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Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Hindu philosophy
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hindu philosophy refers to a group of daranas (philosophies, world views, teachings)[1] that emerged in ancient India. The mainstream Hindu philosophy includes six systems (adarana) Samkhya, Yoga, Nyaya,
Vaisheshika, Mimamsa and Vedanta.[2] These are also called the Astika (orthodox) philosophical traditions and are those that accept the Vedas as authoritative, important source of knowledge.[3][note 1][note 2] Ancient and
medieval India was also the source of philosophies that share philosophical concepts but rejected the Vedas, and these have been called nstika (heterodox or non-orthodox) Indian philosophies.[2][3] Nstika Indian
philosophies include Buddhism, Jainism, Crvka, jvika, and others.[6]
Scholars have debated the relationship and differences within stika philosophies and with nstika philosophies, starting with the writings of Indologists and Orientalists of the 18th and 19th centuries, which were
themselves derived from limited availability of Indian literature and medieval doxographies.[2] The various sibling traditions included in Hindu philosophies are diverse, and they are united by shared history and concepts,
same textual resources, similar ontological and soteriological focus, and cosmology.[7][8] While Buddhism and Jainism are considered distinct philosophies and religions, some heterodox traditions such as Crvka are often
considered as distinct schools within Hindu philosophy.[9][10][11]
Hindu philosophy also includes several sub-schools of theistic philosophies that integrate ideas from two or more of the six orthodox philosophies, such as the realism of the Nyya, the naturalism of the Vaieika, the
dualism of the Skhya, the monism and knowledge of Self as essential to liberation of Advaita, the self-discipline of yoga and the asceticism and elements of theistic ideas.[12][13][14] Examples of such schools include
Pupata aiva, aiva siddhnta, Pratyabhija, Rasevara and Vaiava.[12][13] Some sub-schools share Tantric ideas with those found in some Buddhist traditions.[15] The ideas of these sub-schools are found in the Puranas
and gamas.[16][17][18]
Each school of Hindu philosophy has extensive epistemological literature called pramastras,[19][20] as well as theories on metaphysics, axiology and other topics.[21]

Contents
1 Classifications
1.1 stika
1.2 Nstika
1.3 Other schools
2 Characteristics
3 Overview
3.1 Epistemology
4 Samkhya
5 Yoga
6 Vaieika
7 Nyya
8 Mms
9 Vednta
9.1 Advaita
9.2 Viidvaita
9.3 Dvaita
9.4 Dvaitdvaita (Bhedabheda)
9.5 uddhdvaita
9.6 Acintya Bheda Abheda
10 Crvka
11 Shaivism
11.1 Pupata Shaivism
11.2 Shaiva Siddhanta
11.3 Kashmir Shaivism
12 See also
13 Notes
14 References
14.1 Bibliography
15 Further reading
16 External links

Classifications
Since medieval times Indian philosophy is divided by Brahmins into stika and nstika schools of thought.[22] In the history of Hinduism, the six orthodox schools were in existence by sometime between the start of the
Common Era and the Gupta Empire, or about the fourth century.[23] Some scholars have questioned whether the orthodox and heterodox schools classification is sufficient or accurate, given the diversity and evolution of
views within each major school of Hindu philosophy, with some sub-schools combining heterodox and orthodox views.[24]

stika
There are six stika (orthodox) schools of thought.[note 3] Each is called a darana, and each darana accepts the Vedas as authoritative and the premise that tman (soul, eternal self) exists.[3][25] The stika schools are:
1. Samkhya, an atheistic and strongly dualist theoretical exposition of consciousness and matter.
2. Yoga, a school emphasising meditation, contemplation and liberation.
3. Nyya or logic, explores sources of knowledge. Nyya Stras.
4. Vaieika, an empiricist school of atomism
5. Mms, an anti-ascetic and anti-mysticist school of orthopraxy
6. Vednta, the last segment of knowledge in the Vedas, or jnaka. Vednta came to be the dominant current of Hinduism in the post-medieval period.

