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terviewing politicians on TV and radio
Training - Media training By David
Brewer
Friday, 09 January 2009
The manager of a TV channel in Pakistan
contacted this site asking for training for his journalists in interviewing
politicians. Arranging training takes time and is expensive, so it is unlikely that
this will happen in the near future. However, in the meantime, I have put together
some thoughts on how best to prepare for a political interview. The following notes
are meant as a rough guide. They will be updated over the coming days.Constituency
Remember you both have a constituency. Yours is your audience, who you are
committed to inform with balanced, impartial, objective and accurate fact finding.
Theirs is the electorate that they represent, made up of people who may or may not
have voted for them.MotivationYour motivatioin should be to inform the public
debate with robust journalism offering verified and sourced facts that enables the
audience to better understand what is going on around them and make educated
choices. However, ambition, personal interests, activism, personal gain, revenge,
dislike and other personal baggage could get in the way. You have a responsibility
to deal with this. This is about integrity. You cant conduct a meaningful
political interview without integrity.Their motivation should be to inform the
public debate with facts and to ensure that the needs of all in the community they
serve are represented and accounted for. However, party loyalty, fear of losing
their seat/position, ambition, ideology, and a host of personal issues will,
potentially, cloud this. Your job is to see through this and cut to the facts of
the matter in hand.Keep it SimplePoliticians love to complicate matters when it
suits them. They like to make the journalist feel inferior by suggesting they do
not understand the situation. Phrases like well it is complicated and you need
to understand the background to this, are common ways of trying to reduce the
effectiveness of the journalist.Stick to the core journalistic questions of who,
why, when, where and how. Questions should be short and to the point. Do not be
afraid to continue to ask the same question until you get a clear answer. Do not
move away from the main thrust of your original question if the politician offers a
complex answer. They may want to draw you into a discussion they want. Do not be
taken in by that. It is a trap. Return to the question you want to ask.Dont do
dealsNever go into an interview with a politician with any form of agreement,
explicit of implicit, that you will both get something out of the interview. This
is corrupt and goes against the core elements of journalism. It is fine for a
politician to do this; ensuring they achieve what they set out to achieve is part
of politics. You have to be above this. There must never be any suggestion that the
course of the interview can be mapped out in advance. The only things you can agree
beforehand is the length of the interview. Dont get personalPoliticians are public
servants. They have been elected to do a job on behalf of those they represent.
Their professional performance is open to scrutiny. You, as a journalist, have a
unique role to sit with these decision makers and ask them the telling questions
that your audience is not able to ask. So it is your job to dig deep and to uncover
facts about professional conduct, how the politician is executing his or her
responsibilities and any personal issues that might prevent them from doing so.
However, you must steer clear of personal insults and must never enter into a
slanging match where you end up shouting at one another. Once that happens, the
interview (although probably highly entertaining for the audience) has lost its
power as a tool for informing the public debate, and you and the politician will
have probably damaged your integrity. It will reflect badly on your news
organisation, too. It's not a competition An interview with a politician should be
a sincere attempt to uncover information to help your audience understand more
about current issues. It is not a battle of wits between you and the politician. It

is not about point scoring. It's not about making you look smart in front of your
peer group and friends. They will have a scriptAs you prepare for the interview,
you will have thought through the area you want to cover and written down the
questions you want to ask. The politician will probably have done the same. It is
likely that they will have had several working sessions and will be briefed on
exactly what message they want to broadcast via your interview. Political
organisations spend a fortune on hiring media training consultants who prepare
politicians in not only how to avoid answering questions, but also in how to ensure
that they get their message and points across no matter what questions are asked.
There is a big business in manipulating the media. You can be fairly sure this has
happened when you hear the answer to your questions starting with, Well that is an
interesting point, but the main issue here is... or, I am glad you asked me that,
but you have to remember that the reasons... These and many other answers suggest
that the politician is primed and ready to use your interview as a party political
broadcast and not as a vehicle for informing the audience.And it is almost certain
that a politician will not arrive at your studio without a script in his or her
head, without an end result in their minds (which will reflect well on them and
their party) and without a final line (the last word) that they will want to push,
regardless of the questions you have asked.Remember, you are not there to take down
a list of statements like a secretary taking dictation. You are not a scribe
helping them with their PR campaign. You are a journalist whose job is to get to
the truth. Have an open mind Although it is important to know what you are going to
ask (as explained above) it is also important to go into the interview with an open
mind. It's a delicate balancing act to go prepared with a set of questioins and yet
still retain the flexibility needed to be alert to some new information that you
didn't know before. You should aim discover something through the process. You
can't do that if you doggedly stick to your script. Avoiding the questionThere are
many ways for a politician to avoid the question being asked. A couple have been
mentioned above. Its important for the journalist conducting the interview to know
when this is happening. The interviewer needs to know when it is right to hold
back. It is often clear to the audience that a question is being avoided. You may
not need to keep pressing. Make sure you have a number of key questions to ask. You
will probably not get them all in and you will almost certainly not get clear
answers to all. Decide which are the most important so that if you run out of time,
and broadcast interviews are far more likely to suffer from this than print
interviews, you can be sure to ask the key questions. Never leave the best to last,
just in case you run out of time.Spin doctors and news managementAll political
parties will have spin doctors, those public relations people and political
backroom staff whose job it is to ensure that the party message gets out no matter
what the opportunity; and remember, your interview will be viewed by them as just
that --- a political opportunity. Never think you will be more prepared than them,
this is naive and foolish. You need to go into a political interview knowing that
sitting behind the politician is a news management team who will have done this a
thousand times and will have used journalists like you to achieve their ends.
Understanding the politicianDespite the news management issue, the politician
remains a human being and an individual with one particular need --- retaining the
support of the public in order to continue to do his or her job. So, no matter how
prepared and primed they are for the interview, they will also have a
vulnerability. They will be keen to make a good impression. The journalist needs to
understand this because, with careful wording of questions, by following up on some
of the leads they give you and exploring some of the topics they seem to want to
explore, and by engaging them with an understanding tone and approach, you may be
able to dig deeper in the areas that you feel the audience needs to know about.
You may get a lot further with a softer, sympathetic approach than with a hard,
confrontational approach. This all depends on the situation and the politician.
But the key is to be flexible. Remember, the point of the exercise is not to make
you look great and the politician look small, its to uncover essential information
that informs the public debate so that the audience can make educated choices.
Knowing your topicYou will not be expected to be expert in everything a politician

is involved in, but it is important that you have a solid understanding of the
issues you are going to be pressing them on. You certainly need to know your
history. A common trick, used by politicians to try to unsettle the interviewer, is
to make them
feel inadequate. They may use the tactic of challenging your knowledge in order to
weaken your attempts to challenge them. You need to make sure that you know what
you are talking about and that the questions you ask are well researched and backed
by intelligence.The last wordDo they get it, or do you? Do you allow the
politician, at the end of the interview, to sum up, or do you take responsibility
for that? They will want the last answer to be a party political broadcast. One way
round this is to ensure that you sum up at the end with the key points. To do this
you need to listen to all their answers, take notes, keep a bullet point summary
and repeat it at the end. It is also a good idea to jot down key quotes that you
can return to at the end in order to illustrate your summary.Interviewing more than
one politicianThe challenge here is to give appropriate representation during the
interview. This is often done in relation to the partys size, although in states
where fair and open voting is not the norm this may not apply. It could be that a
small, minority party is the group that needs more air time because they are at the
centre of the story and have so far been ignored. Only you will know, and this all
depends on circumstances, but you must do your homework beforehand and calculate
what is a fair amount of time for each politician and try to keep to that. It is
also valuable to be able to justify your decisions because you can be absolutely
certain that politicians from all sides will come back to you after the event to
complain about the amount of time they were allocatedOn-camera interview tips
Training - Media training By Don Ray
Saturday, 03 May 2008
The following is
a list of tips on how to enhance the quality of your recorded, on-camera interview.
Allow lighting, composition and external noise control to be the most important
factors when you and the photographer select the specific interview location.Dont
feel the need or obligation to place the person behind his or her desk. By removing
it as a protective barrier and a symbol of power, youll see the difference in his
or her demeanor and attitude.As much as possible, avoid shooting situations where
the theres a wall or other flat surface within two meters behind the person youre
interviewing. It gives the viewers less of a feeling of confinement they want to
know where they are in the environment.Theres no rule that says every person
youre interviewing needs to be sitting in a chair. Ask them to lean or sit
partially on a desk or other piece of furniture. It will put them in a more relaxed
and casual state of mind.Allow the photographer to take advantage of background
colors, shades and light levels to enhance the contrast of the picture. For
example, someone with dark skin, hair or clothing may photograph better if the
background is also darker. Too much contrast makes the camera very unhappy.If you
have the people youre interviewing sit in a chair, never allow them to sit in a
chair that has wheels, that can swivel or that can rock. The persons nervousness
will materialize in telltale movement of the chair.Remove any items from within
reach of the person items that he or she could pick up and fiddle with during an
interview. Again, it telegraphs to the view that the person is nervous.Dont allow
them to be holding anything in their hands during the interview, such as a pen,
their glasses, coffee or a cigarette (except when there is an overriding reason for
it as in a demonstration or a story about coffee, cigarettes, smoking, etc.).If
they want to have notes, books, files or documents in front of them to which they
can refer for information, politely ask them to put them somewhere out of reach and
assure them that if they absolutely, positively, no-way-around-it need to refer to
the materials, youll stop the interview so they can refresh their memories.
However, its best if you tell them to speak only about what they know.If the
photographer has only one portable light, allow him or her to use the main light
from a window to light the subjects face and the portable light to act as a
backlight or hair light.Dont be afraid to open or close drapes or shades, move
furniture or remove items from the walls or from flat surfaces to enhance the
composition and lighting of the picture.If the person is comfortable doing the
interview without wearing glasses, consider doing that. It will prevent reflection

