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# Problem 1

Change decimal number of both IP Address and Subnet Mask into binary
number.
172 / 2 = 86 (0)
33 / 2 = 16.5 (1)

30 / 2 = 15 (0)

86 / 2 = 43 (0)
8 (0)

15 / 2 = 7.5 (1)

16 / 2 =

43 / 2 = 21.5 (1)
4 (0)

7 / 2 = 3.5 (1)

8/2=

21 / 2 = 10.5 (1)
2 (0)

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

4/2=

10 / 2 = 5 (0)
1 (0)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

2/2=

5 / 2 = 2.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

2 / 2 = 1 (0)
1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

172 = 10101100
33 = 00100001

## 255 / 2 = 127.5 (1)

127 / 2 = 63.5 (1)
63 / 2 = 31.5 (1)
31 / 2 = 15.5 (1)
15 / 2 = 7.5 (1)
7 / 2 = 3.5 (1)
3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

30 = 00011110

1 = 00000001

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

255 = 11111111
00000000

255 = 11111111

255 = 11111111

0=

1 AND 1 = 1
1 AND 0 = 0
0 AND 0 = 0

10101100

00011110

00000001

00100001

Subnet

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

10101100

00011110

00000001

00000000

Subnet

Change the binary number into decimal to get the Subnet Address
27 =
128
1
128 +
172

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

1
32 +

0
0+

1
8+

1
4+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
30

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

1
16 +

1
8+

1
4+

1
2+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
1

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

1
1

Take the IP Address and Inverse (Inverse is when you change 0 to 1 and 1 to 0)
1 OR 1 = 1
1 OR 0 = 1
0 OR 0 = 0

Inverse
Subnet

10101100
00000000

00011110
00000000

00000001
00000000

00100001
11111111

10101100

00011110

00000001

11111111

27 =
128
1
128 +
172

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

1
32 +

0
0+

1
8+

1
4+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
30

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

1
16 +

1
8+

1
4+

1
2+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
1

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

1
1

27 =
128
0
128 +
255

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
64 +

0
32 +

0
16 +

0
8+

0
4+

0
2+

1
1

## Take Subnet Mask in binary form, 11111111.11111111.[11111111.00000000],

count the 1 in the latter half of the Subnet.
We have 8 1

Number of Subnet

28 = 256

## Take Subnet Mask in binary form, 11111111.11111111.[11111111.00000000]

count the 0 in the latter half of the Subnet
We have 8 0

## Formula: 2n 2 = Number of Usable Hosts, where n is the number of Hosts Bits

28 2 = 256 2 = 254

First Host

172.30.1.0
172.30.1.1

## IP Address of Last Host on this Subnet

Last Host

172.30.1.255
172.30.1.254

Problem 2

Change decimal number of both IP Address and Subnet Mask into binary
number.
172 / 2 = 86 (0)
33 / 2 = 16.5 (1)

30 / 2 = 15 (0)

86 / 2 = 43 (0)
8 (0)

15 / 2 = 7.5 (1)

16 / 2 =

43 / 2 = 21.5 (1)
4 (0)

7 / 2 = 3.5 (1)

8/2=

21 / 2 = 10.5 (1)
2 (0)

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

4/2=

10 / 2 = 5 (0)
1 (0)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

2/2=

5 / 2 = 2.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

2 / 2 = 1 (0)
1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

172 = 10101100
33 = 00100001

30 = 00011110

## 255 / 2 = 127.5 (1) 252 / 2 = 126 (0)

127 / 2 = 63.5 (1) 126 / 2 = 63 (0)
63 / 2 = 31.5 (1)

63 / 2 = 31.5 (1)

31 / 2 = 15.5 (1)

31 / 2 = 15.5 (1)

15 / 2 = 7.5 (1)

15 / 2 = 7.5 (1)

7 / 2 = 3.5 (1)

7 / 2 = 3.5 (1)

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

1 = 00000001

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

255 = 11111111
252 = 11111100

255 = 11111111

255 = 11111111

1 AND 1 = 1
1 AND 0 = 0
0 AND 0 = 0

10101100

00011110

00000001

00100001

Subnet

11111111

11111111

11111111

11111100

10101100

00011110

00000001

00100000

Subnet

Change the binary number into decimal to get the Subnet Address
27 =
128
1
128 +
172