Nstika
Schools that do not accept the authority of the Vedas are nstika philosophies, of which four nstika (heterodox) schools are prominent:[6]
1. Crvka, a materialism school that accepted free will exists[26][27]
2. jvika, a materialism school that denied free will exists[28][29]
3. Buddhism, a philosophy that denies existence of tman (soul, self)[30] and is based on the teachings and enlightenment of Gautama Buddha
4. Jainism, a philosophy that accepts the existence of the tman (soul, self), and is based on the teachings and enlightenment of twenty-four teachers known as tirthankaras, with Rishabha as the first and Mahavira as the
twenty-fourth[31]

Other schools
Besides the major orthodox and non-orthodox schools, there have existed syncretic sub-schools that have combined ideas and introduced new ones of their own. The medieval scholar Madhva Acharya includes the
following, along with Buddhism[32] and Jainism,[33] as sub-schools of Hindu philosophy:
Pashupata Shaivism developed by Nakulisa[34]
Shaiva Siddhanta, the theistic Sankhya school[35][36]
Pratyabhija, the recognitive school of Kashmir Shaivism[37]
Rasevara, a Shaiva school that advocated the use of mercury to reach immortality [38]
The Ramanuja school[39]
The Praprja (Madhvcrya) school[40]

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The Pinya[41]
The above sub-schools introduced their own ideas while adopting concepts from orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy such as realism of the Nyya, naturalism of Vaieika, monism and knowledge of Self (Atman) as
essential to liberation of Advaita, sel- discipline of Yoga, asceticism and elements of theistic ideas.[12] Some sub-schools share Tantric ideas with those found in some Buddhist traditions.[15]

Characteristics
School

Samkhya

rationalism,[42][43]
dualism, atheism

Classification

Yoga
dualism,
spiritual
practice

Nyya

Vaieika

realism,[44]

logic,
naturalism,[45]
analytic
atomism
philosophy

exegesis,
philology,
ritualism

Advaita[N 1]

monism,
non-dualism

Vishishtadvaita[N 1]

Dvaita[N 1]

qualified monism,
panentheism

dualism,
theology

Achintya
Bheda
Abheda

Pashupata

simultaneous
monism and
dualism

theism, spiritual
theistic dualism
practice

Shaiva
Siddhanta

Kashmir
Shaivism
theistic
monism,
idealism

Yamunacharya,
Ramanuja more..

Chaitanya
Mahaprabhu,
Six Goswamis
of Vrindavana,
Tirumular,
Madhvacharya,
Visvanatha
Meikandadevar,
Jayatirtha,
Chakravarti,
Vasugupta,
Haradattacharya,
Appayya
Vyasatirtha,
Krishnadasa
Abhinavagupta,
Lakulish
Dikshita,
Raghavendra
Kaviraja,
Jayaratha
Sadyojyoti,
Swami
Baladeva
Aghorasiva
Vidyabhushana,
Rupa
Goswami,
more..

Vaieika
Purva
Brahma Sutras,
Stra,
Mimamsa
Prasthanatrayi,
Padrtha
Sutras,
Avadhuta Gita,
dharma
Mimamsasutra
Ashtavakra
sagraha,
bhshyam
Gita, Pacada
Daapadrtha
more..
more..
stra more..

Siddhitrayam, Sri
Bhasya, Vedartha
Sangraha

AnuVyakhana,
Brahma Sutra
Bhagavata
Bahshya, Sarva
Purana,
Shstrrtha
Gaakrik,
Bhagavad Gita,
Sangraha,
Pachrtha
Sat Sandarbhas,
Tattva
bhshyadipik,
Govinda
prakashika,
Rikara
Bhashya,
Nyaya Sudha,
bhshya
Chaitanya
Nyayamruta,
Charitamrita,
Tarka Tandava,
DwaitaDyumani

Jivanmukta,
Apaurueytva, Mahvkyas,
Arthpatti,
Sdhana
Anuapalabdhi,
Chatuaya,
Satahprmya three orders of
vda
reality,
Vivartavada

Hita, Antarvypi,
Bahuvypi more..

Philosophers

Aksapada
Gautama,
Kanada,
Kapila, Ivaraka, Patajali, Vtsyyana, Praastapda,
Vcaspati Mira, Yajnavalkya, Udayana,
ridhara's
[N
2]
Guaratna more..
Jayanta
Nyyakandal
Vyasa
Bhatta
more..
more..

Texts

Samkhyapravachana Yoga Sutras,


Sutra,
Yoga
Samkhyakarika, Yajnavalkya,
Skhya
Samkhya
tattvakaumud
pravacana
more..
bhasya

Concepts
Originated

Yama,
Pratyaka,
Niyama,
Anumna,
Asana,
Upamna,
Purusha, Prakti,
Pranayama,
Anyathakyati
Gua, Satkryavda Pratyahara,
vada,
Dhra,
Nireyasa
Dhyana,
more..
Samadhi

Nyya
Stras,
Nyya
Bhya,
Nyya
Vrttika
more..

Mms

Padrtha,
Dravya,
Smnya,
Viea,
Samavya,
Paramu

Jaimini,
Kumrila
Bhaa,
Prabhkara
more..

