Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 35

Abstract

Acknowledgement

I would like to take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to all those
who gave their co-operation to succeed my industrial training.
I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to the Mr.Primal Weersooriya for his
invaluable dedication to succeed this program, & also to the staff of the department of Civil
Engineering, Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology.
I wish to acknowledge to the Directors of SP-Sieera Joint Venture Pvt (Ltd). I
had their support in various ways .Specially I would like to thank Project Manager
Mr.D.V.S.Raju and my sincere gratitude to the manager contract Mr.D.W.A.P. Liyanage and
construction manager Mr.B.Shyamalan,Planing engineer Mr.G.Prasanthan and Site engineer
Mr. ATHAUDA A.R.S.P.B. , Engineers , Assistant Site Engineers ,Technical Officers
,Quantity Surveyors, draftsman , accounts clerks, admin officers, store keepers &
supervisors. They help me a lot in several ways to get real practical experiences which were
adopted in the organization, regarding construction, management, administration and so on.
Finally I would like to thank my dear parents who have brought me up in higher
education. And my thanks go to each every person who in whatever way assisted me in my
industrial training.

Contents

Abstract
Acknowledgment
List of Figures
List of Tables
1.0)

Introduction
1.1) Vision and mission
1.2) Company Background/history
1.3) Management

2.0)

Training Experience
2.1) Formwork
2.2) Yyy
2.3)

3.0)

Conclusion
References
Appendices

1.0)

Introduction
1.1)

VISSION STATEMENT

Fostering an environment that helps in the creation of knowledge and its


application to work. We seek to excel all our business activities and strive
to build Shapoorji Pallonji into a creative organization
1.1)

MISSION STATEMENT

Shapoorji Pallonji & Co. Ltd will be the company of first choice in the
construction industry. We shall be driven by our commitment to customer
satisfaction

1.1)

Company Background/History
The Shapoorji Pallonji Group (SP Group) is a Mumbai based business

conglomerate in India with interests in construction, real estate, textiles, engineering


goods, home appliances, shipping, publications, power, and biotechnology. It was headed
by Pallonji Mistry until 2012, when he announced his retirement and his son Shapoor Mistry
took charge. Shapoorji Pallonji is regarded as "one of India's most valuable private
enterprises". The promoters of the group are also the largest individual shareholders in Tata
Sons, the holding company of the Tata Group. The US$2.5 billion Shapoorji Pallonji Group
have two listed companies, Forbes & Company Ltd. (BSE: 502865), and Gokak Textiles.
Forbes was already listed when bought by Shapoorji Pallonji, though there was speculation in
2006 that group company Afcons Infrastructure would go public via an IPO.
The company is known for building some of Mumbai's landmarks around the
Fort area, including the Hong Kong Bank, Grindlays Bank, Standard Chartered Bank and
Reserve Bank of India building, Bombay Stock Exchange building and Taj Intercontinental.
Apart from these, the company has built a stone palace for the Sultan of Oman in 1971. After
the 2008 Mumbai Attacks, the company was involved in the repairs and renovation of Taj
Mahal Palace & Tower which was severely damaged by the attack. Other notable projects
include The Imperial in Mumbai, Jumeirah Lake Towers in Dubai and Ebene Cyber
City in Mauritius. In 2012, Shapoor Mistry announced that the Group had plans to invest in a
deep-sea port, an IT park, hydroelectricity and construction of roads and night shelters for the
poor in West Bengal.
4

The company was founded as a partnership firm Littlewood Pallonji,


in 1865. The first project was the construction of a pavement on the Girgaum Chowpatty
followed by being part of the construction of a reservoir on Malabar Hill which supplied
water to Mumbai for over 100 years. The company also built the Brabourne stadium in
Mumbai and the Jawaharlal Nehru stadium in Delhi. The Mumbai Central Railway station,
was also built by them at a cost of INR 1.6crore. The company was commended by the then
Governor of Bombay for completing the work within 21 months. In recent years, it has built
the Barakhamba Underground Station in Delhi and Providence Stadium in Guyana. In 2010,
it built India's tallest building, The Imperial, a residential tower in Mumbai. F.E Dinshaw and
Co. also had a 12.5% stake in Tata Sons, which came to Shapoorji Pallonji.
SP-Sierra Joint Venture (Pvt) Ltd is international collaboration with
local construction company. I.e. Sapoorji Pallonji (SP) from India and Sierra from Sri Lanka.
Mehewara Piyasa project is first project of the Sapoorji Pallonji (SP) in Sri Lanka.
Partnership contribution is about 80% of total value of the project to SP. SP-Sierra Company
provide quality construction services to the country built remarkable landmark, which have
both local and foreign staff involving in engineering activities and matters.
Currently working more than 40 staff in the project, especially project
manager is a charted engineer from India who involved several projects in Dubai and well
competence in construction industry.Other members of Construction Manager (Finishing),
Site Engineers and Forman also from India. Locally, Construction Manager (Structure),
Senior Site Engineers, Assistant Engineers, Technical Officer (TO), QA/QC Engineers and
Forman are employed in SP Groups. Some of staff members such as Technical Coordinator,
Quantity Surveyor and Engineers are provided by Sierra Company