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

1
32 +

0
0+

1
8+

1
4+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
30

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

1
16 +

1
8+

1
4+

1
2+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
1

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

1
1

27 =
128
0
0+
32

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

1
32 +

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
1

Take the IP Address and Inverse (Inverse is when you change 0 to 1 and 1 to 0)
1 OR 1 = 1
1 OR 0 = 1
0 OR 0 = 0

10101100
Inverse
00000000
Subnet
+
10101100

00011110
00000000

00000001
00000000

00100001
00000011

00011110

00000001

00100011

27 =
128
1
128 +
172

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

1
32 +

0
0+

1
8+

1
4+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
30

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

1
16 +

1
8+

1
4+

1
2+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
1

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

1
1

27 =
128
0
0+
35

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

1
32 +

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

1
2+

1
1

## Take Subnet Mask in binary form, 11111111.11111111.[11111111.11111100],

count the 1 in the latter half of the Subnet.
We have 14 1

Number of Subnet

214 = 16,384

## Take Subnet Mask in binary form, 11111111.11111111.[11111111.11111100]

count the 0 in the latter half of the Subnet
We have 2 0

22 2 = 4 2 = 2

First Host

172.30.1.32
172.30.1.33

## IP Address of Last Host on this Subnet

Last Host

172.30.1.35
172.30.1.34

Problem 3

Change decimal number of both IP Address and Subnet Mask into binary
number.
192 / 2 = 96 (0)

10 / 2 = 5 (0)

96 / 2 = 48 (0)

5 / 2 = 2.5 (1)

## 117 / 2 = 58.2 (1)

48 / 2 = 24 (0)

2 / 2 = 1 (0)

24 / 2 = 12 (0)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

58 / 2 = 29 (0)

12 / 2 = 6 (0)
6 / 2 = 3 (0)

29 / 2 = 14.5 (1)
14 / 2 = 7 (0)

7 / 2 = 3.5 (1)

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

192 = 11000000
234 = 11101010

192 = 11000000

10 = 00001010

255 = 11111111

255 = 11111111

## 255 / 2 = 127.5 (1)

127 / 2 = 63.5 (1)
63 / 2 = 31.5 (1)
31 / 2 = 15.5 (1)
15 / 2 = 7.5 (1)
7 / 2 = 3.5 (1)
3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)
1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

255 = 11111111
= 00000000

1 AND 1 = 1
1 AND 0 = 0
0 AND 0 = 0

11000000

11000000

00001010

11101010

Subnet

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

11000000

11000000

00001010

00000000

Subnet

Change the binary number into decimal to get the Subnet Address
27 =
128
1
128 +
192

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

1
64 +

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
10

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

1
8+

0
0+

1
2+

0
0

Take the IP Address and Inverse (Inverse is when you change 0 to 1 and 1 to 0)
1 OR 1 = 1
1 OR 0 = 1
0 OR 0 = 0

11000000
Inverse
00000000
Subnet
+
11000000

11000000
00000000

00001010
00000000

11101010
11111111

11000000

00001010

11111111

27 =
128
1
128 +
192

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

1
64 +

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
4+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
10

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

1
8+

0
0+

1
2+

0
0

27 =
128
1
128 +
255

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

1
64 +

1
32 +

1
16 +

1
8+

1
4+

1
2+

1
1

## Take Subnet Mask in binary form, 11111111.11111111.[11111111.00000000],

count the 1 in the latter half of the Subnet.
We have 8 1

Number of Subnet

28 = 256

## Take Subnet Mask in binary form, 11111111.11111111.[11111111.00000000]

count the 0 in the latter half of the Subnet
We have 8 0

## Formula: 2n 2 = Number of Usable Hosts, where n is the number of Hosts Bits

28 2 = 256 2 = 254

First Host

192.192.10.0
192.192.10.1

## IP Address of Last Host on this Subnet

Last Host

192.192.10.255
192.192.10.254

Problem 4

Change decimal number of both IP Address and Subnet Mask into binary
number.
172 / 2 = 86 (0)
71 / 2 = 35.5 (1)

17 / 2 = 8.5 (1)

86 / 2 = 43 (0)
17.5 (1)

8 / 2 = 4 (0)

49 / 2 = 24.5 (1)

35 / 2 =

43 / 2 = 21.5 (1)
8.5 (1)

4 / 2 = 2 (0)

24 / 2 = 12 (0)

17 / 2 =

21 / 2 = 10.5 (1)
4 (0)

