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Southern Ashanti Gold Project

Ghana, West Africa

Technical Report
Effective Date: 21 August 2008

Prepared by:

Ron Heeks
Technical Manager
Adamus Resources Limited
On behalf of:

Adamus Resources Limited

Adamus Resources Limited


Southern Ashanti Gold Project, Ghana, Western Africa
Technical Report

August 2008

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 Summary ....................................................................................................................1


1.1 General..........................................................................................................................1
1.2 Ownership .....................................................................................................................2
1.3 Mineral Resource Estimate............................................................................................4
1.4 Metallurgical Testing......................................................................................................6
1.4.1 General............................................................................................................6
1.4.2 Comminution Testing.......................................................................................6
1.4.3 Metallurgical Testing........................................................................................6
1.4.4 Testwork Summary..........................................................................................7
1.5 Mineral Processing ........................................................................................................8
1.6 Open Pit Mining ...........................................................................................................10
1.7 Ore Reserve Estimate .................................................................................................12
1.8 Financial Analysis Results ...........................................................................................15
1.9 Current Project Status .................................................................................................15
1.9.1 Mining Lease and License .............................................................................15
1.9.2 Project Implementation Plan..........................................................................15
1.10 Conclusion and Recommendations .............................................................................16
2.0 Introduction and Terms of Reference....................................................................17
2.1 Terms of Reference .....................................................................................................17
2.2 The Purpose of this Report..........................................................................................17
2.3 Qualifications and Experience .....................................................................................17
2.4 Principal Sources of Information ..................................................................................18
3.0 Reliance on Other Experts .....................................................................................19
4.0 Property Description and Location........................................................................20
4.1 Project Area, Location and Access ..............................................................................20
4.2 Ownership ...................................................................................................................21
4.3 Description of Licences and Approvals ........................................................................25
4.3.1 Anwia Deposit ...............................................................................................25
4.3.2 Salman Deposits ...........................................................................................25
4.3.3 Satellite Deposits...........................................................................................25
4.3.4 Royalties and Other Agreements...................................................................26
4.3.5 Environmental Liabilities ................................................................................26
4.3.6 Extension Application ....................................................................................26
4.3.7 Grant of Mining Lease ...................................................................................26
4.3.8 Project Stability Agreement ...........................................................................27
5.0 AccessibiliTy, Climate, Infrastructure and Physiography ...................................27
5.1 Access.........................................................................................................................27
5.2 Climate ........................................................................................................................27
5.3 Topography, Elevation and Vegetation ........................................................................27
5.4 Local Infrastructure ......................................................................................................28
6.0 Exploration and Mining History .............................................................................28
6.1 Historical Mining Activity ..............................................................................................28
6.2 Exploration and Ownership History of Salman Deposit Area .......................................29
6.3 Exploration and Ownership History of Anwia Deposit Area..........................................30
6.4 ARL Exploration...........................................................................................................31
6.5 Previous Resource Estimates......................................................................................31

Adamus Resources Limited


Southern Ashanti Gold Project, Ghana, Western Africa
Technical Report

August 2008

7.0 Geological Setting ...................................................................................................33


7.1 Regional and Local Geology........................................................................................33
7.2 Project Geology ...........................................................................................................36
7.2.1 General..........................................................................................................36
7.2.2 Avrebo Domain..............................................................................................36
7.2.3 Salman Domain .............................................................................................37
7.2.4 Anwia Domain ...............................................................................................39
8.0 Deposit Type and Mineralisation ...........................................................................40
8.1 Salman Deposit Type and Mineralisation.....................................................................40
8.2 Anwia Deposit Type and Mineralisation .......................................................................42
8.3 Satellite Deposit Types and Mineralisation ..................................................................44
9.0 Exploration...............................................................................................................44
9.1 Trenching Methods ......................................................................................................44
9.2 Pits ..............................................................................................................................45
9.3 Drilling Methods...........................................................................................................45
10.0 Drilling ......................................................................................................................45
10.1 Anwia Deposit Drilling..................................................................................................45
10.2 Salman Deposits Drilling..............................................................................................46
10.3 Satellite Deposits Drilling .............................................................................................48
10.4 Surveying ....................................................................................................................48
10.4.1 Anwia Surface Surveying...............................................................................48
10.4.2 Anwia Down-hole Surveys.............................................................................48
10.4.3 Salman Deposit Surface Surveying ...............................................................49
10.4.4 Salman Deposit Down-hole Surveys .............................................................49
10.4.5 Satellite Deposit Surveys...............................................................................50
11.0 Sampling Methods ..................................................................................................50
11.1 RC sampling ................................................................................................................50
11.2 Diamond Drill Core Sampling.......................................................................................51
11.3 Trench and Pit Sampling .............................................................................................52
12.0 Sample Preparation, Analyses and Security ........................................................52
12.1 Sample Preparation .....................................................................................................52
12.2 Analyses......................................................................................................................52
12.2.1 TEMCO .........................................................................................................52
12.2.2 Semafo ..........................................................................................................52
12.2.3 Samax ...........................................................................................................52
12.2.4 BHP...............................................................................................................53
12.2.5 ARL ...............................................................................................................53
12.3 Analyses - Bulk Densities ............................................................................................53
12.3.1 Anwia ............................................................................................................53
12.3.2 Salman ..........................................................................................................56
12.3.3 Satellite Deposits...........................................................................................58
12.4 Sample Storage and Security ......................................................................................58
12.5 Representivity of Samples ...........................................................................................59
12.6 Adequacy of Sample Preparation, Security and Analytical Procedures .......................59
13.0 Data Verification ......................................................................................................60
13.1 Anwia Assay Accuracy ................................................................................................60
13.2 Comparison of Adamus to Semafo and Samax/AGC Sampling...................................63
13.3 Anwia Sampling and Assaying Precision .....................................................................64
13.4 Salman RC Sample Recovery .....................................................................................68

