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Plans For New Reactors Worldwide (Updated October 2015)

Nuclear power capacity worldwide is increasing steadily, with over


60 reactors under construction in 15 countries.
Most reactors on order or planned are in the Asian region, though
there are major plans for new units in Russia.
Significant further capacity is being created by plant upgrading.
Plant life extension programs are maintaining capacity, in USA
particularly.

Today, there are some 437 nuclear power reactors operating in 31 countries plus
Taiwan, with a combined capacity of over 380GWe. In 2014 these provided 2411 billion
kWh, over 11% of the world's electricity.
Over 60 power reactors are currently being constructed in 13 countries plus Taiwan (see
Table below), notably China, South Korea, UAE and Russia.
Each year, the OECD's International Energy Agency (IEA) sets out the present situation
and also reference and other, particularly carbon reduction scenarios.
World Energy Outlook 2014 had a special focus on nuclear power, and extends the
scope of scenarios to 2040. In its New Policies scenario, installed nuclear capacity
growth is 60% through 543 GWe in 2030 and to 624 GWe in 2040 out of a total of
10,700 GWe, with the increase concentrated heavily in China (46% of it), plus India,
Korea and Russia (30% of it together) and the USA (16%), countered by a 10% drop in
the EU. Despite this, the percentage share of nuclear power in the global power mix
increases to only 12%, well below its historic peak.
Low-Nuclear and so-called High-Nuclear cases give 366 and 767 GWe nuclear
respectively in 2040. The low-carbon 450 Scenario gives a cost-effective transition to
limiting global warming assuming an effective international agreement in 2015, and this
brings about more than doubling nuclear capacity to 862 GWe in 2040, while energyrelated CO2 emissions peak before 2020 and then decline. In this scenario, almost all
new generating capacity built after 2030 needs to be low-carbon.
"Despite the challenges it currently faces, nuclear power has specific characteristics that
underpin the commitment of some countries to maintain it as a future option," it said.
"Nuclear plants can contribute to the reliability of the power system where they increase
the diversity of power generation technologies in the system.

For countries that import energy, it can reduce their dependence on foreign supplies
and limit their exposure to fuel price movements in international markets."
It is noteworthy that in the 1980s, 218 power reactors started up, an average of one
every 17 days. These included 47 in USA, 42 in France and 18 in Japan. These were
fairly large - average power was 923.5 MWe. So it is not hard to imagine a similar
number being commissioned in the years ahead. But with China and India getting up to
speed in nuclear energy and a world energy demand increasing, a realistic estimate of
what is possible (but not planned at this stage) might be the equivalent of one 1000
MWe unit worldwide every 5 days.
Increased capacity
Increased nuclear capacity in some countries is resulting from the uprating of existing
plants. This is a highly cost-effective way of bringing on new capacity.
There is a question of scale, and large units will not fit into small grids. A conservative
guide is that peak power demand must be met with effective installed capacity and
about 20% reserve margin. Also, the largest single plant should not be more than 10%
of base-load, or 5% of peak demand.
Numerous power reactors in USA, Belgium, Sweden and Germany, for example, have
had their generating capacity increased.
In Switzerland, the capacity of its five reactors has been increased by 13.4%.
In the USA, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has approved more than 140 uprates
totalling over 6500 MWe since 1977, a few of them "extended uprates" of up to 20%.
Spain has had a program to add 810 MWe (11%) to its nuclear capacity through
upgrading its nine reactors by up to 13%. Most of the increase is already in place. For
instance, the Almarez nuclear plant was boosted by 7.4% at a cost of US$ 50 million.
Finland Finland boosted the capacity of the original Olkiluoto plant by 29% to 1700
MWe. This plant started with two 660 MWe Swedish BWRs commissioned in 1978 and
1980. The Loviisa plant, with two VVER-440 (PWR) reactors, has been uprated by 90
MWe (10%).
Sweden's utilities have uprated all three plants. The Ringhals plant was uprated by
about 305 MWe over 2006-14. Oskarshamn 3 was uprated by 21% to 1450 MWe at a
cost of 313 million. Forsmark 2 had a 120 MWe uprate (12%) to 2013.

