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## - FOR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS -

By R. P. Clarke
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## 1.0 SKELETAL STRUCTURES – STATIC LOADS

1.1 SIGN CONVENTION 3
1.2 FUNDAMENTAL COMMANDS 5
1.3 EXAMPLE 6

## 2.1 SIGN CONVENTION 9

2.2 FUNDAMENTAL COMMANDS 11
2.3 EXAMPLE 11

## 3.1 FUNDAMENTAL COMMANDS 14

3.2 EXAMPLE 15
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## The following is a description of fundamental considerations for the effective use of

STAAD-PRO Release 3.1 for the analysis of structures. It must be mentioned however
that since STAAD is a computer program, blind faith should not be placed in STAAD or
any other engineering program. This is due to the following factors. (1): The results are
only as good as the modeling of the structure in terms of load effects representation,
effective structural systems, the connection behavior, and the material idealizations. (2):
The procedures used in programs are not transparent to the user. (3): Computer programs
usually have bugs. (4): Dependence on software can reduce the engineer's intuition of the
actual behavior of the structure. It is therefore strongly recommended that until at least
one year's experience of continually using STAAD is obtained, and for important
structures, parallel hand calculations for the analysis and design of the structure be done
as well.

For section 1.0 it is presumed that the reader understands Structural Theory and the
Stiffness Matrix Method of Structural Analysis. For section 2.0 it is presumed that the
reader understands the fundamentals of Plate Theory, and the Finite Element Method
based on the stiffness formulation. For section 3.0 it is presumed that the reader
understands Structural Dynamic Analysis by the Lumped Mass Time History Method.

## 1.1 SIGN CONVENTION

It is vital to understand the STAAD coordinate system in order to properly use STAAD.
This is needed to ensure that the input data is as intended, and for the interpretation of the
analysis results.

Coordinate Systems:

Since STAAD uses the Matrix Displacement Method of structural analysis, there are 2
Cartesian coordinate systems - the local and the global.

The geometry of the structure as a whole is defined by the nodes at the ends of the
various structural members, and each node has a unique number. Each member also has
a unique number and the topology of the member is defined relative to the node numbers
at its ends. This establishes the "MEMBER INCIDENCES" table.

The location of each node is defined relative to a global coordinate system. By default,
the origin of the global coordinate system is at node number 1.
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The location of points or sections within each structural member is defined relative to the
local coordinate system with the origin at the left end node of the member viewed
horizontally. Each member has its own local coordinate system.

## A. FORCES AT A SECTION OF A MEMBER

This applies to the sign of the quantity in the STAAD member stress diagram such as the
bending moment diagram.

Bending:
Mz

Axial:
Fx

Shear:
Fy

## POSITIVE FORCE ON THE MEMBER NEGATIVE FORCE ON THE MEMBER

Bending:
Mz

Axial:
Fx

Shear:
Fy

Torsion: Mx
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## 1.2 FUNDAMENTAL ANALYSIS COMMANDS

Regardless of the structure being analysed, the following are fundamental steps and
STAAD command keywords shown in the brackets:

## 1. Define whether the problem is 2D or 3D (STAAD PLANE or SPACE)

2. Define the length and force units (UNITS)
3. Define the nodes and their locations (JOINT COORDINATES)
4. Define the member and their nodes (MEMBER INCIDENCES)
5. Define the section properties of the members, Ix, etc (MEMBER PROPERTY)
6. Define the mechanical properties of the members such as the Young's modulus,
density, etc (CONSTANTS)
7. Define the support conditions (SUPPORTS)
11. Analyse the structure (PERFORM ANALYSIS)
12. Define the output format (PRINT)
13. Finish the run (FINISH)

These commands are stored automatically in STAAD in a file with the extension .std.
This file is formatted as an ASCII text file which means that it can be edited outside of
STAAD with a word processor or any other text editor. Therefore, you can also write the
input file independantly of STAAD and just refer to it when you enter STAAD to run the
analysis.

an output file with the extension .anl. This file is also a text file and is useful for
including in calculation reports.

STAAD also creates certain other output files for its internal use. STAAD creates a
database for your analysis, .dbs, and files for the bending moments .bmd, displacements,
.dsp, reactions, .rea, amomg others.

The aforementioned STAAD commands are incomplete by themselves - they are the
keywords of the commands. The complete commands follow a particular syntax to
completely describe the problem. The example problem at the end of this section shows
the complete syntax for common commands.