Gaudapada,
Adi Shankara,
Madhusudana
Saraswati,
Vidyaranya
more..

Prapacha,
Mukti-yogyas,
Nityasamsarins,
Tamo-yogyas

Sambandha,
Abhidheya,
Prayojana
Pashupati, eight
(Relationship,
pentads
Process,
Ultimate Goal)

Sivagamas,
Tirumurais,
Meikanda
Sastras

Charya,
Mantramrga,
Rodha akti

Pini
Darana

Rasevara

alchemy

linguistics,
philosophy of
language

Govinda
Bhagavat,
Sarvaja
Rmevara

Pini,
Bharthari,
Ktyyana

Rasrava,
Shiva Sutras of
Vkyapadya,
Rasahidaya,
Vasugupta,
Mahabhashya,
Rasevara
Tantraloka
Vrttikakra
siddhnta

Citi, Mala,
Upaya,
Anuttara,
Aham,
Svatantrya

Prada, three
modes of
mercury

Sphoa,
Ashtadhyayi

1. Advaita, Vishishtadvaita and Dvaita have evolved from an older Vedanta school and all of them accept Upanishads and Brahma Sutras as standard texts.
2. Vyasa wrote a commentary on the Yoga Sutras called Samkhyapravacanabhasya.(Radhankrishnan, Indian Philosophy, London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1971 edition, Volume II, p. 344.)

Overview
Epistemology
Epistemology is called prama.[46] It is a key, much debated field of study in Hinduism since ancient times. Prama is a Hindu theory of knowledge and discusses means by which human beings gain accurate
knowledge.[46] The focus of prama is how correct knowledge can be acquired, how one knows, how one doesn't, and to what extent knowledge pertinent about someone or something can be acquired.[19]
Ancient and medieval Hindu texts identify six pramas as correct means of accurate knowledge and truths: pratyaka (perception), anuma (inference), upama (comparison and analogy), arthpatti (postulation,
derivation from circumstances), anupalabdi (non-perception, negative/cognitive proof) and abda (word, testimony of past or present reliable experts)[47] Each of these are further categorized in terms of conditionality,
completeness, confidence and possibility of error, by each school . The various schools vary on how many of these six are valid paths of knowledge.[20] For example, the Crvka nstika philosophy holds that only one
(perception) is an epistemically reliable means of knowledge,[48] the Samkhya school holds three are (perception, inference and testimony),[48] while the Mms and Advaita schools hold all six are epistemically useful
and reliable means to knowledge.[48][49]

Samkhya
Samkhya is the oldest of the orthodox philosophical systems in Hinduism,[50] with origins in the 1st millennium BCE.[51] It is a rationalist school of Indian philosophy,[42] and had a strong influence on other schools of
Indian philosophies.[52] Smkhya is an enumerationist philosophy whose epistemology accepted three of six Pramanas as the only reliable means of gaining knowledge. These included Pratyaka (perception), Anuma
(inference) and Sabda (ptavacana, word/testimony of reliable sources).[53][48]
Samkhya school espouses dualism between consciousness and matter.[54] It regards the universe as consisting of two realities; Purua (consciousness) and prakriti (matter). Jiva (a living being) is that state in which purua
is bonded to prakriti in some form.[55] This fusion, state the Samkhya scholars, led to the emergence of buddhi (awareness, intellect) and ahankara (individualized ego consciousness, I-maker). The universe is described
by this school as one created by Purusa-Prakriti entities infused with various permutations and combinations of variously enumerated elements, senses, feelings, activity and mind.[55]
Samkhya philosophy includes a theory of gunas (qualities, innate tendencies, psyche).[56] Guna, it states, are of three types: Sattva being good, compassionate, illuminating, positive, and constructive; Rajas guna is one of
activity, chaotic, passion, impulsive, potentially good or bad; and Tamas being the quality of darkness, ignorance, destructive, lethargic, negative. Everything, all life forms and human beings, state Samkhya scholars, have
these three gunas, but in different proportions.[57] The interplay of these gunas defines the character of someone or something, of nature and determines the progress of life.[58][59] Samkhya theorises a pluralism of souls
(Jeevatmas) who possess consciousness, but denies the existence of Ishvara (God).[60] Classical Samkhya is considered an atheist / non-theistic Hindu philosophy.[61][62][63]
Samkhya karika, one of the key texts of this school of Hindu philosophy, opens by stating its goal to be "three[64] kinds of human suffering" and means to prevent it.[65] The text then presents a distillation of its theories on
epistemology, metaphysics, axiology and soteriology. For example, it states,
From the triad of suffering, arises this inquiry into the means of preventing it.
That is useless - if you say so, I say: No, because suffering is not absolute and final. Verse 1
The Guas (qualities) respectively consist in pleasure, pain and dullness, are adapted to manifestation, activity and restraint; mutually domineer, rest on each other, produce each other, consort together, and are
reciprocally present. Verse 12
Goodness is considered to be alleviating and enlightening; foulness, urgent and persisting; darkness, heavy and enveloping. Like a lamp, they cooperate for a purpose by union of contraries. Verse 13
There is a general cause, which is diffuse. It operates by means of the three qualities, by mixture, by modification; for different objects are diversified by influence of the several qualities respectively. Verse 16
Since the assemblage of perceivable objects is for use (by man); Since the converse of that which has the three qualities with other properties must exist (in man); Since there must be superintendence (within
man); Since there must be some entity that enjoys (within man); Since there is a tendency to abstraction (in man), therefore soul is. Verse 17
Samkhya karika, [65][66]
The soteriology in Samkhya aims at the realization of Purua as distinct from Prakriti, this knowledge of the Self is held to end transmigration and lead to absolute freedom (kaivalya).[67]

