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NEGLIGENCE

11/14/2013

CoopervHobart(2001)SCCCB291

Ratio

Facts

Claim

Introducedpolicyconsiderationsatbothstepsofthetest
1)P/D:proximityANDforeseeability
2)PolicyconsiderationsoutsidetheP/Drelationship(residual)
IfDisastatutorybodywithdutiestothepublicatlarge,thendutytoindividualswho
aredamagedbytheirdecisionsmaynotclaimbreachofdutyifthebodyhasacted
withintheirmandate.
o *Nostatutoryobligation=nodutyofcare
Investor(P)inmortgagessuedtheRegistrarofMortgageBrokers(D)allegingnegligence
Phadinvestedmoneywitharegisteredmortgagebroker(oneof3000investors)
Pallegesthattheylostmoneyonaccountofthedishonest/incompetentbehaviourofthe
registeredbroker
Dhadbeenappointedpursuanttolegislation
Deventuallysuspendedthebrokerslicense
Dwasnegligentforfailingtoactquicklyenoughtostopunauthorizedactivitiesofthe
broker(Plosingmoneyasaresult)
DidtheRegistraroweadutyofcaretoinvestors?

Issue(s)
Holding No,thecourtsappliedtheAnnstesttofindthattherewasnodutyofcareowedtothe

investors(insufficientproximity)
Analysis Whenacasefallswithinorisanalogoustocasewhereproximityhasbeenrecognizedand
reasonableforeseeabilityisestablished,thereisaprimafaciedutyofcare.
Isthisanovelduty?(Whetherthecasefallswithinorisanalogoustocategoryofcasesin
whichadutyofcarehaspreviouslybeenrecognized)
o Yesitisanovelduty.(Regulatingbody/privateinvestors)
ProximityinCooper
o acloseanddirectrelationship[para32]
o Mayinvolveexpectations,representations,reliance,andthepropertyorother
interestsinvolved[para34]
ApplicationoftheAnnstest:
1. Dothecircumstancesdisclosereasonablyforeseeableharmandproximity
sufficienttoestablishaprimafaciedutyofcare?
Factorsgivingrisetoproximitywouldcomefromthestatuteunder
whichtheRegistrarisappointed
Registrarsdutyistothepublic,nottoinvestorswith
mortgagebrokersregulatedbytheAct
Insufficientlycloserelationshipbetweentheinvestorsandthe
registrar
Adutyofcaretoindividualinvestorscouldconflictwithdutyto
public
Noprimafaciedutyofcare
2. Residualpolicyfactors
Registrarexercisesquasijudicialfunctions
Ex:suspendingbrokerslicense

o Involvesbothpolicyapplication/development
AprivatedutywouldunderminetheRegistrars
obligationstoactinthepublicinterest
o Wouldcreatetension
Registrarmakespolicydecisionsandthecourtsshoulddeferto
him/her
Registrarisapublicofficial
Potentialforindeterminateliability
Openthefloodgates!
Registrarcantcontrolhowmanyinvestorsorhowmuch$
$
Imposingadutyofcarewouldbelikecreatingpublicinsurance
fundforprivateinvestorsattaxpayersexpense
Noindicationoflegislativeintent

Afterforeseeabilityandproximityareestablished,theonusfallsonthedefensetoprovethat
recognizingadutyisbadfor
o Thelegalsystems
o Negligencelaw
o Doesnotservesociety
o Undermineastatutoryobjective
Policyvs.operationalLiability
o Onecouldnotbefoundnegligentforanegligenceinpolicy,butcanbefoundnegligentfor
operationalliability

HillvHamiltonWentworthPoliceServicesBoard(2007)SCCCB301

Ratio

Facts

Claim
Issue(s)

Holding
Analysis

IfPcanestablishproximitybutDhasshownthattheyhaveactedreasonablyw.r.t.
theirdutyofcare,thenDwillnotbeheldinbreachoftheirduty.
Policeoweadutyofcareinnegligencetosuspectsbeinginvestigatedandtheir
conductshouldbemeasuredagainstthestandardofareasonableofficerinlike
circumstances
Pwaschargedwithrobberies
Pwasinvestigatedbypolicedepartment(D)
WhilePwasincustody,similarrobberiesoccurredandinformationwasgivenregarding
othersuspects
Pwasfoundguiltyandimprisoned
Pwaslatersuccessfulinappealing,acquittedforfirstsetofcharges&released
PclaimsDactednegligentlyinexercisingtheirduty

1) Canastandardofcarebeestablishedforpoliceofficersduringtheir
investigations?
2) Wasthestandardofcaremetinthiscase?
1) Yes
2) Yes
Standardofcare=reasonablepoliceofficerinsamecircumstances
o Notrequiredtobeperfect!