Adamus Resources Limited


Southern Ashanti Gold Project, Ghana, Western Africa
Technical Report

August 2008

13.5 Salman Assay Accuracy ..............................................................................................72


13.6 Salman Sampling and Assaying Precision...................................................................84
13.7 Conclusion...................................................................................................................87

14.0 ADjacent Properties ................................................................................................88


14.1 Adjacent properties......................................................................................................88
15.0 Metallurgical Testing...............................................................................................88
15.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................88
15.2 Composite Samples and Sample Preparation .............................................................89
15.2.1 General..........................................................................................................89
15.2.2 Comminution Composites..............................................................................89
15.2.3 Leach Master Composites .............................................................................91
15.2.4 Leach Variability Composites ........................................................................92
15.2.5 Head Assays .................................................................................................95
15.3 Comminution ...............................................................................................................97
15.3.1 General..........................................................................................................97
15.3.2 Crushing Work Index .....................................................................................97
15.3.3 Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests ......................................................98
15.3.4 Advanced Media Competency Tests ...........................................................100
15.3.5 JK Drop Weight Tests..................................................................................102
15.3.6 SMC Testing................................................................................................110
15.3.7 Bond Comminution Tests ............................................................................111
15.4 Mineralogy .................................................................................................................112
15.4.1 General........................................................................................................112
15.4.2 Anwia Oxide Master ....................................................................................112
15.4.3 Anwia Transition Master ..............................................................................113
15.4.4 Anwia Sulphide Master ................................................................................113
15.4.5 Salman Oxide Master ..................................................................................113
15.4.6 Salman Transition Master............................................................................113
15.4.7 Salman Central Upper Transition (Variability Composite 12) .......................113
15.4.8 Salman Central Lower Transition (Variability Composite 8) .........................114
15.4.9 Salman North Upper Transition (Variability Composite 13)..........................114
15.4.10 Salman North Lower Transition (Variability Composite 9)............................114
15.4.11 Salman North Upper Transition (Variability Composite 23) Granite ..........114
15.4.12 Salman North Lower Transition (Variability Composite 21) Granite ..........114
15.4.13 Salman Sulphide AMC Comminution Composite.........................................115
15.5 Thickening .................................................................................................................115
15.5.1 General........................................................................................................115
15.5.2 Flocculant Screening Tests .........................................................................115
15.5.3 Dynamic Thickening Tests...........................................................................115
15.6 Viscosity ....................................................................................................................117
15.6.1 General........................................................................................................117
15.6.2 Anwia Oxide Master ....................................................................................117
15.6.3 Anwia Transition Master ..............................................................................119
15.6.4 Anwia Sulphide Master ................................................................................120
15.6.5 Salman Oxide Master ..................................................................................120
15.6.6 Salman Transition Master............................................................................121
15.7 Gravity Recovery .......................................................................................................123
15.7.1 General........................................................................................................123
15.7.2 3kg Batch Gravity Tests...............................................................................123
15.7.3 Bulk Gravity Tests .......................................................................................126
15.8 Leaching....................................................................................................................127
15.8.1 General........................................................................................................127
15.8.2 Leach Optimisation Testing .........................................................................127
15.8.3 Leach Variability Testing..............................................................................141
15.8.4 Effect of Oxygen Addition ............................................................................141
15.9 Oxygen Uptake..........................................................................................................146

Adamus Resources Limited


Southern Ashanti Gold Project, Ghana, Western Africa
Technical Report

August 2008

15.9.1 General........................................................................................................146
15.10 Carbon Adsorption.....................................................................................................148
15.10.1 General........................................................................................................148
15.11 Cyanide Detoxification and Arsenic Precipitation.......................................................148
15.11.1 General........................................................................................................148
15.11.2 Cyanide Detoxification.................................................................................148
15.11.3 Arsenic Precipitation....................................................................................149
15.12 Flowsheet Selection ..................................................................................................154
15.13 Recovery Forecasts...................................................................................................155

