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ELEMENTS OF A NETWORK

COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS: are a set of rules governing the


transmission and reception of data within a network.
GATEWAY (GATEWAY) is a device often a computer, that allows to
interconnect networks with different protocols and architectures at all levels
of communication. Its purpose is to translate the information protocol used in
a network protocol used on the network the destination.
HUB OR HUB: communications, distribution center hub. A Hub is a
computer network that connects each other computers or devices
retransmitting data packets from any of them at all. They are no longer used
by the large number of collisions and network traffic they produce.
MODEM: it is a device used to modulate and demodulate a signal called
carrier by another entry called modulating signal. The modulating signal is
the information that is prepared for transmission (modem prepares the
information to be transmitted, but does not perform transmission).
NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM: is the program that allows control of the
network and resides on the server.
NETWORK INTERFACE CARD: provides connectivity terminal or user of
the physical network, as it handles the communication protocols of each
specific topology.
O BRIDGE BRIDGE is a device interconnection of computer networks
operating in the layer2 (data link layer) of the OSI model. This network
interconnects 2 segments making the passage of data from one network to
another, based on the physical destination address of each package. A
bridge connects two network segments as a single network using the same
network protocol setting. It works through a table of MAC addresses
detected in each segment that is connected. When a node detects that one
of the segments is trying to transmit data to another node, the bridge copies
the frame to the other subnet. By using this mechanism for automatic
learning, bridges do not require manual configuration.

SERVER: the main processing element contains the network operating


system and is responsible for managing all processes within it, also controls
access to shared resources such as printers and storage drives.
SWITCHES OR SWITCH: it is a digital logic device interconnection of
computer networks operating in layer 2 (level data link) of the OSI model: its
function is to interconnect two or more network segments, similarly to
bridges (bridges), passing data from one segment to another according to
the different Mac address of frames on the network.
REPEATER: is an electronic device that receives a weak or low level signal
and retransmits at a power level or higher, so that they can cover longer
distances without degradation or with a tolerable degradation. The term was
created repeater with telegraphy and referred to an electromechanical
device used to regenerate telegraph signals. Use of the term has continued
in telephony and data transmission.
ROUTER: is a general purpose device designed to segment the network,
with the idea of limiting brodcast traffic and provide security, control and
redundancy between individual domains brodcast, you can also provide
firewall service and affordable access to a WAN. Operates at Layer 3 of the
OSI model and software has more facilities than a switch. When operating in
a higher layer than the switch, the router distinguishes between different
network protocols such as IP, IPX, Apple Talk or decnet. This allows you to
make a smarter than the switch, when forwarding packets decision.
WORKSTATIONS: sometimes called nodes, can be personal computers or
any terminal connected to the network. It works with its own programs or
leverages existing applications on the server.
WIRED: the cable that will occupy the physical network is called utp.