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COURSE CURRICULUM

COURSE TITLE: THERMAL SYSTEMS AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY

(COURSE CODE: 3361907)

Diploma Programme in which this course is offered

Mechanical Engineering

Sixth

1. RATIONALE.

Thermal systems are most important part of industrial sector. In the absence of proper operation &

maintenance of thermal systems it becomes difficult to manage economic use of energy and its

conservation with the least damage to the environment. This course provides the underpinning

knowledge and skills related to principles, types & working of these systems like boilers, heat

exchangers, furnaces, HVAC etc. which are normally high energy consumption devices. Study of

this course would help students to choose proper design and specifications of these high energy

consuming devices so that energy is saved in resulting low cast of production as well as less damage

to environment. This course is therefore a key course for thermal engineers.

2. COMPETENCY.

The course content should be taught and implemented with the aim to develop required skills in

the students so that they are able to acquire following competency:

Apply concepts, laws and principles of thermal systems to operate and maintain

them for efficient use of energy and its conservation as per industrial norms &

regulations.

3. COURSE OUTCOMES (COs).

The theory should be taught and practicals should be carried out in such a manner that students are

able to acquire different learning outcomes in cognitive, psychomotor and affective domain to

demonstrate following course outcomes.

i. Select available energy sources in a given situation.

ii. Determine boiler performance based on energy efficiency parameters.

iii. Analyze performance of furnace for a particular application.

iv. Determine the performance of heat exchanger in a given situation.

v. Calculate load of HVAC systems.

4. TEACHING AND EXAMINATION SCHEME.

Examination Scheme

Total

Teaching Scheme

Credits

Practical

(In Hours)

Theory Marks

(L+T+P)

Marks

L

ESE

PA

ESE

PA

03

00

02

05

70

30

20

30

Total

Marks

150

Legends: L-Lecture; T Tutorial/Teacher Guided Theory Practice; P -Practical; C Credit, ESE -End

Semester Examination (3 hours duration ); PA - Progressive Assessment.

Gujarat State

1

Major Learning

Unit

Outcomes

(in cognitive domain)

1a. Compare various

energy sources &

Unit I.

forms.

Introduction to 1b. Differentiate

various renewable

Energy Sources

and nonand

Thermal

renewable energy

Systems.

sources.

1c. Explain Energy

conservation and

related act.

1d. Describe basic

concepts of

various thermal

systems.

Unit II

Boilers.

Unit III

Furnaces.

1.1 Energy sources:

i. Primary and secondary.

ii. Commercial energy and noncommercial.

iii. Various forms of energy, i.e.

potential energy (chemical, nuclear

or stored mechanical, gravitational

energy), kinetic energy (radiant,

thermal, motion, sound, electrical

energy) and high grade energy and

low grade energy.

iv. Renewable and nonrenewable.

1.2 Energy conservation and its importance.

1.3 Overview of Energy Conservation Act 2001.

1.4 Introduction to various thermal systems like

furnace, steam generation and distribution

system, heat exchanger, HVAC(Heating,

Ventilating and Air Conditioning) and

refrigeration system, cogeneration system

(concept, need and principle based on steam

and gas turbine cogeneration system), air

compressor.

2a. Determine

performance

of

boilers by direct

and

indirect

method.

2b. Analyze effect of

energy efficiency

parameters

on

performance

of

boiler.

2c. Describe energy

saving measures

in steam

distribution

system.

system (Attached data sheet is allowed in

exams):

i. Indirect method.

ii. Direct method.

2.2 Energy efficiency measures in boiler system.

2.3 Steam distribution system and concept of

steam pipe sizing.

2.4 Steam traps-operation and maintenance of:

i. Float and thermostatic.

ii. Thermodynamic.

iii. Inverted bucket.

iv. Thermostatic with thermal element

(Bellow or bi-metallic strip).

2.5 Energy saving in steam distribution systems.

and types of

furnaces.

3b. Determine the

performance of

heat treatment

furnaces.

3.2 Classification and working of furnaces:

i. Forging furnace.

ii. Rerolling mill furnace (batch type,

continuous pusher type, continuous

steel reheating furnace,(pusher type,

walking hearth type, rotary hearth

Gujarat State

2

Unit

Major Learning

Outcomes

(in cognitive domain)

efficiency

parameters.

