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November

BRIDGE STRUDL.MANUAL

1~73

APPE}IDIX C
HE!.ffi ER

PROPER~IES

CONTENTS
Page

Section
c.l

Torsional Constants
I.

Formulas for Standard Sections

C-2

II.

Formulas for Built Up Sections

...

C-9

III.

Multi-Celled Sections
a.
b.
c.
d.

c. 2

.. ...

C-10

Solution by Method of Sirnulta


neous Equations
Solution by Method of
Successive Corrections
Solution by Approximate Hethod
Solution by Finite Element
A..""lalysi s

Shear Constants

Standard Shapes

c-1

....

C-29

AP PE.."'D IX C
!>'l.E."1BER PROPERTIES
C.l

Torsional Constants
I.

Formulas for

Standa~d

Sections

For the proper interaction between torsional and


bending moments in a STRUDL analysis, the torsional prop
erties of the ma~ers must be specified. The torsional
rigidities IX for many standard shapes of members have been
documented in many texts and will be included in this
appendix for your convenience.

TORSIONAL CONSTANTS IX

Section

Formulas for IX in 8 =

IX

General

=E

IX :

IX

c-2

b.H /3
I I

MxL
IXG

IX =

b t3
3

I
d

;r=+
H

T
~

iI

d:

C-3

IX

IX

{b+d)t3

2 b t"j'.,.

0
"T'

d t .."" 3

IX ::

IX

2btf+ht~
3

7T' r4

= -2-

Solid circular

IX

So I i d

e II i pt i c a I

IX

= 0.1406

IX

Solid square

Open circular tube

C-4

o: rt 3
3

a4

I.____----!'[Jzb
j. 2 a

IX

ab 3

a4.,/3
80

16 -3 36Q. (1- b 4 4
3

a
12o

Solid rectangle

IX

Equilateral triangle

c-s

)]

Standard Closed Section Formulas:

:..-;

TL

EsiX

4
IX=

[AJ2

~~
ts

A = area enclosed within mean dimensions.

ds = length of particular segment of section

ts = ave rag& thickness of segment at point ( s)

T5 =shear stress at point ( s)

= torsional resistance, in 4

IX
Ts

2 [A] t s

T
2A

E 5 = modulus of elasticity in shear

(steel

12,000,000}

= angular twist (radians)

= length of member (inches)

unit shear force

~:

stress at

of

T
2

IX

Ci

IX :

c-6

T
2 bd tb

[A] tb

4 b2 d2

fb +

2d
td

b:

+ T.

IX=

IX

IX

IX

2 t bz d 2
b + d

bz dz

2d

tl

!X

c4
2o
-t-

C-7

Tb

4r'<21f+2c)
IX :

2ot-7rr +~
t

tr

77'(rz-r 1 )
2

IX :

Hollow circle

2 a,
IX

w h ere

= k =

a,
-l

Oz

b,

b2

.. I

Hollow ellipse

IX

Thin walled tube of arbitary shape

C-8

where: Am= approximate area


within median
L =length of median

IX

Thin wolfed elliptical tube

IX =

2t I t 2 (o - t 2 ) 2 (b-t I )2

Rectongulor tube

II.

Fo~ulas

for Built Uo Sections

The problem of finding torsional rigidities for


some Bridge Department standard cress-sectional sha~es
~ecomes difficult when standarc fc~ulas de no~ appl. !n
the following discussion methods are developed to obtain
torsional rigidities for shapes related to Bridge Design.
the

The following assumptions are made in developing


used.

e~uations

(1) Plane sections

=~~ain

plane

(2) The material is homogeneous, isotropic and


linearly elastic
(3) Saint Venants principle applies
~orsional

Ricidities

The torsional :::igidity of an ope:1 thin wallec


section may be calculated from the following e~uation .

..

(?.ef. B.l)

E:

i=l
T~~s

e~ua~~on

is for

t~e

ge~e=al

el a-ne:: ts.

C-9

case

a=

a section

w~th

..

Examoles

f tz

.I

bz

,.

bt

14
I

-~
r
bt

tb2

~W1

b3

1.-!1

r,

~~

b4

The torsional constant for a single thin walled


closed section may be obtained from:
IX

(Ref. B.l)

where: n is the total area enclosed by the center line of the


walls of the closed section. The integral term represents
the sum of the various lengths of wall section divided b7
their respective thicknesses.
Exam'Ole

,--------,I

I
I

: 1--

~--------J

.I

I.
IX =

4(b 1 bz) 2

2bt 2bz
+-
t1

tz

2 ( b, bz) 2
bt
tI

+ bz

t2

C-10

ttl

star.d~ng

For a hybrid section of a closed section plus out


!ins, ~~e formula for IX becomes:

(Ref. B.l)

-1

"
3
E bi ti
3 i=l

Exarnoles

IX

4h,-r2)2

21TL

;.

3 bt tl

IX

!:I.

= 27rr 3 t

Multi Celled

...

~ bt t?~

Sec~ions

Torsion of two or more cells cor;.nected a'= t:he '.valls


is a statically indete~i~ate probla~. T~e general me'=hcd to
find the torsional rigidity !X (Re!. B.l) is as follows.
Ass~~e an n celled closed thin walled section.