Project Overview

Project

: Proposed Multi-Storeyed

Office Building For Commissioner General Of


Labour(MOL)
(Mehewara Piyasa)

Description

: 36 stories including ground

floor & two basements and 5 levels for vehicle parking

(two basements and 1 to 3 levels)


Client
: Department of Labour (DOL)
Contractor
: SP-Sierra Joint Venture (Pvt )Lt
Consultant
: Design Consortium Ltd (DCL)
Project management : Department of Building (DOB)
Project start
: 2013/10/22
Project ending
: 2016/10/22
Project Cost
: 7891 millions
Total site area
: 0.447 Ha

Figure 1 3D Image of Building & Layout plan

1.2)

Management

Constructon
ManagerStructure

Senior Site
Engineer
(Formwrok)

Asst.Engineers

Forman

Senior Site
Engineer(reba
r)

Asst.Engineer
s

TO

Surveyor

Asst.Surveyo
r

Engineer
Manager QA/QC

QA/QC Engineer

Forman

GENERAL MANAGER

Planniing
Engineer
Document
Controller

Technical
Coordinator

Draftsmans

PROJECT
MANAGER

QS Billing

Manager
Commercial

QS Contract

Construction
ManagerFinshing

Site engineer

Engineer
MEP
Store Keeper

Manager Admin
7

Safety
Manager

Accountant

Safety Officer

Forman

2.0)

Training Experience
2.1) Formwork

A rigid structure or mould fixed temporarily which is retained size, shape and the
position of Structural elements (Column, Walls, Beam, and Slab) until set up fresh concrete.
Formwork is the single largest cost component in the concrete building. In some situation
cost of formwork is higher than steel and concrete. Selection of suitable formwork mainly
depends on project quality, time and cost of erecting and removing, safety of formwork and
direct and indirect costs. Formwork should be easily fabricate, easily erect and remove and
more times reuse. There are two types of formwork solution, which are

Conventional formwork -Basic formwork solution


which can design carpenters also. Normally used
Plywood, Lumbers (2x2, 2x4), GI pipes, thread bar,

Form ties, P-Cone, Props and Chains.


System formwork
- Differentiate with
conventional formwork which are prefabricated
outside of the job. Its made of steel or timber specific
shapes and sizes. In the world there different Brands of
system formwork which PERI, Doka, MEVA etc.

In MOL (Mehewara Piyasa) Project used PERI Formwork solution and


combined with Conventional system also. PERI is professional Formwork solution service
provider in Germany. PERI Formwork product included self-climbing, panel and many of
different types of products. Mainly in site used MULTIFLEX Girder slab formwork, LIWA
panels and VARIO GT 24 Column and Wall formwork.

2.1.1)

LIWA panel formwork for columns

PERI LIWA, the extremely lightweight panel formwork was


specially developed for construction sites where crane capacities are very limited or forming
must take place completely by hand. The lightweight panels also allow problem-free use as
side formwork for columns. In the process, the small number of different-sized panels ensure
8

fast material planning as well as easy storage in the stockyard and on the construction site.
Permissible fresh concrete pressure The LIWA has been designed for a fresh concrete
pressure of 50 kN/m.
Components and Uses

Wedge Clamp LIWA

Wedge Clamp Compensation LIWA

For standard element connections.

For compensations up to 5 cm thickness.

Figure 2

Figure 3

Corner Connector LIWA

Brace Connector LIWA

For external corners and columns.

For connecting push-pull props and

kicker
braces to LIWA elements.