16.0 Mineral Processing ...............................................................................................158


16.1 Engineering Design and Control Philosophy..............................................................158
16.2 Plant Configuration Options.......................................................................................158
16.3 Run of Mine (ROM) Pad ............................................................................................159
16.4 Crushing ....................................................................................................................161
16.5 Grinding and Classification ........................................................................................161
16.6 Gravity Concentration ................................................................................................162
16.7 Leach Feed Thickening .............................................................................................162
16.8 Leach and Adsorption Circuit.....................................................................................162
16.9 Elution and Gold Room Operations ...........................................................................163
16.9.1 Acid Wash ...................................................................................................164
16.9.2 Zadra Elution Circuit ....................................................................................164
16.9.3 Electrowinning and Gold Room ...................................................................164
16.9.4 Gold Barring ................................................................................................165
16.9.5 Gold Room Security ....................................................................................165
16.9.6 Carbon Regeneration ..................................................................................165
16.10 Cyanide Destruction and Tailings Disposal................................................................166
16.11 Reagents ...................................................................................................................167
16.11.1 Lime ............................................................................................................167
16.11.2 Cyanide .......................................................................................................167
16.11.3 Caustic ........................................................................................................167
16.11.4 Hydrochloric Acid.........................................................................................167
16.11.5 Activated Carbon .........................................................................................167
16.11.6 Sodium Metabisulphite ................................................................................168
16.11.7 Copper Sulphate..........................................................................................168
16.11.8 SAG Mill Balls..............................................................................................168
16.11.9 Flocculant ....................................................................................................168
16.11.10Ferric Sulphate ............................................................................................168
16.11.11Sulphuric Acid .............................................................................................168
16.12 Services and Water ...................................................................................................169
16.12.1 Raw Water Supply.......................................................................................169
16.12.2 Process Water .............................................................................................169
16.12.3 Potable Water..............................................................................................169
16.12.4 Instrument Air ..............................................................................................169
16.12.5 Plant Air.......................................................................................................169
16.12.6 Low Pressure Air .........................................................................................169
16.12.7 Oxygen ........................................................................................................170
16.12.8 Diesel Fuel ..................................................................................................170
16.12.9 Emergency Power Supply ...........................................................................170
17.0 Mineral Resource Estimate ..................................................................................171
17.1 Data Preparation and Treatment ...............................................................................171
17.1.1 Anwia Modelling Domains ...........................................................................171
17.1.2 Salman Modelling Domains .........................................................................173
17.1.3 Satellite Deposit Modelling Domains ...........................................................177
17.1.4 Mine Voids...................................................................................................181
17.1.5 Derivation of Preferred Assay Values ..........................................................181

Adamus Resources Limited


Southern Ashanti Gold Project, Ghana, Western Africa
Technical Report

August 2008

17.1.6 Compositing ................................................................................................183


17.2 Exploratory Data Analysis..........................................................................................186
17.2.1 Anwia ..........................................................................................................186
17.2.2 Salman ........................................................................................................186
17.2.3 Satellite Deposits.........................................................................................186
17.3 Spatial Continuity Analysis ........................................................................................187
17.3.1 Measures of Spatial Continuity ....................................................................187
17.3.2 Directional Controls on Gold Mineralisation .................................................187
17.4 Indicator Kriging.........................................................................................................196
17.4.1 Indicator Kriging for Recoverable Resource Estimation...............................196
17.4.2 Indicator Kriging Parameters .......................................................................197
17.5 Block Support Adjustment (Variance Adjustment) .....................................................200
17.5.1 General........................................................................................................200
17.5.2 The Variance Adjustment ............................................................................201
17.5.3 Shape of the Block Grade Distribution.........................................................201
17.5.4 The Information Effect .................................................................................201
17.5.5 Variance Adjustments Applied to the Resource Models ..............................202
17.6 Resource Classification .............................................................................................204
17.7 Anwia Resource Model..............................................................................................204
17.8 Salman Resource Model ...........................................................................................208
17.9 Satellite Deposits Resource Models ..........................................................................211
17.10 Mineral Resource Statement .....................................................................................216
17.11 Other .........................................................................................................................216

