Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 32

Pipephase

Enviado por zabalalc

22/05/2012

4511 Palabras
PGINA
1
DE 19

Slide 1
Invensys 00/00/00
Invensys proprietary & confidential
Introduction to PipePhase
Oil & Gas Production Systems, Modeling and Optimization
Ana Maria Aez
Invensys Organization Management (IOM)
IOM Confidential
A Brief History of SimSci-Esscor SimSci SimSci founded in Nov. 1966 by Dr. Wang
SP05 distillation program
1974: SSI/100 - first flowsheet simulator 1979: PROCESS keyword 1988: PRO/II
- interactive 1995: PRO/II with PROVISION 1997: Simsci became a public company
1998: Simsci acquired by Siebe
A Brief History of SimSci-Esscor SimSci 1999: Siebe merged with BTR and renamed
the company Invensys
$5 Billion company located in UK Diversified Engineering and Electronics group
Employs more than 30,000 people worldwide 2002: Hextran 9 0 Simsci & Esscor
merge 9.0, 2003: Dynsim 3.0 2004: Dynsim 3 3 ROMeo 3 06 PRO/II 7 0 3.3, 3.06,
7.0 2005: Dynsim 3.4, ROMeo 3.1, PRO/II 7.1, VFS 5.0
Solution Suites of SimSci-Esscor SimSciSolution Suites Suites
Process Engineering
PRO/II HEXTRAN VISUAL FLOW SUITE INPLANT DATACON
Oil and Gas Production
PIPEPHASE NETOPT TACITE SIM4ME Portal
Dynamic Simulation
DYNSIM FSIM TRISIM OTS
OnOn-Line Performance
ROMeo CONNOISSEUR ARPM
Outline
Introduction PipePhase Desktop Environment Step-by-Step Exercises Main Steps

Defining the Simulation Units of Measure (UOM) Thermodynamics Global


Defaults Building the Flowsheet Nodes Defining Links
Outline
Main Steps (continued) Case Studies Keyword Files Running the Simulation
Viewing the Results Flow Fluid Basics Fl Fl id B i SpecificApplications
Introduction
_______ 00/00/00 Invensys
Invensys proprietary & confidential
PipePhase
Steady-state multiphase flow simulator for pipelines, networks, and oil and gas
production systems systems. Calculation Engine:
Comprehensive physical properties databank and thermodynamic
capabilities
Fluid types: blackoil, gas, liquid, steam, compositional, mixtures Broad range of
applications, including gas lift, sphering, sensitivity
analysis
PipePhase
Graphical User Interface:
32-bit Windows-based application Interactive data entry and execution Generate
graphs and tables Links to Microsoft Excel Search feature to highlight nodes, links or
devices on a
PFD
Run batch feature
Add-ons:
NETOPT: optimization capabilities TACITE: transient flow modeling SIM4ME Portal:
Excel engine
PipePhase Files
PipePhase (*.PPZIP PPZIP) Inputs (*.INP INP) Outputs (*.OUT OUT) Excel
Report (*.XLS XLS) SIM4ME Portal (*_WS.XLS WS.XLS) PipePhase Result Access
Systems (*.RAS RAS)
_______ 00/00/00 Invensys
Invensys proprietary & confidential
PipePhase Program/GUI Relationship
PipePhase Calculation Module

PipePhase Graphical User Interface


PipePhase Database
Text Editor PipePhase Keyword File PipePhase RAS PipePhase Report File
Simulation saved in zipped format (*.PPZIP)
Manipulate PipePhase from an Excel Spreadsheet Spreadsheet using VBA
Running PipePhase from Excel
_______ 00/00/00 Invensys
Invensys proprietary & confidential
PRO/II - PipePhase Link
PRO/II-PipePhase interface improved:
Ability to link PRO/II models without having toinstall PipePhase Ability to link
streams that are manipulated by logic devices:
Calculator Controller Optimizer Multi-Variable Controller
_______ 00/00/00 Invensys
Invensys proprietary & confidential
PRO/II - PipePhase Link
Link Multiple PRO/II & PipePhase Models, including the ability to handle recycles
PipePhase Unit Op in PRO/II
PipePhase Unit Op in PRO/II
Integrated Production System Modeling g y g
Upstream Optimization Suite p p
Multiphase Network Analysis Gas Plant
PES PRO/II
PIPEPHASE
TACITE NETOPT
Transient Optimization
Applications Programming Interface COM MS Office Reservoir Simulator Si l t
Fully COM Compliant API Layer