;1'-------.. . ,\(/.,.--- -----..,".II,-----.."''. . ,

I/
I
I
I\

II

flt

' -------

II

II
II

}I!\
/

II
11

[22

'

______

.) iI i\ , _ _ _ _ __
._.. ....

bt

c-11

'

------

The equation of equilibrium for n cells is:


n

(1)

Mt

= 2 t

i= I

in i

(1}

where qi is the shear flow in cell i, and .n i is the area


inclosec by the center line of the walls inclosing the cell,
and Mt is the twisting moment applied to the cell.
The equations of consistent deformation are:
(2)

(2)

where:

. Sji

sjj :

:-

.L

ss ..

fsjj

JI

ds
t

s jk

_l
G

ss

ds
jk

ds
1

is the shear modul...:s o= elasticity.


ds/t is the sum of the length of cell wall,
cells j and i, divided by its thickness.

com.--ao~

to

ds/t is the sum of the length of cell wall common to


cells j and k, divided by its thicknesses.

5SJ J
e

ds/t is the sum of the lengths of cell walls common


to cell j, divided by their respective thicknesses.
is the angle of twist in radians

Equation (2) will yield n equations for n unknown

shear flows and can be solved for the shear flows qi in terms

of G and the angle of twist e. Knowing qi and Ili the tor

sional constant IX may be calcul~ted from:

( 3)

IX

= 2

( 3)

Ge

C-12

The following examples are attached to show four


methods of solution that may be used for a box girder section.
The example section chosen was a standard three celled box
girder with sloping er.terior girders.
a.

Solution bv Method of Simultaneous Ecuations

The torsional constant IX for a three celled box


may be calculated by the method of simultaneous equa
tions which is based upon the following facts:

gi~der

{1) The summation of external torsional moments and


the internal resisting shear flow system must be
equal to zero.
(2)

The angle of twist must be the same for each cell.

These facts are ~sed to write one equation for each cell in
te~s of the shear flow q for that particular cell.
The
resulting shear flows are then used to calculate the Torsional
Constant IX. The method used in the following example uses
three simultaneous equations to solve for the unknown shear
flO\'IS

q.

EX.!l;Z!PLE

CALCwJ...JtTICN

FOR TORSIONAL CONST.:;..'i'T

IX

Assume Box Girder:

6"

I
I

3!6" !

9!.2u

i
j

a'- 8~

9' 2"

8.92'

8.67'

t-1--...::::.-=----:---~~-----;......;;;;,..._

Idealize Box Girder:

~"'~_,=fL.,.=
( 6.19 +
..
2 8.921 ( 5.48)

J l

112 : {5.48)(6.67)

__: ~6"
_ ii

8.92'

= 41. . 4 o sq . ft .

Top slob thickness = . 56 ft.

= 4 7. 51 sq. ft.

Bottom slob thickness = 48ft.

C-13

Using equations for multi-celled sections \le may obtain


the following;
(See Ref. 1 for additional details)

-5.48
G

~"'

~22:

( 5.48
I

.56

8.67)

.48
:

From Equation 2

40.44

+ 5.48 + 8.67 +

"or-

-5.48 ~~

44.50

we obtain :

5.48 q. 2

ct 3 .=

82.8 Ge

+ 44.50q, 2 - 5.48q. 3 = ss.o2 Ge

ct 1 = 2.42
q. 2 = 2. 73

Ge
Ge

q, 3 = 2.42 G9

And from Equafion 3 we obtain :

IX = _(2.42 41.40 + 2.73 47.51 + 2.42 41.40)

Ge

IX

b.

660.1 ft 4

Solution bv Method of

S~ccessive

Corrections

The Torsional Constant IX for a multiple cell box


gi=der may be calculated by the method of successive correc
tions. This method is similar to the moment distri~ution
method used in frw~e analysis. The method is based on the
following facts:

C-14

---~l;f,:

(1} The s~T.mation of the external torsional moment and

the internal resisting shear flow force system must

equal 0.

(2) The angle of twist must be the

sa~e

'

.:~~~:

for each cell.

These facts are used to write one equation for each cell in
terms of the shear flow q. The resulting equatior.s are tee~
solved by the method of successive corrections.
The relation between shear flow and twist per ur.it
length is given by,

= 2AGe

(3)

(Ref. 2)

EJ:.
T

~1here

= Modulus of rigidity
= Length of any cell wall

= Thickness

of constant thickness

= ~#ist per unit length


A = Area of cell interior
9

Assu~~ng

= 1,

G9

equation (3) can be written

This equation then solves for q for each cell. ~ndependently.