18.0 ORE Reserve Estimate..........................................................................................217


18.1 Introduction................................................................................................................217
18.2 Mining Study Scope...................................................................................................218
18.3 Parameters ................................................................................................................218
18.3.1 Parameters Summary..................................................................................219
18.3.2 Gold Price and Royalty ................................................................................219
18.3.3 Throughput Costs ........................................................................................219
18.3.4 Contract Mining Costs .................................................................................219
18.3.5 Resource Model and Surfaces ....................................................................222
18.3.6 Other Parameters ........................................................................................222
18.4 Pit Limit Optimisations ...............................................................................................222
18.5 Mine Design...............................................................................................................227
18.6 Mining Quantities and Reserves ................................................................................233
18.6.1 Cut-off Grades .............................................................................................233
18.6.2 Open Pit Quantities .....................................................................................234
18.6.3 Ore Reserve Estimate .................................................................................234
19.0 Other Relevant Data and Information ..................................................................237
19.1 Production Schedules................................................................................................237
20.0 Interpretation and Conclusions ...........................................................................238
21.0 Recommendations ................................................................................................239
22.0 References and Bibliography...............................................................................240
23.0 Date and Signature Page ......................................................................................244
24.0 certificate of qualification .....................................................................................245

Adamus Resources Limited


Southern Ashanti Gold Project, Ghana, Western Africa
Technical Report

August 2008

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1-1 Summary of Southern Ashanti Gold Project Resources at 0.8g/t cut-off ...........................5
Table 1-2 Key Process Design Parameters ......................................................................................8
Table 1-3 Metallurgical Recoveries...................................................................................................8
Table 1-4 Mineral Reserve Estimate...............................................................................................14
Table 2-1 Principal Sources of Information .....................................................................................18
Table 3-1 Reliance on Consultants in Addition to the Authors ........................................................19
Table 4-1 Tenure Summary Southern Ashanti Gold Project ........................................................22
Table 6-1 Southern Ashanti Gold Resources at 1g/t cut-off estimated by Ravensgate ...................31
Table 6-2 Southern Ashanti gold resources at 1g/t cut-off estimated by SRK .................................31
Table 6-3 Southern Ashanti Gold Project resources at 1g/t cut-off estimate, ARL, January 2006...32
Table 6-4: Southern Ashanti Gold Project Resources at 1g/t cut-off estimate ARL, January 2007 ..32
Table 12-1 Bulk densities applied to the Anwia resource model.......................................................54
Table 12-2 Bulk densities applied to the Salman resource model...................................................56
Table 12-3: Bulk densities applied to the Satellite Deposits resource models..................................58
Table 15-1 Anwia Comminution Transition Master Composite Sample...........................................89
Table 15-2 Anwia Comminution Sulphide Master Composite Sample ............................................90
Table 15-3 Anwia Comminution Variability Composite Samples.....................................................90
Table 15-4 Salman Comminution Oxide Master Composite Sample...............................................90
Table 15-5 Salman Comminution Transition Master Composite Sample ........................................90
Table 15-6 Salman Comminution Sulphide Master Composite Sample ..........................................91
Table 15-7 Salman Comminution Variability Composite Samples ..................................................91
Table 15-8 Leach Master Composite Samples ...............................................................................92
Table 15-9 Salman Leach Variability Composite Samples............................................................93
Table 15-10 Anwia Leach Variability Composite Samples ..............................................................95
Table 15-11 Leach Master Composite Sample Head Assays .........................................................95
Table 15-12 Salman Leach Variability Composite Head Assays...................................................................96
Table 15-13 Anwia Leach Variability Composite Head Assays.....................................................................97
Table 15-14 Crushing Work Index Test Results...............................................................................98
Table 15-15 Anwia Variability Composite Sample Unconfined Compressive Strength ....................98
Table 15-16 Salman Variability Composite Sample Unconfined Compressive Strength .................99
Table 15-17 Master Composite JK Drop Weight Test Parameters................................................102
Table 15-18 SMC Test Results .....................................................................................................110
Table 15-19 Bond Test Results ....................................................................................................111
Table 15-20 Levin Test Results ....................................................................................................112
Table 15-21 Anwia Oxide Master Dynamic Thickening Tests .......................................................116
Table 15-22 Anwia Transition Master Dynamic Thickening Tests.................................................116
Table 15-23 Anwia Sulphide Master Dynamic Thickening Tests...................................................116
Table 15-24 Salman Oxide Master Dynamic Thickening Tests.....................................................117
Table 15-25 Salman Transition Master Dynamic Thickening Tests.............................................117
Table 15-26 Anwia Oxide Master Viscosity Test Summary...........................................................118
Table 15-27 Anwia Transition Master Viscosity Test Summary ....................................................119
Table 15-28 Anwia Sulphide Master Viscosity Test Summary ......................................................120
Table 15-29 Salman Oxide Viscosity Test Summary ....................................................................121
Table 15-30 Salman Transition Viscosity Test Summary..............................................................122
Table 15-31 Average 3kg Batch Gravity Test Results Anwia .....................................................123
Table 15-32 3kg Batch Gravity Test Results Anwia Oxide Variability Samples..........................124
Table 15-33 3kg Batch Gravity Test Results Anwia Transition Variability Samples ...................124