Program Routines Electronically Documented


PipePhase Application Program Interface (API)
PipePhase API layer: On-line documentation includes
PipePhase Drivers written in C++, Fortran and Visual
Basic
PipePhase API Calls in C++ and Fortran Sample Problems, Running PipePhase
from Excel Error Message Appendix Device Classes and Names

NetOpt optimization variables


_______ 00/00/00 Invensys
Invensys proprietary & confidential
Desktop Environment
Menu bar Toolbar Can easily access many of the menu functions Color Cues Indicates
required data entry q y Link Device Window
Calculation options Device palette
Step-byStep-by-Step Exercises y
Exercises are the Best Way to Learn! Incorporate the most important link devices
Illustrate time-saving techniques
Simulation in Seven Steps
2 Units of Measure 1 Build Flowsheet 3 Define Components 6 Select Thermo 5 Supply
Stream S Data Provide Process Conditions7 Run & View Results
4
Check
_______ 00/00/00 Invensys
Invensys proprietary & confidential
Defining the Simulation
_______ 00/00/00 Invensys
Invensys proprietary & confidential
Applications

The broad applications of PipePhase can be pp p categorized into three parts:


Single Pipeline Analysis W llb Wellbore A l i Analysis Field Wide Studies
Applications
Simple Pipeline
Capacity calculations
Specified Inlet Pressure Pump S ifi i P Specifications Specified Outlet Pressure
PHASE ENVELOPE PH1
2000 Sat urat ed Vapor Crit ical Point 1600 Sat urat ed Liquid 1200
Condensate drop-out problems
Pres ssure, PSI
800
400 Sat urat ed Vapor 50 100
1 Liq. 5% 0 -150 -100 -50
1 Liq. 0% 0
5%Liq.
Temperat ure, F
Applications
Simple Pipeline
Steam Injection Networks
600 psia Steam
Source
P?
Heated Oil Pipelines/ Heat Exchangers
Wellbore Analysis y
Surface Production Fluid (oil/water/gas)
Reservoir
Performance Analysis y
Flowing Bottomhole B Pr ressure
ID = 3" 3 ID = 3 1/2" ID = 4" 4 Reservoir Performance Flow Rate

Flowin Bottomh ng hole Pressure


ID = 2 1/2"
Reservoir Performance Flow Rate
Gas Lift Analysis y
Tubing Wellhead Pressure = 165 psig Gas Lift Gas P=950 psig T=100 F, Q=? QG
(Optimum)
QL (Max.) QL
Gas Lift Valve QG Reservoir Conditions Q ? P=2100 psig T=182 F
Field Wide Studies
Field wide simulation
Well 1
Well 2 (with gaslift)
Planning (simulation with time dependency)
Reservoir decline Changing facilities Contracts
Elevation Change g
Elevation Change (E) = Sink Elevation Source Elevation
1000 ft
E = 0 ft - 1000 ft E= -1000 ft
E = E = + E = 0
0 ft
Setting the Units of Measure
_______ 00/00/00 Invensys
Invensys proprietary & confidential
UOM Options

Common source of errors Four sets available: Petroleum English Metric SI Petroleum,
English, Metric, Petroleum is default Can be changed for entire flowsheet Define a
different output UOM set Changing the UOM set does not change the values e.g.,
14.696psia => 14.696psig values,
Entering Thermodynamic or PVT Data