Figure 4

Figure 5

Wing Nut

Tie Rod

For used to anchor Tie rods

Resist tension produced by lateral


pressure of the concrete and used to lock
wall forms.

Figure 6

Figure 7

Panel LIWA (3000 x 750) mm


Panel with 15 mm plywood
Column formwork is a vertical form
or panel in different sizes and
shapes, which have designed to
resist initial hydrostatic pressure of
wet concrete.
All column formwork done in
LIWA and VARIO panels, which are
easy to handle, less carpenters
requirement and less time taken to
finish the job. LIWA panels no need
Tower crane to cover the
Figure 8

reinforcement. Lightweight

characteristic of LIWA panels which help to shutter two carpenters only to cover the column.
When shuttering LIWA panel good practice to remember panel should have at least 200mm
outer from the edge of the element to connect Corner Connector orthogonal to other side of
panel. Its important to supervise wedge clamps are fixed in three positions of the two panels
align them. When casting element is large Tie rods have to install where two LIWA panel
touching with Wing Nut. These Tie rods are cut more than (column size + 250mm). Two side
of form are propped from one long adjustable prop and short prop. Top long prop used to
adjust the formwork verticality. And short kicker prop used to positioning formwork in
correct location. Check top formwork dimension accuracy, plumb of formwork, close
leakages are some of good trait to practice before inspection start.

10

2.1.2) VARIO panel formwork for columns


VARIO Panels are fabricated into different shapes. There are two L-shape
panels lift by Tower crane into correct location and cover the Reinforcement. VAIRO panel
are fabricated in the site according to drawing given by PERI Company. Design concrete
pressure considered 50 KN/ m

(double of fresh concrete pressure) and allowable

maximum Girders spacing is 0.3m. Two Steel Waler are supported to Girders about 1.435m
apart in 3m high panel. Two L-shaped VARIO panels are joining and tightening by Tie rods.
Common problems arising during the job are;

Kicker is not leveled difficult to plumb and bottom create openings.


Top prop braced insufficient height due to that Waler got twist.
Or Anchor bolt released from concrete surface during turning props.
Crane is not available.
Over size Covering Blocks are placed difficult to close and plumb panel.
Panels are damage during de-shuttering and inadequate Form oil pasting.

Components and Uses


Wedge Headpiece

Wedge

For connecting push-pull


props and kicker braces to
Steel waler

For coupling compression


plate, wedge head piece and
waler

Figure 9

Figure 10

11

Base Plate

Anchor Bolt

For assembly of push-pull


props

Re-usable anchor bolt for


mounting push-pull props.
props,

11
VT Figure
20 Formwork
Girder

Figure 12

Used in slab soffit forming (MULTFLEX) as primary and secondary support and
VARIO Panel design.
Available sizes are 3.9m, 3.6m, 2.9m, 2.65m, 2.45, 2.15m, 1.45m.
Weight about 5.9 kg/m.
Permissible bearing force 11KN.

Figure 12

Vario Coupling

Steel Walers

For continuously variable tight


Used(tension
to support Girders and fixed
and compression) connection
horizontally.
of steel
walers or for filler plates.
Figure 14

Figure 13

2.9
m

12

Steel Walers

Figure 15 Side view of the VARIO


panel

18mm Plywood
1.2
m

Push Pull Prop

Base Plate

One end connect to waler and other end base plate. Used for aligning PERI
formwork systems.
Extension length L = 1.28 - 2.10 m

Extension length L = 2.03 - 2.92 m

Figure 16 Push Pull props

2.1.3)

VARIO panel formwork for columns


Wall formwork also vertical form arrangement resist lateral pressure exert

from fresh concrete. Typically design of shear walls formwork Engineer should understand to
design shear wall without fail until gain sufficient strength. Shear walls have large amount
concrete volume, therefore exert pressure is high.
Due to time wasting in conventional wall formwork VARIO Panels are
designed required shapes and used at site. MOL Project has 10 shear walls and from them 8
walls are anchored with column. Following figure shows corner shear wall in MOL Project
J/H-2. Shear wall consist of one long panel (outer panel), 04 L-shaped panels and one straight
panel. Initially outer long panel lift from crane and slowly cover the Reinforcement to correct
position and lock temporary. Before shuttering the panel marking is done the position of
outer panel edges on the kicker for convenience. Because outer panel heavier difficult adjust
after shuttering and panel (cross section about 400mm at the corners) inserting space
insufficient due to 400m from external scaffolding to concrete finish. Thoroughly have to
ensure that below external scaffolding are anchored from wall supports. Other interior panels
are shuttered according to PERI drawings to correct position. Filler (a gap between panel)
13

should be uniform gap because outer L-shaped panel hasnt any support and that panel plumb
depends on filler adjustment. After closing all panels angle distance of 4300mm should have
to check at the top and all other dimensions
also checked. Plumbing are done same as
others and ensure that tie rods are tightened
and gaps are closed.
2.1.3)