and glare problems during the interview. No matter how well the photographer plans
the picture, the subject of the interview will always shift positions so that the
light reflects off the glasses and into the camera lens.Help the photographer by
listening for and preventing unwanted noise to make its way into the interview. Ask
them to turn off mobile phones, unplug or turn off regular phones, turn off any
clocks, fountains, radios, aquarium filter pumps, air conditioners, heaters or
refrigerators that can generate any sounds whatsoever. Be aware of pets, birds,
activities in adjoining rooms or activities that might take place outside the
windows. If there are workers outside with lawn mowers, power tools or other tools
that make noise, ask them to take a break during the interview. If children are
playing outside, find a way to encourage them to play somewhere else.If you can,
put a note on any doors that lead to your interview location. Shhh. Were taping
an interview. Can you come back later? Thanks!The optimum number of people in the
room on the scene outdoors for an interview is three: the person youre
interviewing, the photographer and you. Do not allow anyone else to be in the room
of near the outdoor interview. If any other people must be there, never allow them
to be anywhere that the person youre interviewing can make eye contact with them.
You want the viewer to understand that the person on camera is speaking to just one
person. If the person youre interviewing sees other eyes, he or she will politely
talk to them also, as if theyre in an auditorium. Thats confusing to the viewer.
Avoid coaching the person before the interview. About the only thing you need to
say is that they should not look at the camera they should be talking to you. Any
other coaching or directing will almost always put them in the role of actor or
performer and theyll feel and display -- even more fear and anxiety. Hone your
own interviewing skills so that you can elicit complete sentences and complete
thoughts.At the end of the interview, make certain that you put everything back
where it was, close or open window shades or curtains to return them to their
original positions, wipe down any surfaces you might have soiled, pick up any tape
wrappers or other debris and return the location to exactly as it was before you
invaded with your intrusive equipment.No matter how unhappy you were with the
interview, tell the person that he or she did a great job and thank them from your
heart. Creating a station sound
Training - Media training By Philip Hilton
Friday, 23 November 2007
You can put the greatest programmes on the radio but
never achieve impact if your station has no unique, consistent sound. If your
station or programme has no on-air image that people can relate to, connect with or
recognise, how will your listeners know you from your competition and more
importantly how will you achieve a rating from all your efforts?Station sound is a
marriage between the many elements that make up the output your station broadcasts,
it is the glue that holds everything you transmit together giving you joined up
radio, on-air consistency that says who you are even before your presenters have
idented the station, played a jingle or talked up a show. Its a ratings winner
thats commonly overlooked.Each of the ten steps are prioritised differently to
apply appropriately to whatever format your station operates, but the basis of the
ten steps applies whether you are a full service, music station, talk, news,
religious or shopping or international channel, the interpretation is dependent on
the programmer.Give six chefs the same recipe and theyll produce six different
cakes. Whatever your format and place in the market (and theres no reason to say
that a small market radio station should sound small), introducing these 10 steps
will go a long way towards extending listening hours, reach, share and of course
revenue, providing that you care enough about your business and want to provide
your listeners with the best product you can. Step one is back to basics. Start to
be more consistent with your clock hours Set up your news, commercials and set
times for promo trailers, weather, travel bulletins and whats on diary
items/listings in the same order and at the same time each hour. Listeners will get
to know your station pattern of uniquely consistent behaviour, e.g. travel news
follows your weather bulletin. Step two. Be consistent in the way you sell your
station Tie your printed logo, registered diary/rating name and on-air
identification together in the same way. If your station is called HITS 100, keep
it as such, at all times with no deviation. Often I have heard stations (using the

example) ident themselves as HITS Radio, FM 100, Music 100, Radio Hits etc. Your
main link with a ratings return for your efforts is your on-air identification,
decide on one name and keep to it. Step three. Manage your sub-brands, ally your
news travel and weather with your main station name Once you have established
yourself in the market through your main, on-air station identification, every
little helps For example HITS 100 News, HITS 100 Weather, HITS 100 Travel, and
HITS 100 Sport. Take care when using programme titles as part of your schedule,
for example Youre listening to Weekend Tonight. Its in everyones interest to
promote the radio station name, then the personalities name in that order.
Programme names will weaken your on-air brand; use them at your peril. Step four.
Achieve cut through with your station voice Station personality can be as outgoing
or discreet as your format and desired place in the market dictates. Start with a
voice that reflects your target age group, maybe compliments where you want to be
in terms of male/female onair voice balance or age group, start to think about
what sort of image your chosen voice gives when he/she reads your
logo/positioning statement. Fully utilise the voice on IDs, sweepers, and station
promos. If you can integrate the voice into your phone system to greet people then
do so. Step five. Raising awareness through other media Promoting yourself through
other media is often a costly investment so consistency is key here. Dont deviate
from your station logo and livery when ordering clothing, youve probably invested
a lot of design money in it to start with. If its for staff use they often need to
be spotted quickly when on remote/outside broadcasts, bear that in mind. If youre
using television for example remember that a large percentage of your listeners
will often not know what your mid morning presenter looks like so try not to spoil
the illusion of radio. What is the unique selling point or proposition you are try
to advertise, think creatively and challenge the brief, use your presenters
selectively in this way, avoiding shots of presenters adjusting headphones in
studio at all costs. Step six. Writing correctly for your station house news style
In news bulletins always think about your listener and make every story relevant to
them. If its a big story, dont be afraid to lead the bulletin with audio. When
you clip interviewees or have big hitters in your bulletin, include the use of the
station name whenever possible. For example, Speaking on Hits 100 Tony Blair
said or Speaking to Hits 100 Tony Blair said If you use regular contributors
for travel and weather information, add them to the pool of available voices and
call on them for comments when stories crop up in their field of expertise. Include
your broadcast area in weather bulletins but rather than say the weather for my
town and Broadshire Something like, itll be mainly dry across My town and
Broadshire thisevening will have more of a direct reference and connection with
listeners. Step seven. Self promotion on your station If your listening hours
average at about 10 per week, that means your average listener can tune in for just
under 1.5 hours per day. What else they hear about during that time might encourage
them to listen longer or tune in at another time. Use fixed slots to run
promotional campaigns and concentrate on your monthly promotional priorities. If
you havent got the facility to put together built promos every time, talk up
sheets with the bare detail and adlibbed by the presenter are a great substitute.
Step eight. Keeping your on-air sound familiar If your station is known for news
weather and travel, keep it that way and present it in that order. Listeners like
consistency especially when commuting; they like to know that when the half past
headlines come on, that it is half past the hour, even without a time check and
that the weather will follow those headlines if thats the usual case. Chances are
listeners could time their journey by landmarks arrived at whilst hearing key
programme points and junctions on your station utilise this routine. Use standard
out cues on your travel, weather and news bulletins. Step nine. Remember your onair identity Some sort of station identification across your output is key for
recognition and memorability. Jingles, sweepers and voiceovers play a big part in
showcasing your station personality and setting the mood in the first place. They
are the biggest building blocks you have in creating your station sound. Fashion
and the market place often dictate whats currently popular. Avoid jingles for
everything; your presenters will probably want a jingle for every feature and event

you broadcast. The likelihood is that only a few will be played, favourites will
begin to show and often at the same time each day if they are incorporated into a
built playout system running order, predictable. Step ten. Write a sound style
guide for your staff In order to benefit from utilising the previous nine points,
its essential that your house style is recorded and made available to station
staff. Write a station house style guide incorporating the above pointers
interpreted correctly for your station sound. Publish it as a freely available
booklet that shows pride and commitment to your area and the level of importance of
such a publication - not just a paper handout. That way it will have much more
impact and will be a useful training manual for new staff and ensure that existing
staff work in and around the style or sound you wish to create.These points are a
glue to bind the individual aspects of your output into a clear, focussed,
consistent sounding radio station that can make the smallest station sound big,
joined up and connected. Utilise each of the points as you see fit for your format.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Philip Hilton is a radio consultant specialising in station sound. Since 1985 he
has been involved as a presenter and producer in commercial and BBC radio. Philip
is a radio trouble-shooter who specialises in building and maintaining station
sound, ID commissioning, and managing and working with radio station staff to
improve ratings. As a promo/commercial producer, Philip has won several awards for
his work.Starting in online journalism ## HYPERLINK
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e/id,4/" #David Brewer# ###The basicsThe purpose of every news website is to
deliver essential information to its users in the most effective, elegant, and
efficient manner. This means it must inform quickly and simply, that it must be
pleasing on the eye and make people want to return to the site time and time again,
and it must be fast loading and free of wasted words and padding. The role of an
online journalist is largely similar to that of any other journalist. The
journalistic rules are the same; the only differences are the platform you are
writing on and the skills you need to present that information online.You are
still dealing with facts. Your sentences still need to make sense. They must have a
subject, a verb, and an object. You will still be presenting the absolute
essentials of a story, and you will be asking the basic questions, who, why, where,
when, what, and how.The story format will be pyramid journalism (writing that can
be cut at any point and still make sense). This is for reasons that will be
explained in the multiplatform authoring module.The website remitIf the website
you are working on is a stand-alone production (one that is not connected to
another media operation) you will be free to present the information as you see
fit, within your newsrooms editorial guidelines. However, if the website you are
working on is part of a larger media concern, you will be expected to reflect that
media operations newsgathering and news production strengths online.In more and
more cases, websites that belong to a broadcaster, or a newspaper, function as part

of a converged news operation. The aim is to reflect the news brand across all
outlets, including online and other interactive platforms. In that case, you will
need to come up with a persuasive reason for investing resources in covering
different stories online than your news organisation is covering in print of on
air.You will be expected to offer a different treatment and add value with content
and functionality aimed at the online audience, but the user should find the same
facts, tone and focus online as they do wherever else your news organisation is
delivering news content.Your role is to include the elements that increase and
enhance a user's understanding of a story, or enable that user to engage with you
and others about the news item in ways that they can't on air or in print.
Unlimited spaceThere was a time when it was felt that one of the Webs strengths
was that it didnt limit the journalists to a particular story length. Journalists
could write as much as they wanted. All the column-inch restrictions that applied
to print journalists, and the news bulletin time limits that applied to TV and
radio, were not relevant to online journalism.This
was and is true, but, if that freedom is not managed properly, it can lead to
lazy, undisciplined writing. News stories need to have a standard style, layout,
and format. There will always be cases where longer, background features are needed
in order to explore issues in-depth. However, hard news stories still have to be
presented in tight, short-form writing.The news stories need to follow a standard
house style. There needs to be a consistency of presentation format so that the
audience feels comfortable with what they are reading.Story length andstyleThe
ideal online news story will be in the region of 500 words. This is not a hard and
fast rule, just a guide. Features and in-depth analysis pieces can be more, but the
basic news stories should remain short.More and more Web journalists will be
creating content that will also be published on other digital devices. Because of
this, it is important that you learn to write as economically as possible with no
unnecessary or wasted words.The news operation you work for will probably have a
newsroom CMS (or content management system), this is where you write your stories.
There are usually boxes for the headline and summary, and another field for the
rest of the story. There might be functions for adding images, audio and video,
links, and text boxes. Some of the boxes, or fields, might have character
limitations so that you cant write too much. This will usually be because the
content you write for the Web is also to be sent to other text-based platforms,
such as SMS and WAP (more about that in the multiplatform authoring module).Story
constructionThe headline needs to make sense standing alone. It must not be a
label. It will be a short sentence. This is not only good journalism, but it also
means that your news organisation can use the material as a headline ticker on
other platforms.The first paragraph must not repeat the headline, but must add
information without duplication. It must also work on its own and with the
headline. Your news organisation might want to use this for an SMS service. You
might find that your news organisation has arranged the CMS so that the headline
and summary of your story automatically publishes on the index page of the section
you are working in, or the front page of the site.The next part of the story will
be a series of paragraphs, each adding more and more essential facts to the story.
By the time you have written 100 words you should have presented the main elements
of the story. The remaining 400 words can be used to add value, including quotes,
statistics, and analysis.Many people choose to write sentence-long paragraphs for
the Web. There is no hard and fast rule. Some feel the breaks make it easier on the
eye; others elect to stick with conventional paragraphs. You will need to adapt to
the house style of the site you are working on.Story deconstructionIf you feel
your story is worth more than 500 words, and can only be told properly in 1,500, it
might be worth laying all the facts out and seeing whether you can deconstruct the
story into small, but related, component parts.Deconstructing a longer news story
is an important technique for the online journalist. It means that they can still
offer the core facts of the story in 500 words, but they can also offer links to
separate stories, which offer further explanation of elements within the main
story. It also means that the user is not faced with too much text, and it breaks
the text into manageable chunks. It also makes business sense. If you are working