ApplyingtheCooperAnns

test:
o ProximityIstherelationshipclose&direct?(basedoneffects)
PhadbeensingledoutbyDhewasthesubjectofDsinvestigation
ItisforeseeablethatnegligentinvestigationwouldcausedamagetoP
o Policyaspects(infavouroffindingproximity):
PersonalinterestsofPatstake(freedom,reputation,etc.)
Publicinterests(wrongfularrest/convictions,Chartervalues)
NorealconflictbetweenDsprivateandpublicduties

Primafaciedutyofcareestablished
Residualpolicyconsiderations?Noallrejected
Policeinvestigationhasaquasijudicialnature
Djudgesareimmunetotortliability,soshouldthepolice
Policeinvestigationinvolvesdiscretion
Doughtnotencumberpolicediscretionbyimposinga
privatelegalduty
CourtAlotofprofessionalpracticesinvolvediscretion,but
arestillsubjecttoadutyofcareintort
Potentialconfusionwithotherpolicestandards(e.g.arrest)
Courtgetoverit!
Chillingeffectoninvestigation
Dwouldmakepoliceinvestigatedefensivelyiftherewasa
threatoflitigation
CourtNothreatiftheybehavereasonably
Indeterminateliability(floodgates)
Courtwillnotopenthefloodgates
Limitedclass
o Particularizedsuspects
o Havetobeabletoestablishcompensableinjurycausedby
anegligentinvestigation
Mayallowthecriminallyguiltytorecoverintort
Dwhatifsomeonewasacquittedbutactuallyguiltydowe
reallywantthemtobeabletorecoverintort?
Courtpeoplearealwaysgoingtoslipthroughthecracks;
thistypeofinjusticeispresentinalltortlaw
Whenestablishingdutycouldhaveseriouspolicyimplications,courtsMUSTconsiderit
externalpolicyfactors
o

Notes

PalsgrafvLongIslandRailroadCo.(1928)NewYorkCB322

Facts
Holding
Analysis

Dsguardcollidedwitha3rdparty
The3rdpartydroppedfireworks
Pwasinjuredasaresult
Dnotliable(Pwasbeyondtherangeofforeseeabledanger)
Pwasntaforeseeable,particularplaintiff
DcouldnothaveforeseenthatPwouldhavebeeninjured

Dissent:

Everyonehasageneraldutyofcaretorefrainfromactsthatunreasonablythreatenthe
safetyofothers
Ifsuchanactoccurs,allthosewhoareinjuredarewronged(eveniftheyareoutsidethe
dangerzoneofthosetowhomharmmightreasonablybeexpectedtoresult)
FarrugiavGreatWesternRy(1947)CACB323

Ratio
Facts

Holding
Analysis

Dutywasowedtoanybodywhohappenedtobeintheneighbourhoodatthecrucial
moment
Driver(D)hadloadedatrucksohighthatinpassinganoverheadbridge,acontainer
wasknockedoffandfellonP.
ShortlybeforetheaccidentPhadbeenonthetruckasatrespasser
Attimeofaccident,Pwasrunningbehindthetrucktryingtogetonit
DhadadutyofcaretoP
ItwasarguedthatDhadnoreasontoforeseePcouldntoweadutyofcaretoP

LawvVisser(1961)QueenslandCB323

Ratio
Facts

Holding
Analysis

Dutywasowedtoanybodywhohappenedtobeintheneighbourhoodatthecrucial
moment
Atahighspeed,adriver(D)sawalargeobjectintheroad
Theobjectlookedlikeanabandonedbundleorananimalkilledbyapassingcar
Dmadenoefforttoavoiditandranitover
Theobjectwasaperson(P)whowasdrunkandlyingintheroad
Dwasheldliableitwasnoexcusethathedidnotknowthenatureoftheobject
Itwasnotforeseeablethatitwasaperson,butitwasforeseeablethatitwassomething
Doughttohavetakenstepstoavoidit,whateveritwas.
PiswithintherealmofthestandardthatDefshouldbeheldaccountableto
Dwasdrivingrecklesslyandtooknostepstoavoidthatobjectintheroadliability