Beam formwork

Beam formwork is a three side


box including two sides and soffit which
sides retain initial static wet concrete load
and soffit form bear initial load (imposed
load and reinforcement load) and wet
concrete load.

Figure 17 Plan view of shear wall

Beam formwork done in conventional method first we


prepared beam soffit form, which is done simply according to GA (General Arrangement)
calculated the span length and width of the beam. Carpenters used Power Saw to saw the
plywood and 2X2wooden runner. And attached long GI pipes along the soffit and nailed
2X2 runner across it. Tower crane used to lift and lowered in correct place. And adjustable
steel props are propped along beam soffit 500 mm intervals doubly. Provide adequate
supports to bear any type load is significant without deform or failure. Before beam soffit
form placing, we need to fix the soffit kicker at column top. Its important check and recheck
the kicker height from the TBM where marked on column. Height can be calculated as
follow,
Measuring Height = Upper structural TBM level Beam Depth Plywood Tk.
Beam level
Or (for typical floor only)
Measuring Height= Typical floor Height 1000mm Beam Depth Plywood Tk.
(3900mm)

14

Next step is setup the side board of beam formwork. These side board are sawed
height of sides of beam plus 60mm to nailed soffit formwork runner. Side board height also
can be determined as follow,
Sideboard Height = Beam depth Slab Tk. Plywood Tk.

If there is Drop where; slab to beam Drop amount should be added and beam to slab
Drop amount should be subtracted.
Carpenters measure that height from steel tape and nailed 2nails half on the board.
And to of the side board 2X2 runners are fixed to support top slab form. When carpenter
work that supervisor instruct to wear safety harness. After fixed one side of form, hammer
drill used to make holes at the bottom of side form in 500 or 600mm spacing. For insert
separates (thread bar with p-cones) make sure resist lateral pressure of wet concrete. For
higher depth beams two separates are inserted where top and bottom of side form. These
thread bar cut 15mm less than beam width. Beam side forms are locked after lowered beam
reinforcement. Two workers need for lock used 6000mm GI pipes along Side form and two
2X2 runners are placed and locked with form ties vertically across the GI pipes.
Components and Uses

P-Cone with Thread bars

Form tie

Maintain a constant distance Clamping device on each end, are


between two side boards. installed through the forms to resist the
bursting pressure exerted by the concrete
GI pipes

Props with hook turn buckle

Resists the pressure occurred by


the fresh concrete

Bear the weight including reinforcement


and concrete.Levelling the slab.

15

thread bar

2x2

PVC pipe
form tie

GI pipe

plywood

bottom board
acro-jack

Figure 3

Removal of formwork (DE shuttering)


Structural Element

Time

Beams, Slabs, Walls and Columns (Unloaded)

24 hours

Slab soffit forms (Props left under)

5 days

Props to Slab

11 days

Props to Beam

16 days

Beam soffit forms


Special cases shown on the drawings
or as indicated by the consultant
2.2) Block work

8 days
28 days

The blocks should be laid to a regular bond, usually half bond where possible.
Under no circumstances should the blocks be laid to a bond of less than a quarter bonds.
Corners may be bonded by cutting standard blocks. Wall junctions are normally bonded, or
ties can be used with a straight joint. If it is not convenient to build a junction wall at the
same time as the main wall, some provision must be made to allow the junction wall to be
bonded to the main wall. Indents may be left to allow bonding to occur at a later stage
For the supporting of block wall stiffener columns shall be introduced besides
timber door openings, edge of cantilever filler walls and at some corners of walls. If the
length of filler walls exceeds 5m one intermediate stiffener column shall be introduced. Tie
16

beams at lintel level shall also be introduced along filler walls. The mortar using in block
work construction shall be 1:5 cement sand mortar. Blocks should be kept dry before use.
Estimated quantity for the block work construction would be 13 blocks in every square meter
of wall surface area.
Cross joint
Wall joint

Bed joint
Header course
Stretcher bond

Stretcher coursePerpend
English bond

In our site there are 3 types of walls according to the width of


wall.475mm,200mm and 100mm.For 475mm we used English bond and for others stretcher
bond.