Adamus Resources Limited


Southern Ashanti Gold Project, Ghana, Western Africa
Technical Report

August 2008

Table 15-34 3kg Batch Gravity Test Results Anwia Sulphide Variability Samples .....................124
Table 15-35 Average 3kg Batch Gravity Test Results Salman...................................................125
Table 15-36 3kg Batch Gravity Test Results Salman Oxide Variability Samples .......................125
Table 15-37 3kg Batch Gravity Test Results Salman Transition Variability Samples .................125
Table 15-38 3kg Batch Gravity Test Results Salman Sulphide Variability Samples ...................126
Table 15-39 Anwia Bulk Gravity Test Results ...............................................................................126
Table 15-40 Salman Bulk Gravity Test Results.............................................................................127
Table 15-41 Anwia Oxide Leach Optimisation Test Results..........................................................128
Table 15-42 Anwia Transition Leach Optimisation Test Results ...................................................129
Table 15-43 Anwia Sulphide Leach Optimisation Test Results .....................................................130
Table 15-44 Salman Oxide Leach Optimisation Test Results .......................................................131
Table 15-45 Salman Transition Leach Optimisation Test Results.................................................132
Table 15-46 Gravity Circuit Economic Analysis Parameters .........................................................137
Table 15-47 Economic Analysis Parameters ................................................................................139
Table 15-48 Anwia Leach Variability Test Results ........................................................................142
Table 15-49 Salman Leach Variability Test Results Oxide and Transition .................................143
Table 15-50 Salman Leach Variability Test Results Sulphide ....................................................144
Table 15-51 Effect of Varying Oxygen/Aeration ............................................................................145
Table 15-52 Summary of Oxygen Uptake Test Results ................................................................147
Table 15-53 Summary of Carbon Adsorption Test Results ...........................................................148
Table 15-54 Summary of Cyanide Detoxification Test Results - Anwia.........................................150
Table 15-55 Summary of Cyanide Detoxification Test Results Salman .....................................151
Table 15-56 Arsenic Precipitation Sighter Tests ...........................................................................152
Table 15-57 Summary of Arsenic Precipitation Optimisation Test Results....................................152
Table 15-58 Recommended Cyanide Detoxification and Arsenic Precipitation Parameters..........153
Table 15-59 Summary of Mill Feed and Operating Parameters ....................................................156
Table 15-60 Predicted Tailings Grades.........................................................................................157
Table 17-1: Anwia grid transformation parameters ........................................................................171
Table 17-2: Anwia resource modelling domains ............................................................................171
Table 17-3: Salman-Akanko resource modelling domains .............................................................173
Table 17-4: Satellite Deposits resource modelling domains...........................................................177
Table 17-5: Aliva grid transformation parameters ..........................................................................178
Table 17-6: Nfutu grid transformation parameters .........................................................................180
Table 17-7: Anwia drill holes preferred gold assay sources ...........................................................182
Table 17-8: Salman drill holes preferred gold assay sources.........................................................183
Table 17-9: Numbers of sample composites contained in Anwia modelling domains ....................185
Table 17-10: Numbers of sample composites contained in Salman modelling domains ................185
Table 17-11: Numbers of sample composites contained in Satellite Deposits modelling domains.185
Table 17-12: Anwia Model Framework & Kriging Search Parameters (Rotated Space).................198
Table 17-13: Salman Model Framework and Kriging Search Parameters......................................198
Table 17-14: Bokrobo Model Framework and Kriging Search Parameters ....................................199
Table 17-15: Aliva Model Framework and Kriging Search Parameters ..........................................199
Table 17-16: Avrebo Model Framework and Kriging Search Parameters ......................................199
Table 17-17: Nfutu Model Framework and Kriging Search Parameters .........................................200
Table 17-18: Variance adjustments applied to the Anwia resource model .....................................202
Table 17-19: Variance adjustments applied to the Salman resource model...................................203
Table 17-20: Variance adjustments applied to the Satellite Deposits resource models..................203
Table 17-21: Summary of Southern Ashanti Gold Project Resources at 0.8g/t cut-off ...................216
Table 18-1 Salman Pit Optimisation Parameters Summary ..........................................................220
Table 18-2 Anwia Pit Optimisation Parameters Summary ............................................................220
Table 18-3 Resultant Average Process Recoveries for Resource Areas ......................................222

Adamus Resources Limited


Southern Ashanti Gold Project, Ghana, Western Africa
Technical Report

August 2008

Table 18-4: Salman Pit Optimisation Results.................................................................................224


Table 18-5: Anwia pit Optimisation Results....................................................................................225
Table 18-6: Project Total Pit Optimisation Results.........................................................................226
Table 18-7: Cut-off Grades for Ore Reserves ................................................................................233
Table 18-8: Open Pit Quantities and Economics ...........................................................................235
Table 18-9: Ore Reserves by Mining Areas and Ore Types...........................................................236
Table 19-1 Production Schedule Results Summary......................................................................237

