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QUANTIFIERS

COUNT
a, an
(how) many ?, a few
few
fewer

UNCOUNT
0
(how) much ?, positive - optimistic
a little
negative - pessimistic
little
less
a lot of +some +
any ?
not any / no -

I have a book. He loves music. We have bought sugar.


How many books do you have? How much oil have you bought?
You dont have many books. We do not have much butter.
A few friends came to the party. (nekoliko)
Do you speak English? A little. (malo znai, moemo razgovarati!)
She is very mean. She has few friends. (malo)
There is little milk left. We cant make a cake. (premalo)
Fewer people smoke nowadays. Not: Less people
I work a lot so I spend less time with my family.
I have a lot of books. She has a lot of time.
I have some books. Do you have any books? She doesnt have any books. She has no books.
SOME in questions:
Would you like some water?

OFFER

Can I have some more bread, please? REQUEST


Did someone phone me last night?

EXPECTED ANSWER IS YES

ANY in positive sentences:


Take any book you like. Sit anywhere you like. (bilo koji)

HAVE / HAVE GOT


HAVE (formal)

+
I have
you have
he has
we have

?
do I have?
do you have?
does he have?
do we have?

_
I do not have
you dont have
he doesnt have
we dont have

you have
they have
You have a car.
Do you have a car?
You dont have a car.

do you have?
do they have?

you dont have


they dont have

He has a house.
Does he have a house?
He doesnt have a house.
HAVE GOT (informal)

+
I have got
you have got
he has got
weve got
youve got
theyve got
Theyve got a picture.
Have they got a picutre?
They havent got a picture.

?
have I got?
have you got?
has he got?
have we got?
have you got?
have they got?
Shes got a dog.
Has she got a dog?
She hasnt got a dog.

_
I have not got
you have not got
he has not got
we havent got
you havent got
they havent got

NEGATIVES
I dont like grammar.
They didnt dance that night.
You wont come on time unless you hurry.
He hasnt been here for a long time.
They arent working hard.
..
I dont think you are right. (not: I think you are not right.)
I dont suppose you know the answer. (not: I suppose you dont know the answer.)

Negative infinitive: I told you not to do it.


....
ONLY ONE NEGATION!
Nobody knew anything about anybody. (not: Nobody didnt know nothing about nobody.

EXPRESSING FUTURE
1 FUTURE SIMPLE:
a) prediction (based on opinion, not fact):
It will be warm and sunny tomorrow.
The president will open the new factory next week.
b) spontaneous decision (unplanned):
A: I dont have any money.
B: Dont worry, Ill lend you some.
A: John is in hospital.
B: Really? I didnt know. Ill visit him tomorrow.
c) requests and offers:
Will you open the window, please.
Ill help you with your homework.
NOTE:
shall is often used in the first person singular and plural in questions:
Shall I open the door?
Shall we start?

2 GOING TO FUTURE:
a) planned future (premeditated):
A: John is in hospital.
B: I know. I am going to visit him this afternoon.
What are you going to do about your car?
I am working hard and I am saving money and I am going to buy a new
house.
b) prediction on the basis of some physical evidence:
Look at those clouds! Its going to rain!
Careful! This box is going to fall!

3 PRESENT CONTINUOUS:
future arrangement (diary) events that people can control similar to going to future:
I am meeting Jane tonight.
John is having a party on Saturday.

4 PRESENT SIMPLE:
events based on fixed time (timetable, calendar):
The film starts at 7.30.
The train leaves at 9.00.
The exam takes place on 20 May.

5 FUTURE CONTINUOUS:
FUTURE CONTINUOUS = WILL BE + ING FORM
a) an action that will be happening at a specific time in the future:
This time tomorrow I will be lying on the beach.
Now you are sitting in your classroom. This time on Sunday you will be sleeping in your beds
and you will be dreaming about your future. You wont be thinking about English future tenses.

b) evens that will happen in the normal course of events:


Well be coming right back to the football after the break. (on TV)
Well be flying at 30 000 feet. (normal height, not pilots decision)
Ill be meeting him tonight. (more casual than present continuous)

6 FUTURE PERFECT:
FUTURE PERFECT = WILL + HAVE + P. P.

an action that will be finished BEFORE or BY a definite time in the future:

I will have done all my work before you get back.

By the end of the year he will have been here for ten years.

By July 2008 we will have finished this school.

TIME CLAUSES
Conjunctions of time:
when, as soon as, before, until after, while

Examples:
Ill give you a ring before I go.
as soon as I get back.
when I know the time of the train.
In time clauses PRESENT SIMPLE is used not will: Ill give you a ring when I will know the time
of the train.
If it is important to show that the action in the time clause is finished use PRESEN PERFECT:
When Ive read the book, Ill lend it to you.
Ill go home after I have done the shopping.