Nuclear plant construction


Most reactors currently planned are in the Asian region, with fast-growing economies
and rapidly-rising electricity demand.
Many countries with existing nuclear power programs (Argentina, Armenia, Brazil,
Bulgaria, China, Czech Rep., India, Pakistan, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, South Korea,
South Africa, UAE, Ukraine, UK, USA) have plans to build new power reactors (beyond
those now under construction).
In all, over 160 power reactors with a total net capacity of some 185,000 MWe are
planned and over 300 more are proposed. Energy security concerns and greenhouse
constraints on coal have combined with basic economics to put nuclear power back on
the agenda for projected new capacity in many countries.
In the USA there are plans for five new reactors, beyond the five under construction
now. It is expected that some of the new reactors will be on line by 2020.
In Finland, construction is now under way on a fifth, very large reactor which is
expected to come on line in 2018, and plans are firming for another large one to follow
it.
France is building a similar 1600 MWe unit at Flamanville, for operation from 2018.
In the UK, four similar 1600 MWe units are planned, and a further 6000 MWe is
proposed.
Romania's second power reactor started up in 2007, and plans are being implemented
for two further Canadian units to be built there.
Slovakia is completing two 470 MWe units at Mochovce, to operate from 2017.
Bulgaria is planning to build a large new reactor at Kozloduy.
Belarus is building two large new Russian reactors at Ostrovets.
In Russia, six reactors and two small ones are under active construction, one large one
being a large fast neutron reactor. About 30 further reactors are then planned, some to
to replace existing plants. This will increase the country's present nuclear power
capacity by 50% by 2030. In addition about 5 GW of nuclear thermal capacity is
planned. A small floating power plant is expected to be completed by 2016 and others
are planned to follow.

Poland is planning two 3000 MWe nuclear power plants.


South Korea plans to bring a further further four reactors into operation by 2018, and
another eight by about 2030, giving total new capacity of 17,200 MWe. All of these are
the Advanced PWRs of 1400 MWe. These APR-1400 designs have evolved from a US
design which has US NRC design certification, and four been sold to the UAE (see
below).
Japan has two reactors under construction but another three which were likely to start
building by mid 2011 have been deferred.
In China, now with 29 operating reactors on the mainland, the country is well into the
next phase of its nuclear power programme. There were seven new grid connections to
end of October in 2015. Over 20 more reactors are under construction, including the
world's first Westinghouse AP1000 units, and a demonstration high-temperature gascooled reactor plant. Many more units are planned, including two largely indigenous
designs the Hualong One and CAP1400. China aims to more than double its nuclear
capacity by 2020.
India has 21 reactors in operation, and six under construction. This includes two large
Russian reactors and a large prototype fast breeder reactor as part of its strategy to
develop a fuel cycle which can utilise thorium. Over 20 further units are planned. 18
further units are planned, and proposals for more - including western and Russian
designs - are taking shape following the lifting of trade restrictions.
Pakistan has third and fourth 300 MWe reactors under construction at Chashma,
financed by China. Two larger Chinese power reactors are planned.
In Kazakhstan, a joint venture with Russia's Atomstroyexport envisages development
and marketing of innovative small and medium-sized reactors, starting with a 300 MWe
Russian design as baseline for Kazakh units.
In Iran a 1000 MWe PWR at Bushehr came on line in 2011, and further units are
planned.
The United Arab Emirates awarded a $20.4 billion contract to a South Korean
consortium to build four 1400 MWe reactors by 2020. They are under construction.
Jordan has committed plans for its first reactor, and is developing its legal and
regulatory infrastructure.

Turkey has contracts signed for four 1200 MWe Russian nuclear reactors at one site
and four European ones at another. Its legal and regulatory infrastructure is welldeveloped.
Vietnam has committed plans for its first reactors at two sites (2x2000 MWe), and is
developing its legal and regulatory infrastructure. The first plant will be a turnkey project
built by Atomstroyexport. The second will be Japanese.
Fuller details of all the above are in linked country papers.
Plant life extension and retirements
Most nuclear power plants originally had a nominal design lifetime of 25 to 40 years, but
engineering assessments of many plants have established that many can operate
longer.
In the USA over 75 reactors have been granted licence renewals which extend their
operating lives from the original 40 out to 60 years, and operators of most others are
expected to apply for similar extensions. Such licence extensions at about the 30-year
mark justify significant capital expenditure for replacement of worn equipment and
outdated control systems.
In France, there are rolling ten-year reviews of reactors. In 2009 the Nuclear Safety
Authority (ASN) approved EdF's safety case for 40-year operation of the 900 MWe
units, based on generic assessment of the 34 reactors.
The Russian government is extending the operating lives of most of the country's
reactors from their original 30 years, for 15 years, or for 25 years in the case of the
newer VVER-1000 units, with significant upgrades.
The technical and economic feasibility of replacing major reactor components, such as
steam generators in PWRs, and pressure tubes in CANDU heavy water reactors, has
been demonstrated. The possibilities of component replacement and licence renewals
extending the lifetimes of existing plants are very attractive to utilities, especially in view
of the public acceptance difficulties involved in constructing replacement nuclear
capacity.
On the other hand, economic, regulatory and political considerations have led to the
premature closure of some power reactors, particularly in the United States, where
reactor numbers have fell from 110 to 99, in eastern Europe, in Germany and likely in
Japan.