_______ 00/00/00 Invensys


Invensys proprietary & confidential
PipePhase Fluid Models
NonNon-Compositional Models Black o ac oil Gas with Condensate Liquid (simple
phase) Gas (simple phase) Steam Compositional Models Pure library components
Petroleum components Assay data Ph Phase t type
NonNon-Compositional Models p
Requires density (gravity) of each phase Empirical correlations for physical
properties
Viscosity Compressibility factor (z factor) (z-factor)
Black Oil Model
Input data
Oil, gas, and water density (required) Viscosity (optional)
Two-point or curve liquid viscosity User-added viscosity correlation
Gas contaminants: N2, CO2, H2S (optional) ( p )
Adjust Standing Correlation to match data (optional)
Black Oil Model
Choice of Empirical Correlations for:
Gas compressibility
(Standing(Standing-Katz, Hall-Yarborough wet and dry gas) Hall Oil formation volume factor
(TUFFP Vasquez-Beggs, Standing, Glaso) Vasquez Solution gas/oil ratio
(TUFFP V Vasquez-B Vasquez-Beggs, Standing, L St di Lasater, Gl t Glaso) )
Oil viscosity
(TUFFP Vasquez-Beggs,Beal-Standing/Chew-Conally, Glaso) VasquezBealStanding/Chew Gas viscosity (Lee et al., Katz, Carr et al.) Viscosity/mixing rules
averaging, API P i Procedure 14b W lfli ) d 14b, Woelflin) (Volumetric
Gas Condensate Model
Input data
Gas, condensate, and water density (required) Gas contaminants: N2, CO2, H2S
(optional)
Empirical Correlations (no choice) Cannot adjust Standing correlation to match data

Use for Light Oil (API > 45)


Liquid Model
Input data
Liquid density (required)
Oil (default) Water
General/Simulation Definition/Fluid Type=LIQUID General/PVT Data/Correlations
Data/Fluid Type Water Type=Water
Two-point liquid viscosity (optional) Heat capacity (optional)
Choice of Empirical correlations for:
Oil viscosity Water viscosity
Cannot adjust Standing correlation to match data
Gas Model
Input data
Gas density (required) Gas contaminants: N2, CO2, H2S (optional) Heat capacity
ratio (optional)
Choice of Empirical correlations for
Gas viscosity Gas compressibility
Cannot adjust Standing correlation to match data
Steam Model
Input data
Water density required
Empirical correlations based on steam table data Maintains enthalpy balance
Compositional Model
Fluids defined using g
Pure library components Petroleum components
Can adjust parameters to
match assay data
Thermodynamics from PRO/II
Pure Library Components y p
Over 2000 pure library components
If water present, must be the first component to be decanted
Fixed property data
Density (gravity) Molecular weight Normal boiling point Critical pressure

Criticaltemperature Critical volume Critical compressibility Acentric factor Binary


interaction Parameters
Can override physical properties if desired
Petroleum Components p
At least two physical properties required:
Density (gravity) Molecular weight Normal boiling point
Assay Data
Required data
B ili point curve Boiling i t Average density (gravity) Optional
MW curve Density curve
Define light ends using pure library components PipePhase generates petroleum
components from assay data
Best fit to data provided Specify temperature range for each cut Choice of
empirical correlations
Distillation Data
Thermometer T
T
Burner
V
% Distilled
Not Enough Pseudocomponents?
500
450
400
Only 2 pseudocomponents Only two petrocomponents in overlap inoverlap region
region
T Temperature (F)
350
300
250 NBP-262 200
NBP-288 NBP-311

150
100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Percent Distilled
_______ 00/00/00 Invensys
Invensys proprietary & confidential
Add in the Overlap Region
500
450
400
Many pseudocomponents Many petrocomponents in overlap region in overlap region
T Temperature (F)
350
300
250
200
150
100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Percent Distilled
_______ 00/00/00 Invensys
Invensys proprietary & confidential
Thermodynamic Methods
Choice of thermodynamic methods for:
Phase Equilibria (K-values) Enthalpy Liquid density Vapor density
Can supply binary interaction
parameters
Thermodynamic Methods y
Enthalpy Balance for Oil/Water Systems