Though you can use a totally character-based approach with STAAD, the most effective
use of STAAD is when you use the PRE-PROCESSOR of STAAD to write the .std for
you. The PRE-PROCESSOR is a set of functions within STAAD that you select from
the menus of STAAD's GUI. Each of the command keywords presented in brackets
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earlier has an icon or menu that you click on to create the commands in the .std file.
From within STAAD you can see the contents of the .std file at any time, and the .anl file
as well after analysis. To do this you just click on the icon for each. This puts the file on
the screen and you can edit the file from there if you wish.

1.3 EXAMPLE 1:

The following is the .std file - ex1.std, for the analysis of a 3D 1-bay portal frame
carrying a slab under an unfactored floor load of 6 kN/m2 and unfactored joint loads of
30 kN at 2 of the upper joints. The command keywords are in BOLD.
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START JOB INFORMATION
JOB NAME EXAMPLE 1
JOB CLIENT UWI STUDENTS
JOB NO 024
ENGINEER NAME rpc
ENGINEER DATE 09-Aug-03
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 0 4.572 0; 3 0 0 4.572; 4 4.572 0 4.572; 5 4.572 0 0;
6 0 4.572 4.572; 7 4.572 4.572 0; 8 4.572 4.572 4.572;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 2; 2 3 6; 3 4 8; 4 5 7; 5 6 8; 6 2 7; 7 2 6; 8 7 8;
MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN
1 TO 4 PRIS YD 0.35 ZD 0.35
5 TO 8 PRIS YD 0.5 ZD 0.35
CONSTANTS
E CONCRETE MEMB 1 TO 8
E 2.5e+007 MEMB 1 TO 8
POISSON 0.17 MEMB 1 TO 8
DENSITY 24 MEMB 1 TO 8
ALPHA 1.2e-011 MEMB 1 TO 8
DENSITY CONCRETE MEMB 1 TO 8
SUPPORTS
1 3 TO 5 FIXED
SELFWEIGHT Y -1
2 6 FX 30
LOAD COMB 3 FLOOR PLUS JOINT
1 1.5 2 1.2
PERFORM ANALYSIS
FINISH

supporting the 2-way spanning slab. The self-weight of the members is automatically
calculated by STAAD using the SELFWEIGHT Y -1 command.

If we wanted to know the internal forces at the ends of say the members 1 and 5 included
in the output data, we would put the following commands after the "PERFORM
ANALYSIS" command:

## PRINT MEMBER FORCES LIST 1

PRINT MEMBER FORCES LIST 5
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The output data from the file ex1.anl that corresponds to these commands are as follows:

## MEMBER END FORCES STRUCTURE TYPE = SPACE

-----------------
ALL UNITS ARE -- KN METE

## 1 1 1 63.40 -2.92 2.92 0.00 -4.42 -4.42

2 -50.21 2.92 -2.92 0.00 -8.95 -8.95
2 1 -14.14 15.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 36.31
2 14.14 -15.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 32.37
3 1 78.13 13.64 4.38 0.00 -6.63 36.94
2 -58.34 -13.64 -4.38 0.00 -13.42 25.42

## MEMBER END FORCES STRUCTURE TYPE = SPACE

-----------------
ALL UNITS ARE -- KN METE

## 5 1 6 2.92 25.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 8.95

8 -2.92 25.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 -8.95
2 6 14.98 -14.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 -32.37
8 -14.98 14.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 -32.29
3 6 22.36 20.69 0.00 0.00 0.00 -25.42
8 -22.36 54.62 0.00 0.00 0.00 -52.16

## ************** END OF LATEST ANALYSIS RESULT **************

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## 2.0 CONTINUUM STRUCTURES – STATIC LOADS

Continuum structures (plates, slabs, walls, shells, tanks, etc) are modelled in STAAD by
using finite elements. The following is with respect to the element of the STAAD library
which can be quadrilateral or triangular. Common rules for the use of finite element
modelling apply and will not be repeated here and it is presumed that section 1.0 has been
covered.

Fxy

Fx

Fy

MEMBRANE FORCES
QX MYX
QY

MXY QX

MY MXY
MX
MYX QY

## BENDING MOMENTS & TRANSVERSE SHEAR

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The diagrams above show the positive direction of the forces relative to the following
local coordinate system.

Top surface L Y

J
X

Bottom surface

Hence for axial direct forces: tension is positive, for bending moments: hogging is
positive, and for transverse shear: down-to-the-left and up-to-the-right is positive.