3.3

3.4

3.5

Unit IV

Heat

Exchangers and

Air

Compressor.

Unit V

HVAC systems.

6.

exchangers.

4b. Determine

performance

of

Heat exchangers

based on given

method.

4c. Describe energy

saving measures

in air compressor.

5a. Use concept of

HVAC

and

refrigeration

system.

5b. Calculate load of

HVAC

system

based on given

data

4.1

4.2

4.3

type etc.).

Heat transfer in furnaces.

Performance evaluation of typical heat

treatment furnace system (Attached data

sheets are allowed in exams).

i. Indirect method.

ii. Direct Method.

Energy efficiency measures in furnace

systems.

Heat exchangers: types and classification.

Performance evaluation of heat exchangers

based on LMTD and NTU methods (Attached

data sheets are allowed in exams).

Air compressor: Free air delivery (Attached

data sheets are allowed in exams), energy

saving measures.

5.2 Selection criteria for suitable refrigeration

system.

5.3 Load calculation for refrigeration/ air

conditioning system, such as: room,

restaurant, cold storage, theatre, conference

hall, sweet shop, etc. (Attached data sheets

are allowed in exams).

5.4 Energy efficiency measures in refrigeration/

air conditioning systems.

Unit

No.

Unit Title

Teaching

Hours

R

U

A

Total

Level Level Level Marks

06

02

04

02

08

Thermal Systems.

II

Boilers.

08

02

03

09

14

III

Furnaces.

08

02

04

12

18

Heat

Exchangers

and

Air

10

02

03

09

14

IV

Compressors.

V

HVAC systems.

10

02

04

10

16

Total

42

10

18

42

70

Legends: R = Remember U= Understand; A= Apply and above levels (Blooms revised taxonomy).

I

Gujarat State

3

Notes:

a. This specification table shall be treated as a general guideline for students and teachers. The

actual distribution of marks in the question paper may vary slightly from above table.

b. Duration of End Semester Examination (Theory) is 3 hours.

c. If mid-sem test is part of continuous evaluation, unit numbers I, II and IV are to be

considered.

d. Ask the questions from each topic as per marks weightage. Numerical questions are to be

asked only if it is specified. Optional questions must be asked from the same topic.

e. Use of enclosed data sheets are to be allowed to student during examination (They should

be provided by the examining agency).

f. In examination, example of same chapter is to be asked in place of example.

7. SUGGESTED LIST OF EXERCISES/PRACTICALS.

The practical/exercises should be properly designed and implemented with an attempt to develop

different types of skills (outcomes in psychomotor and affective domain) so that students are

able to acquire the competencies/programme outcomes. Following is the list of practical

exercises for guidance.

Note: Here only outcomes in psychomotor domain are listed as practical/exercises. However, if

these practical/exercises are completed appropriately, they would also lead to development of

certain outcomes in affective domain which would in turn lead to development of Course

Outcomes related to affective domain. Thus over all development of Programme Outcomes (as

given in a common list at the beginning of curriculum document for this programme) would

be assured.

Faculty should refer to that common list and should ensure that students also acquire outcomes

in affective domain which are required for overall achievement of Programme

Outcomes/Course Outcomes.

Practical Exercises

Approx

Sr.

Unit

(outcomes in Psychomotor Domain)

Hours.

No.

No.

required

Preparatory activity:

a. Visit laboratory/ workshop and identify various thermal

systems such as heat exchangers, boilers, furnaces, air

compressors, etc. Write down technical specifications of the

I to

1

same along with manufactures.

04

V

b. Compare price of various fuels.

c. Plot sankey diagram for given data.

d. Interpret terms and equations of data sheets provided with the

curriculum.

Case study (based on real life example):

a. Calculate losses in the boiler using given data by direct and

indirect method.

2

II

b. Prepare sankey diagram.

04

c. Prepare heat balance sheet.

d. List various instrumentation required to measure the required

data.

Case study (based on real life example):

3

III

04

Gujarat State

4

IV

indirect method.

b. Prepare sankey diagram.

c. Prepare heat balance sheet.

d. List various instrumentation required to measure the required

data.

