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Nokia Solutions and Networks

RA4188 - Small Cells Introduction


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Document change history

Date

Version

23.01.2014

1.0

Name

Change comment

Maciej Wais

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Objectives

Explain the NSN Small Cells architecture.


Identify the placing of the Flexi Zone Micro LTE BTS products within the Small Cells
architecture.
Identify and list the key components of the LTE system and be able to state the basic
function of each network element.
Identify the key interfaces within the LTE System and give a simple explanation of the
information sent of each Network Element.

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Content
Introduction to the Small Cell concept
Small Cells architecture evolution
Flexi Zone Micro LTE BTS within the Small Cells architecture
Key components of the LTE Small Cell system
NSN Small Cell Roadmap

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Key requirements for networks towards 2020


Support up to
1000 times more
capacity

Reduce latency
to milliseconds

Flatten total
energy
consumption

Reinvent Telcos
for
the cloud

Teach
networks to
be self-aware

Personalize
network
experience

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Todays problems

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Why small cells?

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Focus on LTE Small Cells

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The Evolving Role of Small Cells

2012
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Small Cell Solution Needed for Supporting Mass Market Mobile Broadband
Subscriber Experience
Video apps define new Cell
Edge!!

Voice
15 kbps
cell
edge

Email /
Web
250 kbps
cell edge

Video
1-4
Mbps
cell edge

Users/Sector & Distance define the experience

Sector throughput shared


by many users
Each gets widely varying
experience

Small cells improve distance


More sites = less throughput
sharing + closer to center of cell

Smaller Cells are Key for Capacity

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Capacity enhancement

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Factors impacting operator small cell deployment timing

Limited spectrum
availability

Limitations on macro site


availability & enhancements

Network is full

Strong data traffic growth

Small cell
deployment
urgency

High urban density &


complexity

No refarming options

LTE launch not feasible

Technology maturity

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When might a new macro site not be feasible?

No space for new macro site BTS or


antennas.
New macro site permits not granted
or site lease is very expensive
Site is too far from optimal location

Cellular tower or pole is not


accepted by authority community
New macro site is overkill

Macro sites cells capacity is not


enough
More and smaller capacity cells
need to be added

Safety regulations limit the


transmitted power at street level

Smaller cell and low transmit power


is optimized for e.g. indoor usage,
tunnels and parking lots

New macro site is overkill (cost,


capacity, size) for coverage fix or
extension

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Small cell site examples

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Small Cell types & Small Cell scenarios

Indoor:

10-100mW

Outdoor:

0.2-1W

Coverage radius: 10s of meters


Indoor:

20-100mW

Outdoor:

0.2-1W

Home

Office

Airport

Shopping Center

City Walk

Stadium

City center

Suburban

Rural Village

Femto

WiFi

Coverage radius: 10s of meters


Indoor:

>10W

Outdoor:

>10W

Indoor:

100-250mW

Outdoor:

1-5W

Coverage radius:10s of meters


Outdoor:

Pico

5-10W

Coverage radius:100s of meters


Outdoor:

DAS

Micro

>10W

Coverage radius: kilometer(s)

Macro

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Micro Base Stations

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Pico Base Stations

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Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS)

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DAS Examples

Distributed BTS

Multi Operator
Multi Technology DAS

Outdoor DAS for


Stadium

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Operator WiFi

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Femtocells

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Working bodies

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Architecture

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Protocol Stack

S1-U & X2_U

S1-MME & X2_C

O&M

GTP-U

S1AP/X2AP

Mgmt. Appl.