Note that for non-rectangular and triangular elements, the x-y-z axes are not orthogonal
to the edges or surfaces of the element. The x-axis is aligned with a line connecting the
mid-points of IL and JK, the z-axis is orthogonal to lines connecting the mid-points of IL-
JK to those connecting the mid-points of IJ-KL, and the y-axis is orthogonal to the x and
z axes so defined.

ELEMENT FORCE outputs are available at the centre node of the element, all corner
nodes of the element, and at any user-specified point within the element.

## The items included in the ELEMENT FORCE output are:

QX, QY Transverse shear forces stated as force per unit length per unit
element thickness.

FX, FY, FXY Membrane forces stated as force per unit length per unit element
thickness.

MX, MY, MXY Bending moments stated as moment per unit length.

## SMAX, SMIN Principal stresses stated as force per unit area.

TMAX Maximum in-plane shear stress stated as force per unit area.
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## ANGLE The orientation of the principal plane stated in degrees measured

anti-clockwise from the local x-axis.

The top and bottom surfaces are identified on the basis of the direction of the local z-axis.

## 2.2 FUNDAMENTAL COMMANDS

The fundamental commands for finite element analysis using STAAD closely follow
those for the skeletal or frame member analysis. The following are the essential
differences:

## • ELEMENT INCIDENCES command.

• ELEMENT PROPERTY command.

Both frame members and finite elements can be used together in STAAD but the
ELEMENT INCIDENCES command must immediately follow the MEMBER
INCIDENCES command.

The selfweight of the finite elements is converted to joint loads at the connected nodes
and is not used as an element pressure load.

2.3 EXAMPLE 2

Analyse an uncovered reinforced concrete tank of dimensions 6.0m x 6.0m x 6.0m with
walls and base 200mm thick. The tank is filled with water and rests on rigid ground.

The following is the STAAD .std file for a model of the tank.