DuvalvSeguin(1972)Ont.H.C.J.CB323

Ratio
Facts
Analysis

Notes

Anunbornchildisaforeseeableplaintiff
Caraccidentchildwasborndamagedasaresultofaninjurywhileenventresa
mere
MotherwaswithinanareaofforeseeableriskDowedadutyofcaretoher
Ifadriverdrivesonahighwaywithoutduecareforotherusers,itisforeseeablethat
someotherhighwayuserswillbepregnantwomenandthatachildenventresamere
maybeinjured
Unbornchildiswithintheareaofpotentialdangerthatthedriverisrequiredtoforesee
andtakereasonablecaretoavoid
FamilyLawAct,1990(Ontario)
o Nopersonisdisentitledfromrecoveringdamagesinrespectofinjuriesforthe
reasononlythattheinjurieswereincurredbeforehisorherbirth

UNFORESEEABLEPLAINTIFFORPOLICY?
Hay(Bourhill)vYoung(1943)HLCB321

Ratio
Facts

Issue(s)
Holding
Analysis

AdutyofcareisnotowedtotheworldatlargePmustbereasonablyforeseeable
IfDcantforeseeP,andPlacksreasonableproximitytoD,thenDwilloweno
dutyofcaretoP
Dwasamotorcyclist,drivingrecklessly
Dwasinanaccidentwithacaranddied
Psteppingoffabussawtheaccident(sawdeadbody&bloodintheroadway)
Pclaimedtobeinjuredduetotheshock(wrenchedback;stillbornchild).
DidDoweadutyofcaretoP?
No
Dowed,ingeneralterms,adutyofcare(CoopervHobart)tothosewhomightbe
injuredasaresultofhisactions
Dutyofcareissubjecttotheideathattherehastobereasonableforesightofthis
particularplaintiff
D,inhisrecklessdriving,couldnothavereasonablyforeseenthatanyonewherePwas
wouldhavebeenaffectedinthatmanner
o Pwasanunforeseeableplaintiff
o BasedonDonoghuevStevensonreasoning

Notes

*DistinguishablefromPalsgraf:mentalinjuryv.physicalinjury
FollowingdissentinPalsgraf,DefmayhavehadadutytoP
o
o

Foreseeabilityandproximityareclosetogether
Focusingonpolicyeliminatesneedtolookatthem.

DobsonvDobson(1999)SCCCB324

Ratio
Facts

Issue(s)
Holding
Analysis

Apregnantmotherowesnodutyofcaretoherunbornchild
Mother(D)wasinvolvedinacaraccidentwhilepregnant
Dwasdrivingnegligentlyatthetime
TheaccidentdamagedDsunbornchild
Childsgrandfatherbroughtthesuitonbehalfofthechild
Doesamotheroweadutyofcaretoherunbornchild?
No

Majority

Dowedageneraldutyofcaretodrivesafely
DidDspecificallyoweadutyofcaretothisplaintiff(unbornchild)?No.
o Isthechildforeseeable?
YesDknewshewaspregnant
o

Publicpolicyconsiderations
Toallowthisrightofactionwouldbeagainstpublicpolicy:
Damagetothemotherchildrelationshipifmotherweretobe

foundnegligent.

Negativelyimpactfamilycohesiveness.Itwouldpitchild
againstparentinasituationwhereasupportivefamily
structurewillbeessentialforthechild.

Itwouldinvolveextensiveintrusionsandfrequently
unpredictableeffectsontherightsofbodilyintegrity,privacy
andautonomousdecisionmakingofpregnantwomen

Dissent(MajorJ)

Policyconsiderationsdonotapplywiththesamestrengthinsituationswherethemother
owesageneraldutyalready
o Dsfreedomofactionwithrespecttoherdrivingwasalreadylimitedbythe
publicdutytootherusersofthehighway
o PwaswithinthereasonablyforeseeableambitofriskcausedbyDsnegligent
driving
o DdidnthavetotakeanyextraprecautionstoavoidliabilitytoPthanshewas
alreadylegallyobligatedtotake
Adutyofcareisowedbythemothertoabornalivechild(aslongassheknew/oughtto
haveknownthatsheispregnantatthetimeoftheact)
MaternalTortLiabilityAct(Alberta)enactedafterDobson
o Allowsactionagainstthemother,butonlytotheextentoftheinsurance
coverageavailabletothemother
o LegislatureseemstopreferthepolicydecisionofMajorJtothatofthemajority

Notes

FAILURETOACTNONFEASANCEANDMISFEASANCE
Misfeasance=lawfulactsperformedwrongfully(liabilitycanbeimposed)
Nonfeasance=failuretoactwhendutyexisted(noliability)
o Shouldwebrandthefailuretoassistapersoninperilascriminalconduct?

