q3Y5Z3,Q60994,Q6GTX4,Q8K3R4,Q6QWE7,Q0P415)

APM1APM1GBP28

oloGene:3525(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?
g/cgibin/carddisp.pl?id_type=entrezgene&id=9370)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adiponectin

1/10

03/03/2016

AdiponectinWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

ontology.org/amigo/term/GO:0010642)

010739)

g/amigo/term/GO:0010745)

y.org/amigo/term/GO:0010804)

O:0014912)

030853)

:0031953)

m/GO:0032270)

/GO:0032720)

O:0033034)

O:0034115)

term/GO:0043123)

/term/GO:0043124)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adiponectin

2/10

03/03/2016

AdiponectinWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

0045650)

eneontology.org/amigo/term/GO:0045715)

O:0045892)

0045923)

/GO:0048662)

m/GO:0050731)

70373)

migo/term/GO:0071639)

O:0090317)

000279)

m/GO:2000467)

neontology.org/amigo/term/GO:2000478)

go/term/GO:2000481)

o.geneontology.org/amigo/term/GO:2000584)

igo/term/GO:2000590)

KB:Q15848)/QuickGO(http://www.ebi.ac.uk/QuickGO/GProtein?ac=Q15848)

npattern

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adiponectin

3/10

03/03/2016

AdiponectinWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

tp://biogps.org/gene/9370/)

Mouse
11450(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=gene&cmd=retrieve&dopt=default&list_uids=11450&rn=1)
ENSMUSG00000022878(http://www.ensembl.org/Mus_musculus/geneview?gene=ENSMUSG00000022878db=core)
Q60994(http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q60994)
NM_009605(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/viewer.fcgi?val=NM_009605)
NP_033735(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/viewer.fcgi?val=NP_033735)
Chr16:
23.1523.16Mb(http://genome.ucsc.edu/cgibin/hgTracks?org=Mouse&db=mm10&position=chr16:2314653623158028)
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=gene&cmd=Link&LinkName=gene_pubmed&from_uid=11450)

Adiponectin(alsoreferredtoasGBP28,apM1,AdipoQandAcrp30)isaproteinwhichinhumansis
encodedbytheADIPOQgene.[1]Itisinvolvedinregulatingglucoselevelsaswellasfattyacidbreakdown.

Contents
1 Structure
2 Function
3 Receptors
4 Discovery
5 Metabolic
6 Hypoadiponectinemia
7 Other
7.1 Asadrugtarget
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adiponectin

4/10

03/03/2016

AdiponectinWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

8 References

Structure
Adiponectinisa244aminoacidlongpolypeptide(protein).Therearefourdistinctregionsofadiponectin.
Thefirstisashortsignalsequencethattargetsthehormoneforsecretionoutsidethecellnextisashort
regionthatvariesbetweenspeciesthethirdisa65aminoacidregionwithsimilaritytocollagenous
proteinsthelastisaglobulardomain.Overallthisgeneshowssimilaritytothecomplement1Qfactors
(C1Q).However,whenthe3dimensionalstructureoftheglobularregionwasdetermined,astriking
similaritytoTNFwasobserved,despiteunrelatedproteinsequences.[2]