Case study (based on real life example):

a. Calculate efficiency and over all heat transfer co efficient of

heat exchanger based on given data. Use LMTD or NTU

methods.

b. List various instrumentation required to measure the required

data.

OR

a. Write technical specifications of any heat exchanger available

in vicinity.

b. Determine its performance based on the technical data

available. Tabulate the observation.

c. List the parameters which lead to energy losses in heat

exchangers. Also show the effect of such parameters.

d. Recommend your suggestions for energy saving in heat

exchangers.

Case study (based on real life example):

a. Calculate air conditioning load of given room/ conference

hall. Use standard data sheets. (Volume not more than 80-100

m3.)

b. List various instrumentation required to measure the required

data.

Case study (based on real life example):

a. Calculate refrigeration/ air conditioning load of given theater/

restaurant/cold storage. Use standard data sheets. (Volume

>200 m3.)

b. List various instrumentation required to measure the required

data.

Total Hours

04

06

06

28

Notes:

a. It is compulsory to prepare log book of exercises. It is also required to get each exercise

recorded in logbook, checked and duly dated signed by teacher.PA component of practical

marks is dependent on continuous and timely evaluation and submission of exercises.

b. Term work report must not include any photocopy/ies, printed manual/pages, litho, etc. It

must be hand written / hand drawn by student only.

c. For practical ESE part, students are to be assessed for competencies achieved. They should

be given experience/part of experience to perform.

8. SUGGESTED LIST OF STUDENT ACTIVITIES.

SR.NO. ACTIVITY

1

List thermal systems employed in your house, shops, malls in nearby area. Identify the

parameters which lead to energy losses. List energy saving measures.

2

Visit any industry and find the major areas boilers/ furnaces/ air compressor system/

heat exchangers etc. from point of energy conservation.

GTU/ NITTTR Bhopal/14-15

Gujarat State

5

Visit any small shop where refrigeration repairing or maintenance work is done. List

the equipments used in the refrigeration maintenance with its technical data. Prepare a

layout of shop. List different work carried out for maintenance in refrigeration/ air

conditioning. Prepare a report along with photographs of the equipments.

3

4

9.

Sr.

No.

Unit

II

III

IV

Unit Name

Strategies

Introduction to energy

Demonstration of systems, movies, industrial visits,

sources and thermal

on-hand practice on available systems.

systems.

Standard data of boiler room and other auxiliaries from

Boilers.

real life example, Industrial visits, movies.

Standard data of furnace room and other auxiliaries

Furnaces.

from real life example, Industrial visits, movies.

Standard data of any heat exchanger from thermal

Heat exchangers and

plant and air compressor room as well as air

air compressors.

compressor system, Industrial visits, and movies.

Standard data of load calculation to compare with the

HVAC systems.

calculated load calculations, industrial visits,

demonstration of plants having HVAC systems.

A. List of Books:

S.

No.

Title of Book

Author

1.

Materials science

R.S.Khurmi, R.S.Sedha

2.

Material science

Guide book for NCE for EM

& EA (Vol I to IV)

Energy Conservation Guide

book

Energy

Management

Handbook

O. P. Khanna

3.

4.

5.

6.

Publication

S.Chand

Bureau

of

Efficiency

--

Energy

Patrick, Stephen W. Fardo

Wayne C. Turner

BSI, 2

London

Park

street,

Sr.No.

Experimental setup for Heat exchanger (Plate Heat Type heat exchanger is preferable)

Facilities preferable are: In/ out flow quantity of both fluids, In/ Out temperature of both

fluids, In/ out pressure drop of both fluids, specific heat of both fluids, number of passes

available etc. This parameters are required to measure performance of heat exchanger.

Gujarat State

6

Experimental setup for air compressor, boiler already prescribed in thermal engineering-I.