on a commercial news site, and the income is generated from adverts placed on the
site, the deconstruction of the story creates more opportunities for the
positioning of adverts.Each part of the deconstructed story will have its own
headline and these headlines can be flagged up in the main story (and each part of
the deconstructed story) as related news items. Story deconstruction enables you to
show the basic essential elements of the news item in the main story, while, at the
same time, offering you a tool for explaining the more complex issues in what some
people call, side bars.Facts not paddingAs explained earlier, there was a time
when it was felt that a Web journalist could write as much as she or he felt like.
Those times have changed. In a media world where many news organisations are
creating content once for multiple outlets, the days of producing long unwieldy
text for news stories are past. Features are different, but news stories need a
news discipline.For the user, time often costs money. They will not thank you for
padding between the facts, or indulging in poetic pros when what they want are the
essential details. Your job is to deliver facts to users in the most efficient and
effective manner, not to obscure those facts with unnecessary verbiage. Those who
turn to your site for news will not want to keep clicking on stories that say
little more than the headline and summary.They must always find some unique added
value. They will not want to scroll through a WAP version of your Website to find
that the call charge is spiraling, but their information they are receiving is not
adding to their understanding of the story.Making the most of the webHaving said
that, the web offers many fascinating ways to tell a story differently. When the
editor hands a story to a journalist there is usually a top line. Something has
happened, there are some basic facts already in. The journalist has to make sense
of it and deliver a report as quickly as possible.Take the hypothetical example of
a train crash between Paris and Calais that happened during the evening rush hour.
First reports are that 15 people are dead and 50 injured. Emergency services are at
the scene. It is the third major accident on the French rail network in the last
two years.The basic facts of the story are ideal material for a text box. As the
journalist pieces together the missing details of the story those facts can be
written in a box that can sit inside the story. This serves a number of purposes.
It offers the user a quick-glance view of the main elements without having to read
the whole story. The text box can then also be used in other stories, or on the
sites main page, and it also offers a break in the text in your story page.
Timelines and fact filesUsing the same technique, you can return to the story at a
later stage and produce another text box offering a time line or a fact file.If,
in the hypothetical case mentioned above, this had been the third major accident on
the French rail network in the last two years, the time line could trace this with
dates and details.These, in turn, can link to the stories covered at the time,
making the text box a valuable tool in helping the user navigate a complex grouping
of facts.Again, these text boxes, timelines, and fact files, can be used in all
the other stories, offering the user, wherever she or he ends up, all the details
they need in one place, with the opportunity to find out more by clicking on the
issue or fact they are most interested in.Graphics and imagesGraphics can provide
a great way to deliver the basic facts of a story in a way that catches the eye and
informs at a glance. They are not a substitute for well-written text, but if
included in a story, can draw out, or point up, important details from your story.
Take for example the story of the sinking of the Russian nuclear submarine Kursk in
August 2000. CNN created an online special. In it, they had two graphics that
summed up two main details in two simple images. One showed the Kursk alongside a
jumbo jet. # INCLUDEPICTURE
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MERGEFORMATINET ###The other showed it on the seabed alongside the Eiffel tower.#
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MERGEFORMATINET ###The user could see clearly the size of the vessel, and how deep
it was lying in the Barents Sea. Graphics do not replace the words, but they can
help users understand the more complex facts and figures in a way that both informs
and entertains.Images and captionsImages, particularly those used on the front

page and the section index pages, should tease a user into the story. Head and
shoulder pictures are rarely the best choice, although in some stories, such as
political meetings, they are hard to avoid. However, a powerful image can add
enormous value to the impact of stories. The best pictures are those that stop the
user in his or her tracks. The images also need to be looking into a page. If your
Website puts its images to the right of a story, you dont want the subject looking
right. That would mean they are looking out of the page rather than into it.
Captions need to enhance understanding and stimulate interest. They are not labels.
They must not state the obvious. They, and the headline, are often one of the most
difficult pieces of text to write. Get it wrong and the credibility of your news
brand could suffer. Read them over and over again. Ambiguous headlines and captions
are a real danger. Think through how your words might be misinterpreted and
misunderstood. If there is any doubt, rewrite it and keep it simple.The aim is not
to be clever. Being clever can confuse. The aim is to be clear, crisp and capture
the reader interest so they will read the story and find out more.Original content
and plagiarism With most breaking news stories, the major news operations will be
dealing in the same facts. Their sources will usually be the same; they will be
feeding off the same wires services and making similar check calls. It is not
surprising to find almost identical stories being published on different sites.
In all cases, a news operation should try to find out how they can add a value
element the other news outlets cant deliver.At times like these, the online
journalist might want to include a quote from an exclusive report from the scene
filed by one of the news organisations correspondents. If the website is attached
to a newspaper there might be an exclusive photograph taken by one of the papers
photographers. If there is, this should go at the top and be flagged as such. If
you are working for a website connected to a radio or TV broadcaster there might be
exclusive audio just in, or a clip of some video only your organisation has and
which you can add to the story. The key is to look for originality. Find out what
your news operation does that the others cant match and focus on presenting that
rather than worrying about where the opposition is stealing the lead in other
areas.Never lift content from another site and present it as your own. Not only is
it unethical, it is also extremely dangerous. If you cant verify every fact and
detail as either coming from your own sources, or from one of your news
organisations correspondents, dont include it.Plagiarism is all too easy in the
cut and paste world of computer screens and the web. There was a saying that the
web was all about copy and improve. In a way that is understandable when it comes
to design and layout. However, it is never acceptable when it comes to story
detail.Despite being dishonest, plagiarism means signing your news brand's
reputation up to details you do not know are true. Once you write a sentence and it
is published on your site, it is then considered to be verified by your news
organisation. It is a massive risk, both personally and professionally. Only
publish what you know to be true and what you can stand by.Getting it first, or
getting it rightOnce a news story has broken and the information is in the public
domain, it is often a race to be first with the news. Trying to beat the
competition is a worthy aim, but only if you are sure you have all the facts and
that they have been checked and double-checked.There is nothing worse than sending
out a breaking news alert and then having to retract the story. Your users will
realise you got it wrong. They will seldom know when you got it right and beat the
opposition. They may not even care.Dont deal in rumour. Tempting as it might be
to carry vague details of an incident that has taken place, only stick to
verifiable facts. You can flag up to the users that something is going on. Breaking
news ticker headlines such as reports are coming are acceptable. However,
unless you are a correspondent on the ground and in the know, you must not
speculate on the cause until it has been confirmed by a reliable authority.Comment
and opinionAs in all journalism, the role of the reporter is to present fact. You
are not there to add comment, and you are certainly not there to voice an opinion.
If you are a correspondent, with a particular brief and an expertise, you will be
expected to offer analyis of a situation you are covering, this could include your
informed view on how it is likely to develop. However, most web journalists

working on a general news site will not be required to do this. Comments and
opinions have to be attributed and not woven into a story as if they are facts.
They are only justified if they come from someone involved in the incident.
However, valid quotes expressing an opinion have a useful role to play in online
journalism. You might want to add a text box to the story with the most powerful
quote. This not only breaks up the text, in the same way as an image would, but it
also offers another chance to catch the eye of the reader with one of the most
important elements of the story.Use them sparingly. Two in one story might be too
much, bearing in mind you might also have an image, a fact box, and a graphic.
Dont over clutter with gimmicks. Only use those that help tell the story properly.
Too many and you might start to lose the readers interest.Publishing an article
in partsIn a breaking news situation you often have very little to go on. There
might be one fact on which the story is based. The first thing is to knock out the
one sentence containing what you know and publish that. You can then continue to
add to the story, republishing as you go.The first version might not even contain
an image. It might be one short sentence. The next paragraph might be some
background material. It could be a sentence putting the event into context. Each
time a sentence is added to the story, you can republish. There is no point
holding back until you have the whole story if you are in a breaking news
situation. You need to publish as you learn more. Always remember that a fresh
summary, picture, and headline might be needed as the story develops and grows.
However, dont get carried away. There is a skill to knowing when a story is
finished and when another story begins.When to save and when to overwriteAs a
breaking news story develops, more and more information will be added. Eventually
it will be a full story. However, more information will continue to arrive.A key
skill of an online journalist is knowing when to save a story as an archive of an
event in history, and when to start a new version.For example, consider the story
of the two planes that flew into the twin towers on 9/11. If the story had been
continually overwritten, there would not be a version covering the first incident.
All we would have would be a story telling of both incidents. Taken to the extreme,
all we would have is the opening of the memorial park at Ground Zero two years on.
However, the first incident was a story in its own right, and a milestone in
history, which we might want to link back to in years to come. Therefore, you need
to know when to stop adding to, or overwriting an existing story and when to start
a fresh version.This is usually the duty of the person who is running the site and
who has instructed you as to what is needed, but you need to think of it too.
Issues like this will be covered in the managing a website module.Links, the
benefits and dangersUsability studies have shown that, for some, the links we
offer on our stories are one of the most important elements. Links should be seen
as part of the story. Otherwise there is no pointing including them. They should
also be seen as adding value to the words we write. They are not there to repeat
those words, but to offer further information that we are either not able to say,
or have not researched.A typical example would be links to research papers which
back a particular scientific finding that is running in the news. The lazy option
is to link to the front page of the educational establishment that carried out the
research, or to the home page of a company that might be in the news.The proper
way is to link to the actual content that features in the piece you are writing.
Even better if you can link to the detail that you dont have time or space to
explain. You need to spend time researching these links to make sure they are worth
offering as another click for the person reading your story.Although links can be
a valuable tool in helping you tell a story, there are also many dangers lurking in
links.You have no control over the content to which you are linking. You might be
linking to the right page as you build the story, but who is to say that the person
running the site you are linking to wont put something else there in the future?
Advertisers can also take advantage of links. Journalists rarely return to check
them. It would be all too easy for an unscrupulous company to point the link at a
commercial page once they know you have added it to your site.You need to be
vigilant and only click to trusted sites that share a similar reputation to yours.
There is also the issue of taste and decency. Although most sites protect