2 / 2 = 1 (0)

12 / 2 = 6 (0)

8/2=

10 / 2 = 5 (0)
2 (0)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

5 / 2 = 2.5 (1)
1 (0)
2 / 2 = 1 (0)

99 / 2 = 49.5 (1)

6 / 2 = 3 (0)

4/2=

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)
1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

2/2=
1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

172 = 10101100
71 = 01110001

## 255 / 2 = 127.5 (1)

127 / 2 = 63.5 (1)
63 / 2 = 31.5 (1)
31 / 2 = 15.5 (1)
15 / 2 = 7.5 (1)
7 / 2 = 3.5 (1)
3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

17 = 00010001

99 = 01100011

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

255 = 11111111
= 00000000

255 = 11111111

0 = 00000000

1 AND 1 = 1
1 AND 0 = 0
0 AND 0 = 0

10101100

00010001

01100011

01110001

Subnet

11111111

11111111

00000000

00000000

10101100

00010001

00000000

00000000

Subnet

Change the binary number into decimal to get the Subnet Address
27 =
128
1
128 +
172

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

1
32 +

0
0+

1
8+

1
4+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
17

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

1
16 +

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

1
1

Take the IP Address and Inverse (Inverse is when you change 0 to 1 and 1 to 0)
1 OR 1 = 1
1 OR 0 = 1
0 OR 0 = 0

10101100
Inverse
00000000
Subnet
+
10101100

00010001
00000000

01100011
11111111

01110001
11111111

00010001

11111111

11111111

27 =
128
1
128 +
172

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

1
32 +

0
0+

1
8+

1
4+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
17

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

1
0+

0
8+

0
0+

0
0+

1
1

27 =
128
1
128 +
255

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

1
64 +

1
32 +

1
16 +

1
8+

1
4+

1
2+

1
1

## Take Subnet Mask in binary form, 11111111.11111111.[00000000.00000000],

count the 1 in the latter half of the Subnet.
We have 0 1

Number of Subnet

20 = 1

## Take Subnet Mask in binary form, 11111111.11111111.[00000000.00000000]

count the 0 in the latter half of the Subnet
We have 16 0

## Formula: 2n 2 = Number of Usable Hosts, where n is the number of Hosts Bits

216 2 = 65536 2 = 65534

First Host

172.17.0.0
172.17.0.1

## IP Address of Last Host on this Subnet

Last Host

172.17.255.255
172.17.255.254

Problem 5

Change decimal number of both IP Address and Subnet Mask into binary
number.

192 / 2 = 96 (0)
168 / 2 = 84 (0)
219 / 2 = 109.5 (1)

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

96 / 2 = 48 (0)
84 / 2 = 42 (0)
109 / 2 = 54.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

48 / 2 = 24 (0)
27 (0)

42 / 2 = 21 (0)

54 / 2 =

24 / 2 = 12 (0)
13.5 (1)

21 / 2 = 10.5 (1)

27 / 2 =

12 / 2 = 6 (0)
6.5 (1)

10 / 2 = 5 (0)

13 / 2 =

6 / 2 = 3 (0)

5 / 2 = 2.5 (1)

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

2 / 2 = 1 (0)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)
0.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

192 = 11000000
219 = 11011011

168 = 10101000

## 255 / 2 = 127.5 (1)

127 / 2 = 63.5 (1)
63 / 2 = 31.5 (1)
31 / 2 = 15.5 (1)
15 / 2 = 7.5 (1)
7 / 2 = 3.5 (1)

6 / 2 = 3 (0)
3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)
1/2=

3 = 00000011

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)
1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

255 = 11111111
= 00000000

255 = 11111111

255 = 11111111

1 AND 1 = 1
1 AND 0 = 0
0 AND 0 = 0

11000000

10101000

00000011

11011011

Subnet

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

11000000

10101000

00000011

00000000

Subnet

Change the binary number into decimal to get the Subnet Address
27 =
128
1
128 +
192

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

1
64 +

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
1
128 +
168

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

1
32 +

0
0+

1
8+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
3

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

1
2+

0
1

Take the IP Address and Inverse (Inverse is when you change 0 to 1 and 1 to 0)
1 OR 1 = 1
1 OR 0 = 1
0 OR 0 = 0