## STAAD SPACE FINITE ELEMENT MODEL OF TANK STRUCTURE

START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 10-Feb-04
END JOB INFORMATION
UNIT MET KNS
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 0 1.5 0; 3 0 3.0 0; 4 0 4.5 0; 5 0 6.0 0; 6 1.5 0 0;
7 1.5 1.5 0; 8 1.5 3.0 0; 9 1.5 4.5 0; 10 1.5 6.0 0; 11 3.0 0 0;
12 3.0 1.5 0; 13 3.0 3.0 0; 14 3.0 4.5 0; 15 3.0 6.0 0;
16 4.5 0 0; 17 4.5 1.5 0; 18 4.5 3.0 0; 19 4.5 4.5 0;
20 4.5 6.0 0; 21 6.0 0 0; 22 6.0 1.5 0; 23 6.0 3.0 0;
24 6.0 4.5 0; 25 6.0 6.0 0; 26 6.0 0 1.5; 27 6.0 1.5 1.5;
28 6.0 3.0 1.5; 29 6.0 4.5 1.5; 30 6.0 6.0 1.5; 31 6.0 0 3.0;
32 6.0 1.5 3.0; 33 6.0 3.0 3.0; 34 6.0 4.5 3.0; 35 6.0 6.0 3.0;
36 6.0 0 4.5; 37 6.0 1.5 4.5; 38 6.0 3.0 4.5; 39 6.0 4.5 4.5;
40 6.0 6.0 4.5; 41 6.0 0 6.0; 42 6.0 1.5 6.0; 43 6.0 3.0 6.0;
44 6.0 4.5 6.0; 45 6.0 6.0 6.0; 46 4.5 0 6.0; 47 4.5 1.5 6.0;
48 4.5 3.0 6.0; 49 4.5 4.5 6.0; 50 4.5 6.0 6.0; 51 3.0 0 6.0;
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52 3.0 1.5 6.0; 53 3.0 3.0 6.0; 54 3.0 4.5 6.0; 55 3.0 6.0 6.0;
56 1.5 0 6.0; 57 1.5 1.5 6.0; 58 1.5 3.0 6.0; 59 1.5 4.5 6.0;
60 1.5 6.0 6.0; 61 0 0 6.0; 62 0 1.5 6.0; 63 0 3.0 6.0;
64 0 4.5 6.0; 65 0 6.0 6.0; 66 0 0 4.5; 67 0 1.5 4.5;
68 0 3.0 4.5; 69 0 4.5 4.5; 70 0 6.0 4.5; 71 0 0 3.0;
72 0 1.5 3.0; 73 0 3.0 3.0; 74 0 4.5 3.0; 75 0 6.0 3.0;
76 0 0 1.5; 77 0 1.5 1.5; 78 0 3.0 1.5; 79 0 4.5 1.5;
80 0 6.0 1.5; 81 1.5 0 1.5; 82 1.5 0 3.0; 83 1.5 0 4.5;
84 3.0 0 1.5; 85 3.0 0 3.0; 86 3.0 0 4.5; 87 4.5 0 1.5;
88 4.5 0 3.0; 89 4.5 0 4.5;
ELEMENT INCIDENCES SHELL
1 1 2 7 6; 2 2 3 8 7; 3 3 4 9 8; 4 4 5 10 9; 5 6 7 12 11; 6 7 8 13 12;
7 8 9 14 13; 8 9 10 15 14; 9 11 12 17 16; 10 12 13 18 17;
11 13 14 19 18; 12 14 15 20 19; 13 16 17 22 21; 14 17 18 23 22;
15 18 19 24 23; 16 19 20 25 24; 17 21 22 27 26; 18 22 23 28 27;
19 23 24 29 28; 20 24 25 30 29; 21 26 27 32 31; 22 27 28 33 32;
23 28 29 34 33; 24 29 30 35 34; 25 31 32 37 36; 26 32 33 38 37;
27 33 34 39 38; 28 34 35 40 39; 29 36 37 42 41; 30 37 38 43 42;
31 38 39 44 43; 32 39 40 45 44; 33 41 42 47 46; 34 42 43 48 47;
35 43 44 49 48; 36 44 45 50 49; 37 46 47 52 51; 38 47 48 53 52;
39 48 49 54 53; 40 49 50 55 54; 41 51 52 57 56; 42 52 53 58 57;
43 53 54 59 58; 44 54 55 60 59; 45 56 57 62 61; 46 57 58 63 62;
47 58 59 64 63; 48 59 60 65 64; 49 61 62 67 66; 50 62 63 68 67;
51 63 64 69 68; 52 64 65 70 69; 53 66 67 72 71; 54 67 68 73 72;
55 68 69 74 73; 56 69 70 75 74; 57 71 72 77 76; 58 72 73 78 77;
59 73 74 79 78; 60 74 75 80 79; 61 76 77 2 1; 62 77 78 3 2;
63 78 79 4 3; 64 79 80 5 4; 65 1 6 81 76; 66 76 81 82 71;
67 71 82 83 66; 68 66 83 56 61; 69 6 11 84 81; 70 81 84 85 82;
71 82 85 86 83; 72 83 86 51 56; 73 11 16 87 84; 74 84 87 88 85;
75 85 88 89 86; 76 86 89 46 51; 77 16 21 26 87; 78 87 26 31 88;
79 88 31 36 89; 80 89 36 41 46;
ELEMENT PROPERTY
1 TO 80 THICKNESS 0.20
CONSTANTS
E 20000000.0 ALL
SUPPORTS
1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 81 TO 89 PINNED
4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 PR 15.
3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 35 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 PR 30.
2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 34 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 PR 45.
1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 PR 60.
PERFORM ANALYSIS
PRINT JOINT DISPLACMENTS LIST 5 25 45 65
PRINT ELEMENT FORCE LIST 9 TO 16
DRAW ROTA X -20 Y 30 Z 20 STR 1
FINISH

The following is part of the STAAD output for the displacements, element forces,
stresses, etc, at the locations indicated in the input file.
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## JOINT DISPLACEMENT (CM RADIANS) STRUCTURE TYPE = SPACE

------------------

## 5 1 -0.0029 -0.0003 -0.0029 0.0001 0.0000 -0.0001

25 1 0.0029 -0.0003 -0.0029 0.0001 0.0000 0.0001
45 1 0.0029 -0.0003 0.0029 -0.0001 0.0000 0.0001
65 1 -0.0029 -0.0003 0.0029 -0.0001 0.0000 -0.0001

## ELEMENT FORCES FORCE,LENGTH UNITS= KNS MET

--------------
FORCE OR STRESS = FORCE/UNIT WIDTH/THICK, MOMENT = FORCE-LENGTH/UNIT WIDTH

## ELEMENT LOAD QX QY MX MY MXY

VONT VONB FX FY FXY

## 9 1 322.03 24.89 -6.52 6.89 6.55

2594.11 2279.42 39.19 177.12 58.53
TOP : SMAX= 1631.24 SMIN= -1360.09 TMAX= 1495.67 ANGLE= -22.0
BOTT: SMAX= 1395.94 SMIN= -1234.46 TMAX= 1315.20 ANGLE= -22.3