Types of Blocks
17kg

37kg
200mm
mmm
400mm
mmm

200mm
mmm

200mm
mmm

400m
m

Material used for block work

Cement
17

100mm
mmm

Sand

Concrete

Reinforcement Y12, Y10, R6

Chemical Anchors:- Concressive 1441S,

Meyco Flowcable admixture,

12 mm thick Regiform

Procedure of block masonry

To initiate masonry work, floor shall be handed over to finishing team by structural
team. All minor structural work, defects should be completed as given in the
specifications/proposals and slab shall be clean and free of concrete, form work debris
prior to hand over.

Before commencing setting out work, the slab surface should be clean thoroughly to
achieve lump free surface. The surface should be free from dust, mud, grout or oil etc.
To achieve this, an air compressor can be used together with water jet if required or
any other suitable method.

As indicated in the Shop drawings, the block wall lines associated with 300mm or
suitable offset lines shall be marked on the floor. The openings and stiffener column
locations should also be marked at the same time. Attention should be drawn to
thickness of wall sections since the thickness can be varying from place to place.

Responsible officer for block work should raise a check list/ RFI to check setting out.
It shall be checked by the quality officer. He should consider the wall and stiffener
column locations, wall thicknesses, duct openings and MEP sleeves. Upon the
satisfaction of QA/QC team, Consultant Engineers shall be called for inspection of
setting out.

18

Once the approval is given, formwork for concrete ledges at bathrooms shall be
started. Meanwhile required wall areas on the slab and faces of shear wall shall be
chipped to have proper bonding.

The reinforcement of the stiffener columns should as per the approved drawings.
Starter bars of stiffener columns shall be dowelled to slab by drilling sufficient length.
The drilled holes shall be clean by using a manual air pump. Initially Concressive
1441S epoxy bonding agent shall be used to dowel reinforcement bars. When the
stocks available Meyco Flowcable high strength admixture is expected to use for
dowelling. RFI shall be raised and consultants are called for inspection prior to start
dowelling reinforcement bars.

Electrical conduits and plumbing pipes in vertical direction should be firmly fixed to
floor inserts before concreting ledge or before laying 1 st block layer. They should be
arranged in middle of cement blocks unless there is a special reason. It is important to
ensure the stability of cement blocks.

Then bath room ledges shall be concreted and first course of block wall shall be laid.
QA/QC team shall be called for inspection of first course. If there any rectification
regarding alignment, bonding pattern, thickness of the base course, etc shall be
corrected immediately.

After the inspection is passed, the remaining block work shall be continued. Special
care shall be taken to ensure the verticality of the wall when the block wall is
continuing upwards. The maximum wall height to be cast in particular day would be
1200 mm. The wall termination should be done ensuring the bond to be kept by
I.
II.

Providing horizontal level between two stiffener columns or


Providing vertical construction joint as steps of staircase.

As per the requirement arises to keep the bond pattern, forming joints, openings the
cut blocks will be used. In any time should not use a cut block smaller than half of the
19

standard block. The thickness of thin-bed mortar joints shall be kept around 10mm ~
15mm.

While the wall is being continuously constructed, special attention should be paid for
the size of the door/window openings, locations of the MEP provisions etc.

Care should be taken not to break cement blocks while making holes for
conduit/pipes and laying the blocks through them. Special attention is required to
protect conduits and pipes while block work in progression.

With the proper continuation of work, wall should be leveled at the lintel bottom or
tie beam bottom level.

At this stage QA/QC team should be called for inspection of level of the lintels and
verticality of walls. Approval for casted wall section should be obtained before
concreting stiffener columns and concreting the lintel/tie beams.

If the height of the stiffener column is more than 2.0 m, column should be casted in
two lifts.

The rebar of the tie beam/lintel should be as per the drawings. Those should be drilled
in to the shear walls using drilling machine where necessary. The epoxy bonding
agent shall be used as the bonding material.

After the concreting is finished, the remaining block walls can be continued upwards.
When the wall shall be finished at the required level (mostly at the bottom of the
beam), re-check should be done about the alignment and verticality of the wall.

6mm thick rigiform strip shall be provided between beam soffit and top most block
layer to avoid cracks due to settlements or axial shortening.