Yoga
In Indian philosophy, Yoga is among other things, the name of one of the six stika philosophical schools.[68] The Yoga philosophical system is closely allied with the dualism premises of Samkhya school.[69][70] The Yoga
school accepts the Samkhya psychology and metaphysics, but is considered theistic because it accepts the concept of "personal god", unlike Samkhya.[71][72][73] The epistemology of the Yoga school, like the Smkhya
school, relies on three of six prmaas as the means of gaining reliable knowledge:[48] pratyaka (perception), anuma (inference) and abda (ptavacana, word/testimony of reliable sources).[49][48]

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The universe is conceptualized as a duality in Yoga school: purua (consciousness) and prakti (matter); however, the Yoga school discusses this concept more generically as "seer, experiencer" and "seen, experienced" than
the Samkhya school.[74]
A key text of the Yoga school is the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Patanjali may have been, as Max Mller explains, "the author or representative of the Yoga-philosophy without being necessarily the author of the Sutras."[75]
Hindu philosophy recognizes many types of Yoga, such as rja yoga, jnana yoga,[76] karma yoga, bhakti yoga, tantra yoga, mantra yoga, laya yoga, and hatha yoga.[77]
The Yoga school builds on the Samkhya school theory that jna (knowledge) is a sufficient means to moksha. It suggests that systematic techniques/practice (personal experimentation) combined with Samkhya's approach
to knowledge is the path to moksha.[69] Yoga shares several central ideas with Advaita Vedanta, with the difference that Yoga is a form of experimental mysticism while Advaita Vedanta is a form of monistic personalism.
[78][79][80] Like Advaita Vedanta, the Yoga school of Hindu philosophy states that liberation/freedom in this life is achievable, and this occurs when an individual fully understands and realizes the equivalence of Atman
(soul, self) and Brahman.[81][82]

Vaieika
The Vaieika philosophy is a naturalist school;[45] it is a form of atomism in natural philosophy.[83] It postulated that all objects in the physical universe are reducible to paramu (atoms), and one's experiences are derived
from the interplay of substance (a function of atoms, their number and their spatial arrangements), quality, activity, commonness, particularity and inherence.[84] Knowledge and liberation was achievable by complete
understanding of the world of experience, according to Vaieika school .[84] The Vaieika darana is credited to Kada Kayapa from the second half of the first millennium BCE.[84][85] The foundational text, the
Vaieika Stra, opens as follows,
Dharma is that from which results the accomplishment of Exaltation and of the Supreme Good. The authoritativeness of the Veda arises from its being an exposition of dharma. The Supreme Good results from
knowledge, produced from a particular dharma, of the essence of the Predicables, Substance, Attribute, Action, Genus, Species and Combination, by means of their resemblances and differences.
Vaieika Stra 1.1.1-1.1.4, [86]
The Vaieika school is related to the Nyya school but features differences in its epistemology, metaphysics and ontology.[87] The epistemology of the Vaieika school, like Buddhism, accepted only two reliable means to
knowledge - perception and inference.[49][88] The Vaieika school and Buddhism both consider their respective scriptures as indisputable and valid means to knowledge, the difference being that the scriptures held to be a
valid and reliable source by Vaieikas were the Vedas.[49][89]
Vaieika metaphysical premises are founded on a form of atomism, that the reality is composed of four substances (earth, water, air, fire). Each of these four are of two types:[83] atomic (paramu) and composite. An atom
is, according to Vaieika scholars, that which is indestructible (anitya), indivisible, and has a special kind of dimension, called small (au). A composite, in this philosophy, is defined to be anything which is divisible into
atoms. Whatever human beings perceive is composite, while atoms are invisible.[83] The Vaieikas stated that size, form, truths and everything that human beings experience as a whole is a function of atoms, their number
and their spatial arrangements, their gua (quality), karma (activity), smnya (commonness), viea (particularity) and amavya (inherence, inseparable connectedness of everything).[84][90]