C. List of Software/Learning Websites.

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

vi.

vii.

viii.

http://nptel.ac.in/courses/112101005/downloads/Module_4_Lecture_7_final.p

df

http://btech.mit.asia/downloads/svlomte/HT2011.pdf

http://powermin.nic.in/acts_notification/pdf/ecact2001.pdf

www.energymanagertraining.com (register for free guide book downloads)

http://www.ureda.uk.gov.in/upload/downloads/Download-7.pdf

http://www.fao.org/docrep/t0269e/t0269e05.htm

http://energy.gov/eere/government-energy-management

http://www.sari

energy.org/PageFiles/What_We_Do/activities/SAWIE/wiser

/cap_dev_program_for_afghan_women_march_22-30_2010/

PRESENTATIONS/24032010/ENGLISH/Energy_Conservation_Act_200

1_NT_Nair.pdf

Faculty Members from Polytechnics.

Prof. S. R. Pareek, Head of Department, Mechanical Engineering, Tolani F. G.

Polytechnic, Adipur.

Prof. M. N. Patel, LME, Government Polytechnic, ChhotaUdepur.

Dr. Shah Atul S., LME, Dr. S & SS Ghandhy Collage of Engineering and

Technology, Surat.

Prof. Haresh G. Ranipa, LME, Shri N M Gopani Polytechnic, Ranpur.

Prof. Patadiya Viren N., LME, N.M.Gopani Polytechnic, Ranpur.

Prof. (Smt.) Krutika V. Prajapati, LME, Parul Institute of Engineering and

Technology, Vadodara.

Prof. Patel Rameshbhai Babubhai, LME, R.C.T.I., Ahmedabad.

Prof. Ajbani Vimlesh Chandrakant, LME, Government Polytechnic,

Ahmedabad.

Coordinator and Faculty Members from NITTTR Bhopal.

Dr. A.K. Sarathe, Associate Professor; Department of Mechanical Engineering.

Dr. K.K. Jain, Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering.

Gujarat State

7

1. BOILERS:

Direct method:

Boiler Efficiency( )

M (hg h f )

mf GCV

100

where, M

=

Quantity of steam generated per hour in kg/ hr

mf

=

Quantity of fuel used per hour in kg/ hr

GCV

=

Gross calorific value of fuel (kCal/ kg of fuel)

hg

=

Enthalpy of saturated steam in kCal/ kg of steam

hf

=

Enthalpy of feed water in kCal/ kg of water

Temperatures are in degree centigrade and pressure in kg/ cm2

Indirect Method:

Conversion of proximate analysis into ultimate analysis,

% H 0.036C 0.086(VM 0.1A) 0.0035M 2 (1 0.02 M )

% N 2 2.10 0.020VM

Where, %C

A

VM

M

=

=

=

=

% of fixed carbon

% of ash

% of volatile matter

% of moisture in general notations.

O2

)} 4.35S ] / 100 kg / kg of fuel

8

7900[(CO2 %)t (CO2 %)a

O2 %

% Excess air sup lied ( EA)

100

From flue gas analysis

21 O2 %

(CO2 %)a [100 (CO2 %)t ]

Theoretical air required for combustion [11.6C {34.8(H2

(CO2 %)a Actual CO2 % measured in flue gas

Moles of N 2

Moles of C

Moles of C

Moles of N 2 Moles of C

Mol. wt of N 2

Mol. wt of N 2

Wt of C in fuel

Molecular Wt of C

EA

] theoretica l air

100

Gujarat State

8

44

77

23

64

) ( AAS

) [( AAS Theoretica l Air )

] (S ) N 2

12

100

100

32

Where, md

=

=

Cp

Tf

Ta

=

=

=

md Cp (T f Ta )

GCV of fuel

Combustion product from fuel: CO2+SO2+N2 in fuel+N2 in actual mass of air supplied+O2 in

flue gas(H2O/water vapour in the flue gas should not be considered)

Specific heat of flue gas in kCal/ kg degree C

Flue gas temperature in degree C

Ambient temperature in degree C

where (for L3 to L4),

H2

Cp

Tf

Ta

584

M

AAS

Humidity factor

DBT (Degree C)

20

20

30

40

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

WBT degree C

20

14

22

30

GCV of fuel

M [584 Cp (T f Ta )]