11000000
Inverse
00000000
Subnet
+
11000000

10101000
00000000

00000011
00000000

11011011
11111111

10101000

00000011

11111111

27 =
128
1
128 +
192

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

1
64 +

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
1
128 +
168

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

1
32 +

0
0+

1
8+

0
0+

0
0+

0
1

27 =
128
0
0+
3

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

1
2+

0
1

27 =
128
1
128 +
255

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

1
64 +

1
32 +

1
16 +

1
8+

1
4+

1
2+

1
1

## Take Subnet Mask in binary form, 11111111.11111111.11111111.[00000000],

count the 1 in the latter half of the Subnet.
We have 0 1

Number of Subnet

20 = 1

## Take Subnet Mask in binary form, 11111111.11111111.11111111.[00000000]

count the 0 in the latter half of the Subnet
We have 8 0

## Formula: 2n 2 = Number of Usable Hosts, where n is the number of Hosts Bits

28 2 = 256 2 = 254

First Host

192.168.0.0
192.168.0.1

## IP Address of Last Host on this Subnet

Last Host

192.168.3.255
192.168.3.254

Problem 6

Change decimal number of both IP Address and Subnet Mask into binary
number.

192 / 2 = 96 (0)
168 / 2 = 84 (0)
219 / 2 = 109.5 (1)

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

96 / 2 = 48 (0)
84 / 2 = 42 (0)
109 / 2 = 54.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

48 / 2 = 24 (0)
27 (0)

42 / 2 = 21 (0)

54 / 2 =

24 / 2 = 12 (0)
13.5 (1)

21 / 2 = 10.5 (1)

27 / 2 =

12 / 2 = 6 (0)
6.5 (1)

10 / 2 = 5 (0)

13 / 2 =

6 / 2 = 3 (0)

5 / 2 = 2.5 (1)

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

2 / 2 = 1 (0)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)
0.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

192 = 11000000
219 = 11011011

168 = 10101000

## 255 / 2 = 127.5 (1) 252 / 2 = 126 (0)

127 / 2 = 63.5 (1) 126 / 2 = 63 (0)
63 / 2 = 31.5 (1)

63 / 2 = 31.5 (1)

31 / 2 = 15.5 (1)

31 / 2 = 15.5 (1)

15 / 2 = 7.5 (1)

15 / 2 = 7.5 (1)

7 / 2 = 3.5 (1)

7 / 2 = 3.5 (1)

6 / 2 = 3 (0)
3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)
1/2=

3 = 00000011

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

3 / 2 = 1.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

1 / 2 = 0.5 (1)

255 = 11111111
252 = 11111100

255 = 11111111

255 = 11111111

1 AND 1 = 1
1 AND 0 = 0
0 AND 0 = 0

11000000

10101000

00000011

11011011

Subnet

11111111

11111111

11111111

11111100

11000000

10101000

00000011

11011000

Subnet

Change the binary number into decimal to get the Subnet Address
27 =
128
1
128 +
192

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

1
64 +

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
1
128 +
168

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

1
32 +

0
0+

1
8+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
0
0+
3

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

1
2+

0
1

27 =
128
1
128 +
216

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

1
64 +

0
0+

1
16 +

1
8+

0
0+

0
2+

0
1

Take the IP Address and Inverse (Inverse is when you change 0 to 1 and 1 to 0)
1 OR 1 = 1
1 OR 0 = 1
0 OR 0 = 0

11000000
Inverse
00000000
Subnet
+
11000000

10101000
00000000

00000011
00000000

11011011
00000011

10101000

00000011

11011011

27 =
128
1
128 +
192

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

1
64 +

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0

27 =
128
1
128 +
168

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

1
32 +

0
0+

1
8+

0
0+

0
0+

0
1

27 =
128
0
0+
3

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

0
0+

1
2+

0
1

27 =
128
1
128 +
219

26 = 64

25 = 32

24 = 16

23 = 8

22 = 4

21 = 2

20 = 1

1
64 +

0
0+

1
16 +

1
8+

0
0+

1
2+

1
1

## Take Subnet Mask in binary form, 11111111.11111111.11111111.[11111100],

count the 1 in the latter half of the Subnet.
We have 6 1

Number of Subnet

26 = 64

## Take Subnet Mask in binary form, 11111111.11111111.11111111.[11111100]

count the 0 in the latter half of the Subnet
We have 2 0

22 2 = 4 2 = 2

First Host

192.168.3.216
192.168.3.217