Nyya
The Nyya school is a realist stika philosophy.[91][92] This school's most significant contributions to Indian philosophy was systematic development of the theory of logic, methodology, and its treatises on epistemology.
[93][94] The foundational text of Nyya school is the Nyya Stras of the first millennium BCE. It is credited to Aksapada Gautama and variously dated to have been composed somewhere from the sixth century to the
second century BCE.[95][85]
Nyya epistemology accepts four out of six prmaas as reliable means of gaining knowledge pratyaka (perception), anuma (inference), upama (comparison and analogy) and abda (word, testimony of past or
present reliable experts).[48][96][47]
In its metaphysics, Nyya school is closer to the Vaieika school than others.[91] It holds that human suffering results from mistakes/defects produced by activity under wrong knowledge (notions and ignorance).[97] Moksha
(liberation), it states, is gained through right knowledge. This premise led Nyya to concern itself with epistemology, that is the reliable means to gain correct knowledge and to remove wrong notions. False knowledge is not
merely ignorance to Naiyayikas, it includes delusion. Correct knowledge is discovering and overcoming one's delusions, and understanding true nature of soul, self and reality.[98] The Nyya Stras begin:
Perception, Inference, Comparison and Word these are the means of right knowledge.
Perception is that knowledge which arises from the contact of a sense with its object and which is determinate, unnameable and non-erratic.
Inference is knowledge which is preceded by perception, and is of three kinds: a priori, a posteriori, and commonly seen.
Comparison is the knowledge of a thing through its similarity to another thing previously well known.
Word is the instructive assertion of a reliable person.
It [knowledge] is of two kinds: that which is seen, and that which is not seen.
Soul, body, senses, objects of senses, intellect, mind, activity, fault, transmigration, fruit, suffering and release are the objects of right knowledge.
Nyya Stras 1.1.3-1.1.9, [99]

Mms
The Mms school emphasized hermeneutics and exegesis.[100][101] It is a form of philosophical realism.[102] Key texts of the Mms school are the Purva Mimamsa Sutras of Jaimini.[103][104] The classical Mms
school is sometimes referred to as prvamms or Karmamms in reference to the first part of the Vedas.[103]
The Mms school has several subschools defined by epistemology. The Prbhkara subschool of Mms considered five epistemically reliable means to gaining knowledge: pratyaka (perception), anuma
(inference), upama (comparison and analogy), arthpatti (postulation, derivation from circumstances), and abda (word, testimony of past or present reliable experts).[96][47] The Kumrila Bhaa sub-school of Mms
added sixth to its canon of reliable epistemology - anupalabdi (non-perception, negative/cognitive proof).[48]
The metaphysics in Mms school consists of both atheistic and theistic doctrines and the school showed little interest in systematic examination of the existence of God. Rather, it held that the soul is eternal omnipresent,
inherently active spiritual essence, then focussed on the epistemology and metaphysics of dharma.[103][105][106] To them, dharma meant rituals and duties, not devas (gods), because devas existed only in name.[103] The
Mmskas held that the Vedas are "eternal authorless infallible", that Vedic vidhi (injunctions) and mantras in rituals are prescriptive karya (actions), and the rituals are of primary importance and merit. They considered
the Upanishads and other self-knowledge, spirituality-related texts to be of secondary importance, a philosophical view that the Vedanta school disagreed with.[100][103]
Mms gave rise to the study of philology and the philosophy of language.[107] While their deep analysis of language and linguistics influenced other schools,[108] their views were not shared by others. Mmskas
considered the purpose and power of language was to clearly prescribe the proper, correct and right. In contrast, Vedantins extended the scope and value of language as a tool to also describe, develop and derive.[103]
Mmskas considered orderly, law-driven, procedural life as central purpose and noblest necessity of dharma and society, and divine (theistic) sustenance means to that end. The Mimamsa school was influential and
foundational to the Vedanta school, with the difference that Mms school developed and emphasized karmaka (that part of the ruti which relates to ceremonial acts and sacrificial rites, the early parts of the Vedas),
while the Vedanta school developed and emphasized jnaka (that portion of the Vedas which relates to knowledge of monism, the latter parts of the Vedas).[100]