GCV of fuel

100

GCV of fuel

Specific heat of superheated steam in kCal/ kg degree C

Flue gas temperature in C

Ambient temperature in C

Latent heat corresponding to partial pressure of water vapour

kg moisture in fuel on 1 kg basis

Actual mass of air supplied per kg of fuel

kg of water/ kg of dry air

Relative Humidity

100

50

50

50

0.016

0.008

0.014

0.024

%CO C

5744

100

%CO %CO2 GCV of fuel

L5

=

%Heat loss due to partial conversion of C to CO

CO

=

Volume of CO in flue gas leaving economiser %

CO2

=

Actual volume of CO2 in flue gas%

C

=

Carbon content kg/ kg of fuel

OR

When CO is obtained in ppm during the flue gas analysis

CO formation(Mco)

=

CO(in ppm)*Mf*28*10-6

Mf

=

Fuel consumption in kg/ he

L5

=

Mco*5744

Gujarat State

9

100

Where,

9 H 2 [584 Cp (T f Ta )]

Ts 4

T

) ( a )4 ]

55.55

55.55

[1.957 (Ts Ta )1.25 [

Where, L6

Vm

Ts

Ta

=

=

=

=

(196.85Vm 68.9)

]

68.9

Wind velocity in m/s

Surface tmperature (K)

Ambient temperature (K)

Total ash collected per kg of fuel burnt GCV of fly ash 100

GCV of fuel

Boiler Efficiency in % =

Total ash collected per kg of fuel burnt GCV of bottom ash 100

GCV of fuel

2. Furnace:

Specific energy consumption

processed.

Direct Method:

100

Heat in fuel in kCal

Where, Q

m

Cp

t2

t1

=

=

=

=

=

Mass of material in kg

Mean Specific Heat in kCal/ kg degree C

Final temperature desired in degree C

Initial temperature of the charge before it enters the furnace in degree C

Indirect Method:

Calculation of air quantity and specific fuel consumption:

O

Theoretical air required for combustion [11.6C {34.8(H2 2 )} 4.35S ] / 100 kg / kg of fuel

8

O2 %

Excess air sup lied ( EA)

100

21 O2 %

EA

Actual mass of air sup plied / kg of fuel( AAS) [1

] theoretica l air

100

Gujarat State

10

Total mass of dry flue gas Mass of C Mass of N 2in fuel Mass of SO2

Mass of N 2in Combustion air sup plied Mass of O2in flue gas

or

(C

44

77

23

64

) ( AAS

) [( AAS Theoretica l Air )

] (S ) N 2

12

100

100

32

Specific fuel consumption(F) =

of billet in tonne per hour

Heat input calculation for furnace heat balance sheet (one tonne basis):

Heat Input

=

=

(fuel consumption per tonne of billet*GCV)+ (fuel consumption per

tonne of billet*Cp of fuel*Temperature difference of flue gas to

atmosphere)

Q1 + Q2 in kCal per tonne of billet.

Heat out to furnace calculation for heat balance sheet (on one tonne basis):

Heat carried away by 1tonne of billet Q3 1000kg / tonne Cp (To Ti )

Where, To

Ti

Cp

=

=

=

Temperature of atmosphere at outlet

Specific heat of billets in lCal/ kg/degree C

Heat loss in flue gas Q4 Sensible heat loss m Cp fg (T1 Ta )

Where, m

=

Cpg

=

T1

=

Ta

=

Assumption:

Specific heat of flue gas ~

0.24 kCal/ kg/degree C

Temperature of flue gas in degree C

Temperature of atmosphere at base in degree C

1 kg of oil require 14 kg of air to burn fully.

Where, Cpsuper heated water

GCV of fuel

Heat loss due to moisture in combustion air Q6 F AAS Humidity of air Cpsup heat wat (T1 Ta )

F %CO C

5654

%CO %CO2

Gujarat State

11

100

heat loss from furnace body ceiling q1 + heat loss from furnace side wall q2+ bottom q3 + heat

loss from flue gas duct between furnace exit and air pre heater q4

T

T

q1 (h T 1.25 Ai ) (4.88 [( w ) 4 ( a ) 4 ] Ai )