Horsleyetal.vMacLaren(1972)SCCCB331

Ratio

Facts

Issue(s)
Holding

ThereisnodutytotakepositiveactioninaidofanotherwhenDisnotthe
reasonthatPisatrisk(eveniftohelpPwouldinvolvelittleeffortorrisk)
TheburdenisonPtoprovebyapreponderanceofevidencethatDs
negligencewastheeffectivecauseof[damage]
Pfelloverboard
Doperatedtheboat
DfailedtorescueP
Pdied
Isthereadutytorescueapersoninperilifyouhavedonenothingtoputhimthere?
No

BuchvAmoryManufacturingCo.(1897)NHCB332

Ratio

Thelawdoesnotdealwithpurelymoralobligations
FAILURETOACTRELATIONSHIPSREQUIRINGRESCUE
Thelawdoesrecognizeadutytorescueortoassistinsomecircumstances:
o Relationshipsofeconomicbenefit
o Relationshipsofcontrolorsupervision
o Creatorsofdangeroussituations
o Reliancerelationships
o Statutoryduties
RELATIONSHIPWITHECONOMICBENEFIT

JordanHouseLtd.vMenowandHonsberger(1974)SCCCB334

Ratio
Facts

Issue(s)
Holding
Analysis

IfDcreatesrisk(inaneconomicrelationship),thentheyassumeadutyofcaretoP
Whereabusinessmakesprofitoffconsumptionofalcohol,theyoweadutytotheir
customerstoensuretheyaresafeiftheybecomeintoxicated.
PwasapatronofDshotel
DsemployeessoldPalcohol
Pwasintoxicatedandisejectedfromthebar
Pwasinjuredonthewayhome(hitbyacar)
DoesDoweadutyofcare(dutytorescue)tothepatronaftertheyleftDspremises?
DfoundliableforfailingtoprotectPfromthelikelyriskofpersonalinjury

LaskinJ(3)dutybasedoncreationofdanger

Dutyofcare=protecthimfromrisks
Breachofduty=ejectingPfrombarknowinghewasintoxicated,failingtoprevent
certainrisk
o Puthimunderchargeofaresponsibleperson(ortakingcharge),
o Notejectedhimaloneuntilhecouldtakecareofhimself,etc.
PsinjurieswerereasonablyforeseeablebywhatDdid(ejectedP)andwhatDdidnot
do(takepreventivemeasures)

RitchieJ,concurring(2)dutybasedoneconomicbenefit

Notes

Dutyofcare(statutory)=nottocontinueservingalcoholbeyondpointofapparent
impairment
Breachofduty=overservingP
Note3wouldthehotelhavebeenliableifMenowhadwanderedoutofthebar
insteadofbeingkickedout?
o Majority:dutyaroseatthepointofejectionNO
Atthatpointofejectionthestaffwouldhaveseenthathewasintoxicated
tothepointwhereitwouldbeforeseeablethathewouldbeinjured
o Dissent:dutyofcareistiedtoservingofalcoholYES
Thedutywouldhavebeenbreachedearlier

Note4wouldthehotelhavebeenliableifMenowhadenteredthehotelalready
drunkandhasbeenejectedimmediately(beforehecouldbuyadrink)?
o No
o Allthehoteldidwashaveanopendoor!Theyareundernostrongerdutythan
anyotherinnocentpasserby
Note6WouldMenowsfriendhavebeenpartiallytoblameifhehasnotleftearlier
buthadremainedinhisseatuntil,andafter,Menowwasejected?
o GoodSamaritanscenario
o Hedidnotparticipateinthecreationoftherisk
o Theonlydifferenceisthathewasafriend
HorsleyvMcLarendoesntmatter