Function
Adiponectinisaproteinhormonethatmodulatesanumberofmetabolicprocesses,includingglucose
regulationandfattyacidoxidation.[3]Adiponectinisexclusivelysecretedfromadiposetissue(andalso
fromtheplacentainpregnancy[4])intothebloodstreamandisveryabundantinplasmarelativetomany
hormones.Levelsofthehormoneareinverselycorrelatedwithbodyfatpercentageinadults[5]however,a
metaanalysiswasnotabletoconfirmthisassociationinhealthyadults.[6]Theassociationininfantsand
youngchildrenislessclear.Similarly,circulatingadiponectinconcentrationsincreaseduringcaloric
restrictioninanimalsandhumans,suchasinpatientswithanorexianervosa.Thisobservationissurprising,
giventhatadiponectinisproducedbyadiposetissuehowever,arecentstudysuggeststhatadiposetissue
withinbonemarrow,whichincreasesduringcaloricrestriction,contributestoelevatedcirculating
adiponectininthiscontext.[7]
Transgenicmicewithincreasedadiponectinshowimpairedadipocytedifferentiationandincreasedenergy
expenditureassociatedwithproteinuncoupling.[8]Thehormoneplaysaroleinthesuppressionofthe
metabolicderangementsthatmayresultintype2diabetes,[5]obesity,atherosclerosis,[3]nonalcoholicfatty
liverdisease(NAFLD)andanindependentriskfactorformetabolicsyndrome.[9]Adiponectinin
combinationwithleptinhasbeenshowntocompletelyreverseinsulinresistanceinmice.[10]
Adiponectinissecretedintothebloodstreamwhereitaccountsforapproximately0.01%ofallplasma
proteinataround510g/mL.Plasmaconcentrationsrevealasexualdimorphism,withfemaleshaving
higherlevelsthanmales.Levelsofadiponectinarereducedindiabeticscomparedtonondiabetics.Weight
reductionsignificantlyincreasescirculatinglevels.[11]
Adiponectinautomaticallyselfassociatesintolargerstructures.Initially,threeadiponectinmoleculesbind
togethertoformahomotrimer.Thetrimerscontinuetoselfassociateandformhexamersordodecamers.
Liketheplasmaconcentration,therelativelevelsofthehigherorderstructuresaresexuallydimorphic,
wherefemaleshaveincreasedproportionsofthehighmolecularweightforms.Recentstudiesshowedthat
thehighmolecularweightformmaybethemostbiologicallyactiveformregardingglucose
homeostasis.[12]Highmolecularweightadiponectinwasfurtherfoundtobeassociatedwithalowerriskof

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adiponectin

5/10

03/03/2016

AdiponectinWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

diabeteswithsimilarmagnitudeofassociationastotaladiponectin.[13]However,coronaryarterydisease
hasbeenfoundtobepositivelyassociatedwithhighmolecularweightadiponectin,butnotwithlow
molecularweightadiponectin.[14]
Adiponectinexertssomeofitsweightreductioneffectsviathebrain.Thisissimilartotheactionof
leptin,[15]butthetwohormonesperformcomplementaryactions,andcanhavesynergisticeffects.

Receptors
Adiponectinbindstoanumberofreceptors.Sofar,tworeceptorshavebeenidentifiedwithhomologytoG
proteincoupledreceptors,andonereceptorsimilartothecadherinfamily:[16][17]
Adiponectinreceptor1(AdipoR1)
Adiponectinreceptor2(AdipoR2)
TcadherinCDH13
Thesehavedistincttissuespecificitieswithinthebodyandhavedifferentaffinitiestothevariousformsof
adiponectin.ThereceptorsaffectthedownstreamtargetAMPkinase,animportantcellularmetabolicrate
controlpoint.Expressionofthereceptorsiscorrelatedwithinsulinlevels,aswellasreducedinmouse
modelsofdiabetes,particularlyinskeletalmuscleandadiposetissue.[18][19]

Discovery
Adiponectinwasfirstcharacterisedin1995indifferentiating3T3L1adipocytes(SchererPEetal).[20]In
1996itwascharacterisedinmiceasthemRNAtranscriptmosthighlyexpressedinadipocytes(Maeda,
1996(citation#1,below)).In2007,adiponectinwasidentifiedasatranscripthighlyexpressedin
preadipocytes[21](precursorsoffatcells)differentiatingintoadipocytes.[21][22]
Thehumanhomologuewasidentifiedasthemostabundanttranscriptinadiposetissue.Contraryto
expectations,despitebeingproducedinadiposetissue,adiponectinwasfoundtobedecreasedin
obesity.[3][5][15]Thisdownregulationhasnotbeenfullyexplained.Thegenewaslocalisedtochromosome
3q27,aregionhighlightedasaffectinggeneticsusceptibilitytotype2diabetesandobesity.
Supplementationbydifferingformsofadiponectinwasabletoimproveinsulincontrol,bloodglucoseand
triglyceridelevelsinmousemodels.
Thegenewasinvestigatedforvariantsthatpredisposetotype2diabetes.[15][21][23][24][25][26]Severalsingle
nucleotidepolymorphismsinthecodingregionandsurroundingsequencewereidentifiedfromseveral
differentpopulations,withvaryingprevalences,degreesofassociationandstrengthofeffectontype2
diabetes.Berberine,anherbalfolkmedicine,hasbeenshowntoincreaseadiponectinexpression[27]which
partlyexplainsitsbeneficialeffectsonmetabolicdisturbances.Micefedtheomega3fattyacids
eicosapentaenoicacid(EPA)anddocosahexaenoicacid(DHA)haveshownincreasedplasma
adiponectin.[28]Curcumin,capsaicin,gingerol,andcatechinshavealsobeenfoundtoincreaseadiponectin
expression.[29]
Phylogeneticdistributionincludesexpressioninbirds[30]andfish.[31]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adiponectin

