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Problem 1

IP Address, 172.30.1.33
Subnet Mask, 255.255.255.0

Change decimal number of both IP Address and Subnet Mask into binary
number.
172 / 2 = 86 (0)
33 / 2 = 16.5 (1)

30 / 2 = 15 (0)

86 / 2 = 43 (0)
8 (0)

15 / 2 = 7.5 (1)

16 / 2 =

43 / 2 = 21.5 (1)
4 (0)

7 / 2 = 3.5 (1)

8/2=

21 / 2 = 10.5 (1)
2 (0)

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

4/2=

10 / 2 = 5 (0)
1 (0)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

2/2=

5 / 2 = 2.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

2 / 2 = 1 (0)
1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

172 = 10101100
33 = 00100001

255 / 2 = 127.5 (1)


127 / 2 = 63.5 (1)
63 / 2 = 31.5 (1)
31 / 2 = 15.5 (1)
15 / 2 = 7.5 (1)
7 / 2 = 3.5 (1)
3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

30 = 00011110

1 = 00000001

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

255 = 11111111
00000000

255 = 11111111

255 = 11111111

0=

Subnet Address for this IP Address

Perform an AND operation between IP Address and Subnet Mask


1 AND 1 = 1
1 AND 0 = 0
0 AND 0 = 0

IP Address

10101100

00011110

00000001

00100001

Subnet
Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

10101100

00011110

00000001

00000000

Subnet
Address

Change the binary number into decimal to get the Subnet Address
27 =
128
1
128 +
172

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

1
32 +

0
0+

1
8+

1
4+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
30

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

1
16 +

1
8+

1
4+

1
2+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
1

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

1
1

Subnet Address, 172.30.1.0

Broadcast Address for this Subnet

Take the IP Address and Inverse (Inverse is when you change 0 to 1 and 1 to 0)
Subnet Mask and do OR operation to get the Broadcast Address
1 OR 1 = 1
1 OR 0 = 1
0 OR 0 = 0

IP Address
Inverse
Subnet
Mask
Broadcast
Address

10101100
00000000

00011110
00000000

00000001
00000000

00100001
11111111

10101100

00011110

00000001

11111111

Broadcast Address, 172.30.1.255


Change the binary number into decimal to get the Broadcast Address
27 =
128
1
128 +
172

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

1
32 +

0
0+

1
8+

1
4+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
30

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

1
16 +

1
8+

1
4+

1
2+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
1

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

1
1

27 =
128
0
128 +
255

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
64 +

0
32 +

0
16 +

0
8+

0
4+

0
2+

1
1

Number of Subnet Bits

Take Subnet Mask in binary form, 11111111.11111111.[11111111.00000000],


count the 1 in the latter half of the Subnet.
We have 8 1

Number of Subnet

Formula: 2n = number of subnet, where n is the number of Subnet Bits1


28 = 256

Number of Hosts Bits per Subnet

Take Subnet Mask in binary form, 11111111.11111111.[11111111.00000000]


count the 0 in the latter half of the Subnet
We have 8 0

Number of Usable Hosts per Subnet

Formula: 2n 2 = Number of Usable Hosts, where n is the number of Hosts Bits


28 2 = 256 2 = 254

IP Address of First Host on this Subnet

Take Subnet Address and you add 1 at the last octet of the address

Subnet Address
First Host

172.30.1.0
172.30.1.1

IP Address of Last Host on this Subnet

Take Broadcast Address and you minus 1 at the last octet of the address

Broadcast
Address
Last Host

172.30.1.255
172.30.1.254

Problem 2
IP Address, 172.30.1.33
Subnet Mask, 255.255.255.252

Change decimal number of both IP Address and Subnet Mask into binary
number.
172 / 2 = 86 (0)
33 / 2 = 16.5 (1)

30 / 2 = 15 (0)

86 / 2 = 43 (0)
8 (0)

15 / 2 = 7.5 (1)

16 / 2 =

43 / 2 = 21.5 (1)
4 (0)

7 / 2 = 3.5 (1)

8/2=

21 / 2 = 10.5 (1)
2 (0)

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

4/2=

10 / 2 = 5 (0)
1 (0)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

2/2=

5 / 2 = 2.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

2 / 2 = 1 (0)
1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

172 = 10101100
33 = 00100001

30 = 00011110

255 / 2 = 127.5 (1) 252 / 2 = 126 (0)


127 / 2 = 63.5 (1) 126 / 2 = 63 (0)
63 / 2 = 31.5 (1)