Water at saturation point (simplified) Water supercooled/subcooled (g p (rigorous) )


Joule-Thompson Effect
Expansion cooling/heating in pipeline
Transport Methods
Choice of transport methods for:
Liquid & vapor thermal conductivities Surface tension Liquid & vapor viscosities
Choice of oil/water mixing rule:
Volumetric averaging API procedure 14B Woelflin emulsion procedure
- Including user-defined curves
Supply two-point liquid viscosity curve pp y p q y
Specifying Global Defaults
_______ 00/00/00 Invensys
Invensys proprietary & confidential
Adjustable Defaults

Flow Correlation Palmer Correlation Inside Diameter Flow Device Inside Roughness
Flow Efficiency Fl Effi i Transitional Reynolds Number Thermal Defaults
Building the Flowsheet
_______ 00/00/00 Invensys
Invensys proprietary & confidential
Flowsheet Terminology
Nodes
Source - fluid entrance Sink - fluid exit Junction - fluid mixing/splitting
Links
Comprised of devices in series
Flow devices Equipment devices Bottomhole completions
Types of Networks
Tree Networks (gathering or distribution) Fl direction i always k Flow di ti is l known
Looped Network
Flow direction is not always known
Convergence therefore may be difficult
Source Source Sink

?
?
Sink
Source
Source Node Requirements Fluid PVT Properties
Compositional Model - Thermodynamic Equations: Component data (H2S, CH4, etc.)
Component fractions (5% H2S, 90% CH4, etc.)
NonNon-Compositional Models - Empirical Correlations: p p PVT Property Set
(phase densities)
Source and Sink Node Requirements
Source: Fluid enthalpy
Temperature (steam quality)
Source Boundary conditions
Pressure (P) fixed or estimated Flowrate (Q) fixed or estimated
Sink Boundary conditions
Pressure (P) fixed or estimated Flowrate (Q) fixed or estimated
Junction Requirements
Should be at least three links entering and exiting Pressure estimated (optional)
Boundary Conditions Single-Link SingleCase 1: P Q Case 2: P Q? Case 3: P? Q P
Q? Iterate forward calculation to find source pressure
P? Q?
Forward calculation to find sink pressure
P Q?
Iterate forward calculation to find source flowrate
Boundary Conditions Network
One unknown for each node (P or Q) At least one boundary pressure must be fixed
Source P,Q Sink P?, Q? ,Q
Junction P?
Junction P?
Junction P? Source P, Q? Sink P, Q? Source P?, Q ,

Defining Links
_______ 00/00/00 Invensys
Invensys proprietary & confidential
Links
A link is a serial string of devices between two nodes Consists of one or more
devices Can contain flow, equipment, and completion devices
3" Tubing Choke 6" Pipe Pump OpenOpen-hole Completion Sink Separator
Source
Links
Spreadsheet display for link data entry window (DEW)
Allows Cut & Paste functionality Data for following devices can edited in DEW
Pipe Pipeline Riser Annulus Tubing
Device icon labelled Link profile can be plotted Any device with insufficient data is
highlighted in red
_______ 00/00/00 Invensys Invensys proprietary & confidential
Link Profile
_______ 00/00/00 Invensys
Invensys proprietary & confidential
Flow Devices
Structure
Length, elevation change, diameter
Pressure Drop
Flow code,roughness, flow efficiency
Heat Transfer
Ambient temperature (vertical gradient) heat transfer coefficient gradient), coefficient,
detailed heat transfer (in air, water, or soil)
Flow Device - Pipe
Length: length of individual pipe section Elevation Change: relative change in
elevation
Up is positive Down is negative
Elevation Change
Pipeline Device p
Pipeline Device:

Ability to enter profile data in PipePhase Automatic conversion between Pipe &
Pipeline unit Cut & Paste functionality Ability to view profile as entered
_______ 00/00/00 Invensys
Invensys proprietary & confidential
Pipeline Device
_______ 00/00/00 Invensys
Invensys proprietary & confidential
Pipeline Device - Riser
Length: length of individual riser
section ti
Elevation Change
Elevation Ch El ti Change: distance to
top of riser system
Length
Flow Device - Tubing and Annulus
Depth
Length: measured wire line
length from the beginning of the device
Depth: true vertical depth from
Length g
the beginning of the device
Reservoir Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR)
Productivity index (single-phase liquid) VOGEL coefficient (multiphase, liquiddominated) Gas flow model (multiphase, gas-dominated) Laminar-Inertial-Turbulent
H i t l W ll Horizontal Well Tabular
Reservoir Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR)
Cum Prodn, NP or Res Pressure, Pr
X=m(Y-Z) Qo = PI ( Pr - Pwf ) Production R P d i Rate, Q
PI = Qo / ( Pr - Pwf )
Equipment Devices

Pump
Compressor
Heater/Cooler
Equipment Devices
Separator
Check Valve
Gas Lift Valve
Tub bing
Casing
Equipment Devices
PT
Q
Regulator
Choke
DPDT Device
Equipment Devices
DPDT Device
Ability to Specify Multiple Outlet Pressures in DPDT Device:
Currently enter only curves of Temperature change & Pressure
change vs Flow Rate
Enhanced DPDT will allow such curves to be entered for multiple
outlet pressures tl t
Will allow program to simulate user-added compressor curves p g p Program will
interpolate linearly between curves
_______ 00/00/00 Invensys
Invensys proprietary & confidential
Equipment Devices

DPDT Device
_______ 00/00/00 Invensys
Invensys proprietary & confidential
Injection Device
Injection: injects a separated stream (or lateral source)
Cannot use equipment devices on separated stream Can flash stream to desired
pressure and temperature Only for compositional fluids in single links Only for
compositional fluids from separators in networks
Tubings
21
Setting Up a Case Study
_______ 00/00/00 Invensys
Invensys proprietary & confidential
Perform Parametric Studies
Change one or more variables between runs g
Individual Source/Sink parameters Individual Link Device parameters Global Link
Device parameters
Runs faster
Eliminates overhead St t from last solution Starts f l t l ti
Case Study
Unlimited cases and changes per case
GUI limited to 10 of each
Global changes only affect specified devices g y p
Example: Change all 10" diameter pipes to 12"
Variable changes are cumulative
Can restore variables to base case
Case Study Summary at end of output file
Description of each case study p y
Source and Sink Variables
Source

Pressure, temperature, flowrate Composition G / il ratio, water cut (black oil)


Gas/oil ti t t (bl k il) Condensate/gas ratio, water/gas ratio (condensate) Quality
(steam)
Sink
Pressure, flowrate
Pipe Variables
Pipe, Tubing, Annulus, and Riser

Inner diameter Roughness Heat transfer coefficient, U Pressure drop correlation


Additional variables Additi l i bl
Length, elevation change, ambient temperature (pipe) Temperature g p gradient
( (tubing, annulus) g, ) Outer diameter (annulus)
Device Variables
Pump/Compressor
Power, pressure, efficiency, stages
Heater/Cooler
Duty, outlet temperature, pressure drop
Additional variables for:
Choke Gas lift valve Open/gravel-packed completions Productivity Index,
Coefficient, Exponent (IPR) Well test data
Working with Keyword Files
_______ 00/00/00 Invensys
Invensys proprietary & confidential
PipePhase Input
Input is divided into seven categories:
General Data Component Data Network Data Thermodynamic Data PVT Data
D t Structure Data Unit Operations
PipePhase Input
Special Calculation Options:
Gaslift (Black Oil only) Sensitivity Analysis (Single link only) Line Sizing (Single
Link only) Case Study Ti Time-stepping Data t i D t