6/10

03/03/2016

AdiponectinWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Metabolic
Adiponectineffects:
glucoseflux
decreasedgluconeogenesis
increasedglucoseuptake[3][15][24]
lipidcatabolism[24]
oxidation[15]
triglycerideclearance[15]
protectionfromendothelialdysfunction(importantfacetofatheroscleroticformation)
insulinsensitivity
weightloss
controlofenergymetabolism.[24]
upregulationofuncouplingproteins[8]
reductionofTNFalpha
Regulationofadiponectin
Obesityisassociatedwithdecreasedadiponectin.
Theexactmechanismofregulationisunknown,butadiponectincouldberegulatedbypost
translationalmechanismsincells.[32]

Hypoadiponectinemia
Alowlevelofadiponectinisanindependentriskfactorfordeveloping:
Metabolicsyndrome[9]
Diabetesmellitus[15][21][23][25][26]

Other
LowerlevelsofadiponectinareassociatedwithADHDinadults.[33]
AdiponectinlevelswerefoundtobeincreasedinrheumatoidarthritispatientsrespondingtoDMARDsor
TNFinhibitortherapy.[34]
Exerciseinducedreleaseofadiponectinincreasedhippocampalgrowthandledtoantidepressivesymptoms
inmice.[35]

Asadrugtarget
Circulatinglevelsofadiponectincanindirectlybeincreasedthroughlifestylemodificationsandcertain
drugssuchasstatins.[36]
AsmallmoleculeadiponectinreceptorAdipoR1andAdipoR2agonist,AdipoRon,hasbeenreported.[37]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adiponectin

7/10

03/03/2016

AdiponectinWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Extractsofsweetpotatoeshavebeenreportedtoincreaselevelsofadiponectinandtherebyimprove
glycemiccontrolinhumans.[38]However,asystematicreviewconcludedthereisinsufficientevidenceto
supporttheconsumptionofsweetpotatoestotreattype2diabetesmellitus.[39]
Adiponectinisapparentlyabletocrossthebloodbrainbarrier.[40]However,conflictingdataonthisissue
exist.[41]Adiponectinhasahalflifeof2.5hoursinhumans.[42]