100

100

Where,

h

Tw

Ta

t

Ai

=

=

=

=

=

=

External temperature of ceiling in degree C

Room temperature in degree C

Tw- Ta

Ceiling surface area in m2

emissivity of furnace body surface

T

T

q 2 (h T 1.25 Ai ) (4.88 [( w ) 4 ( a ) 4 ] Ai )

100

100

Where,

q3

h

Tw

Ta

t

Ai

=

=

=

=

=

=

Natural convective heat transfer rate for side wall in kCal/ m2 h degree C

External temperature of side wall in degree C

Room temperature in degree C

Tw- Ta

side wall surface area in m2

emissivity of furnace body surface

= Bottom: But as bottom surface area is not exposed to the atmosphere, here it is ignored.

q 4 (h

Where,

Q8

T

D1.25

1.25

T

T

Ai ) (4.88 [( w ) 4 ( a ) 4 ] Ai )

100

100

External temperature of flue gas duct in degree C

Room temperature in degree C

Tw- Ta

external flue gas duct in m2

emissivity of furnace body surface

Outside diameter of flue gas duct

h

Tw

Ta

t

Ai

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

q1+ q2+ q3+ q4 kCal per hour/ Amount of billet (t/ hr)

T

T

Radiation heat loss through furnace opening Q9 hr A 4.88[( f ) 4 ( 0 ) 4 ] / t

100

100

Where,

hr

Tf

To

A

Q10

Qheat balance:

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

Furnace temperature in degree C

base temperature in degree C

Area of opening in m2

Co efficient based on the profile of the furnace opening

Dia. of shortest side/ wall thickness

Amount of billet in ton/ hour

Other types of unaccounted heat losses like heat carried away by the cooling water in flue

damper and furnace excess door, Radiation from furnace bottom, Heat accumulated by

refractory, Instrumental error or any other errors etc.

(Q1+Q2) =

(Q3+Q4+Q5+Q6+Q7+Q8+Q9+Q10)

Gujarat State

12

3. HEAT EXCHANGER.

Over all heat transfer co efficient:

Where,

Q

U

A

LMTD

=

=

=

=

Overall heat transfer co efficient in kCal/ hr/ m2/ degree C

Heat transfer area in m2

Logarithmic Mean Temperature difference in degree C

Where,

Cmin =

Tmax =

Q UA LMTD

Q

Q

Lower of two fluid heat capacities in kCal/ hr degree C

Max. temp. difference from terminal stream temperature. in degree C

Heat duty of cold fluid Qc w C pc (Tco Tci )

Where,

Thi/ ho & Tco/ci

=

=

W, w

Temperature at inlet (i) and outlet (o) of hot and cold fluids respectively in

degree C

Hot and cold fluid flow respectively.

qs W C ph (Thi Tho ) / 3600 w C pc (Tco Tci ) / 3600.......in kW

ql W h / 3600 w c / 3600.....in kW

h & c =

Where,

Latent heat of condensation for hot fluid and latent heat of vaporization for cold fluid

in kJ/ kg

Hot fluid temperatur e range Th Thi Tho

Cold fluid pressure drop Pc Pi Po

Cold fluid temperatur e range Tc Tco Tci

Thi

Tho

T1

Thi

T2

Tco

Tho

T1

Tci

T2

Tci

Tco

ln[(Thi Tco ) (Tho Tci )]

ln[(Thi Tci ) (Tho Tco )]

Gujarat State

13

R

Where,

Ta & T b =

ta & tb =

Ta Tb

tb t a

tb t a

Ta ta

Inlet and outlet temperature of tube side fluid

1 RP

1 P

1

N

&

1

R

1 S

R 2 1 ln

1 RS

F

2 S ( R 1 R 2 1)

( R 1) ln

2 S ( R 1 R 2 1)

&

Where, N

S&

=

=

P

N ( N 1) P

&

S 2

2 S (2 2 )

(1 S ) ln

2 S (2 2)

Parameters used to calculate LMTD correction factors

Corrected LMTD

Overall heat transfer co efficient U

=

=

F*LMTD

Q / (A* Corrected LMTD)

(Use standard Refrigeration Tables for values of different factors)

a.

Q UA[(TETDP FC ) (TETDA FR )]

Where, U

A

TETD

F

b.