Adamus Resources Limited


Southern Ashanti Gold Project, Ghana, Western Africa
Technical Report

August 2008

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1-1 ARL Corporate Structure .................................................................................................3


Figure 1-2 Mineral Processing Flowsheet Summary.......................................................................11
Figure 1-3 Salman Mine Design .....................................................................................................13
Figure 1-4 Anwia Mine Design........................................................................................................14
Figure 4-1 Project Location.............................................................................................................20
Figure 4-2: ARL Corporate Structure ...............................................................................................21
Figure 4-3: Tenure Perimeter, Geology and Deposit Locations .......................................................24
Figure 7-1 Regional Geology ..........................................................................................................33
Figure 7-2 Salman Deposit Geology (Including Akanko).................................................................38
Figure 8-1 Anwia Deposit Geology and Mineralisation....................................................................43
Figure 12-1 Bulk densities of Anwia very weathered drill core ........................................................54
Figure 12-2 Bulk densities of Anwia moderately weathered drill core .............................................54
Figure 12-3 Bulk densities of Anwia weakly weathered drill core ....................................................55
Figure 12-4 Bulk densities of Anwia fresh rock drill core.................................................................55
Figure 12-5 Bulk densities of Salman very weathered drill core......................................................56
Figure 12-6 Bulk densities of Salman moderately weathered drill core ...........................................57
Figure 12-7 Bulk densities of Salman weakly weathered drill core..................................................57
Figure 12-8 Bulk densities of Salman fresh rock drill core ..............................................................58
Figure 13-1 Assays of Samax/AGC blanks submitted with Anwia drill samples ..............................60
Figure 13-2 Assays of Adamus blanks submitted with Anwia drill samples.....................................60
Figure 13-3 Assays of STD4B submitted with Adamus Anwia samples ..........................................61
Figure 13-4 Assays of STD5B submitted with Adamus Anwia samples ..........................................61
Figure 13-5 Assays of STD6B submitted with Adamus Anwia samples ..........................................61
Figure 13-6 Assays of STD7B submitted with Adamus Anwia samples ..........................................62
Figure 13-7 Assays of STD8B submitted with Adamus Anwia samples ..........................................62
Figure 13-8 Assays of STD9B submitted with Adamus Anwia samples ..........................................62
Figure 13-9 Assays of STD10B submitted with Adamus Anwia samples ........................................63
Figure 13-10 Scatter plot of nearest neighbour sample pairs..........................................................64
Figure 13-11 Q-Q plot of nearest neighbour sample pairs ..............................................................64
Figure 13-12 Scatter plot: Samax/AGC Anwia field re-splits ...........................................................65
Figure 13-13 Precision plot: Samax/AGC field re-splits ..................................................................65
Figure 13-14 Scatter plot: Adamus Anwia field re-splits..................................................................67
Figure 13-15 Precision plot: Adamus Anwia field re-splits...............................................................67
Figure 13-16 Sample recoveries in 2002-2003 RC drilling, very weathered material ......................68
Figure 13-17 Sample recoveries in 2002-2003 RC drilling, moderately weathered material ...........69
Figure 13-18 Sample recoveries in 2002-2003 RC drilling, weakly weathered material ..................69
Figure 13-19 Sample recoveries in 2002-2003 RC drilling, fresh rock ............................................70
Figure 13-20 Sample recoveries in 2006 RC drilling, very weathered material ...............................70
Figure 13-21 Sample recoveries in 2006 RC drilling, moderately weathered material ....................71
Figure 13-22 Sample recoveries in 2006 RC drilling, weakly weathered material ...........................71
Figure 13-23 Sample recoveries in 2006 RC drilling, fresh rock .....................................................72
Figure 13-24 Adamus blanks submitted for SGS fire assay with Salman drill samples ...................73
Figure 13-25 Adamus blanks submitted for Transworld CN leach assay with Salman drill samples73
Figure 13-26 Adamus blanks submitted for Transworld fire assay with 2002 drill samples .............73
Figure 13-27 Adamus blanks submitted for Transworld fire assay with 2003 drill samples .............74
Figure 13-28 Adamus blanks submitted for Transworld fire assay with 2004 drill samples .............74
Figure 13-29 Adamus blanks submitted for Transworld fire assay with 2005 drill samples .............74