Running the Simulation


_______ 00/00/00 Invensys
Invensys proprietary & confidential
Traverse Direction
Forward Traverse
Calculation Direction
Inlet
Outlet
Flow Direction
Calculation Segment
Fluid & Heat - Out POut,TOut PIn,TIn T Fluid & Heat - In Angle
Segment by segment method User sets the segment length Segment lengthis
automatically adjusted down for compositional problems
when needed
Fluid properties are calculated at Tavg and Pavg
Line Sizing
Only for single links Solution obtained from built in or user-defined set of pipe
sizes
P1 , P2 , Q Fi d Fixed ID ?
V l it criteria Velocity it i
VMAX = f(rf) = 100
Tabular Data Default
f
Sphering (Pigging)
Normal Two-Phase Flow (Stratified) TwoFlow
TwoTwo-Phase Pipeline Flow with Spheres Flow
ReRe-established TwoTwo-Phase Flow
Liquid Slug Zone
Undisturbed TwoTwoPhase Flow Zone

Network Calculation - Terminology


Two or more links joined together Node = source, sink or junction j ? = Item to be
calculated, estimates must always be given for flowrates
Source P,Q PQ Sink P?, Q?
Junction P?
Junction P?
Junction P? Source P, Q? Sink P, Q? Source P?, Q
Network Calculation - Terminology
T or more links jjoined t th Two li k i d together
At least one boundary pressure must be fixed Either pressure or flowrate must be
fixed for each boundary node
Pressure Balance and Mass Balance methods
Types of Networks
Tree Networks
ABCFED
H
G
Spur Networks
B qB C D G H
qC F qD E q E
A pA
Looped Networks
Simple Loop
Looped Networks
Complex Loop
???
??
?
Tolerance Statement
Sets pressure convergence tolerance for network solution Default is: Tolerance

pressure (psi) = 0 1 0.1 Recommended value: 0.1 - 5 psi Larger value adequate if
large drop in P Smaller value preferred when small drop in P
Getting Better Convergence g g
1. 1
'From'' node pressure ( ti t ) should always b greater 'F d (estimate) hld l be t than 'to'
node pressure (Possible exception: downhill flows). PFROM > PTO
2.
Every internal node (junction) must have at least one outflowing link and at least one
inflowing link g g
Getting Better Convergence g g
3. 3 Use minimum number of junctions to reduce the size of the
problem
Getting Better Convergence g g
4. 4 Arrange network input such that a source or a sink has only
one link connected to it
Better
Short Pipe Large ID
Short Pipe Large ID
Getting Better Convergence g g
5. If solution path oscillates widely due to flow reversals:
Use No Flow Reversal option if flow direction in every link is known Use Check
Valves in key links if direction is known in every link Use Damping options
Network - Connectors
Viewing the Results
_______ 00/00/00 Invensys
Invensys proprietary & confidential
Output Options
You can view results in PipePhase through:
Flowsheet Output report
Many types
Results Access System (RAS) Tables Graphs Generate PipePhase output
reports in Microsoft Excel

Interactive Output
Results can be viewed on the flowsheet by selecting View Output from the View menu
Double-click on node to display T, P, flowrate Double-click on link to view link profile
plots
Output Report p p
Output report is divided into three main sections
Input reprint Intermediate solution history and output
Useful when double-checking input
Final results output
Error summary
Components of the Output - Report

Flash / Separator Report Link Summary Li k S Node Summary


Structure Data Summary Velocity Summary
Device Summary
Results Summary Link Device Detail Report Link Property Detail Report Slug Report
Case Summary Sensitivity Analysis Sphering Report
Reports of Special Importance
Flash Report at each node/separator
Ph i l properties Physical ti Phase separation
Link Summary
In-situ flowrates P Pressure D Drop Temperature change
Indicates flowrate reversal
Link flowrate is negative
Reports of Special Importance
Node Summary Device Summary
Pressure Temperature
PipesPipes-diameter, length, elevation change Heaters/Coolers-duty Heaters/Coolersd t H t /C l Pump/CompressorPump/Compressor-power
Reports of Special Importance
Link Device Details
Pressure/Temperature Report and Plots Phase Envelope Liquid Holdup/Velocity
Detail Report Pressure Gradient Detail Report Taitel-Dukler Flow Regime Map