References
1.MaedaK,OkuboK,ShimomuraI,FunahashiT,MatsuzawaY,MatsubaraK(1996)."cDNAcloningand
expressionofanoveladiposespecificcollagenlikefactor,apM1(AdiPoseMostabundantGenetranscript1)".
Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun.221(2):2869.doi:10.1006/bbrc.1996.0587.PMID8619847.
2.ShapiroL,SchererPE(1998)."Thecrystalstructureofacomplement1qfamilyproteinsuggestsanevolutionary
linktotumornecrosisfactor".Curr.Biol.8(6):3358.doi:10.1016/S09609822(98)701332.PMID9512423.
3.DezJJ,IglesiasP(2003)."Theroleofthenoveladipocytederivedhormoneadiponectininhumandisease".Eur.
J.Endocrinol.148(3):293300.doi:10.1530/eje.0.1480293.PMID12611609.
4.ChenJ,TanB,KarterisE,ZervouS,DigbyJ,HillhouseEW,VatishM,RandevaHS(2006)."Secretionof
adiponectinbyhumanplacenta:differentialmodulationofadiponectinanditsreceptorsbycytokines".
Diabetologia49(6):1292302.doi:10.1007/s0012500601947.PMID16570162.
5.UkkolaO,SantaniemiM(2002)."Adiponectin:alinkbetweenexcessadiposityandassociatedcomorbidities?".J.
Mol.Med.80(11):696702.doi:10.1007/s0010900203787.PMID12436346.
6.KuoSM,HalpernMM(2011)."Lackofassociationbetweenbodymassindexandplasmaadiponectinlevelsin
healthyadults".IntJObes(Lond)35(12):148794.doi:10.1038/ijo.2011.20.PMID21364526.
7.CawthornWP,SchellerEL,LearmanBS,ParleeSD,SimonBR,MoriH,NingX,BreeAJ,SchellB,Broome
DT,SolimanSS,DelPropostoJL,LumengCN,MitraA,PanditSV,GallagherKA,MillerJD,KrishnanV,Hui
SK,BredellaMA,FazeliPK,KlibanskiA,HorowitzMC,RosenCJ,MacDougaldOA(2014)."Bonemarrow
adiposetissueisanendocrineorganthatcontributestoincreasedcirculatingadiponectinduringcaloric
restriction".CellMetab.20(2):368375.doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2014.06.003.PMID24998914.
8.BaucheIB,ElMkademSA,PottierAM,SenouM,ManyMC,RezsohazyR,PenicaudL,MaedaN,Funahashi
T,BrichardSM(2007)."Overexpressionofadiponectintargetedtoadiposetissueintransgenicmice:impaired
adipocytedifferentiation".Endocrinology148(4):153949.doi:10.1210/en.20060838.PMID17204560.
9.RenaldiO,PramonoB,SinoritaH,PurnomoLB,AsdieRH,AsdieAH(2009)."Hypoadiponectinemia:arisk
factorformetabolicsyndrome".ActaMedIndones41(1):204.PMID19258676.
10.YamauchiT,KamonJ,WakiH,TerauchiY,KubotaN,HaraK,MoriY,IdeT,MurakamiK,Tsuboyama
KasaokaN,EzakiO,AkanumaY,GavrilovaO,VinsonC,ReitmanML,KagechikaH,ShudoK,YodaM,
NakanoY,TobeK,NagaiR,KimuraS,TomitaM,FroguelP,KadowakiT(2001)."Thefatderivedhormone
adiponectinreversesinsulinresistanceassociatedwithbothlipoatrophyandobesity".Nat.Med.7(8):9416.
doi:10.1038/90984.PMID11479627.
11.CoppolaA,MarfellaR,CoppolaL,TagliamonteE,FontanaD,LiguoriE,CirilloT,CafieroM,NataleS,
AstaritaC(2009)."Effectofweightlossoncoronarycirculationandadiponectinlevelsinobesewomen".Int.J.
Cardiol.134(3):4146.doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2007.12.087.PMID18378021.
12.OhDK,CiaraldiT,HenryRRAdiponectininhealthanddisease.DiabetesObesMetab2007:9:282289
13.ZhuN,PankowJS,BallantyneCM,CouperD,HoogeveenRC,PereiraM,DuncanBB,SchmidtMI(2010).
"Highmolecularweightadiponectinandtheriskoftype2diabetesintheARICstudy".J.Clin.Endocrinol.
Metab.95(11):5097104.doi:10.1210/jc.20100716.PMC2968724.PMID20719834.
14.RizzaS,GigliF,GalliA,MiccheliniB,LauroD,LauroR,FedericiM(2010)."Adiponectinisoformsinelderly
patientswithorwithoutcoronaryarterydisease".JAmGeriatrSoc58(4):702706.doi:10.1111/j.1532
5415.2010.02773.x.PMID20398150.
15.NedvdkovJ,SmitkaK,KopskV,HainerV(2005)."Adiponectin,anadipocytederivedprotein"(PDF).Physiol
Res54(2):13340.PMID15544426.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adiponectin