63 / 2 = 31.5 (1)

31 / 2 = 15.5 (1)

31 / 2 = 15.5 (1)

15 / 2 = 7.5 (1)

15 / 2 = 7.5 (1)

7 / 2 = 3.5 (1)

7 / 2 = 3.5 (1)

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

1 = 00000001

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

255 = 11111111
252 = 11111100

255 = 11111111

255 = 11111111

Subnet Address for this IP Address

Perform an AND operation between IP Address and Subnet Mask


1 AND 1 = 1
1 AND 0 = 0
0 AND 0 = 0

IP Address

10101100

00011110

00000001

00100001

Subnet
Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

11111100

10101100

00011110

00000001

00100000

Subnet
Address

Change the binary number into decimal to get the Subnet Address
27 =
128
1
128 +
172

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

1
32 +

0
0+

1
8+

1
4+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
30

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

1
16 +

1
8+

1
4+

1
2+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
1

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

1
1

27 =
128
0
0+
32

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

1
32 +

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
1

Subnet Address, 172.30.1.32

Broadcast Address for this Subnet

Take the IP Address and Inverse (Inverse is when you change 0 to 1 and 1 to 0)
Subnet Mask and do OR operation to get the Broadcast Address
1 OR 1 = 1
1 OR 0 = 1
0 OR 0 = 0

IP Address
10101100
Inverse
00000000
Subnet
+
Mask
Broadcast
10101100
Address
Broadcast Address, 172.30.1.35

00011110
00000000

00000001
00000000

00100001
00000011

00011110

00000001

00100011

Change the binary number into decimal to get the Broadcast Address
27 =
128
1
128 +
172

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

1
32 +

0
0+

1
8+

1
4+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
30

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

1
16 +

1
8+

1
4+

1
2+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
1

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

1
1

27 =
128
0
0+
35

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

1
32 +

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

1
2+

1
1

Number of Subnet Bits

Take Subnet Mask in binary form, 11111111.11111111.[11111111.11111100],


count the 1 in the latter half of the Subnet.
We have 14 1

Number of Subnet

Formula: 2n = number of subnet, where n is the number of Subnet Bits1


214 = 16,384

Number of Hosts Bits per Subnet

Take Subnet Mask in binary form, 11111111.11111111.[11111111.11111100]


count the 0 in the latter half of the Subnet
We have 2 0

Number of Usable Hosts per Subnet

Formula: 2n 2 = Number of Usable Hosts, where n is the number of Hosts Bits


22 2 = 4 2 = 2

IP Address of First Host on this Subnet

Take Subnet Address and you add 1 at the last octet of the address

Subnet Address
First Host

172.30.1.32
172.30.1.33

IP Address of Last Host on this Subnet

Take Broadcast Address and you minus 1 at the last octet of the address

Broadcast
Address
Last Host

172.30.1.35
172.30.1.34

Problem 3
IP Address, 192.192.10.234
Subnet Mask, 255.255.255.0

Change decimal number of both IP Address and Subnet Mask into binary
number.
192 / 2 = 96 (0)

10 / 2 = 5 (0)

234 / 2 = 117 (0)

96 / 2 = 48 (0)

5 / 2 = 2.5 (1)

117 / 2 = 58.2 (1)

48 / 2 = 24 (0)

2 / 2 = 1 (0)

24 / 2 = 12 (0)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

58 / 2 = 29 (0)

12 / 2 = 6 (0)
6 / 2 = 3 (0)

29 / 2 = 14.5 (1)
14 / 2 = 7 (0)

7 / 2 = 3.5 (1)

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

192 = 11000000
234 = 11101010

192 = 11000000

10 = 00001010

255 = 11111111

255 = 11111111

255 / 2 = 127.5 (1)


127 / 2 = 63.5 (1)
63 / 2 = 31.5 (1)
31 / 2 = 15.5 (1)
15 / 2 = 7.5 (1)
7 / 2 = 3.5 (1)
3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)
1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

255 = 11111111
= 00000000

Subnet Address for this IP Address

Perform an AND operation between IP Address and Subnet Mask


1 AND 1 = 1
1 AND 0 = 0
0 AND 0 = 0

IP Address

11000000

11000000

00001010

11101010

Subnet
Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

11000000

11000000

00001010

00000000

Subnet
Address

Change the binary number into decimal to get the Subnet Address
27 =
128
1
128 +
192