themselves with words such as, this site takes no responsibility for the content
contained on the sites it links to, you need to take some responsibility as to
which sites you feel are appropriate to be associated with.One good rule is to
make sure that the content that exists one click beyond the link you are offering
matches the standards of taste and decency that you apply to your own site.
Cutting clutter and maximising the minimumIt is easy to become so immersed in a
story that you become swamped by details and lose site of what is important.
Sometimes the journalist writing a piece can be too close to the facts and unable
to see the top line.Journalists can sometimes make too many calls, look up too
many background pieces, and be too involved in the subject to see the real news
angle. Their minds, like their desks, become cluttered with data.There is an art
inonline journalism of cutting the clutter to reveal the core of a story. Often
the duty editor or chief sub will help. If you are on your own, you will
continually need to keep asking yourself what the story is about, what has
happened, why it is important, who it affects, how it affects them, and what is
likely to happen next. Leave the complexities aside, go back to basics. What is
the one line that sums up the story? Keep it simple with short, sharp sentences.
List what you know. Dont try to be clever. You are writing to inform ordinary
people, not impress your peer group.At other times, you will have very few facts,
but you will still be expected to write a piece. A running news story will need
updating and you might only have one fresh detail to go on. Your task then will be
the opposite of cutting the clutter. In these circumstances, you will be forced to
maximise the minimum. There is an art to this
too. You must not trivialise the issue by drawing it out dishonestly, but you can
add real value be restating the obvious in the context of a breaking news story.
This is not a matter of padding with verbiage, but rather a matter of thinking what
ordinary people will be wondering and filling the gaps with information stored
within your news organisation and presenting that online.Dont underestimate a
reader's intelligence by overstating the obvious, but also be careful not to
undersell the story by failing to state the basics. It is a fine balancing act,
but, once perfected, it can make a meaningful news story out of one new fact. Again
dont rule out trying to add a quote from one of your news organisations
specialist correspondents. This again adds a value specific to your news
output.##Investing in your staff ## HYPERLINK
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"http://www.mediahelpingmedia.org/content/section/6/234/" #Training# - # HYPERLINK
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##By # HYPERLINK
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/user,64/Itemid,284/" ### HYPERLINK
"http://www.mediahelpingmedia.org/component/option,com_agora/Itemid,288/task,profil
e/id,4/" #David Brewer# ##Thursday, 17 January 2008 ###Media training should be
about investment in people --- your staff. They should be your most precious
resource. Without them, you will struggle to deliver your service to your
customers.Staff training best practice#Media training, badly done, can damage a
news organisation. Media training, which focuses on staff development and which is
tied in with the media organisations core editorial proposition and business plan,
is essential.##The training you offer your staff needs to ensure they have the

skills to do the job they are being asked to do. If you want your media
organisation to grow, your staff must blossom in order to help you take it to
levels you might not have previously foreseen it reaching.Appraisals#The best
training programmes emerge from a media organisations appraisal system and are
carried out internally, with perhaps a few outside trainers brought in to offer a
broader view. Each member of staff will have an annual appraisal. These will
usually involve quarterly reviews, where performance is assessed against agreed
objectives.##The purpose of appraisals is to help staff achieve their full
potential within the business. The appraisal system will reveal areas where staff
need to develop and where their talents can be best exploited. A healthy appraisal
system will be closely linked to a solid training programme which focuses on
business need and personal development.Business-focused training#For all the
following training objectives you need to:Ensure the details are written up in no
more than ten concise bullet points and published for all staff to see Create a
series of workshops where these points are discussed and developed Ensure all staff
attend at least once a year.Invest in staff#Your staff will respond better to the
objectives you set for them and your appraisal of their work if you treat them as a
valued asset. If you include them in the way the news organisation is developing
you might find they respond better to the challenges you set for them. To INVEST
in your staff you should:Involve: Make sure they feel part of the news
organisation by feeding them a steady flow of information via the Intranet,
newsletters and regular meetings Nurture: They need to feel that the organisation
they are working for has their interests at heart and will help them grow in their
careers Value: Never view your staff as numbers in a work roster; value them as
individuals who can bring different and fresh perspectives to the company Engage:
Ask them for their views and when they offer them, take them seriously and
implement the best ideas Support: Make sure you take time to listen and understand
when they are finding things tough, don't just leave it to HR (the human resource
department). Training: You are more likely to attract and retain staff if you have
a reputation for offering the best in-house and off-site training.Involve#This is
probably one of the most important areas. If your staff dont understand what the
business needs from them then the rest of the training wont make sense. #Without
that understanding they wont see the importance of your objectives and their part
in realising them. If you take time to include them with regular updates about what
is happening they will be better motivated and more likely to fulfil their
potential.Nurture#Your staff should always be looking for advancement, whether it
is professional development in terms of learning, financial growth, or promotion.
You might not be in a position to offer great financial rewards; this might not be
their priority concern. Some will thrive on being given extra responsibility. Some
will want to feel that you are interested in their development. Some will want to
be stretched. All will want to be in an environment where they feel they can
develop.Value#It's too easy to hire staff because you have a job to be done. Of
course that is always the case, but there is more to it than that. Always hire
staff to do the next job along the line. Don't hire with only the current vacancy
in mind. Yes, you will have to fill that role, but you don't want to hire someone
to do the same job for the rest of their lives. You need to hire for the future,
too. If you hire with that in mind you are more likely to value your staff.Engage
#It will always be hard to motivate staff if they feel they have no say in the
running of the organisation. You need to engage them at every level. Clearly,
senior managers will have to make many of the hard business decisions, but never be
afraid of devolving responsibility and asking staff for their views. You might find
that they respond in a far more positive and helpful way than you imagined they
could. Engaging the staff in your media organisation's business makes them more
likely to go the extra mile when needed.Support#Too many managers go cold and back
off when a member of staff is in trouble. You need to be there for them, or at
least ensure that someone is. It's not about becoming an agony aunt, it's about
helping them through the tough times, understanding the issues they face, and
helping them address and solve them. Again, if you nurture and value them you will
find they will pay you back.Training#Another area of staff development often

viewed as a burden, extra cost, and a box to be ticked. Take that attitude and your
staff will never grow. Make sure all training is relevant. It should stem from the
whole process of objective setting and appraisals. It should tie the two together.
It will relate the objectives you have set for your staff (preferably objectives
previously agreed with the member of staff) with the conversations you have with
them during their appraisals. The training sets out what needs to happen for them
to meet their objectives. A good training programme is crucial.#This module can be
discussed by adding comments (below) or going to the wiki version in the MHM
wiki.##Setting objectives ## HYPERLINK
"http://www.mediahelpingmedia.org/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=296" \o
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##By # HYPERLINK
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/user,239/Itemid,234/" ### HYPERLINK
"http://www.mediahelpingmedia.org/component/option,com_agora/Itemid,288/task,profil
e/id,4/" #David Brewer# ##Thursday, 17 January 2008 ###It is important that
media managers set objectives for their staff. There will be organisation-wide
objectives, unit objectives (newsroom, technical, sales, marketing, etc.) and
objectives set for the performance of individuals. This page deals with setting
objectives for individual members of staff.Setting objectivesMany organisation
use what are called SMART objectives:Specific (concrete, detailed, well defined)
Measurable (quantity, comparison) Achievable (feasible, actionable) Realistic
(considering resources) Time-Bound (a defined timeline)SpecificThe objective is
concrete, detailed, focused and
well defined. Its results and action-orientated. It must emphasise action and the
required outcome. You will need to communicate clearly what you would like to see
happen. Interestingly, some of the basic questions used everyday by journalists
help staff understand the first of the SMART objectives; What, Why, Who, When and
How.'What'' am I going to do?''Why'' is this important for me to do? ''Who'' is
going to do what? Who else need to be involved? ''When'' do I want this to be
completed? ''How'' am I going to do this?AchievableThere is no point setting an
objective if the member of staff is unable to achieve it/ If it is too far in the
future you will find it difficult to motivate staff and they will find it difficult
to attain. Check the following questions:Can we get it done in the proposed
timeframe? Do I understand the limitations and constraints? Can we do this with the
resources we have? Has anyone else done this successfully? Is this possible?
RealisticRealistic means having the resources to get the job done. However, while
its important to keep objectives realistic, they must still stretch. Ask these
questions:Do the resources exist to make this happen? Will other priorities
suffer? What needs to give? What needs to be achieved?MeasurableIt is sometimes
said that if you cant measure something, you cant manage it. Measurements help
you know whether you are achieving your objective. Ask these questions: How will I
know that the change has occurred? Can these measurements be obtained? Who is doing
the calculations? Are they aware of all the issues involved? Time-boundObjectives
are all about deadlines. Without deadlines things slip. Deadlines are also
important for motivation and urgency. Ask these questions:When will this objective
be accomplished? Is there a stated deadline? Why is the deadline there? Is it

realistic?##Media business strategies ## HYPERLINK


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##By # HYPERLINK
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/user,69/Itemid,234/" ### HYPERLINK
"http://www.mediahelpingmedia.org/component/option,com_agora/Itemid,288/task,profil
e/id,8/" #Premesh Chandran# ###Many media organisations are founded by
journalists. Too often, the business and sustainability issues are not addressed
until a later stage, sometimes only in the face of dwindling grant support. In #
HYPERLINK "http://www.malaysiakini.com/" \o "Malaysiakini" \t "_blank"
#Malaysiakini#s case, the strong partnership between the two founders and their
respective focus on business and editorial, allowed a more balanced growth and the
ability to face both business and editorial challenges.#Legislative Environment#
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MERGEFORMATINET ###Premesh ChandranPrint and broadcast media in Malaysia is
indirectly controlled by the state through rigid licensing. Only the media owned by
political parties or those aligned closely to the ruling coalition is allowed to
exist. This stifles independent news coverage. ##In the mid 1990s, Malaysia created
the Multimedia Super Corridor, a zone with special laws to attract foreign
investment in the IT sector. As part of this effort, the government pronounced that
the Internet would not be censored. In 1998, the no censorship policy was included
in the Communications and Multimedia Act (CMA). ##Although the CMA allowed online
media to exist without licensing, such media continued to be subject to other media
laws, such as the Sedition Act and the Official Secrets Act --- thereby ensuring
some degree of restraint on the part of online media. ##In September 1998, the
Asian Economic Crisis produced a split in the leadership, leading to the ousting
and detention of deputy prime minister, Anwar Ibrahim. The compliant media failed
to deliver accurate and balanced coverage of the political crisis. ##Responding to
the need for covering all angles of the news, Premesh Chandran and Steven Gan
proposed the formation of an online media organization Malaysiakini.com. With a
track record in journalism and human rights activism, $100,000 was raised from the
Southeast Asian Press Alliance. # HYPERLINK "http://www.malaysiakini.com/"
#Malaysiakini.com# was launched on November 20th 1999 with a mission: ##To use the
Internet to provide independent and balanced news to the Malaysian public and to
set new standards in journalism as well as to support the development of freedom of
speech, social justice and democracy in Malaysia. ##The site was well received.
Its popularity grew rapidly, reaching 100,000 unique visitors per day by August
2000. Malaysiakini today#Malaysiakini currently publishes more than 60 articles per
day, in English, Malay and Chinese, in the categories of news, letters, features,
opinions, columns and editorials. There are also political cartoons and links to
blogs and other relevant content. ##Malaysiakini charges a subscription of US$40
per year. There are about 5000 paying subscribers, although due to sharing of
passwords, there are about 20,000 logins per day. Taking into account readers who
view the free content, Malaysiakini now reaches about 100,000 readers directly on a
daily basis. We estimate that about 500,000 access Malaysiakini directly or