8/10

03/03/2016

AdiponectinWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

16.YamauchiT,KamonJ,ItoY,TsuchidaA,YokomizoT,KitaS,SugiyamaT,MiyagishiM,HaraK,TsunodaM,
MurakamiK,OhtekiT,UchidaS,TakekawaS,WakiH,TsunoNH,ShibataY,TerauchiY,FroguelP,TobeK,
KoyasuS,TairaK,KitamuraT,ShimizuT,NagaiR,KadowakiT(2003)."Cloningofadiponectinreceptorsthat
mediateantidiabeticmetaboliceffects".Nature423(6941):7629.doi:10.1038/nature01705.PMID12802337.
17.HugC,WangJ,AhmadNS,BoganJS,TsaoTS,LodishHF(2004)."Tcadherinisareceptorforhexamericand
highmolecularweightformsofAcrp30/adiponectin".Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A.101(28):1030813.
doi:10.1073/pnas.0403382101.PMC478568.PMID15210937.
18.FangX,SweeneyG(2006)."Mechanismsregulatingenergymetabolismbyadiponectininobesityanddiabetes".
Biochem.Soc.Trans.34(Pt5):798801.doi:10.1042/BST0340798.PMID17052201.
19.BonnardC,DurandA,VidalH,RieussetJ(2008)."Changesinadiponectin,itsreceptorsandAMPKactivityin
tissuesofdietinduceddiabeticmice".DiabetesMetab.34(1):5261.doi:10.1016/j.diabet.2007.09.006.
PMID18222103.
20.SchererPE,WilliamsS,FoglianoM,BaldiniG,LodishHF.AnovelserumproteinsimilartoC1q,produced
exclusivelyinadipocytes.JBiolChem.1995Nov10270(45):267469.PMID7592907
21.LaraCastroC,FuY,ChungBH,GarveyWT(2007)."Adiponectinandthemetabolicsyndrome:mechanisms
mediatingriskformetabolicandcardiovasculardisease".Curr.Opin.Lipidol.18(3):26370.
doi:10.1097/MOL.0b013e32814a645f.PMID17495599.
22.MatsuzawaY,FunahashiT,KiharaS,ShimomuraI(2004)."Adiponectinandmetabolicsyndrome".
Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol.24(1):2933.doi:10.1161/01.ATV.0000099786.99623.EF.PMID14551151.
23.HaraK,YamauchiT,KadowakiT(2005)."Adiponectin:anadipokinelinkingadipocytesandtype2diabetesin
humans".Curr.Diab.Rep.5(2):13640.doi:10.1007/s1189200500410.PMID15794918.
24.VasseurF,LeprtreF,LacquemantC,FroguelP(2003)."Thegeneticsofadiponectin".Curr.Diab.Rep.3(2):
1518.doi:10.1007/s1189200300394.PMID12728641.
25.HugC,LodishHF(2005)."Theroleoftheadipocytehormoneadiponectinincardiovasculardisease".CurrOpin
Pharmacol5(2):12934.doi:10.1016/j.coph.2005.01.001.PMID15780820.
26.VasseurF,MeyreD,FroguelP(2006)."Adiponectin,type2diabetesandthemetabolicsyndrome:lessonsfrom
humangeneticstudies".ExpertRevMolMed8(27):112.doi:10.1017/S1462399406000147.PMID17112391.
27.ChoiBH,KimYH,AhnIS,HaJH,ByunJM,DoMS(2009)."Theinhibitionofinflammatorymolecule
expressionon3T3L1adipocytesbyberberineisnotmediatedbyleptinsignaling".NutrResPract3(2):848.
doi:10.4162/nrp.2009.3.2.84.PMC2788178.PMID20016706.
28.GrimshawCE,MatthewsDA,VarugheseKI,SkinnerM,XuongNH,BrayT,HochJ,WhiteleyJM(1992).
"Characterizationandnucleotidebindingpropertiesofamutantdihydropteridinereductasecontaininganaspartate
37isoleucinereplacement".J.Biol.Chem.267(22):153349.PMID1639779.
29.NigroE,ScudieroO,MonacoML,PalmieriA,MazzarellaG,CostagliolaC,BiancoA,DanieleA(2014)."New
insightintoadiponectinroleinobesityandobesityrelateddiseases".BiomedResInt2014:658913.
doi:10.1155/2014/658913.PMC4109424.PMID25110685.
30.YuanJ,LiuW,LiuZL,LiN(2006)."cDNAcloning,genomicstructure,chromosomalmappingandexpression
analysisofADIPOQ(adiponectin)inchicken".Cytogenet.GenomeRes.112(12):14851.
doi:10.1159/000087527.PMID16276104.
31.NishioS,GibertY,BernardL,BrunetF,TriqueneauxG,LaudetV(2008)."Adiponectinandadiponectin
receptorgenesarecoexpressedduringzebrafishembryogenesisandregulatedbyfooddeprivation".Dev.Dyn.
237(6):168290.doi:10.1002/dvdy.21559.PMID18489000.
32.LiuM,LiuF(2012)."Upanddownregulationofadiponectinexpressionandmultimerization:mechanismsand
therapeuticimplication".Biochimie94(10):212630.doi:10.1016/j.biochi.2012.01.008.PMC3542391.
PMID22342903.
33.MavroconstantiT,HalmyA,HaavikJ(2014)."Decreasedserumlevelsofadiponectininadultattentiondeficit
hyperactivitydisorder".PsychiatryRes216(1).doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.01.025.PMID24559850.
34.KimKS,ChoiHM,JiHI,SongR,YangHI,LeeSK,YooMC,ParkYB(2014)."Serumadipokinelevelsin
rheumatoidarthritispatientsandtheircontributionstotheresistancetotreatment".MolMedRep9(1):25560.
doi:10.3892/mmr.2013.1764.PMID24173909.
35.YauSY,LiA,HooRL,ChingYP,ChristieBR,LeeTM,XuA,SoKF(2014)."Physicalexerciseinduced
hippocampalneurogenesisandantidepressanteffectsaremediatedbytheadipocytehormoneadiponectin".Proc.
Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A.111(44):1581015815.doi:10.1073/pnas.1415219111.PMID25331877.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adiponectin