RELATIONSHIPWITHCONTROLORSUPERVISON
Therearecertaincategoriesofrelationship(esp.controlandsupervision)wherethelawwouldnt
hesitatetoconferpositivedutytoact
o Preventinjury
o Assistthoseinvulnerablesituations
Keycharacteristicoftheserelationshipsisthatthepartiesenterintothemwillingly,knowingthat
situationsmaydevelopwhichwillrequirethemtoactinordertoassistothers
Imposingapositivedutytoactintheserelationshipsisntinconsistentwithcommon
lawsdesirenottointerfereundulywithonesfreedomofaction
Examples:
o Parentchild
o Teacherpupil
o Employeremployee
o Carrierpassenger
o Prisonsinmates
o Hospitalspatients
o Thesecategoriesarenotclosed(StovinvWise)
o

Zelenkov.GibelBros.(CB349)[1935,U.S.]
IfaDefendantstepsinatanypointtoassistaPlaintiffatrisk,thentheDefendantis
Ratio
assumingadutyofcare

Facts

Issue(s)
Holding

CanadianlawsaysthattheactionmustWORSENthePlaintiffspositionfor
theretobenegligence.
PlaintiffinDefendantsstore
DefendanttookPlaintifftoinfirmaryandleftherfor6hours
leftPlaintiffunattended;Plaintiffdied.
DidtheDefendantassumeadutyofcarebyinterveningtoassistthePltf?
YES

MercervS.E.&C.Ty.Co.[1922]
o Trainlinelocksagatetoletpeopleknownottocrosstheline,onedaytheyforgettolock
thegate
o Ratio:Ifaselfimposeddutyisordinarilyperformed,thosewhoknewofitwilldrawan
inferenceifonagivenoccasionitisnotperformed
BarnettvChelsea[1967]
o Mangetssick,goestohospitalbutistoldhewillbefineandthatheshouldgoseehis
familydoctor
o Indictum:thatbecausetherewasacloseanddirectrelationshipbetweenthehospitaland
theplaintiff,therewasimposedonthehospitaladutyofcare
H.R.MochCo.RensselaerWaterCo.[1928]USA
o Thehandoncesettoataskmaynotbewithdrawnwithimpunitythoughliabilitywould
failifithadneverbeenappliedatall
o Ofconducthasgoneforwardtosuchastagethatinactionwouldcommonlyresult,not
negativelymerelyinwithholdingbenefit,butpositivelyoractivelyinworkinganinjury,
thereexistsarelationoutofwhichadutytogoforward
o Thequeryalwaysiswhethertheputativewrongdoerhasadvancedtosuchapointasto
havelaunchedaforcedorinstrumentofharm,orhasstoppedwhereinactionisatmosta
refusaltobecomeaninstrumentforgood
Zelenkov.GibelBros
HorsleyvMacLaren[1970]CANADA
o Whereapersongratuitouslyandwithoutdutytodosoundertakestoconferabenefit
uponorgototheaidofanother,heincursnoliabilityunlesswhathedoesworsensthe
conditionoftheothers
o Ifapersonembarksuponarescueanddonenotcarryitthrough,heisnotunderany
liabilitytothepersontowhoseaidhehascometosolongasdiscontinuanceofhisefforts
didnotleavetheotherinaworseconditionthanwhenhetookcharge
CREATIONOFDANGER
Infindingadutytoremedyadangeroussituation,theinjurymustbeforeseeable(Oke)
Dissent:Apersonwhocreatesadangeroussituationhasadutytoattempttoremedyit(Oke)

OkevWiedeTransportLtd(1963)ManCACB347

Ratio

Facts

Claim
Theoryof
Proceedings
Holding

Dissent:Apersonwhocreatesadangeroussituationhasadutytomitigate
therisk.
Dknockedoveratrafficsignwhiledriving(notnegligent)
Dstoppedcarandremoveddebrisexceptformetalpost(toosecurelyattached)
Ddidntreportittoauthorities
Pwasspearedbythepostwhiledrivinginanillegalmanner
Pisseverelyinjuredanddied
Dnegligentinfailingtonotifypoliceoftheriskcausedbythebentpost

TrialDheldliable
o Originalcollisionwasnonnegligent(nolegalblame)
o Dwasnegligentonthegroundsoffailingtonotifythepoliceofthehazardous
conditioncreated
Actionwasdismissed(lackofforesight)

Analysis

Dissent

IsDlikeanyotherdriver?No
Dcreatedarisk,lessenedtherisksomewhat(removingdebris),butdidnotgo
farenough
Herecognizedhisdutytocontrolthesystem

Generallydontconferdutyforpositiveaction(Horsley),butthisdoesntapply
whenthepersonhasparticipatedinthecreationoftherisk(eveniftheydidso
nonnegligently)