Vednta
The Vednta school built upon the teachings of the Upanishads and Brahma Sutras from the first millennium BCE[85][109] and is the most developed and well-known of the Hindu schools. The epistemology of the Vedantins
included, depending on the sub-school, five or six methods as proper and reliable means of gaining any form of knowledge:[89] pratyaka (perception), anuma (inference), upama (comparison and analogy), arthpatti
(postulation, derivation from circumstances), anupalabdi (non-perception, negative/cognitive proof) and abda (word, testimony of past or present reliable experts).[49][48][47] Each of these have been further categorized in
terms of conditionality, completeness, confidence and possibility of error, by each sub-school of Vedanta.[89]
The emergence of Vedanta school represented a period when a more knowledge-centered understanding began to emerge. These focussed on jnana (knowledge) driven aspects of the Vedic religion and the Upanishads. This
included metaphysical concepts such as tman and Brahman, and emphasized meditation, self-discipline, self-knowledge and abstract spirituality, rather than ritualism. The Upanishads were variously interpreted by ancient
and medieval era Vedanta scholars. Consequently, the Vedanta separated into many sub-schools, ranging from theistic dualism to non-theistic monism, each interpreting the texts in its own way and producing its own series
of sub-commentaries.[110][111]

Advaita
Advaita literally means "not two, sole, unity". It is a sub-school of Vedanta, and asserts spiritual and universal non-dualism.[112][113] Its metaphysics is a form of absolute monism, that is all ultimate reality is interconnected
oneness.[114][115] This is the oldest and most widely acknowledged Vedantic school. The foundational texts of this school are the Brahma Sutras and the early Upanishads from the 1st millennium BCE.[114] Its first great

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consolidator was the 8th century scholar Adi Shankara, who continued the line of thought of the Upanishadic teachers, and that of his teacher's teacher Gaudapada. He wrote extensive commentaries on the major Vedantic
scriptures and is celebrated as one of the major Hindu philosophers from whose doctrines the main currents of modern Indian thought are derived.[116]
According to this school of Vedanta, all reality is Brahman, and there exists nothing whatsoever which is not Brahman.[117] Its metaphysics includes the concept of my and tman. My connotes "that which exists, but is
constantly changing and thus is spiritually unreal".[118] The empirical reality is considered as always changing and therefore "transitory, incomplete, misleading and not what it appears to be".[119][120][121] The concept of
tman is of soul, self within each person, each living being. Advaita Vedantins assert that tman is same as Brahman, and this Brahman is within each human being and all life, all living beings are spiritually interconnected,
and there is oneness in all of existence.[122][123] They hold that dualities and misunderstanding of my as the spiritual reality that matters is caused by ignorance, and are the cause of sorrow, suffering. Jvanmukti (liberation
during life) can be achieved through Self-knowledge, the understanding that tman within is same as tman in another person and all of Brahman the eternal, unchanging, entirety of cosmic principles and true reality.
[124][123]

Viidvaita
Ramanuja(c. 10371137) was the foremost proponent of the philosophy of Viidvaita or qualified non-dualism. Viidvaita advocated the concept of a Supreme Being with essential qualities or attributes. Viidvaitins
argued against the Advaitin conception of Brahman as an impersonal empty oneness. They saw Brahman as an eternal oneness, but also as the source of all creation, which was omnipresent and actively involved in
existence. To them the sense of subject-object perception was illusory and a sign of ignorance. However, the individual's sense of self was not a complete illusion since it was derived from the universal beingness that is
Brahman.[125] Ramanuja saw Vishnu as a personification of Brahman.

Dvaita
Dvaita Vedanta (dualistic conclusions of the Vedas) was founded by Madhvacharya (c. 12381317 CE). It espouses dualism by theorising the existence of two separate realities. The first and the more important reality is that
of Brahman (as Vishnu, Shiva, Shakti, or any henotheistic equivalent deity). Vishnu is the supreme Self, God, the absolute truth of the universe, the independent reality. The second reality is that of dependent but equally real
universe that exists with its own separate essence. Everything that is composed of the second reality, such as individual soul (Jiva), matter, etc. exist with their own separate reality. The distinguishing factor of this
philosophy as opposed to Advaita Vedanta (a monistic conclusion of Vedas) is that God in Dvaita school is distinct and separate, takes on a role and is seen as a real eternal entity that governs and controls the universe.[126]
Five further distinctions are made (1) Brahman is distinct from souls; (2) Brahman is distinct from matter; (3) Souls are distinct from matter; (4) A soul is distinct from another soul, and (5) Matter is distinct from other
matter. Souls are eternal and are dependent upon the will of Brahman. This theology attempts to address the problem of evil with the idea that souls are not created. Because the existence of individuals is grounded in the
divine, they are depicted as reflections, images or even shadows of the divine, but never in any way identical with the divine. Salvation therefore is described as the realisation that all finite reality is essentially dependent on
the Supreme.[127]