9/10

03/03/2016

AdiponectinWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

36.LimS,QuonMJ,KohKK(Apr2014)."Modulationofadiponectinasapotentialtherapeuticstrategy".
Atherosclerosis233(2).doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.01.051.PMID24603219.
37.OkadaIwabuM,YamauchiT,IwabuM,HonmaT,HamagamiK,MatsudaK,YamaguchiM,TanabeH,
KimuraSomeyaT,ShirouzuM,OgataH,TokuyamaK,UekiK,NaganoT,TanakaA,YokoyamaS,Kadowaki
T(Nov2013)."AsmallmoleculeAdipoRagonistfortype2diabetesandshortlifeinobesity".Nature503
(7477).doi:10.1038/nature12656.PMID24172895.
38.LudvikB,HanefeldM,PaciniG(2008)."ImprovedmetaboliccontrolbyIpomoeabatatas(Caiapo)isassociated
withincreasedadiponectinanddecreasedfibrinogenlevelsintype2diabeticsubjects".DiabetesObesMetab10
(7):58692.doi:10.1111/j.14631326.2007.00752.x.PMID17645559.
39.OoiCP,LokeSC(2013)."Sweetpotatofortype2diabetesmellitus".CochraneDatabaseSystRev9:
CD009128.doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009128.pub3.PMID24000051.
40.YauSY,LiA,HooRL,ChingYP,ChristieBR,LeeTM,XuA,SoKF(2014)."Physicalexerciseinduced
hippocampalneurogenesisandantidepressanteffectsaremediatedbytheadipocytehormoneadiponectin".Proc.
Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A.111(44):158105.doi:10.1073/pnas.1415219111.PMC4226125.PMID25331877.
41.SprangerJ,VermaS,GhringI,BobbertT,SeifertJ,SindlerAL,PfeifferA,HilemanSM,TschpM,Banks
WA(2006)."Adiponectindoesnotcrossthebloodbrainbarrierbutmodifiescytokineexpressionofbrain
endothelialcells".Diabetes55(1):1417.PMID16380487.
42.HoffstedtJ,ArvidssonE,SjlinE,WhlnK,ArnerP(2004)."Adiposetissueadiponectinproductionand
adiponectinserumconcentrationinhumanobesityandinsulinresistance".J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab.89(3):
13916.doi:10.1210/jc.2003031458.PMID15001639.

Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Adiponectin&oldid=703064658"
Categories: Humanproteins Peptidehormones Proteins Obesity
Thispagewaslastmodifiedon3February2016,at07:52.
TextisavailableundertheCreativeCommonsAttributionShareAlikeLicenseadditionaltermsmay
apply.Byusingthissite,youagreetotheTermsofUseandPrivacyPolicy.Wikipediaisa
registeredtrademarkoftheWikimediaFoundation,Inc.,anonprofitorganization.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adiponectin

10/10