T~e resulting q for eac~ cell is the ass~~ed q tha~ is adjus~ed
by the successi'le approximations method.
carry over factors are determined for each cell from

the follO\'Iing equations,

C.O.F.t21l

C.O.F. c1- 21

CO.F.<Z3l

(1-) web

(E ~)cell

(t) web

(E i) cell

(1") web
(t~)cetl

( 1-2)

C.O. F.c3 21
(I)

(t ~)cell

(2-1)

C.O.F.(i -J l
(2)

(~)web

(2- 3)
( 2)

(~)web (J. I)
( Er)
L'

cell {J )
~<'!:.~-

(32)

.. -~=.:--.
-.~~'

(3}

C-15

The carry over operation is performed until the


desired precision is reached. The final q for each cell is
equal to the initial q plus all the carry overs from adjacent
cells. It will be noted in the example problem that the
carry over from cell 2 in the third step is computed from the
~ of car~J overs to cell 2 in the previous step.
The tor
sional constant IX is then computed from the following
equation.

{4)

IX = 2 E Qj Aj

(4)

j : I

Exa."'tole Problem
Given:

Box girder section with cell areas and wall thick


nesses taken from previous example probla"'l.

Required: Compute the torsional constant IX by the method of


successive corrections and compare with results
obtained from solving the simultaneous equations.

At': 41.40 sq. ft.

...h..
T = 40.44

= 47.51
A3 = 41.40

E-'=-T = 44.50

A2

t..b.
T

40.44

Assuming G e = I , equation 3 may be written :

q,3= (\I: ~
E L

2. 41.40
40.44

204.7 X 10-2

2. 47.51
44.50

213.5

q,z=

2A2

C.O.F.,.z = '5.48

40.44

= .123

C.O.F.z-1 = c.o.z-3 =

co. F.32::

5.48
40.44

5.48 = .136
44.50
.123

C-16

10-z

C.O.F.

CELL I

CELL 2

CELL 3

.123

.136

.123

204.7 x 2 1 3 . 5 ~04.7

c.o.

29.0 ~25.2 .25.2

c.o.

6.8

c.o.

1.0

3.6

29.0

~6.8

1.0

Total

212.1 x 1oz

241.5

1o2

From equation (4) we may obtain:


IX = 2 ( 2.415. 41.40 + 2.727

47.51 + 2.415 41.40)

IX = 659.044 tt. 4

c.

Solution bv Aaoroxirnate Method

k~ aaoroxi~ate method to fi~d the torsional co~stant


o= a multiple box girder would be to assume that the interior
web members were not effective in torsion. The torsional
constant could then be calculated from standard for.nulas pub
lished in Engi~eering Handbooks. A good reference for
torsional constants is "Design of Welded Structures" by
Blodgett. The following example uses the di~ensions as
stated in the other methods but neglects the ef=ects of
interior web rna~ers for torsional considerations.

Approximate

Me~~od

Example:

Box Idealized

(No webs)

from "Design of Welded Structures", Page 2.10-4


26.51'
I

R :

\-----. -------;
\\

15.48'

Ill

'--..!.- ___ _;

!..
I

C-17

21.05'

_II

A = ( 26.51; 21.05)

5.48

= 130.31

A2 = 16,980.70

4 A2 = 67,922. 80

Jd; =

26.51 + 12.26 + 2!. 05 = 103.45


.56
I
.48

= 67,922.80

103.45

c.

= 656 . 6

ft.4

Solution by Finite Element Analysis

The solution by finite elements requires the use


of a torsional analysis program available in Bridge Computer
Services. A complete discussion of the theort and use of the
program is also available in Bridge Computer Services. The
follmling example shows the steps needed to obtain a tor
sional constant by the finite element method.
Examole Problem
Given:

1
2

Box girder section with cell areas and wall thick


ness taken from previous example problem. (See
sketch)

Required: Compute the torsional constant IX by the finite


element method.

13

17

26

35

39

43

47

51

55

57

59

10

14

18

27

36

40

44

48

52

56

58

60

37

41

45

49

53

38

42

46

50

54

~--~-------------,

It

15

12

16

19

28

20

29

21

30

22

31

23
24
25

32
33

34

Fl NITE

ELEMENT MODEL
C-18

74

67
68
69

The following coa~ng describes the elements that


make up the cross section to be analyzed. The first four
cards give the title of the problem, the loads to be applied,
the material properties, and the number of node and element
cards to follow in the input. The subsequent cards describe
the position of each node in XY coordinates and the last
group of cards describes hew the el~~ents are connected at
the nodes.
The attached output listing shows the results that
may be expected from the input data shown. For additional
information on input and output for this program contact
Bridge Computer Services.

C-19

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Shear Constants - Standard Shaoes

The following tables are provided to dete~ine


the shear constants that may be needed for a STRUDL analysis.

SHEAR SHAPE FACTORS f

.d:: JfVdx
GAx
where

v:

shearing force
shearing modulus
A: cross sectional area
f : shear shope foetor

G:

Sea ion

solid

' : 1.2

' : 1.11

rectonc;uiar

solid

circular

!
I

W:: bending
about minor
OlliS

II
I

W:: bendinc;

II

about major
oais

Af

Af: tlanc;e areo

f:

where: A : total area

-T-

f:~

Aw

where A: rotol area


Aw: weo area

C-29

REFERENCES

.~

. _;_

1.

Hechanics of Elastic Structures by J. T. Oden, 1967

2.

Analysis and Desiqn of Airplane Structures by E. F. Bruhn

3.

Desicrn of Welded Str.1ctures by 0. i-T. Blodgett

'

C-30