Adamus Resources Limited


Southern Ashanti Gold Project, Ghana, Western Africa
Technical Report

August 2008

Figure 13-30 Adamus blanks submitted for Transworld fire assay with 2006 drill samples .............75
Figure 13-31 Adamus blanks submitted for Transworld fire assay with 2007 drill samples .............75
Figure 13-32: Adamus blanks submitted for Genalysis fire assay with Salman drill samples...........75
Figure 13-33: Assays of STD1 submitted to SGS with Salman samples..........................................76
Figure 13-34: Assays of STD4B submitted to SGS with Salman samples .......................................76
Figure 13-35: Assays of STD5B submitted to SGS with Salman samples .......................................77
Figure 13-36: Assays of STD6B submitted to SGS with Salman samples .......................................77
Figure 13-37: Assays of STD7B submitted to SGS with Salman samples .......................................77
Figure 13-38: Assays of STD8B submitted to SGS with Salman samples .......................................78
Figure 13-39: Assays of STD9B submitted to SGS with Salman samples .......................................78
Figure 13-40: Assays of STD10B submitted to SGS with Salman samples .....................................78
Figure 13-41: Assays of STD11 submitted to SGS with Salman samples........................................79
Figure 13-42: Assays of STD12 submitted to SGS with Salman samples........................................79
Figure 13-43: Assays of STD1 submitted to Transworld with Salman samples................................79
Figure 13-44: Assays of STD02 submitted to Transworld with Salman samples..............................80
Figure 13-45: Assays of STD3 submitted to Transworld with Salman samples................................80
Figure 13-46: Assays of STD4 submitted to Transworld with Salman samples................................80
Figure 13-47: Assays of STD4B submitted to Transworld with Salman samples .............................81
Figure 13-48: Assays of STD5 submitted to Transworld with Salman samples................................81
Figure 13-49: Assays of STD5B submitted to Transworld with Salman samples .............................81
Figure 13-50: Assays of STD6 submitted to Transworld with Salman samples................................82
Figure 13-51: Assays of STD6B submitted to Transworld with Salman samples .............................82
Figure 13-52: Assays of STD7B submitted to Transworld with Salman samples .............................82
Figure 13-53: Assays of STD8B submitted to Transworld with Salman samples .............................83
Figure 13-54: Assays of STD9B submitted to Transworld with Salman samples .............................83
Figure 13-55: Assays of STD10B submitted to Transworld with Salman samples ...........................83
Figure 13-56: Assays of STD11 submitted to Transworld with Salman samples..............................84
Figure 13-57: Assays of STD13B submitted to Transworld with Salman samples ...........................84
Figure 13-58: Scatter plot: SGS fire assays of Salman field re-splits ...............................................85
Figure 13-59: Precision plot: SGS fire assays of Salman field re-splits............................................85
Figure 13-60: Scatter plot: Transworld fire assays of Salman field re-splits .....................................86
Figure 13-61: Precision plot: Transworld fire assays of Salman field re-splits..................................86
Figure 13-62: Scatter plot: Transworld CN leach assays of Salman field re-splits ...........................87
Figure 13-63: Precision plot: Transworld CN leach assays of Salman field re-splits ........................87
Figure 15-1 Unconfined Compressive Strength of Anwia Ore Variability Samples..........................99
Figure 15-2 Unconfined Compressive Strength of Salman Ore Variability Samples .....................100
Figure 15-3 Media Competency Test Product Sizing ....................................................................101
Figure 15-4 Impact Work Index Testing of AMC Test Survivors....................................................101
Figure 15-5 Variation of Impact Resistance with Particle Size Anwia Transition ........................103
Figure 15-6 Variation of Crushing Energy with Particle Size Anwia Transition.........................103
Figure 15-7 Variation of Impact Resistance with Particle Size Anwia Sulphide..........................105
Figure 15-8 Variation of Crushing Energy with Particle Size Anwia Sulphide.............................105
Figure 15-9 Variation of Impact Resistance with Particle Size Salman Oxide ............................106
Figure 15-10 Variation of Crushing Energy with Particle Size Salman Oxide.............................106
Figure 15-11 Variation of Impact Resistance with Particle Size Salman Transition....................108
Figure 15-12 Variation of Crushing Energy with Particle Size Salman Transition ......................108
Figure 15-13 Variation of Impact Resistance with Particle Size Salman Sulphide .....................109
Figure 15-14 Variation of Crushing Energy with Particle Size Salman Sulphide ........................109
Figure 15-15 Variation in Viscosity with Shear Rate and Pulp Density Anwia Oxide................119
Figure 15-16 Variation in Viscosity with Shear Rate and Pulp Density Salman Oxide ...............122
Figure 15-17 Effect of Cyanide Concentration on Cyanide Consumption Salman .....................134

Adamus Resources Limited


Southern Ashanti Gold Project, Ghana, Western Africa
Technical Report

August 2008

Figure 15-18 Effect of Cyanide Concentration on Cyanide Consumption Anwia........................134