Dvaitdvaita (Bhedabheda)
Dvaitdvaita was proposed by Nimbarka, a 13th-century Vaishnava Philosopher from the Andhra region. According to this philosophy there are three categories of existence: Brahman, soul, and matter. Soul and matter are
different from Brahman in that they have attributes and capacities different from Brahman. Brahman exists independently, while soul and matter are dependent. Thus soul and matter have an existence that is separate yet
dependent. Further, Brahman is a controller, the soul is the enjoyer, and matter the thing enjoyed. Also, the highest object of worship is Krishna and his consort Radha, attended by thousands of gopis; of the Vrindavan; and
devotion consists in self-surrender.

uddhdvaita
uddhdvaita is the "purely non-dual" philosophy propounded by Vallabha Acharya (14791531). The founding philosopher was also the guru of the Vallabh sampradya ("tradition of Vallabh") or Puimrga, a Vaishnava
tradition focused on the worship of Krishna.

Acintya Bheda Abheda


Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (14861534), stated that the soul or energy of God is both distinct and non-distinct from God, whom he identified as Krishna, Govinda, and that this, although unthinkable, may be experienced
through a process of loving devotion (bhakti). He followed the Dvaita concept of Madhvacharya.[128] This philosophy of "inconceivable oneness and difference".

Crvka
The Crvka school is one of the nstika or "heterodox" philosophies .[129][10][130] It rejects supernaturalism, emphasizes materialism and philosophical skepticism, holding empiricism, perception and conditional inference
as the proper source of knowledge[131][132] Crvka is an atheistic school of thought.[133] It holds that there is neither afterlife nor rebirth, all existence is mere combination of atoms and substances, feelings and mind are an
epiphenomenon, and free will exists.[26]<[27]
Bhaspati is sometimes referred to as the founder of Crvka (also called Lokayata) philosophy. Much of the primary literature of Carvaka, the Barhaspatya sutras (ca. 600 BCE), however, are missing or lost.[133][134] Its
theories and development has been compiled from historic secondary literature such as those found in the shastras, sutras and the Indian epic poetry as well as from the texts of Buddhism and from Jain literature.
[133][135][136]

One of the widely studied principles of Crvka philosophy was its rejection of inference as a means to establish valid, universal knowledge, and metaphysical truths.[137] In other words, the Crvka epistemology states that
whenever one infers a truth from a set of observations or truths, one must acknowledge doubt; inferred knowledge is conditional.[138]

Shaivism
Early history of Shaivism is difficult to determine.[139] However, the vetvatara Upanishad (400 200 BCE)[140] is considered to be the earliest textual exposition of a systematic philosophy of Shaivism.[141] Shaivism is
represented by various philosophical schools, including non-dualist (abheda), dualist (bheda), and non-dualist-with-dualist (bhedbheda) perspectives. Vidyaranya in his works mentions three major schools of Shaiva
thought Pashupata Shaivism, Shaiva Siddhanta and Pratyabhija (Kashmir Shaivism).[142]

Pupata Shaivism
Pupata Shaivism (Pupata, "of Paupati") is the oldest of the major Shaiva schools.[143] The philosophy of Pashupata sect was systematized by Lakulish in the 2nd century CE. Pau in Paupati refers to the effect (or
created world), the word designates that which is dependent on something ulterior. Whereas, Pati means the cause (or principium), the word designates the Lord, who is the cause of the universe, the pati, or the ruler.[144]
Pashupatas disapproved of Vaishnava theology, known for its doctrine servitude of souls to the Supreme Being, on the grounds that dependence upon anything could not be the means of cessation of pain and other desired
ends. They recognised that those depending upon another and longing for independence will not be emancipated because they still depend upon something other than themselves. According to Pupatas, soul possesses the
attributes of the Supreme Deity when it becomes liberated from the 'germ of every pain'.[145]
Pupatas divided the created world into the insentient and the sentient. The insentient was the unconscious and thus dependent on the sentient or conscious. The insentient was further divided into effects and causes. The
effects were of ten kinds, the earth, four elements and their qualities, colour etc. The causes were of thirteen kinds, the five organs of cognition, the five organs of action, the three internal organs, intellect, the ego principle
and the cognising principle. These insentient causes were held responsible for the illusive identification of Self with non-Self. Salvation in Pupata involved the union of the soul with God through the intellect.[146]