UDP

SCTP

UDP/TCP

IPv4

IPv4

IPv4

Ethernet Layer 2

Ethernet Layer 2

Ethernet Layer 2

Ethernet Layer 1

Ethernet Layer 1

Ethernet Layer 1

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HeNB Architecture 3GPP rel.9


3GPP TS 36.300
MME / S-GW

MME / S-GW

S1

S1

S1

HeNB GW

S1
S1
E-UTRAN

X2

eNB

eNB
HeNB

X2

HeNB

HeNB

X2

eNB
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HeNB Architecture 3GPP rel.9

Option 2:

S1-MME

S11

HeNB

MME
S1-U

Services

Option 3:

S1-MME

C Plane

S1-U

HeNB GW

HeNB

Option 1:

HeNB

S11

MME

SGi
S5

SGW
SeGW

S1

C&U Plane
HeNB GW

S11

MME

PGW
SGi

Internet

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HeNB Architecture 3GPP rel.10


3GPP TS 36.300
MME / S-GW

MME / S-GW

MME / S-GW

S1

S1

S1

HeNB GW
S1

S5

S1
S1

E-UTRAN
X2

eNB

HeNB
X2

X2

X2

eNB

HeNB

HeNB

X2

eNB
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HeNB Architecture 3GPP rel.11


3GPP TS 36.300
MME / S-GW

MME / S-GW

MME / S-GW

S1

S1

S1

HeNB GW
S1

S5

S1
S1

E-UTRAN
X2

eNB

X2

X2

X2

X2

eNB
HeNB

HeNB

HeNB

X2

eNB
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HeNB Home eNodeB

In 3GPP terminology, LTE small cell = Home eNodeB


The HeNB GW appears to the MME as an eNB.
The HeNB GW appears to the HeNB as an MME.
The S1 interface between the HeNB and the EPC is the same, regardless
whether the HeNB is connected to the EPC via a HeNB GW or not.
One HeNB serves only one cell.
A HeNB hosts the same functions as an eNB, with the following additional
specifics in case of connection to the HeNB GW:
Discovery of a suitable Serving HeNB GW;
A HeNB shall only connect to a single HeNB GW at one time, namely no S1
Flex function shall be used at the HeNB.

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HeNB GW Home eNodeB Gateway

The TAC and PLMN ID used by the HeNB shall also be supported by the
HeNB GW.
Selection of an MME at UE attachment is hosted by the HeNB GW instead of
the HeNB. Upon reception of the GUMMEI from a UE, the HeNB shall include
it in the INITIAL UE MESSAGE message; upon reception of the GUMMEI Type
from the UE, the HeNB shall also include it in the message if supported and
supported by the HeNB GW.
Relaying UE-associated S1 application part messages between the MME
serving the UE and the HeNB serving the UE.
Optionally terminating S1-U interface with the HeNB and with the SGW.
Terminating non-UE associated S1 application part procedures towards the
HeNB and towards the MME.
Access control for UEs that are members of Closed Subscriber Groups (CSG)
is hosted by MME.

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HeNB access modes


HeNB Access Mode

UE allowed access
to CSG

UE not allowed

access to CSG

Open

Closed

Hybrid

Access

Access

Preferential Access

Access

No Access

Access

Open access mode - subscribers of any PLMN, subject to roaming agreement.


Hybrid access mode:
- Its associated CSG members, and
- Subscribers of any PLMN not belonging to its associated CSG, subject to
roaming agreement.
Closed access mode - only users that belong to its associated.

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Architecture NSN RL50FZ


MME / S-GW

MME / S-GW

Flexi Zone Micro is a 1 cell micro


eNB. It is not HeNB.
HeNB can have output power of
up to 20dBm. (TR 36.922)

S1

S1
S1
S1
X2

eNB

E-UTRAN

eNB
X2

X2

eNB - FZM

eNB - FZM

X2

eNB
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Flexi Zone Product Roadmap

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Flexi Zone Changing the Mobile Broadband Paradigm


Flexi Zone is a discreet 4G small cell solution
designed to address the growing mobile data
capacity needs

4 x Flexi Zone BTS added for


capacity offload

Flexi Zone complements Macro BTS


blanket coverage

Flexi Zone is a precision tool for


adding mobile data capacity where
required without the cost,
constraints and environmental
impact of macro BTS

Macro
Flexi Zone BTS
0.25-5W RF
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40W RF

Thank you!

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