indirectly every month. Operating Structure# INCLUDEPICTURE


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Impact on Press Freedom#Primarily, Malaysiakinis ability to reach 500,000 people
directly or indirectly has a major impact on press freedom. The debate and
discussion on Malaysiakini is vibrant and informative, and has led to significant
policy changes. These includes the government creating a commission to investigate
police conduct, changes to waste management, addressing complaints of corruption
and responding to issues of local government. ##By reporting todays news today,
Malaysiakini has also put pressure on traditional media to report more accurately
and independently. Traditional media has improved its coverage, and has also
started reminding the government that too much control will drive readers away from
newspapers and TV. Evolution of our business strategy#Malaysiakini was launched as
a grant dependent, non-profit organization. Besides grants, Malaysiakini targeted
revenue from advertising, mainly from cash-rich dotcoms. In its first year,
Malaysiakini earned more than $25,000. As revenue and readership grew through the
year, Malaysiakini grew from six to 18 staff and matured into a semi-commercial
organization. At the end of the year, Malaysiakini began negotiating with the #
HYPERLINK "http://www.mdlf.org/" #Media Development Loan Fund# (MDLF), which offers
affordable loans to independent media in transition countries..##However, dotcom
bust (triggered by the Nadsaq crash in April 2000), reached Malaysian shores by the
end of the year. In 2001, advertising revenue slowed to a trickle. Before the
middle of the year, Malaysiakini was forced to make some tough decisions. The
choice was to return to a small grant dependent organization or develop a
sustainable revenue model. Grant Model#As Malaysiakini had previous obtained
grants, it was a possible option to continue being grant-dependent for a period of
time, until advertising or an alternative business model emerged. However, this
would mean reducing staff size by half. #The down-side was that dependence on
grants would counter the perception of editorial independence and instead reinforce
that notion that Malaysiakini carries with it the agenda of its international
funders. Subscription Model#In 2001, a few media organizations began testing the
subscription model with limited success as most Internet users refused to pay for
content. Malaysiakini had a necessary basis for introducing a subscription website
unique content, in high demand. Malaysiakini estimated that perhaps 10% of
100,000 readers would opt-in to the subscription model. ##However, the subscription
model would severely limit access to Malaysiakini. While this would be somewhat
overcome by individuals copying the content and circulating, the subscription model
placed business sustainability in opposition to the Malaysiakini mission of
providing independent news as a tool towards democracy building. ##It was also
recognized that the organization would need to create a strong business focus,
including setting up a marketing department and a strong technology department to
support payment and subscription management. There would be little net income from
subscription without a significant number of subscribers. ##Furthermore, the
reduced readership would result in loss in advertising revenue, although, this was
not an immediate problem as advertising income was low anyway. ##With the support
of MDLF, Malaysiakini decided to opt for the subscription model. It was seen as a
step towards
sustainability. This decision was based on reaching 10,000 subscribers in the
first year and releasing the reliance on grants.##Instead, we only reached 1,000
subscribers, barely covering the additional marketing and technology costs. This
forced Malaysiakini to continue to rely on grants, while increasing subscriptions.
In some way, this defeated the original objective. Nevertheless, developing
momentum towards subscription and sustainability created a fundamental change in
Malaysiakini, with a sharp focus on becoming grant-free. ##Malaysiakini began by
launching a new subscription service called Strategic Analysis Malaysia (SAM), a
fortnightly political intelligence report following local political developments
and aimed at institutions. ##Using the SAM experience, Malaysiakini launched the
subscription based service in February 2002. Some of the components of the launch
included: Developing a pre-paid card called e-coupon which was sold at retail
outlets, to assist online payment among Malaysians without credit cards and who

want to remain anonymous. Developing a relationship with retail chains to sell the
e-coupon Developing software to manage subscriptions Integrating with MDLFs estore to complete credit card transactions online Integrating with online banking
services Deciding which areas of the website should be free and paid Producing
marketing material, developing alliances for promotions#In April 2002, based on
Malaysiakinis business plan, MDLF invested $350,000 for a 29% stake in
Malaysiakini. ##As mentioned earlier, subscription efforts failed to reach the
targets. Following prime minister, Dr Mahathirs decision to step down in mid 2002,
Malaysiakini applied for a license to publish a weekly newspaper. However, the
government has yet to grant us the license. ##In 2003, Malaysiakini focused on
improving the subscription offering including improvements in content, technology
and subscription process. Subscription revenue improved by 57%. However, it was
clear that the growth was insufficient to achieve breakeven within five years.
##Responding to these developments, Malaysiakini decided on the following: Increase
subscription rate by 33% Develop a greater online presence Develop new revenue
streams.#Since 2004, Malaysiakini has been expanding its Internet presence.
Malaysiakini launched a lifestyle section called Rentakini, as well as launching
Chinese and Malay language editions. Malaysiakini is now expanding into Internet
TV. ##In order to sustain our technology development, Malaysiakini successfully
raised funds to set up the # HYPERLINK "http://www.seacem.com/" #Southeast Asian
Centre for E-media# (Seacem). Seacems mission is to build ICT capacities in civil
society and independent media. The Seacem grant allows Malaysiakinis tech team to
build new technologies that is then shared with other ICT users. As mentioned
earlier, there is a minimum cost to building and maintaining subscription
management software. In order to maximum the return on this investment,
Malaysiakini created a subsidiary called Manage4me that handles subscription for
Malaysiakini and other similar subscription services. This service, located at
manage4me.com was launched in December 2004. ##Malaysiakini also launched its own
online bookshop called Kinibooks, which sells books on Malaysian current affairs.
Kinibooks is tightly linked to Malaysiakini, driving readers to books on similar
topics. Kinibooks earns a commission of 35% on all books sold on Kinibooks. ##With
40% annual growth in subscription revenue plus income from various projects,
advertising and grants, Malaysiakini was able to breakeven in 2004, and 2005. It is
expected to do the same in 2006, with the following financial structure .
Development of Business Strategy#Over the next three years, Malaysiakini will seek
to do the following: ##a. Subscriptions are expected to grow by 25% for the next
three years, reaching $365,000 by 2009 before moderating to 15% per year.
Malaysiakini will achieve the subscription revenue targets by improvements in
editorial offering, marketing, payment management and additional services that
reduce password sharing##b. Malaysiakini intends to introduce new advertising
products such as text ads, tower ads and video ads. Advertising sales will be
intensified, with more marketing targeted at advertising agencies and institutions.
As readership, visibility and advertising products increases, Malaysiakini expects
advertising income to grow by 60% each year reaching $130,000 by 2009. Growth is
then expected to moderate to 20% per year. ##c. Malaysiakini expects to reduce its
reliance on grants from the current level of 37% to 25% by 2009. ##d. Malaysiakini
will build Seacem, Manage4me and Kinibooks to ensure that revenue is diversified.
##e. Malaysiakini intends to develop a key focus in Internet TV, both within
Malaysia, and to launch an Asian wide Internet TV offering called Asia247.tv.Key
Elements of Malaysiakinis sustainability#The trajectory of Malaysiakini has been
described above. In order to conclude the experience, there should be several
factors highlighted. ##a. Good partnership between the founders, focus on business
and editorial##Many media organisations are founded by journalists. Too often the
business and sustainability issues are not addressed until a later stage, sometime
only in the face of dwindling grant support. In Malaysiakinis case, the strong
partnership between the two founders and their respective focus on business and
editorial, allowed a more balanced growth and the ability to face both business and
editorial challenges. Although there were many mistakes made on the business side
due to inexperience, having clear responsibilities and focuses are critical. ##b.

Committed team members##All organisations would not succeed if they fail to attract
committed and talented staff members. The opposite is also true, that the
Malaysiakini team have been critical in developing organisation, including sticking
with Malaysiakini during tough times. In areas without committed team members,
Malaysiakinis development has stagnated. ##c. Strong support from local and
international civil society and foundations##Since its inception, Malaysiakini
found strong support from locally and internationally, in the form of grants,
awards and recognition. Such support was a major moral booster and played a
critical role in supporting the growth of the organisation. In the early stages,
such support was forthcoming because of the previous activist and journalist
experience of the co-founders. However, in most cases, few funding organisations
are willing to take risks and to fund new projects with unknown personalities. In
order to support media development, there is a need for more investment in creating
an environment whereby small organisations can grow to a stage that they are
recognised and receive funding. ##d. Critical support from MDLF##The Media
Development Loan Fund played a critical role in assisting and shaping Malaysiakini.
Besides investing in Malaysiakini, MDLF assisted by: Providing capacity building
for journalists to become media managers Creating (or reinforcing) a balance
between editorial and business focus Understanding of the politics of emerging
democracies Crisis assistance, loans, grants Networking with other independent
media via MDLF bi-annual media forum Access to big players like Wall Street
Journal. Perspectives on media developmentPromoting media development has become
an integral part of Malaysiakinis broader mission. Towards this end, Malaysiakini
has participated in the Global Forum on Media Development and hosted the first
Asian New Media Forum in January 2006 and spoken at various conferences about
Malaysiakinis experiences. ##While developing a strong sustainability focus,
Malaysiakini does see a critical role in media development and media assistance.
#Malaysiakini believes that todays media can be divided into three categories:
##a. Bloggers, Citizen Journalists and other types of volunteer media. #These
services tend to be small or niche operated by individuals and organisations.
Although their individual readership may not be big, they are a key element of the
media landscape, playing a role of highlighting issues and watch-dog role of big
media. Generally opinionated and ideological, most would appeal to a narrow
audience who agree with the perspective presented but collectively have a loud and
plural voice. ##b. Big media#Big media organisations have always had to trade off
editorial independence and courage against the interests of advertisers, owners and
government officials as well as populist interests and addictions. Now, with
audiences being further diluted by the Internet explosion, investments into quality
journalism is declining. This has given rise to the question of whether journalists
actually belong in the media industry. ##Nevertheless, big media organisations have
the reach and agenda setting power, absent in smaller media organisations. #c.
Public Service Journalism#Informed, independent journalism is a critical factor in
governance. There are tangible economic benefits for society at large, including
exposing corruption, giving visibility to trends and social dynamics, alerting the
public to health and other threats, opening space for public debate and generally
providing critical information to society. Societies that lack independent media,
are often economically inefficient, corrupt and lack the ability for long term
development. ##Good journalism suffers from the free-rider problem everybody
wants it, but nobody is willing to pay for it. One solution is public broadcast
system. However, most public broadcasters receive direct funding from the taxpayer,
are often not subject to market forces. They are often accused of catering
to the government of the day, becoming irrelevant to public interests, or of poor
quality. ##Perhaps the future lies with privately owned, public service journalism.
Such media organisations could compete for a pool of tax-payer funds, foundations
grants, public donations and public-service advertising by government and civil
society. ##Indeed grant-receiving civil society, encouraged by international aid
agencies and foundations, have to invest more in advertising in public service
media organisations. This would promote the agendas of civil society while
encouraging media to be more responsive to developmental issues. ##The three types

