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Chemical Engineering Department

In partial fulfilment of the requirements in

ChE 51 Safety in Process Industries

A Written Report on
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point
Submitted by:
Christian Paolo S. Asequia
Reymart T. Deligero
Mary Eurydice O. Responte

Submitted to:
Engr. Rex Manuel P. Paayas

Date submitted
February 9, 2016

HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is a quality assurance
system which identifies, evaluates, and controls/reduces food hazards. Food safety hazards are
chemical, biological, or physical agents in food that can affect consumers' health adversely.
HACCP requires food processors to identify all possible food safety hazards at each stage of the
production process, take measures to reduce them, and set critical limits. Continuous monitoring
and record-keeping/documentation are necessary to ensure the validity and effectiveness of the
system. If the hazards are not properly controlled or reduced, the processor must institute
corrective actions. HACCP can only be applied in food processing plants where Good
Manufacturing Practice (GMP) is already in place (FAO Coporate Document Repository, 2014).
The system of HACCP identifies specific hazards and measures for their control to ensure the
safety of food. HACCP is a tool to assess hazards and establish control systems that focus on
prevention rather than relying mainly on end-product testing. Any HACCP system is capable of
accommodating change, such as advances in equipment design, processing procedures or
technological developments (Food and Agricuture Organization of United Nations, 2015).
Control - The state wherein correct procedures are being followed and criteria are being met.
Critical Control Point - The point where failure of standard operation procedure (SOP) could
cause harm to the consumers and eventually harm the company itself.
Critical limit - A criterion which separates acceptability from unacceptability.
HACCP - A system which identifies, evaluates, and controls hazards which are significant for
food safety.
HACCP plan - A document prepared in accordance with the principles of HACCP to ensure
control of hazards which are significant for food safety in the segment of the food chain under
Hazard - A biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food with the potential to
cause an adverse health effect.
Hazard analysis - The process of collecting and evaluating information on hazards and
conditions leading to their presence to decide which are significant for food safety and therefore
should be addressed in the HACCP plan.
Monitor - The act of conducting a planned sequence of observations or measurements of control
parameters to assess whether a CCP is under control.


According to Section 7 of the Food Safety Act (R.A 10611), Food business operators
shall be encouraged to implement a HACCP-based system for food safety assurance in their
operations. Through this, the government was able to implement the accreditation program for
the food industry. The Accreditation Program is a technical cooperation between the government
and the food industry to meet international standards for GMP and HACCP. The objective of this
program is to increase food exports
Who may apply?
All food manufacturers, processors and exporters may apply for accreditation.
Objectives of the Accreditation Program:
1. It aims to increase food exports by providing buyers and interested parties with
information on local processed food products that meet international requirements for quality and
2. It aims to strengthen the technology used in the industry for achieving product quality
to support the thrust towards increased export competitiveness.


The HACCP system consists of the following seven principles:
PRINCIPLE 1: Conduct a hazard analysis.
The Hazard Analysis determines the hazards associated with the food product to decide
which must be addressed in the HACCP plan. It also identifies the preventive measures that the
plan can apply to control these hazards. A food safety hazard is any biological, chemical, or
physical property that may cause a food to be unsafe for human consumption. Among the factors
to consider are the following:

The likely occurrence of hazards and severity of their adverse health effects;

The qualitative and/or quantitative evaluation of the presence of hazards;

Survival or multiplication of microorganisms of concern;

Production or persistence in foods of toxins, chemicals or physical agents; and

Conditions leading to the above

PRINCIPLE 2: Identify the Critical Control Points (CCPs).