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

1
64 +

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
10

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

1
8+

0
0+

1
2+

0
0

Subnet Address, 192.192.10.0

Broadcast Address for this Subnet

Take the IP Address and Inverse (Inverse is when you change 0 to 1 and 1 to 0)
Subnet Mask and do OR operation to get the Broadcast Address
1 OR 1 = 1
1 OR 0 = 1
0 OR 0 = 0

IP Address
11000000
Inverse
00000000
Subnet
+
Mask
Broadcast
11000000
Address
Broadcast Address, 192.192.10.255

11000000
00000000

00001010
00000000

11101010
11111111

11000000

00001010

11111111

Change the binary number into decimal to get the Broadcast Address
27 =
128
1
128 +
192

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

1
64 +

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
4+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
10

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

1
8+

0
0+

1
2+

0
0

27 =
128
1
128 +
255

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

1
64 +

1
32 +

1
16 +

1
8+

1
4+

1
2+

1
1

Number of Subnet Bits

Take Subnet Mask in binary form, 11111111.11111111.[11111111.00000000],


count the 1 in the latter half of the Subnet.
We have 8 1

Number of Subnet

Formula: 2n = number of subnet, where n is the number of Subnet Bits1


28 = 256

Number of Hosts Bits per Subnet

Take Subnet Mask in binary form, 11111111.11111111.[11111111.00000000]


count the 0 in the latter half of the Subnet
We have 8 0

Number of Usable Hosts per Subnet

Formula: 2n 2 = Number of Usable Hosts, where n is the number of Hosts Bits


28 2 = 256 2 = 254

IP Address of First Host on this Subnet

Take Subnet Address and you add 1 at the last octet of the address

Subnet Address
First Host

192.192.10.0
192.192.10.1

IP Address of Last Host on this Subnet

Take Broadcast Address and you minus 1 at the last octet of the address

Broadcast
Address
Last Host

192.192.10.255
192.192.10.254

Problem 4
IP Address, 172.17.99.71
Subnet Mask, 255.255.0.0

Change decimal number of both IP Address and Subnet Mask into binary
number.
172 / 2 = 86 (0)
71 / 2 = 35.5 (1)

17 / 2 = 8.5 (1)

86 / 2 = 43 (0)
17.5 (1)

8 / 2 = 4 (0)

49 / 2 = 24.5 (1)

35 / 2 =

43 / 2 = 21.5 (1)
8.5 (1)

4 / 2 = 2 (0)

24 / 2 = 12 (0)

17 / 2 =

21 / 2 = 10.5 (1)
4 (0)

2 / 2 = 1 (0)

12 / 2 = 6 (0)

8/2=

10 / 2 = 5 (0)
2 (0)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

5 / 2 = 2.5 (1)
1 (0)
2 / 2 = 1 (0)

99 / 2 = 49.5 (1)

6 / 2 = 3 (0)

4/2=

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)
1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

2/2=
1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

172 = 10101100
71 = 01110001

255 / 2 = 127.5 (1)


127 / 2 = 63.5 (1)
63 / 2 = 31.5 (1)
31 / 2 = 15.5 (1)
15 / 2 = 7.5 (1)
7 / 2 = 3.5 (1)
3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

17 = 00010001

99 = 01100011

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

255 = 11111111
= 00000000

255 = 11111111

0 = 00000000

Subnet Address for this IP Address

Perform an AND operation between IP Address and Subnet Mask


1 AND 1 = 1
1 AND 0 = 0
0 AND 0 = 0

IP Address

10101100

00010001

01100011

01110001

Subnet
Mask

11111111

11111111

00000000

00000000

10101100

00010001

00000000

00000000

Subnet
Address

Change the binary number into decimal to get the Subnet Address
27 =
128
1
128 +
172

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

1
32 +

0
0+

1
8+

1
4+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
17

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

1
16 +

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

1
1

Subnet Address, 172.17.0.0

Broadcast Address for this Subnet

Take the IP Address and Inverse (Inverse is when you change 0 to 1 and 1 to 0)
Subnet Mask and do OR operation to get the Broadcast Address
1 OR 1 = 1
1 OR 0 = 1
0 OR 0 = 0

IP Address
10101100
Inverse
00000000
Subnet
+
Mask
Broadcast
10101100
Address
Broadcast Address, 172.17.255.255

00010001
00000000

01100011
11111111

01110001
11111111

00010001

11111111

11111111

Change the binary number into decimal to get the Broadcast Address
27 =
128
1
128 +
172