Link Plots
Pressure vs. Distance Temperature vs. Distance Ph Phase E Envelope l
Special Plot: Phase Envelope
Results Access System (RAS)
Multiple variables on same plot For case study, multiple cases on same plot View
results for specific devices within a link Microsoft Excel 5 0/7 0 links 5.0/7.0
Simulation results stored in database
Results Access System (RAS)
Results Access System ( y (RAS) export to Access database ) p
Simulation_Name.mbd created in User Directory
Access Database contains node & links summary and device profile
data
92 Device properties including physical properties Incorporates Case Studies and
Optimization Runs Includes details on UOM used in simulation File/New and select
Simulation_Name.ras
_______00/00/00 Invensys
Invensys proprietary & confidential
RAS Plot
Fluid Flow Basics
_______ 00/00/00 Invensys
Invensys proprietary & confidential
Single-Phase Pressure Drop Singleg p
dP dP dL dL
elevation
dP dL
friction
dP dL
acceleration

dP g f v vdv sin dL gc 2 g c d g c dL
2
Acceleration term usually negligible y g g Empirical correlations for friction factor
Friction Factor
f Function(
Re < 3000 Laminar Flow
d
, Re) ,
where h
vd Re
Re > 3000 Turbulent Flow
Parabolic Profile
Flat P fil Fl Profile
TwoTwo-Phase Pressure Drop
Use mixture properties for:
Friction Friction, Density,

f
mm
Velocity, v m
dP dL
dP dL
elevation
dP dL
friction
dP dL

acceleration
dP dL
2 g f m mvm dv mvm d m g m sin 2 g d g dL c c c
TwoTwo-Phase Flow Terms
Holdup (Volume Fraction)
AG AL V = VG + VL A = AG + AL
Liquid Holdup (Actual Volume Fraction)
H
A
L=AL
L
+AG q
L
No Slip (vL = vG) Holdup (Flowrate fraction)
H = LNS q
L
+
q
G
Actual Volume Fraction = Flowrate Fraction
Same Flowrates - Different Holdups
Uphill Downhill v G
vvG
L
qG = vGAG qL = vLAL v
v
L
v

L
<v
G
> vG L
H L > H LNS
H L < H LNS
Horizontal Flow Patterns
Segregated Flow
Annular Wavy Stratified
Distributed Flow
Mist Bubble
Intermittent Flow
Plug Slug
Flow Regime Correlations
Superficial velocities
qL qG vSL , vSG A A
(vSL, vSG, physical properties)
Flow Pattern = Function
Separate Correlations for:
Liquid holdup
Determines mixture density, viscosity
m = HL L + (1-HL) G
Friction factor
m = HL L + (1-HL) G
Mandhane Flow Regime Map
Horizontal only
Mist
20.0
Slug
Bubble

1.0
Annular
vSL
0.1 0.01 0.1 1.0
vSG
10.0
100
300
Stratified
Wavy
Taitel-DuklerTaitel-Dukler-Barnea Flow Regime Map
Maps change according to orientation angle
75.0 Bubbly
10.0 vSL (ft/sec) 1.00 Intermittent Annular
0.10
St at ed Stratified Smooth
Stratified Wavy
0.01 0.1 1.0 10.0 vSG (ft/sec) 100.0 900.0
Duns and Ros Flow Regime Map g p
Vertical only
10
2
10 NLV 1
Bubble Flow
Region I Plug Flow Flo
Froth Flow g Region II Region III
10-1 10-1

Slug Flow
Mist Flow
1
10 NGV
102
103
Heat Transfer Calculations
Choice of Isothermal / Rigorous heat transfer Overall heat transfer coefficients may
be supplied (U=1 BTU/ft2-hr-F by default) Overall heat transfer coefficients (U) may
be calculated for pipes ( ) y pp Wellbore Heat Transfer Ramey Function Partially
Buried Pipes Neher Formulation (Neher J H "Temperature Rise in Buried Cables in
Pipes " (Neher, J.H., Temperature Pipes,
Trans, A.I.E.E., vol. 68, no. 1 (1949))
Laminar - Turbulent - Transition Flow Churchill Correlation
Heat Transfer Calculations
Multiple insulation layers are allowed for pipes
Rigorous compression/expansion considered for compositional fluids
heating
effects
are
Temperature applications
gradient
may
be
input
for
downhole