Shaiva Siddhanta
Considered normative Tantric Shaivism, Shaiva Siddhanta[147][148] provides the normative rites, cosmology and theological categories of Tantric Shaivism.[149] Being a dualistic philosophy, the goal of Shaiva Siddhanta is
to become an ontologically distinct Shiva (through Shiva's grace).[150] This tradition later merged with the Tamil Saiva movement and expression of concepts of Shaiva Siddhanta can be seen in the bhakti poetry of the
Nayanars.[151]

Kashmir Shaivism
Kashmir Shaivism arose during the eighth[152] or ninth century CE[153] in Kashmir and made significant strides, both philosophical and theological, until the end of the twelfth century CE.[154] It is categorised by various
scholars as monistic[155] idealism (absolute idealism, theistic monism, realistic idealism,[156] transcendental physicalism or concrete monism[156]). It is a school of aivism consisting of Trika and its philosophical
articulation Pratyabhija.[157]
Even though, both Kashmir Shaivism and Advaita Vedanta are non-dual philosophies which give primacy to Universal Consciousness (Chit or Brahman),[158] in Kashmir Shavisim, as opposed to Advaita, all things are a
manifestation of this Consciousness.[159] This implies that from the point of view of Kashmir Shavisim, the phenomenal world (akti) is real, and it exists and has its being in Consciousness (Chit).[160] Whereas, Advaita
holds that Brahman is inactive (nikriya) and the phenomenal world is an illusion (my).[161] The objective of human life, according to Kashmir Shaivism, is to merge in Shiva or Universal Consciousness, or to realize
one's already existing identity with Shiva, by means of wisdom, yoga and grace.[162]

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Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindu_philosophy

See also
stika and nstika
Buddhism and Hinduism
Buddhist philosophy
Hindu idealism
Pramana
Indian philosophy

Kashmir Shaivism
Metaphilosophy
Dharma
Asrama
Vedas

Notes
1. M Chadha (2015), in The Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy of Religion, states that Vedas were knowledge source but interpreted differently by different schools of Hindu philosophy: "The sacred texts of the Hindus, the
Vedas, are variously interpreted by the six traditional Hindu philosophical schools. Even within a single school, philosophers disagree on the import of Vedic statements. (...) Hindu intellectual traditions must be understood as standing for the
collection of philosophical views that share a textual connection. There is no single, comprehensive philosophical doctrine shared by all intellectual traditions in Hinduism that distinguishes their view from other Indian religions such as
Buddhism or Jainism on issues of epistemology, metaphysics, logic, ethics or cosmology. The Vedas are regarded as Apauruseya, but by the same token, they are not the Word of God either.[4]
2. Elisa Freschi (2012): The Vedas are not deontic authorities in absolute sense and may be disobeyed, but are recognized as an epistemic authority by an orthodox school of Hindu philosophy;[5] (Note: This differentiation between epistemic
and deontic authority is true for all Indian religions)
3. For an overview of the six orthodox schools, with detail on the grouping of schools, see: Radhakrishnan and Moore, "Contents", and pp. 453487.

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Cowell, E. B.; Gough, A. E. (1882). The Sarva-Darsana-Samgraha or Review of the Different Systems of Hindu Philosophy: Trubner's Oriental Series. Taylor & Francis. ISBN978-0-415-24517-3.
Dyczkowski, Mark S. G. (1987). The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of the Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN0-88706-432-9.
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King, Richard (2007), Indian Philosophy. An Introduction to Hindu and Buddhist Thought, Georgetown University Press
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Meller, Max (1899). Six Systems of Indian Philosophy; Samkhya and Yoga, Naya and Vaiseshika. Calcutta: Susil Gupta (India) Ltd. ISBN0-7661-4296-5. Reprint edition; Originally published under the title of The Six Systems of Indian
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Radhakrishnan, S.; Moore, CA (1967). A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy. Princeton. ISBN0-691-01958-4.

Further reading
Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli; and Moore, Charles A. A Source Book in Indian Philosophy. Princeton University Press; 1957. Princeton paperback 12th edition, 1989. ISBN
0-691-01958-4.
Rambachan, Anantanand. "The Advaita Worldview: God, World and Humanity." 2006.
Zilberman, David B., The Birth of Meaning in Hindu Thought. D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland, 1988. ISBN 90-277-2497-0. Chapter 1. "Hindu Systems of
Thought as Epistemic Disciplines".

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