of media illustrated above form a reach media ecosystem, competing and


complementing the others. Issues sparked off by bloggers or public service
journalism become major issues demanding a response from the government only once
they hit primetime or the frontpages of major newspapers. At the same time, bias
and mistakes by big media is often mocked by small, more independent media. ##Hence
media development should be aimed at infusing the blogging community with
journalistic ethics, creating a financial sustainable environment for public
service journalism and ensure high level of accountability of big media
organisations. ##The crazy economics of news ## HYPERLINK
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"http://www.mediahelpingmedia.org/content/section/1/2/" #News and features# - #
HYPERLINK "http://www.mediahelpingmedia.org/content/blogcategory/43/205/" #Global#
##By # HYPERLINK
"http://www.mediahelpingmedia.org/component/option,com_comprofiler/task,userProfile
/user,165/Itemid,2/" ### HYPERLINK
"http://www.mediahelpingmedia.org/component/option,com_agora/Itemid,288/task,profil
e/id,53/" #Craig LaMay# ##Wednesday, 30 November 2005 ###For the past four
years I have been at work on a book about international media assistance and how it
fits into the larger enterprise of democracy promotion. In the process I have
come to know and admire two unique NGOs in this business, the # HYPERLINK
"http://www.mdlf.org/l" #Media Development Loan Fund# (in New York, Prague and
Warsaw) and the # HYPERLINK "http://www.samdef.com/" #Southern Africa Media
Development Fund# (in Gaborone).Both organizations are basically financing firms
that help quality journalism companies become disciplined, self-sustaining
businesses. This long-term approach is unusual in democracy assistance, which is
known for the attention-deficit disorder of donors.If the approach is courageous,
it is also a little bit crazy. Leaving aside for a moment the usual homilies about
journalisms role in democracy, the fact is that economics will always be
conspiring to undermine your best work. If youre a manager you know this
intuitively, but heres the textbook version: Journalism is, or at least has
many of the characteristics of, a public goodNews is not like cars or football
tickets or plumbing fixtures, but rather more like street lights or police
protection: one persons use (or consumption) of the good does not preclude use by
another. As a producer of news, I can try to limit access to what I produce, but
that would be inefficient and probably impossible. This has financial and social
consequences. The cost of preparing a television news program, for instance, is
the same whether it is broadcast to one person or one million, and no rational
person will produce such a program if he cannot recover his average cost of
production, that is, the cost of making the program, not the much smaller marginal
costs associated with distribution. (The irrational or altruistic person may do
this, but not for long.) But if no one produces news, we are all in trouble.
Journalism is an experience goodUnlike a motorcycle, a Bordeaux or a basketball, I
cannot make a reliable determination about the quality of a media product without
first consuming it.If I purchase and read Newspaper A I cannot know for certain
whether I would have been better off if I had instead purchased and read Newspaper
B and I am not going to do that. As a consumer faced with lots of media choices,
then, the best I can do is look for signals about content for example, the length
or style of stories, the design or presentation of the product that conform to my

preferences. Your problem in this environment is stimulating demand. This is why


magazines will often spend more to produce a cover than they will to produce the
rest of the issue. It is why, given a choice between Ariel Sharon and Pamela
Anderson for the cover photo, Pamela will often as not prevail. It is also why TV
news programs will repeatedly air the same story about a celebrity trial, a sex
scandal or a natural disaster. By the third or fourth airing, these stories offer
little or no new information and even re-cycle the same video, but as products they
succeed at a large scale and so enjoy network effects: They gain a hugely
disproportionate market share even as the incremental costs of producing the story
decline. The production of news is an inherently inefficient activityNews
is not like automobiles, computers or blue jeans, businesses in which many fewer
workers can now produce more product in less time than they could 10, 20 or 100
years ago. Put another way, good journalism is like good music, and is inefficient
in the same way. Two hundred years ago, for example, it took four musicians to
play Beethovens Opus 18, No. 4, and it took them about 20 minutes to play it.
Today the piece still requires four people and still takes 20 minutes to play.
There are some products, and news is one of them, where productivity remains flat
or nearly so, notwithstanding the addition of new technologies or other innovations
to the production line.Quality journalism the kind that involves reporters who
investigate and report, editors who edit and rewrite works very much the same
way. Good journalism is a hand-made product, and the only way to wring efficiencies
out of it is, unfortunately, to eliminate reporters or avoid serious newsgathering,
neither of which is a good thing for democracy. The consumption of public
affairs media is also an inherently inefficient activityEconomist Anthony Downs
long ago developed the theory of rational ignorance, which says that for most
people their time and money are more productively spent doing something other than
becoming well-informed citizens. Thats because the chances of any single vote
actually making a difference to a democratic electoral outcome is infinitesimally
small, and thus the time any of us spends reading, watching or thinking about the
news could be better spent clearing the garden or washing the car. In economic
terms, when journalists anywhere complain about the lack of serious, quality
journalism available to the public, they state the problem exactly backwards. The
problem is not the lack of supply, but the lack of demand. #Because most
audiences are rationally ignorant, business-savvy news organizations have a
powerful incentive to engage in what economist James Hamilton calls rational
omission with respect to public affairs and investigative journalism.##For all the
reasons above, quality news is less attractive to large audiences, is much more
costly to produce than sex, scandal and trivia, and brings lower returns. If your
first duty is to shareholders, editorial quality is going to suffer.##Some other
principles of public-interest economics also work against journalism, but these few
are discouraging enough. If you doubt their power, look at the recent experience of
the Knight Ridder Company in the United States. Among leading U.S. news
organizations, Knight Ridder alone bothered to carefully investigate the Bush
administrations evidence for its 2003 invasion of Iraq before the war began.
Knight Ridder reporters found the administrations sources non-credible and
reported on other sources with contrary views of Iraqs WMD capabilities. The
companys reward for its editorial courage arrived this fall, when its largest
shareholder, citing unacceptable profit margins, demanded that the company either
seek a single buyer for all of the companys 32 newspapers or sell the company off
piecemeal, paper by paper. At the time, Knight Ridder had just posted a dividend on
a 2004 profit margin of 19 percent. ##The truth is, of course, that quality publicaffairs media everywhere find it difficult to support themselves financially, and
there is no easy way around these economic problems. Trying to balance editorial
quality with fiduciary responsibility is always a dance with the devil. The
important thing, as with any dance partner, is who leads. And in this respect, I
have come to believe that media in developed Western democracies could learn a lot
from media companies in transition states where the best media firms many of them
clients of MDLF and SAMDEF take nothing for granted.##Issue-led journalism ##
HYPERLINK "http://www.mediahelpingmedia.org/index2.php?

option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=223" \o "PDF" \t "_blank" ## INCLUDEPICTURE


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" \* MERGEFORMATINET ####### HYPERLINK
"http://www.mediahelpingmedia.org/content/section/6/234/" #Training# - # HYPERLINK
"http://www.mediahelpingmedia.org/content/category/6/13/236/" #Media training# ##By
# HYPERLINK
"http://www.mediahelpingmedia.org/component/option,com_comprofiler/task,userProfile
/user,64/Itemid,234/" ### HYPERLINK
"http://www.mediahelpingmedia.org/component/option,com_agora/Itemid,288/task,profil
e/id,4/" #David Brewer# ###In the last module, 'Forward planning', we looked at
the importance of looking ahead and organising resources in order to ensure a
steady flow of high-quality, focussed output. This module, 'Issue-led journalism'
goes a step further and looks at what theforward planning editor needs to do in
order in order to deliver this.Because the forward planning editorwill be in
control of and the guardian of your news brands main editorial thrust (dont
forget, we are aiming to look to this person for around 75% of the daily output),
they need to be in tune with the news organisations core editorial proposition.
This will have been discussed and agreed at a much higher level. (See module on
creating a content strategy). The forward planning editor will be one of the most
important people charged with enforcing this. However they will need to enlist the
senior news brains in the organisations in defining how that core editorial
proposition plays out through issue-led journalism.The process is simple.Gather
the senior editorial team together and decide among you what are the key issues
concerning your audience. You will probably find it boils down to jobs, housing,
health, education, law and order and environment. Once agreed, these form the key
issues for your issue-led journalism strategy. (The issues might be vary, but not
much. I have carried out this exercise on five continents and the results are
broadly the same).So we have six issuesJobs (finance and the economy) Housing
Health Education Crime (law and order) Environment.Note that politics and
corruption are not listedas key issues, despite beingsuggested as suchalmost
every time I have carried out this exercise.This is because politics and
corruption can impactall the areas mentioned above and are common to all, rather
thanissues or topicsin their own right.Now we need to break down each issue into
topics, preferably six topics on each. Take health, for example. Depending on the
area and the priorities, typical topics might be HIV, TB, cancer, malaria,
malnutrition, heart disease. Regional differences weigh heavy here and the topics
are less easy to predict.Do the same exercise with your senior editorial team
until you have six topics for each of the six key issues.# INCLUDEPICTURE
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* MERGEFORMATINET ###Now we need to break it down one step further. We need to
dig deep for the stories about these topics that help people understand the issues
and encourage the authorities to address the audiences concerns.We need real
stories about real people on each topic. Ideally four stories for each. This is
not as hard as it sounds. Youll be surprised, or perhaps not, at how many stories
your team are aware of and can tap into. Take HIV, for example. There might be a
story about stigma, one about exclusion, another about the lack of available drugs,
another about fake drugs.By the end of this exercise you should have at least four
stories on each topic. That means you will have 144 original stories --- three for
every week of the year. And these are not one-off stories. # INCLUDEPICTURE
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MERGEFORMATINET ###These are part of your editorial strategy to provide issue-led