Temperature Calculations
Heat flow through pipes Q = U.d.L.(Tf - TA) U
U= 1 Resistances
User assigns the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) (U=1 BTU/ft2-hr-F
by default)
Program calculates U from detailed heat transferproperties
Temperature Calculations
Surroundings (soil, air, or water) Insulation
Inside Film Pipe Wall
Resistance RInside, Film RPipe p RInsulation RSurr RInside ROutside RR d Rad
Due To Boundary layer on the inside of the pipe Material from which the pipe is made
Insulation (up to five concentric layers) Surroundings (soil, air, water) An additional
fluid resistance inside the pipe (optional, user-defined) An additional ambient fluid
resistance on the outside of the pipe (optional, user-defined) Radiation (optional)
Effect of Temperature p

Fluid properties Phase split Pressure drop and holdup Hydrate formation Wax
deposition Flow pattern
Applying PipePhase to p Downhole Operations
_______ 00/00/00 Invensys
Invensys proprietary & confidential
Downhole Applications pp
Downhole features in PipePhase:
Detailed Gas Lift Analysis y Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) Time Dependent
Production Planning
Detailed Gas Lift Analysis
Problem: The bottom hole pressure is too low to support the fluid column in the well
Remedy: Reduce the density of the fluid column by injecting gas into the tubing
Dilemma: Gas injection creates additional back pressure which reduces production
rate
Gas Lift Installation
PWH Casing Head Press Injection Rates qinj PCHP 1000 ft.

Unloading Gas Lift Valves


2000 ft.
3000 ft. Operating Gas G Lift Valve V l Injection Depth
Designing a Gas Lift System
How much gas should be injected? At what depth should gas be injected? What is
the casing head pressure limit? What is the wellhead pressure required for target
flowrate? What is the depth of the operating valve?
Option 1: Pressure Profile
Fixed Rate and Pressure for Lift Gas
Calculate pressure profiles in the annulus and in the production string
Fixed G/L Valve Depth
Fixed Rate For Reservoir Fluid
Option 2: Injection Performance
Fixed Wellhead Pressure Range of Fixed Lift Gas Rates
Compute production rates for different G/L gas flow rates for optimum G/L gas rate
Prod duction Rat te
Lift Gas Rate Fixed G/L Valve Depth p
Option 3: Valve Location - Fixed THP
Fixed Rate and Pressure For Lift Gas 0
Range of Fixed D Depth Valve Depths
0
Wellhead Pressure Fixed Reservoir Pressure, PI, and Flowrate
Option 4: Valve Location Fixed CHP
Fixed Rate and Pressure For Lift Gas
Range of Fixed Valve Depths
Fixed Reservoir Pressure, PI, d Fl PI and Flowrate t
Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP)

TimeTime-Dependent Production Planning


TimeTime-stepping
Wells and well grouping Reservoir depletion
Well depletion
Facilities planning
TimeTime-Dependent Production Planning
Reservoir depletion
Pr
Qcum
TimeTime-Dependent Production Planning
Well depletion
Fluid characteristics, fw=water cut
Pr fw fw or GOR GOR
Pwf
( (wellhead pressure)
Qo
Qcum
TimeTime-Dependent Production Planning
Pressure maintenance
Qw
Qcum
Reservoir
SimsciSimsci-Esscor Technical Support
Manuals: Manuals:
On the same CD-ROM as program
Help while running program: program:
Searchable Content sensitive
Technical Support: Support:
Phone: 0058 (0212) 2675868 EXT. 179 ( ) Mobil: 0058 (0412) 3123005 E-mail:
ana.anez@invensys.com

Questions?