=

=

=

=

Area of wall in m2

Total Equivalent Temperature Difference,

Time Integrated peak and average respectively

Convective and radiative factor respectively for walls

Where, U

A

T

=

=

=

Q UAT

Area of glass in m2

Outside and inside temperature difference in degree C.

Gujarat State

14

Where, A

SHGF

SC

F

c.

=

=

=

=

Glass Area m2

Solar heat gain factor for peak and average

Shading co efficient

Convective and radiative factor respectively for glass

Q UAT

Where, U

A

T

d.

=

=

=

Overall heat transfer co efficient for Ceiling/ Roof/ Floor/ Partition in W/m 2 degree K

Area of Ceiling/ Roof/ Floor/ Partition in m2

Outside and inside temperature difference in degree C.

Qs No of occupants in space Latent heat gain factor per occupant

e.

Lights (sensible):

Where, Input

Allowance

Use

f.

=

=

=

Usage of tube lights ~1.2

Actual wattage in use/ installed wattage and to be decided based on

application.

Motors and other load (sensible):

Where, Power of motor

Load factor

Use factor

g.

=

=

=

Depends on relative placement of motor and load

Generally taken as 1 if not specified.

Appliances (sensible):

Qs No of appliances in space Latent heat factor

h.

Qs 20.43 Qm (to ti ) W

QL 49.1 Qm (Wo Wi ) W

Where, Qm

t

W

i.

=

=

=

Outside and inside temperature difference respcetively in degree K.

Humidity ratio difference of outside and inside in gms/ kg

Door inf iltration door opening Factor / 60

Gujarat State

15

Where, H

W

L

G

=

=

=

=

Room height in m.

Room width in m

Room Length in m

Factor for infiltration

Load unload test of compressor for compressed air system leakage:

100

Time for load Time for unload in min utes

Time for loadin min utes

System leakage quantity

Comp. capacity in m3 / min

Time for load Time for unload in min utes

% Leakage

Q free

Where, Qfree

c

d

Ta

Pa

Pbn

Pbn-Pn

R

Tbn

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

d 2 Ta 2( Pbn Pn )(Pbn R)

c

4 Pa

Tbn

1/ 2

Flow constant to be specified

diameter of nozzle in m

Absolute inlet temperature in degree K

Absolute inlet pressure in kg/ cm2

Absolute pressure before nozzle in kg/ cm2

Difference of pressure across nozzle in kg/ cm2

Gas constant for air and is taken as 287.10 J/ kg K

Absolute temperature before nozzle in degree K

Isothermal efficiency

Isothermal Power

PVloger/ 36.7

Where, P

V

r

Pd

=

=

=

=

Volumetric Efficiency

Where, D

V

L

N

x

n

=

=

=

=

=

=

Free air delivery in m3/ hr

pressure ratio Pd/P

Delivery Pressure m3/ hr

=

[Free air delivery (in m3/ min) / Compressor displacement (in m3/ hr)]*100

=

[Free air delivery (in m3/ min)/ (0.785*D2*L*N*X*n)

Cylinder bore in m

Free air delivery in m3/ hr

Stroke length in m

RPM of compressor or speed in RPM

Single or double acting compressor cylinder

Nos. of cylinder in compressor

at rated discharge pressure

Gujarat State

16

(This is for reference only and is in suggestive form. Paper setter may opt for other marks

distribution pattern maintaining distribution of marks as per specification table)

Q.NO.

SUB

Q.NO.

QUESTION

MARKS

DISTRIBUTIO

N

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

vi.

vii.

2

2

2

2

2

2

viii.

ix.

x.

a.

UNIT

14

I

II

III

IV

V

I

II or

III

IV

IV

I

II

3

3

II

II

2

2

2

OR

a.

b.

OR

b.

c.

3

4

II

III

OR

c.

d.

III

V

4

3

V

II

3

3

II

IV

OR

3

d.

a.

OR

a.

b.

OR

b.

c.

3

4

IV

II

4

4

II

III

4

3

III

IV

IV

III

OR

c.

d

OR

4

d

a.

OR

a.

b.

4

OR

b

c.

a.

b.

c.

d.

4

7

4

4

3

3

III

V

I

III

V

IV

Gujarat State

17

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