journalism that informs the public debate so that your audience can make educated
choices. # INCLUDEPICTURE
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MERGEFORMATINET ###These are part of your editorial strategy to provide issue-led
journalism that informs the public debate so that your audience can make educated
choices. This is responsible journalism. And it is clever journalism, too,
because, if you audience feels you are covering the issues that matter most to
them, they are more likely to stick with you.So, you now have 144 original stories
which are not one-offs. They are stories you will return to once every three months
to check the status and see what has happened. You might want toask politicians
about what they are going to do about the issues and topics and then, three months
later, find out what they did. Now the fun starts.You will soon start to set the
news agenda (rather than having it set for you, as before). Your competition will
be forced to follow up on the stories you have discovered. By the time they do, you
will be breaking a new story. And on it goes. Once you have decided to deliver
issue-led journalism there will be no stopping you. You will be the agendasetters.##Managing a news website - the basics ## HYPERLINK
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" \* MERGEFORMATINET ####### HYPERLINK
"http://www.mediahelpingmedia.org/content/section/6/234/" #Training# - # HYPERLINK
"http://www.mediahelpingmedia.org/content/category/6/13/236/" #Media training# ##By
# HYPERLINK
"http://www.mediahelpingmedia.org/component/option,com_comprofiler/task,userProfile
/user,64/Itemid,234/" ### HYPERLINK
"http://www.mediahelpingmedia.org/component/option,com_agora/Itemid,288/task,profil
e/id,4/" #David Brewer# ###The first module in this online journalism series ,
# HYPERLINK "http://www.mediahelpingmedia.org/content/view/15/223/" \o "starting in
online ournalism" \t "_blank" #starting in online journalism#, dealt with the
basics of how to create news content for the Web. This module deals with how to
manage that content online.##In thismodule we examine how a news website should be
managed, how the front page should be built, how to keep control of the various
subsections, how to update a site, the best use of links, the building of special
sections, and the use of audio, video, and interactivity.##After completing this
module, a senior online journalist will understand the basic skills needed to
manage a news website.The basics# INCLUDEPICTURE
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MERGEFORMATINET ###There is usually one person in each online newsroom with
responsibility for managing the site.This person controls what appears on the
front page and how it is laid out.They decide what stories should be covered, what
features should be written, what talking points and votes should be created, and
what audio and video will be featured.##Depending on the content management system
(CMS) being used by the news organisation, this person could also be responsible
for selecting which images appear on the front page. The person responsible for
the sites editorial content has enormous responsibility. S/he decides what stories
the users see. ##The presentation of thestories they select carries with it the
reputation of the news brand. A shabby, unfocused, mistake-strewn site will reflect
badly on the news organisation.##Errors in presentation, ambiguous headlines, badly
captioned images, the juxtaposition of conflicting messages can and will often be
saved and stored as a record of major mistakes.##There is no use taking the view

that you can always correct your errors. You can, but a damaging screen grab might
already have been taken. You need to do your job aware that every word you write
and every decision you make is reflected online forever.##In a small newsroom, this
responsibility is sometimes shared between the journalists writing for the site. In
a large news operation, there will often be one person, or shift of people, who
perform this function.##Some of the titles used to describe this role include duty
editor, day editor, and chief sub. For the sake of this module, lets call this
person the duty editor.##The duty editors job is to ensure that the news is
covered properly, that it is delivered on time, and that it is created to the
standards set out in the editorial guidelines of the news organisation. They also
decide what the user will or will not see.# INCLUDEPICTURE
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MERGEFORMATINET ###Think of it like a shop window. The duty editor is like a
shopkeeper who sets up a display in order to attract customers. If the items are
hidden, or badly displayed, the customer
might miss them. In a way, a news website is similar. ##The duty editor, who acts
like a shopkeeper of information, sets out the stall. If an item is not on
display, or is displayedbadly, the user has to ask if it is there by turning to
the sites search engine.Remember, users will be clicking on the website expecting
to see what their trusted news organisation has to say on an issue. ##The person
who controls that information carries a huge responsibility, not only for
representing the brand properly, but also in delivering what matters to the user.
Unfinished businessLike all 24-hour news products, online journalism has no
beginning and no end. Newspapers and magazines have editions, traditional radio
and TV stations have news bulletins and news programmes, but 24-hour news
operations, be they on-air, or online, just keep rolling along.##If you work for a
print operation with an online presence, you will need to understand that although
the print version of your news is updated once a day, the website can be updated
24-hours a day, seven days a week. ##It will be an editorial strategy decision,
taken by senior managers, as to whether the news website follows the lead of the
print run, or whether it has updates and sets its own deadlines more appropriate
for the online audience.##Even if your organisation decides that you should not
update as frequently as a broadcast organisations website, you will still need to
take care in your use of times, dates, and references to today, tomorrow, and
next week. It can confuse users if you use terms that work for your schedules,
but are meaningless to theirs.##Taking the broadcasting model, a news website duty
editor will never have to build a site from scratch. She or he will arrive for a
shift with a site already built and with live, on-going stories being continually
refreshed and updated.##Stories will have been commissioned, journalists will be
working on features, interactive staff might be building components such as talking
points, votes, and polls, and the multimedia staff might be cutting images, and
encoding audio and video.##The duty editor inherits a product, and herein lies one
of the first dangers. Unless the duty editor is absolutely clear about his or her
motives, massive damage can be done to the news brand at this stage.##The duty
editors role is to deliver content to the user in the most efficient, effective,
and elegant manner. They are not there to play with content. Their role is not to
change things for change sake. They are there to present the news properly.##There
is real danger that a change in shift could lead to a change in the presentation of
the news site before that change is really needed. There is also a danger that
change for change sake could result in an inferior display of news compared to the
version of the site left by the previous duty editor.##Most newsrooms allow a
reading-in period when the incoming duty editor can catch up on what has been
happening, what is likely to happen, and what is currently being created. It is
also a good idea for the duty editor to keep readinig his or her own site. ##There
have been cases of stories (already written and published online), being updated
again by a new shift, simply because the duty editor was not fully aware of all the
stories on the site.##It is also important for the duty editor to read the sites of
the opposition news organisations. They should also watch TV and listen to the
radio of both their own news operation and any opposition broadcasters. The duty

editor needs to know what is happening, what has happened, what has been covered,
and what still needs to be covered.##Remember, the user should never notice there
has been a change of shift. The user should only feel better informed as the day
goes on. Managing the front pageAs explained earlier, the duty editor will never
inherit an empty site. The previous duty editor will have left all the sections and
the front page populated with news. The duty editor taking over responsibility for
the site needs to decide when it needs updating.##There will usually be a handover
when you will be informed about the stories being worked on and what can be
expected over the first few hours of your shift.##Knowing your audience, and what
the site statistics say about the users visiting habits, will help inform your
decisions about when to update and when not to update. If, for example, the peak
viewing periods are 11:30 to 14:00, and 18:00 to 20:00, you might want to aim for a
major update of the site for 11:00 and 17:00.##You might want to make smaller
changes between those times, but it is worth focusing your efforts on the times
when you have the biggest audience. You certainly shouldnt work for a major update
of the site when all the users have logged off. ##However, at the same time, you
cannot and should not hold back the flow of news. Breaking news and updates will
happen 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Knowing your audiences viewing habits
can help you decide where best to focus your editorial efforts.##Updates are
important. They need to show that something significant has happened. There is no
point in changing the look of a site if there have been no meaningful developments.
You can make small changes to the appearance of the site, but you must not pretend
that the content has changed by making cosmetic alterations. If a user is
attracted by a new headline and image but finds that the main substance of the
story has not changed, they might feel let down. You have misled them into thinking
the story has moved on; when in fact you have cheated them into clicking on
something they have already read.##Think carefully before you drop a story featured
on the front page or a section index page. These are the most visible areas of your
sites editorial real estate. If the story is not featured here, the chances are it
wont attract the views it would otherwise.Story shelf lifeConsider how much a
story costs in terms of time, effort, and resources before deciding to relegate it
to a headline link in the other news section. Your job is to manage the content
intelligently, both in terms of its editorial impact, and also in terms of its cost
and benefit to your news organisation.##Similarly, it will be your call what
stories your team of journalists will be investing their time and effort producing.
When making this decision, you need to bear in mind the audience profile, the news
operations core news strengths, and the storys shelf life.##You will also be
responsible for deciding when a story is rewritten, updated, and archived. As
explained in an earlier module, starting in online journalism, a decision has to be
made with all breaking news stories as to when to save a version as a milestone in
history.##This will often be the duty editors responsibility. Several journalists
might be contributing to one story. None of them is likely to have the overview you
have. They will continue to offer fresh content and update the story until they are
told to stop. Knowing when to save a story as a complete version of events and
start a new story is a key skill of the duty editor.##By evaluating the shelf-life
of a story you will also be deciding on how much effort to put into it. If it is a
breaking news story that is unlikely to be used again, or unlikely to be linked to
very often, you might feel that a straight 300-word write-though is all that is
needed.##Often, investing time and effort looking into the issues surrounding a
news story is of more long-term value than spending too much time on the story
itself.##Presenting and exploiting content ## HYPERLINK
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"http://www.mediahelpingmedia.org/content/section/6/234/" #Training# - # HYPERLINK
"http://www.mediahelpingmedia.org/content/category/6/13/236/" #Media training# ##By
# HYPERLINK
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/user,64/Itemid,234/" ### HYPERLINK
"http://www.mediahelpingmedia.org/component/option,com_agora/Itemid,288/task,profil
e/id,4/" #David Brewer# ###Each news itemsits in one area of the site. The
story might belong in the technology section, the politics section, a world
regional section, or some other area of the site. Wherever it is, this is its home.
Every story needs a home.##Stories are often created in a specific template, or
tagged as belonging to a certain area. However, each story might have several
elements that will enable it to be used in other sections.##One of the skills of
news website management is knowing how to exploit each story in all relevant
sections, so that it appears on multiple section indices.##Take, for example, the
hypothetical news story that a study has revealed that users of mobile phones are
exposed to an increased risk of developing brain tumours. Where should that story
sit?##If the story comes from a medical journal, it could have its main home in the
health section. If it is written by a technology expert, it could have its main
home in the technical section. What is clear is that this story can
be used in more than one section of the site. You also need to think where the
users might expect to find the material.##It is a health story, and users,
concerned about brain tumours (and who bookmark your health section) will expect to
find it there. It is a technology story. Many will want to know what is being done
to deal with the problem, such as what hands-free devices are available, or whether
there are any shields on the market to protect people from the dangers.##It is a
business story. Those with an interest in the mobile phone industry might be
concerned about the impact the story has on shares in the leading mobile phone
manufacturers.##It is a general news story (of general as well as specialist
interest), and as such will also populate the front page, and possibly the regional
page of the country mentioned in the piece.##Therefore, we have established that
this one story, about mobile phones being linked to brain tumours, can feature on
the main page, in the country-specific regional page, in the health section, in the
technology section, and in the business section.##However, it doesnt end there.
##The duty editor needs to be aware of what is available as far as audio and video
is concerned. Is it likely to be the lead story in the multimedia section? Will
people want to discuss it? If so, it might be worth creating a talking point forum
on the subject. It could become the biggest interactive issue of the day. Are there
enough images of phones, medical pictures, or even images of the people making the
claims, to furnish a photo-gallery? What graphics are needed to illustrate the main
points of the story?##Is it a big enough story to build a special section and pull
all the available material together in one, easily navigated, chunk of information?
##The role of the duty editor is to consider all these things. She or he has to
maximise the impact of each story, exploit all the content to the full, and offer
the user the fullest experience online.Deconstructing storiesAs mentioned in an
earlier module, # HYPERLINK "http://www.mediahelpingmedia.org/content/view/15/223/"
\o "starting in online journalism" \t "_blank" #starting inonline journalism#, one
of the arts of running a news website is knowing when to break a story into
component parts.##Lets consider again the hypothetical news story that a link has
been found between the use of mobile phones and brain tumours. As explained in the
previous module, there are many elements to this story, including health, business,
and technology, to name just three.##It could be that the duty editor feels all
this can be wrapped up in one story.However, the conversation during the morning
news meeting might suggest that there is enough material for a piece on each
element.##There will always need to be the one overview piece that weaves all the
elements together, but the art of knowing when to break a story down into component