20

Freshly laid masonry shall not be disturbed by scaffolding, formwork or other


equipment supported from it. Individual units that are moved for any reason after
initial placement shall be re-laid in fresh mortar.
Where two or more adjoining sections of masonry, including intersecting walls, are

constructed at different rates or times, the intersections between those sections shall be either
raked back or tied with metal ties so that monolithic structural action is obtained in the
completed work.

2.2.1) Plastering
The purpose of plastering the walls inside buildings is to provide a surface
that is sound and of good appearance. The plastering is generally done to get smooth surface
before painting. It should commence after the completion of ceiling and should be started
from the top and worked towards the floor. Normally the mix ratio for plastering of block
work and brick work is 1:1:5 cement: sand: water. Internal walls are in smooth finish and
external plastering is in rough finish. In the internal plastering to get the smooth finish on the
coat lime putty is applied
.
Plaster is a fine paste of cement, lime and sand with water. A good plaster has
to be smooth non-absorb, washable, fire resisting and not affected by temperature or climatic
changes.
Procedure

The surface of the plastering wall washed with water and it was kept wet till applying
plaster.

To ensure even thickness and true surface, spacers such as gauges of 15 mm * 15 mm


or broken clay tiles set in mortar should be first established on the entire surface at
about 2m intervals both vertically and horizontally.

Mortar should be applied between the gauges to slightly more than the required
thickness.

21

The plaster should be well pressed into the joints, leveled and brought to a smooth
surface by working a wooden straight reaching across the gauges with small upward
and sideways movement.

Finally surface should be finished rightly with a wood float or trowel according to the
type of finish required.

In my site an inch thickness reform piece was used to get smooth surface as an alternative
for wood float. But quality depends on the skill of labor.
2.3)

Reinforcement

A concrete member is reinforced with the prime intension of increasing its tensile
capacity though in certain instances the reinforcing is done to increase the compression
capacity. The main concrete reinforcing material being used in the industry at present is steel.
As civil engineers we are expected to carry out our work at the minimum cost yet ensuring
the safety aspects of building. Therefore, in the process of reinforcing a structural element we
should use the optimum quantity at the correct places while ensuring the safety aspects
expected. Hence the practical exposure gained in this area would definitely be useful in the
future.
The standard that governs the reinforcement work are BS 4466 and BS 8110. Bars
should be cut and bent correctly and accurately on an approved type of cutting and bending
apparatus, to the size and shape shown on the details Drawings or the consultant approval.

Types of Bars Used In the Site for Reinforcing

Plain Mild steel bars

Twisted Tor steel bars

Ribbed Tor steel bars

RC Fabric

22

Bar Type

Characteristic

Length of a

Strength (N/mm2)

bar (m)

Twisted Tor
steel bars
Ribbed Tor
steel bars
Plain Mild
steel bars
BRC Fabric

Available sizes
10mm, 12mm, 16mm, 20mm,

460

380
250

6m

9m
Bundles of
1900kg

25mm, 32mm,
40mm(diameter)
10mm, 12mm, 16mm, 20mm
(diameter)
6mm, 10mm (diameter)
Panels of size12/ 8/

250

Mild Steel
The strength of this steel is 250 N/mm 2. This is a soft carbon steel and easy to work

with it. These bars are used in reinforced concrete slabs, beams, columns, foundations etc.
these are plain round bars and diameter varies from 6mm-32mm.

Tor Steel
The strength of this steel is 450 N/mm2. Diameter varies from 10mm-35mm. These

bars have helical ribs running along the surface of the bar.

The designs have been done taking the characteristic strength of the Tor steels bars as
460N/mm2 and the value for Chinese bar is less than that. Therefore a safety factor of 1.5 is
applied and hence more bars are used accordingly.

Bar Identification

23

Reinforcement on detail drawings is annotated by a standard coding system to


simplify preparation and facilitate the correct representation of the details, for example:
12

16

Bar type Bar diameter


Number of bars

17

Bar mark

200

Inner or outer
SpacingTop or bottom

This can be translated as

12

total number of bars in the group

Tor steel bar

16

diameter in mm

17

bar mark

200

spacing center to center In mm of bar

Typical Reinforcement arrangement


T2

T1

B2

B1

T1
T2
B1
B2

Bars
Bars
Bars
Bars

placed
placed
placed
placed

as
as
as
as

top layer in a slab


Second layer from top in a slab
bottom layer in a slab
Second layer from bottom in a slab

Storage of Reinforcement
24

The strength and performance of reinforce concrete depend on having good


quality bond between the steel and concrete. To obtain that quality the steel must be in good
condition. When the concrete is placed, all reinforcement need to be kept free from grease,
oil, mud, mound oil or excessive rust. If not bond between reinforcement and concrete will
fail. Also corrosion of reinforcement is affected to the bond between them. Because of that
reinforcements should be stored properly.