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

1
32 +

0
0+

1
8+

1
4+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
17

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

1
0+

0
8+

0
0+

0
0+

1
1

27 =
128
1
128 +
255

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

1
64 +

1
32 +

1
16 +

1
8+

1
4+

1
2+

1
1

Number of Subnet Bits

Take Subnet Mask in binary form, 11111111.11111111.[00000000.00000000],


count the 1 in the latter half of the Subnet.
We have 0 1

Number of Subnet

Formula: 2n = number of subnet, where n is the number of Subnet Bits1


20 = 1

Number of Hosts Bits per Subnet

Take Subnet Mask in binary form, 11111111.11111111.[00000000.00000000]


count the 0 in the latter half of the Subnet
We have 16 0

Number of Usable Hosts per Subnet

Formula: 2n 2 = Number of Usable Hosts, where n is the number of Hosts Bits


216 2 = 65536 2 = 65534

IP Address of First Host on this Subnet

Take Subnet Address and you add 1 at the last octet of the address

Subnet Address
First Host

172.17.0.0
172.17.0.1

IP Address of Last Host on this Subnet

Take Broadcast Address and you minus 1 at the last octet of the address

Broadcast
Address
Last Host

172.17.255.255
172.17.255.254

Problem 5
IP Address, 192.168.3.219
Subnet Mask, 255.255.255.0

Change decimal number of both IP Address and Subnet Mask into binary
number.

192 / 2 = 96 (0)
168 / 2 = 84 (0)
219 / 2 = 109.5 (1)

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

96 / 2 = 48 (0)
84 / 2 = 42 (0)
109 / 2 = 54.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

48 / 2 = 24 (0)
27 (0)

42 / 2 = 21 (0)

54 / 2 =

24 / 2 = 12 (0)
13.5 (1)

21 / 2 = 10.5 (1)

27 / 2 =

12 / 2 = 6 (0)
6.5 (1)

10 / 2 = 5 (0)

13 / 2 =

6 / 2 = 3 (0)

5 / 2 = 2.5 (1)

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

2 / 2 = 1 (0)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)
0.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

192 = 11000000
219 = 11011011

168 = 10101000

255 / 2 = 127.5 (1)


127 / 2 = 63.5 (1)
63 / 2 = 31.5 (1)
31 / 2 = 15.5 (1)
15 / 2 = 7.5 (1)
7 / 2 = 3.5 (1)

6 / 2 = 3 (0)
3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)
1/2=

3 = 00000011

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)
1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

255 = 11111111
= 00000000

255 = 11111111

255 = 11111111

Subnet Address for this IP Address

Perform an AND operation between IP Address and Subnet Mask


1 AND 1 = 1
1 AND 0 = 0
0 AND 0 = 0

IP Address

11000000

10101000

00000011

11011011

Subnet
Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

11000000

10101000

00000011

00000000

Subnet
Address

Change the binary number into decimal to get the Subnet Address
27 =
128
1
128 +
192

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

1
64 +

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
1
128 +
168

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

1
32 +

0
0+

1
8+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
3

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

1
2+

0
1

Subnet Address, 192.168.3.0

Broadcast Address for this Subnet

Take the IP Address and Inverse (Inverse is when you change 0 to 1 and 1 to 0)
Subnet Mask and do OR operation to get the Broadcast Address
1 OR 1 = 1
1 OR 0 = 1
0 OR 0 = 0

IP Address
11000000
Inverse
00000000
Subnet
+
Mask
Broadcast
11000000
Address
Broadcast Address, 192.168.3.255

10101000
00000000

00000011
00000000

11011011
11111111

10101000

00000011

11111111

Change the binary number into decimal to get the Broadcast Address
27 =
128
1
128 +
192

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

1
64 +

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
1
128 +
168

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

1
32 +

0
0+

1
8+

0
0+

0
0+

0
1

27 =
128
0
0+
3

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

1
2+

0
1

27 =
128
1
128 +
255

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

1
64 +

1
32 +

1
16 +

1
8+

1
4+

1
2+

1
1

Number of Subnet Bits

Take Subnet Mask in binary form, 11111111.11111111.11111111.[00000000],


count the 1 in the latter half of the Subnet.
We have 0 1

Number of Subnet

Formula: 2n = number of subnet, where n is the number of Subnet Bits1


20 = 1

Number of Hosts Bits per Subnet

Take Subnet Mask in binary form, 11111111.11111111.11111111.[00000000]


count the 0 in the latter half of the Subnet
We have 8 0

Number of Usable Hosts per Subnet

Formula: 2n 2 = Number of Usable Hosts, where n is the number of Hosts Bits


28 2 = 256 2 = 254

IP Address of First Host on this Subnet

Take Subnet Address and you add 1 at the last octet of the address

Subnet Address
First Host

192.168.0.0
192.168.0.1

IP Address of Last Host on this Subnet

Take Broadcast Address and you minus 1 at the last octet of the address

Broadcast
Address
Last Host

192.168.3.255
192.168.3.254

Problem 6
IP Address, 192.168.3.219
Subnet Mask, 255.255.255.252

Change decimal number of both IP Address and Subnet Mask into binary
number.