parts (deconstructing a story) is one of the duty editors key skills. ##Every
journalist needs to be aware of this, but the duty editor is often the person who
makes the final decision. The last thing you want to do is to try to pad out a few
hundred words on one weak line. If it doesnt make a separate story, then dont try
to write one.##However, it might be worth breaking the story down into easily
digestible chunks, putting each story in its own section, and then providing
internal links from the main piece to all aspects of the news item. If resources
dont exist to do this, then one well-written version should sit in all indices.
However, if the expertise and resources are available, it is always preferable to
break the story down.News specialsAgain, as mentioned in themodule, # HYPERLINK
"http://www.mediahelpingmedia.org/content/view/15/223/" \o "starting in online
journalism" \t "_blank" #starting inonline journalism#, the duty editor might
decide that an issue is of such significance, and is likely to be around for so
long, that she or he decides there is a need for a special section.##Try to think
of these as a menu fora rich feast.The special section has specific groupings.
##These are usually news (full coverage), guides (fact files, time lines,
profiles), Q & A (the main questions being asked along with answers), and
Interactivity (audio, video, graphics, and interactive features such as maps and
models).##The duty editor, and his or her colleagues, need to decide together how
many special sections they can manage, and which are beneficial to output. Regular
forward-planning meetings help clarify this issue.##You might decide on half a
dozen themed special sections a year to tie in with forward planning specials being
covered by TV, radio, or your print version. ##You might want to consider a few
news specials highlighting big stories which are likely to crop up again and which
you are likely to want to return to. Most news desks have a list of the main issues
they are tackling in a given time period. For the online duty editor these might
best be managed by building a special section.##The beauty of a well-crafted
collection of special sections is that they can be linked to time and time again
when a related news story breaks. Text boxes promoting the special section can be
used as graphical images in the body text of a news story. This immediately gives
the user the impression that you are on the case and you are fast. ##They do not
know, and probably dont care, that the special section has existed all the time
and you have just dusted it off and linked to it again. All they will care about is
that the richness of your news operations has been presented to them in one easily
navigated chunk of information.Data husbandrySpecial sections can be of immense
benefit to users of content and producers alike, because they group all news items,
background information, and context and analysis pieces in one place. The
information is easy to find, easy to navigate, and easy to use. However, they can
also be risky. ##If you commission too many special sections, there is a real
danger that you might not be able to maintain them properly and they could soon
become out of date. This is particularly true with political specials. ##Have you
remembered to update every politician who has resigned, moved on to another
department, or died? What about legal issues? Are there elements in your special
section that refer to an incident which has since been thrown out of court? Does
your special section still suggest someone is guilty of a crime they have been
since been cleared of? Are you sitting on a legal minefield, which, although always
active, will become particularly visible the next time you publish a related story
and link to the special section again?##The best way round this is to treat your
special sections as you would a garden. One day it looks beautiful, the next day
weeds have grown and the flowers have gone to seed or died. ##You need to keep
tending to the garden to make it presentable. There is an element of data husbandry
needed to ensure that the content in your special sections does not become out of
date.##Again, using the analogy of the garden, some of the news features might need
to be pruned, or scrapped altogether. Cuttings might need to be taken of key
elements, and then reworked. Perhaps the whole special section needs digging over
completely and a new design and arrangement offered.##What is clear is that
specials can rarely be left unattended. That is a recipe for disaster. The easiest
way to manage this is not to have too many in the first place. You should also make
one of your journalists responsible for ensuring the specials are always in tiptop

condition. ##If a related news story breaks, you will want to link to the special
section immediately, not wait for a few hours while it is checked and given a
makeover.Special front pageThere will be news stories that deserve a special
front page. This is when the usual news site is taken over by something so major
and so important that no other stories deserve to make it through to the front
page. Such stories will be all too clear when they happen. ##They will relate to a
monumental event that causes everyone to stop in their tracks. The attack on the
twin towers on 9/11 might be considered such a news story. Special front pages
might only contain one image, one headline, and one summary linking to one story.
The reason for this is two-fold. ##A scaled-down front page, linking to one big
story, is less likely to crash at times of great user demand. It also sets out
clearly that this is the most important single news event happening at this
time.##Just as important as knowing when to use a special front page, is knowing
when to take it down. A special front page limits the users ability to navigate
the site. Although interested in the big story, they might be as interested in
other material on the site. ##You might want to start thinking about removing the
special front page and returning to normality after a couple of hours.Legal issues
Be extremely careful when covering legal cases where somebody has been arrested,
faces charges, or is appearing in court. There will be a good chance that,
somewhere on your news site, you have covered the original incident, perhaps in
some detail.##The story containing the background to the case might have been
archived, but it will still be accessible through a word search. The user might
also piece together the details and look up the case. ##Your site will probably
have material stored somewhere that could possibly influence a jury and perhaps
lead to a contempt of court. Never link to background material in an active legal
case. Never let linked stories appear on the same page, if their presence could be
seen as legally dangerous. ##Take care about where stories are positioned so that
the geography of the site doesnt make suggestions that are legally
dangerous.##There was a case in England where two young school girls were reported
missing. The newspapers, radio, TV, and online news organisations published their
names. The parents made heart-felt pleas for their return. Everybody knew who they
were, which school they went to, and where they lived. ##The next day there was a
reconstruction of their last known movements. Two look-alikes, dressed in similar
clothes, walked the same road as police tried to jog the memories of potential
witnesses. Prayers were said in the school the girls attended.##A week later two
girls were found imprisoned in a flat above a shop in the towns high street. They
had been abducted. Again the newspapers, radio, TV, and online news organisations
carried tearful scenes of the girls being reunited with their families.##Some
months later a story appeared on the news wires reporting that a man, who lived in
the same flat where the girls were found, had been arrested, charged, and was to
appear in court accused of abducting and sexually assaulting two young girls.##The
dangers of the jigsaw effect (piecing together bits to form a fuller picture) is
all too clear. ##Not only could the girls be identified (and then face the stigma
of being associated with being victims of a sexual offence), but the defendants
trial could also be prejudiced by the piecing together of the various parts of the
story.##In a newspaper, on radio, and on TV, it is easier. You dont mention the
past incidents and if someone happens to put two and two together, it is not
necessarily your responsibility.##However, as a duty editor managing a news
website, you are considered to have published a story every time someone requests
it by clicking on the link.You are the publisher.##If someone does search back and
find the earlier stories (or even worse, if one of your journalists foolishly links
to them and you miss it), then you could be responsible for damaging the girls
reputations, and either influencing whether a guilty man gets off free, or an
innocent man is considered guilty before he has a fair trial.Exploiting content
The duty editor should be fully aware of all the content that is either already
gathered, currently being created, or in the process of being commissioned.Their
role is to bring all this together for the benefit of the user. Depending on the
resources available to you, it is always worth considering making full use of what
is already prepared and in the pipeline before working on fresh Web-only

material.##You will need to be talking to all outlets of your news operation to


find out what material they have which you can use online.You need to be in
regular contact with the news organisation's forward planning desk so that you know
what is coming up, and when it is likely to be available.##A well-managed news
website must reflect the news brand's strengths, whether they be its in-depth
analysis, its TV footage, its radio interviews, or its comment columns.The website
is a showcase for these strengths and these should be displayed around and promoted
through the stories presented online.##You might find that a particularly searching
radio or TV interview can be cut into question-and-answer component parts. Perhaps
you can make a text box for the front page highlighting the main questions being
asked. Those questions could link through to the answers in either audio, video, or
text, or perhaps all three.##Knowing what material is available to you means that
you can exploit it online. You could have quote, film clip, image, and sound of the
day. Everything you have can be cut up and used again in some other form.##The
founder of # HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:Search/CNN" \o
"wikipedia: CNN" \t "_blank" #CNN#, # HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:Search/Ted%20Turner" \o "wikipedia: Ted
Turner" \t "_blank" #Ted Turner#, once said that his news organisation used every
part of the pig, including the squeal. ##This is important where you have
different audiences tuning in at different times of the day to different programmes
with different agendas. A news website presents an excellent opportunity to bring
all the various elements together in one meaningful news offering.##Think of every
element as presenting you with another opportunity to help your users better
understand an issue. Clips or quotes from an interview could form the basis for an
interactive forum discussion. ##A guest, in the newsroom for a print, TV, or radio
interview, might agree to stay on for another hour to do a live online chat. If you
know the day before that they are coming in, you can set up a chat room and flag
this up with your online users so that they prepare.##If your news organisation has
broken some news, or uncovered facts and figures, perhaps you could organise a vote
or a poll online. The findings might become a news story in their own right. You
might find that these can then feed into other areas of your news organisation's
output. ##
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