Lapping of bars
Once the reinforcement bars are placed in position as required by the drawing the
bars crossing one another shall be tied together at every intersection. The binding is done
with two stands of GI wire 0.90mm to 1.60mm thickness twisted tight to make the skeleton
of the steel work rigid so that the reinforcement does not get displaced during the pouring of
concrete. The end of the binding wire has to be bent back, away from the forms and in to the
body of the concrete. If spacing of bars is less than 300 mm in each direction, alternate
intersection may be tied.
Laps

Bars of full length shall be used as much as possible yet this is not always
practical and thus lapping of bars is done
Lap lengths used in our site are
52* diameters of bar - for vertical structural elements
45 * diameters of bar for horizontal structural elements
All the laps of a particular column or a wall should not be at the same level and it
should be staggered at least in alternative bars. This would avoid any structural weakness due
to lap and to avoid unnecessary steel congestion at the position. Also in beam reinforcement
lap of the bottom layer of bars should not be in the middle and lap of the top layer should not
be in the corners or any junction.

25

In our site we used a new method to lap the vertical column bars (each are 40
mm diameter) that method called MOMENT BARBREAK COUPLER.

S (1.0mm) 50mm
T (2.5mm) 50mm
L (1.0mm) 115mm

Stirrup
Concrete has a limited amount of resistance, to shear failure. When
exceeded this failure it should be provide extra resistance by reinforcement. For that task we
can use stirrups or inclined bars or both. Stirrups are not required only for shear resistance.
Also these are used for minimize shrinkage, cracking and to form a cage for easy handling.
Stirrups were made by using mild steel. In our site 6mm and 10mm mild steel used for
stirrups.
2.4)

Safety

Safety is not a simple word just ignore in the construction site which cause
serious injuries or permanent disable during the construction activities. In the records shows
that many of injuries or permanent disable or fatal have been happened around construction
sites in past decades. Therefore Site Safety management is essential in any large scale to
small scale projects. Builder or Contractor first priority is fulfil safety measurements in the
Site and ensure safe place or environment to workers. Workers have right to work in safe area
26

and Employer is obliged to provide adequate safety measurements. If there is no such


sufficient safety, Supervisor prohibited enforcing workers working under insecure area.
Mehewara Piyasa Project assigned Safety division, which has Safety Manager and 3
Safety Officers or Supervisor. Daily Safety Officer visit site in several time and supervising
safety in the site and take necessary action. Safety officer has authority to force workers and
supervisors if there have any hazard and take suitable preventative action. In the site, Riggers
(who erecting scaffolding) are under Safety Officer command. Follows are main
responsibilities of safety officer.
Awareness and understanding of all Safety rules and regulations in the
Company.
Develop and implement safe systems of work for the project in conjunction
with the Safety Manager.
Handle Riggers, erect external and internal scaffolding.
Provide or issue PPE and clothes to workers and site Staff.
Report any injuries resulting from work activities. (Include hazard area,
conditions and unsafe operations etc)
Conduct safety meeting to works as well as staff.
Scaffolding
Scaffoldings are temporary structure which used for many purpose of construction
activities such as enable high elevation of access to cover building surround and make safe
platforms to deliver materials.
Traditionally scaffolding system used to make safe platform such GI pipes
(1.8m,3m,6m) and Clamps. There two clamps available called free and fixed. MOL project
initially used different scaffolding system which is called Cup Locks. Easy to erect and there
is new method to lock each member. Main part of the Cup Lock system is stand(vertical
member in 3m high and each 500mm spacing have a cup to connect members) and
Ledger(1800mm and 900mm lengths are available which is connect to cup horizontally.) Cup
links are used internal works such as columns, lift core and shear wall reinforcement binding
works, for inspection works and as a slab supporting purposes and externally erect around the
building. But issue is cup locks are expensive, therefore scaffolding frames are used
externally.

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35