STATUTORYDUTIES
SaskatchewanWheatPool
o ThereisnotortofbreachofstatutorydutyinCanada
o Astatutethatdoesntprovideforcivilliabilitydoesnotautomaticallygiverisetoatort
duty
Theexistenceofastatutorydutycanbeusedasafactortobeconsideredbythecourtsin
decidingwhethertocreateacommonlawduty
Inthepublictortliabilityarea,statutorydutieshavegivenrisetoprivatelawdutiesofcare

ORourkev.Schacht(CB353)[1973,SCC]
IfaDefhasdutiesunderastatutebutthestatutedoesntspecifywhatconstitutesa
Ratio
breach,thenanynegligencewillbenegligenceatcommonlaw,NOTastatutory
breach.

Facts

DefpoliceforceattendedMVA(barrier/lightshadbeenknockeddown);Def
failedtosetupnewbarriers;Pltfscardroveintoditch

Claim
Issue(s)/
Holding

PclaimsDactednegligentlyinexercisingtheirduty

DidthepolicehaveadutytowarnthePltfoftheditch(i.e.didtheycreatea
risk)?YES
Wasthedutyimposedbystatute?NO,CommonLawDuty

Analysis

Policehavedutiesandresponsibilitiestheymustfulfill.Dutytowarndrivers
ofditchinthiscasereadinasaduty.
Pltfcouldntrelyonstatutetofindtheduty,butcanaskcourttoreaditin.

Notes

*Statutorybreachissue;ifyoubreachastatute=notort;ifyoubreacha
statute&itoutlinesdutyandbreach=statutorybreach.
Generallyonlydealswithacts,omissionsaretheexception
o Inthiscaretheremisfeasancewasseentobeastatutoryduty
Dissent:nolegislativeintenttoimposedutyonpoliceofficers;commonlaw
shouldntreaditin

Note2:
o DistinguishedfromSheeponshipcase,
Thestatutorybreachwassetupinregardstothehealthofthesheepnoprotecting
thesheepfromfallingoverboard
Inthecaseathandthebreachinthestatutorydutytokeepthefencemaintained,
directlycausedandwasrelatedtothebuscrashwiththeescapedcow
Bottomline,noexactscience,i.e.situationalfactorsarerelevant

CATOGORIESORPRINCIPLES?

Categoriesofrecognizeddutiestoact(Childs):
o Whereadefendantintentionallyattractsandinvitesthirdpartiestoaninherentand
obviousriskthatheorshehascreatedorcontrols
o Wherethereisapaternalisticrelationshipofsupervisionandcontrol,suchasparentchild
orteacherstudent
o Wherethedefendantsexerciseapublicfunctionorengageinacommercialenterprise
thatincludesimpliesresponsibilitiestothepublicatlarge

ChildsvDesormeaux(2006)SCCCB339

Ratio

Facts

Theoryof
Proceedings
Issue(s)
Holding
Analysis

IfasocialhostinvitesDtoaneventbutdontdirectlycreatearisky
situation(Ddoesitthemselves),thenthehostwillhaveassumednodutyof
careandnonewillbeimposed.
PrivateBYOBpartyhostedbydefendants(D)attendedbyDesmoreaux(Des.)
Des.drank12beersin2.5hoursandbecameinebriated
Hostsonlyprovidedasmallamountofalchohol
DdidnotmonitorDes.salcoholconsumption
Des.leftpartyanddrovehome(DwalkedDes.tohiscar)
Des.wasinvolvedinanaccidentwithMs.Childs(P)
Pwasseverelyinjured
Trial&CAsocialhostsofprivatepartiesdonotoweadutyofcareto
membersofthepublicwhomaybeinjuredbyanintoxicatedguestsconduct
Dosocialhostswhoinvitegueststoaneventwherealcoholisservedowea
legaldutyofcaretothirdpartieswhomaybeinjuredbyintoxicatedguests?
No

Noveldutysituationsocialhost(noclearprecedent)

Applicationof

CooperAnns

test:
o Proximity?No
Isitfairtoimposeliabilityonsocialhosts?
Theydidnotcreateorcontrolarisk(didntassumedutyofcare)
o Foreseeability?No
PsinjurywasnotreasonablyforeseeabletoD
NoevidencethatDwasawareofDes.intoxication
o Policyconsiderations(withinrelationship)thewrongisafailuretoact,

wherenopositivedutytoactexisted