A critical control point (CCP) is any point, step, or procedure in a food manufacturing
process at which control can be applied. Controlling the CCP is essential to prevent or eliminate
a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level.
PRINCIPLE 3: Establish critical limit(s).
A Critical Limit is a maximum and/or minimum value to which a biological, chemical or
physical parameter must be controlled at a CCP to prevent, eliminate or reduce to an acceptable
level the occurrence of a food safety hazard food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable
PRINCIPLE 4: Establish Monitoring Procedures.
Monitoring is the scheduled measurement or observation of a CCP relative to its critical
limits. The monitoring procedures must be able to detect loss of control at the CCP. The goal of
monitoring is to prevent violating the critical limits. Process adjustments should be made when
results indicate a trend towards loss of control at a CCP. The adjustments should be taken before
a deviation occurs. Data must be evaluated by a designated person with knowledge and authority
to carry out corrective actions when indicated.
PRINCIPLE 5: Establish Corrective Action.
When monitoring indicates that a particular CCP is not under control, Corrective Actions
must be applied. Corrective Actions are procedures to follow when a deviation from the critical
limits occurs. The actions must ensure that the CCP has been brought under control. Actions
taken must also include proper disposal of the affected product.
PRINCIPLE 6: Establish Verification Procedures.
Validation is focused on collecting and evaluating scientific and technical information to
determine if the HACCP plan, when properly implemented, will effectively control the hazards.
Verification is a set of activities, other than monitoring, that determine the validity of the
HACCP plan and that the system is operating according to the plan. Both are essential to ensure
that the HACCP plan is properly implemented and is still appropriate for the process/plant.

PRINCIPLE 7: Establish Documentation Procedures.

All procedures and steps applied in the HACCP plan and its implementation must be
properly recorded and documented. Documentation is a material that provides official
information or evidence or that all HACCP principles are applied.
Documentation examples are:
Hazard analysis;
CCP determination;
Critical limit determination.
Record examples are:
CCP monitoring activities;
Deviations and associated corrective actions;
Modifications to the HACCP system.


1. Assemble HACCP team

The first task in developing a HACCP plan is to assemble a HACCP team consisting of
individuals who have specific knowledge and expertise appropriate to the product and
process. It is the team's responsibility to develop the HACCP plan.

2. Describe product

A full description of the product should be drawn up. The description consists of a
general description of the food, ingredients, and processing methods including relevant
safety information such as: composition, physical/chemical structure, microbial/static
treatments (heat-treatment, freezing, brining, smoking, etc.), packaging, durability and
storage conditions and method of distribution.

3. Identify intended use

The intended use should be based on the expected uses of the product by the end user or
consumer. The intended consumers may be the general public or a particular segment of
the population (e.g., infants, the elderly, etc.)

4. Construct flow diagram

The flow diagram should be constructed by the HACCP team. The flow diagram should
cover all steps in the operation.

5. On-site confirmation of flow diagram

The HACCP team should confirm the processing operation against the flow diagram
during all stages and hours of operation and amend the flow diagram where appropriate.

6. List all potential hazards associated with each step, conduct a hazard analysis, and
consider any measures to control identified hazards

The HACCP team should list all of the hazards that may be reasonably expected to occur
at each step from primary production, processing, manufacture, and distribution until the
point of consumption.

The HACCP team must then consider what control measures, if any, exist which can be
applied for each hazard.

7. Determine Critical Control Points

There may be more than one CCP at which control is applied to address the same hazard.
The determination of a CCP in the HACCP system can be facilitated by the application of
a decision tree which indicates a logic reasoning approach.

8. Establish critical limits for each CCP

Critical limits must be specified and validated if possible for each Critical Control Point.
Critical limits based upon factors such as temperature, time, moisture level, pH, A w,
available chlorine, and sensory parameters such as visual appearance and texture.

9. Establish a monitoring system for each CCP

Monitoring is a planned sequence of observations or measurements to assess whether a

CCP is under control and to produce an accurate record for future use in verification.
Monitoring is used to determine when there is loss of control and a deviation occurs at a
CCP. Where possible, corrective action must be taken before deviation takes place.

10. Establish corrective actions

Specific corrective actions must be developed for each CCP in the HACCP system in
order to deal with deviations when they occur.

11. Establish verification procedures

Establish procedures for verification. Verification and auditing methods, procedures and
tests, including random sampling and analysis, can be used to determine if the HACCP
system is working correctly. The frequency of verification should be sufficient to confirm
that the HACCP system is working effectively.

12. Establish Documentation and Record Keeping

Efficient and accurate record keeping is essential to the application of a HACCP system.
HACCP procedures should be documented. Documentation and record keeping should be
appropriate to the nature and size of the operation.