It should not be assumed that reactors will close when their licence is due to expire,
since licence renewal is now common. However, new plants coming on line are
balanced by old plants being retired. Over 1996-2015, 75 reactors were retired as 80
started operation. There are no firm projections for retirements over the next two
decades, but the World Nuclear Association estimates that at least 60 of those now
operating will close by 2030, most being small plants. The 2013 WNA Market Report
reference case has 74 reactors closing by 2030, using very conservative assumptions
about licence renewal, and 272 coming on line, including 108 in China.
The World Nuclear Power Reactor table gives a fuller and (for current year) possibly
more up to date overview of world reactor status.
Power reactors under construction
Start
2015
2015
2015
2015

China, CNNC
India, NPCIL
India, Bhavini
Russia, Rosenergoatom

Reactor
Changjiang 1
Kakrapar 3
Kalpakkam
Beloyarsk 4

Type
PWR
PHWR
FBR
FNR

Gross MWe
650
640
470
750

2016
2016
2016
2016
2016
2016
2016
2016
2016
2016
2016
2016
2016
2016
2016
2016

India, NPCIL
Russia, Rosenergoatom
Korea, KHNP
Korea, KHNP
USA, TVA
China, CNNC
China, CPI
China, CGN
China, CGN
China, CNNC
China, CNNC
China, CGN
China, CGN
India, NPCIL
India, NPCIL
Pakistan, PAEC

Kudankulam 2
Novovoronezh II-1
Shin-Kori 3
Shin-Kori 4
Watts Bar 2
Sanmen 1
Haiyang 1
Hongyanhe 4
Ningde 4
Changjiang 2
Fuqing 3
Fangchenggang 2
Taishan 1
Kakrapar 4
Rajasthan 7
Chashma 3

PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR
PHWR
PHWR
PWR

950
1070
1350
1350
1180
1250
1250
1120
1080
650
1080
1080
1700
640
640
300

2017
2017
2017
2017
2017

Slovakia, SE
Russia, Rosenergoatom
Russia, Rosenergoatom
China, CGN
China, CNNC

Mochovce 3
Pevek FNPP
Leningrad II-1
Taishan 2
Sanmen 2

PWR
PWR x 2
PWR
PWR
PWR

440
70
1070
1700
1250

2017
2017
2017
2017
2017
2017
2017
2017
2017
2017

China, CPI
China, CGN
China, CNNC
China, China Huaneng
China, CNNC
Russia, Rosenergoatom
Russia, Rosenergoatom
Korea, KHNP
India, NPCIL
Pakistan, PAEC

Haiyang 2
Yangjiang 4
Fuqing 4
Shidaowan
Tianwan 3
Rostov 4
Novovoronezh II-2
Shin-Hanul 1
Rajasthan 8
Chashma 4

PWR
PWR
PWR
HTR
PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR
PHWR
PWR

1250
1080
1080
200
1060
1200
1070
1350
640
300

2018
2018
2018
2018
2018
2018
2018
2018

Slovakia, SE
France, EdF
Finland, TVO
Korea, KHNP
Brazil
Argentina
China, CGNPC
China, CNNC

Mochovce 4
Flamanville 3
Olkilouto 3
Shin-Hanul 2
Angra 3
Carem25
Yangjiang 5
Tianwan 4

PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR

440
1600
1720
1350
1405
27
1080
1060

2019
2019
2019
2019
2019
2019

USA, Southern
USA, SCEG
China, CGN
China, CGN
China, CNNC
Romania, SNN

Vogtle 3
Summer 2
Hongyanhe 5
Yangjiang 6
Fuqing 5
Cernavoda 3

PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR
PHWR

1200
1200
1120
1080
1150
655

2020
2020

China, CGN
Russia, Rosenergoatom

Hongyanhe 6
Leningrad II-2

PWR
PWR

1120
1070

Latest announced year of proposed commercial operation


Sources:
World Nuclear Association information papers