192 / 2 = 96 (0)
168 / 2 = 84 (0)
219 / 2 = 109.5 (1)

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

96 / 2 = 48 (0)
84 / 2 = 42 (0)
109 / 2 = 54.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

48 / 2 = 24 (0)
27 (0)

42 / 2 = 21 (0)

54 / 2 =

24 / 2 = 12 (0)
13.5 (1)

21 / 2 = 10.5 (1)

27 / 2 =

12 / 2 = 6 (0)
6.5 (1)

10 / 2 = 5 (0)

13 / 2 =

6 / 2 = 3 (0)

5 / 2 = 2.5 (1)

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

2 / 2 = 1 (0)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)
0.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

192 = 11000000
219 = 11011011

168 = 10101000

255 / 2 = 127.5 (1) 252 / 2 = 126 (0)


127 / 2 = 63.5 (1) 126 / 2 = 63 (0)
63 / 2 = 31.5 (1)

63 / 2 = 31.5 (1)

31 / 2 = 15.5 (1)

31 / 2 = 15.5 (1)

15 / 2 = 7.5 (1)

15 / 2 = 7.5 (1)

7 / 2 = 3.5 (1)

7 / 2 = 3.5 (1)

6 / 2 = 3 (0)
3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)
1/2=

3 = 00000011

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

255 = 11111111
252 = 11111100

255 = 11111111

255 = 11111111

Subnet Address for this IP Address

Perform an AND operation between IP Address and Subnet Mask


1 AND 1 = 1
1 AND 0 = 0
0 AND 0 = 0

IP Address

11000000

10101000

00000011

11011011

Subnet
Mask

11111111

11111111

11111111

11111100

11000000

10101000

00000011

11011000

Subnet
Address

Change the binary number into decimal to get the Subnet Address
27 =
128
1
128 +
192

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

1
64 +

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
1
128 +
168

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

1
32 +

0
0+

1
8+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
3

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

1
2+

0
1

27 =
128
1
128 +
216

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

1
64 +

0
0+

1
16 +

1
8+

0
0+

0
2+

0
1

Subnet Address, 192.168.3.216

Broadcast Address for this Subnet

Take the IP Address and Inverse (Inverse is when you change 0 to 1 and 1 to 0)
Subnet Mask and do OR operation to get the Broadcast Address
1 OR 1 = 1
1 OR 0 = 1
0 OR 0 = 0

IP Address
11000000
Inverse
00000000
Subnet
+
Mask
Broadcast
11000000
Address
Broadcast Address, 192.168.3.219

10101000
00000000

00000011
00000000

11011011
00000011

10101000

00000011

11011011

Change the binary number into decimal to get the Broadcast Address
27 =
128
1
128 +
192

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

1
64 +

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
1
128 +
168

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

1
32 +

0
0+

1
8+

0
0+

0
0+

0
1

27 =
128
0
0+
3

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

1
2+

0
1

27 =
128
1
128 +
219

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

1
64 +

0
0+

1
16 +

1
8+

0
0+

1
2+

1
1

Number of Subnet Bits

Take Subnet Mask in binary form, 11111111.11111111.11111111.[11111100],


count the 1 in the latter half of the Subnet.
We have 6 1

Number of Subnet

Formula: 2n = number of subnet, where n is the number of Subnet Bits1


26 = 64

Number of Hosts Bits per Subnet

Take Subnet Mask in binary form, 11111111.11111111.11111111.[11111100]


count the 0 in the latter half of the Subnet
We have 2 0

Number of Usable Hosts per Subnet

Formula: 2n 2 = Number of Usable Hosts, where n is the number of Hosts Bits


22 2 = 4 2 = 2

IP Address of First Host on this Subnet

Take Subnet Address and you add 1 at the last octet of the address

Subnet Address
First Host

192.168.3.216
192.168.3.217

IP Address of Last Host on this Subnet

Take Broadcast Address and you minus 1 at the last octet of the address

Broadcast
Address
Last Host

192.168.3.219
192.168.3.218