## 10 1 32.21 -104.02 22.55 27.88 5.06

4315.25 3841.25 -51.93 388.84 28.70
TOP : SMAX= 4952.95 SMIN= 2948.25 TMAX= 1002.35 ANGLE= -25.9
BOTT: SMAX= -2861.72 SMIN= -4365.67 TMAX= 751.97 ANGLE= -38.1

## 11 1 -61.01 -101.23 13.25 30.74 -0.05

4418.73 3607.97 -47.38 445.41 -21.84
TOP : SMAX= 5056.75 SMIN= 1939.18 TMAX= 1558.78 ANGLE= 0.5
BOTT: SMAX= -2034.12 SMIN= -4165.74 TMAX= 1065.81 ANGLE= -0.4

## 12 1 -39.29 -88.67 1.04 26.72 0.28

4287.26 3580.09 0.30 354.46 -14.06
TOP : SMAX= 4362.88 SMIN= 155.47 TMAX= 2103.71 ANGLE= -0.4
BOTT: SMAX= -154.15 SMIN= -3654.67 TMAX= 1750.26 ANGLE= -0.9

## 13 1 -2.80 -94.45 -5.15 -9.80 7.19

2416.03 2137.97 -39.19 144.56 145.84
TOP : SMAX= 181.92 SMIN= -2319.92 TMAX= 1250.92 ANGLE= 39.1
BOTT: SMAX= 2205.83 SMIN= 142.90 TMAX= 1031.47 ANGLE= 32.4

## 14 1 -76.30 -369.04 0.23 -22.18 5.07

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## 3161.16 4043.74 51.93 520.22 27.13

TOP : SMAX= 286.87 SMIN= -3007.95 TMAX= 1647.41 ANGLE= 14.3
BOTT: SMAX= 3983.43 SMIN= -118.04 TMAX= 2050.74 ANGLE= 10.5

## 15 1 -17.52 -326.06 -5.54 -28.81 -0.23

3559.42 4387.81 47.38 438.41 -37.17
TOP : SMAX= -781.48 SMIN= -3885.23 TMAX= 1551.88 ANGLE= -1.3
BOTT: SMAX= 4760.39 SMIN= 877.91 TMAX= 1941.24 ANGLE= 0.0

## 16 1 4.67 -251.97 -8.13 -28.50 -0.26

3491.73 4139.45 -0.30 337.72 -17.83
TOP : SMAX= -1219.29 SMIN= -3937.89 TMAX= 1359.30 ANGLE= -1.2
BOTT: SMAX= 4612.27 SMIN= 1219.73 TMAX= 1696.27 ANGLE= -0.3

## 3.1 FUNDAMENTAL COMMANDS

The reader must first complete section 1.0. Only Time History dynamic analysis by the
application of forcing functions to nodes or members is covered in this section (i.e. not
ground motion time history dynamics).

There are 2 issues to consider in the use of STAAD for dynamic analysis - how STAAD
idealises the distribution of mass and how to apply the forcing function.

STAAD distributes the mass via the SELFWEIGHT command. When this is done, the
mass is lumped at the nodes. If this is an inadequate model of the mass idealisation, the
member concentrated load command CON can be used to tell STAAD that significant
masses are located there and their values. Also, the user can split the member into shorter
lengths by inserting nodes along the member. In this case, the user can use the JOINT
LOAD command to tell STAAD that a significant mass is located there and its mass.

The SELFWEIGHT command is placed as the first line (or lines) of the commands under
the relevant LOAD command. If the CON or JOINT LOAD commands are used, it is
placed after the SELFWEIGHT command.

To apply a forcing function in STAAD at the nodes, or at a particular location, you must
first define the type of forcing function using the DEFINE TIME HISTORY command.
Note that a forcing function can only be applied at a node so if the user wishes to apply
the function to a point along a member, a node must be placed there first.

You then use the TYPE “i” FORCE command along with its particular syntax
requirements. Finally, under the relevant LOAD command and after the mass
idealisation commands (i.e. SELFWEIGHT, CON, JOINT LOAD), you use the TIME
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3.2 EXAMPLE 3

## A one-storey reinforced concrete structure of plan dimensions 10.0m x 4.572m supports

several loads: a mass of 120 kN at the mid-span of one of the long beams, point loads of
30kN at the floor level in the long direction, and a floor load of 6.0 kN/m2 . The
columns are 0.3m x 0.3m and the beams are 0.45m deep x 0.3m wide. If the mass
vibrates at 2.5 Hz for 10 cycles, estimate the amplification factor for the bending moment
in the beam under the mass?

INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 0 4.572 0; 3 0 0 4.572; 4 10 0 4.572; 5 10 0 0; 6 0 4.572
4.572;
7 10 4.572 0; 8 10 4.572 4.572; 10 5 4.572 4.572;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 2; 2 3 6; 3 4 8; 4 5 7; 6 2 7; 7 2 6; 8 7 8; 10 10 8; 11 6 10;
MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN
1 TO 4 PRIS YD 0.3 ZD 0.3
6 TO 8 10 11 PRIS YD 0.45 ZD 0.3
CONSTANTS
E 2.5e+007 MEMB 1 TO 4 6 TO 8 10 11
POISSON 0.17 MEMB 1 TO 4 6 TO 8 10 11
ALPHA 1.2e-011 MEMB 1 TO 4 6 TO 8 10 11
DENSITY CONCRETE MEMB 1 TO 4 6 TO 8 10 11
SUPPORTS
1 3 TO 5 FIXED
*INPUT THE TYPE OF FORCING FUNCTION HERE
DEFINE TIME HISTORY
TYPE 1 FORCE
FUNCTION SINE
*THE NEXT LINE IS A FORCE OF AMPLITUDE 120 KN VIBRATING AT 2.5 HZ FOR
10 SEC
AMPLITUDE 120 FREQUENCY 2.5 CYCLES 10
ARRIVAL TIME
0
DAMPING 0.05
SELFWEIGHT Y -1
2 6 FX 30
10 FY -120
*IN THE NEXT LINE YOU MUST INPUT THE LOAD DUE TO THE MASS THOUGH YOU
*USE THE JOINT LOAD CMD IN THE TIME HISTORY CMDs TO TELL STAAD THAT A
MASS
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## *IS THERE AND IN WHAT DIRECTIONS IT IS CAPABLE OF MOVING

SELFWEIGHT X 1
SELFWEIGHT Y 1
SELFWEIGHT Z 1
*THE JOINT LOAD COMMAND IS USED TO TELL STAAD THE ACTIVE MASS AT A
JOINT
10 FY 120
*THE FORCING FUNCTION MUST BE APPLIED TO A JOINT HENCE THE FY
10 FY 1 1
LOAD COMB 4 FLOOR PLUS JOINT
1 1.5 2 1.2
LOAD COMB 5 FLOOR PLUS JOINT PLUS VIBRATION
1 1.5 2 1.2 3 1.0
PERFORM ANALYSIS
PRINT MEMBER FORCES LIST 11
FINISH

1 3.050 0.32782
2 3.796 0.26346
3 3.899 0.25646

## MASS PARTICIPATION FACTORS IN PERCENT

--------------------------------------

## 1 0.00 58.69 0.00 0.000 58.691 0.003

2 99.93 0.00 0.00 99.925 58.691 0.003
3 0.00 0.00 97.57 99.925 58.693 97.576

## 61. PRINT MEMBER FORCES LIST 11

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## MEMBER END FORCES STRUCTURE TYPE = SPACE

-----------------
ALL UNITS ARE -- KN METE

## 11 1 6 23.95 68.81 0.00 0.00 0.00 73.21

10 -23.95 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 126.05
2 6 38.45 53.82 0.00 0.00 0.03 63.06
10 -38.45 -53.82 0.00 0.00 -0.03 206.01
3 6 -90.99 -232.35 0.13 0.00 0.34 -364.06
10 90.99 232.35 -0.13 0.00 -0.30 -797.72
4 6 82.06 167.79 0.00 0.00 0.03 185.50
10 -82.06 -64.58 0.00 0.00 -0.03 436.29
5 6 -8.93 -64.57 0.13 0.00 0.37 -178.56
10 -173.04 -296.93 0.13 0.00 0.27 1234.01

## ************** END OF LATEST ANALYSIS RESULT **************

Hence from the output for load 5 and load 4, and at joint 10, the amplification factor is
1234.01/436.29 = 2.82

This relatively high amplification occurs because the forcing function frequency of 2.5
Hz is not far from the natural frequencies of the structure of 3.050 to 3.899 Hz.