Figure 15-19 Effect of Gravity Gold Recovery Salman Oxide ....................................................135
Figure 15-20 Effect of Gravity Gold Recovery Anwia Oxide.......................................................136
Figure 15-21 Effect of Gravity Gold Recovery Anwia Transition ................................................136
Figure 15-22 Effect of Gravity Gold Recovery Anwia Sulphide ..................................................137
Figure 15-23 Effect of Varying Grind Size and Leach Time Anwia Sulphide ..............................140
Figure 15-24 Effect of Varying Grind Size and Leach Time Salman Oxide ................................140
Figure 15-25 Effect of Oxygen Addition Anwia Sulphide ............................................................146
Figure 15-26 Oxygen Demand - Anwia and Salman Ores ............................................................147
Figure 15-27 Final Arsenic Concentration Variation with pH and Fe:As Molar Ratio.....................153
Figure 15-28 Recovery Variation with P80 and Leach Time .........................................................155
Figure 16-1 Summary Process Flowsheet Option 5.......................................................................160
Figure 17-1 Plan view of Anwia model domain wireframes ...........................................................172
Figure 17-2 Interpreted geology, weathering and mineralisation, Anwia section 550350N ...........172
Figure 17-3: Plan view of the Salman-Akanko mineralisation wireframes ......................................174
Figure 17-4: Interpreted geology and mineralisation on Salman South section 551850N ..............175
Figure 17-5: Interpreted geology and mineralisation on Salman Central section 552200N ............175
Figure 17-6: Interpreted geology and mineralisation on Teberu section 553800N .........................176
Figure 17-7: Interpreted geology and mineralisation on Salman North skewed section 554300N..176
Figure 17-8 Pseudo 3D view of Bokrobo model domain wireframes ..............................................178
Figure 17-9: Pseudo 3D view of Aliva model domain wireframes in rotated grid............................179
Figure 17-10: Pseudo 3D view of Avrebo model domain wireframe...............................................180
Figure 17-11: Pseudo 3D view of Nfutu drill holes and trenches....................................................181
Figure 17-12: 3D variogram map,Indicator Threshold P 0.5, Anwia, Domain 1..............................188
Figure 17-13: 3D variogram map, Indicator Threshold P 0.5, Anwia, Domain 2.............................188
Figure 17-14 3D variogram map, Indicator Threshold P 0.5, Salman South Model, Domain 1 .....189
Figure 17-15 3D variogram map, Indicator Thresold P 0.5, Salman South Model, Domain 3 .......190
Figure 17-16 3D variogram map, Indicator Thresold P 0.5, Salman South Model, Domain 5 .......190
Figure 17-17 3D variogram map, Indicator Threshold P 0.5, Salman Central Model, Domain 1 ..191
Figure 17-18 3D variogram map, Indicator Threshold P 0.5, Salman Central Model, Domain 2 ..191
Figure 17-19 3D variogram map, Indicator Threshold P 0.5, Salman North Model, Domain 2 ......192
Figure 17-20: 3D variogram map, Indicator Threshold P 0.5, Salman North Model, Domain 3 ......192
Figure 17-21: 3D variogram map, Indicator Threshold P 0.5, Salman North Model, Domain 4, 5 and 6
193
Figure 17-22: 3D variogram map, Indicator Threshold P 0.5, Salman all models and all Primary
Domains, Sub Domain 1 ........................................................................................................193
Figure 17-23 3D variogram surface for the median indicator variogram model, Bokrobo Main Zone
(used for all domains) ............................................................................................................194
Figure 17-24: 3D variogram surface for the median indicator variogram model, Aliva Domain 1 ...194
Figure 17-25: 3D variogram surface for the median indicator variogram model, Aliva Domain 2 and 3
(also Domain 0)......................................................................................................................195
Figure 17-26: 3D variogram surface for the median indicator variogram model, ............................195
Figure 17-27: Anwia Panel Mean Grade Estimates, Section 550400N ..........................................205
Figure 17-28: Anwia Panel Recoverable Proportions at 1 g/t Cut-off, Section 550400N ................205
Figure 17-29: Anwia Panel Confidence Categories, Section 550400N ..........................................206
Figure 17-30: Anwia Panel Mean Grade Estimates, Plan at 1.5RL................................................206
Figure 17-31: Anwia Panel Recoverable Proportions at 1 g/t Cut-off, Plan at 1.5RL......................207
Figure 17-32: Anwia Panel Confidence Categories, Plan at 1.5RL ................................................207
Figure 17-33: Salman Panel Mean Grade Estimates, Section 552137.5N.....................................208
Figure 17-34: Salman Panel Recoverable Proportions at 1 g/t Cut-off, Section 552137.5N...........209
Figure 17-35: Salman Panel Confidence Categories, Section 552137.5N .....................................209

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Southern Ashanti Gold Project, Ghana, Western Africa
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August 2008

Figure 17-36: Salman Central Panel Mean Grade Estimates, Plan at 1001.5RL ...........................210
Figure 17-37: Salman Central Panel Recoverable Proportions at 1g/t Cut-off, Plan at 1001.5RL ..210
Figure 17-38: Salman Central Panel Confidence Categories, Plan at 1001.5RL ...........................211
Figure 17-39: Bokrobo MIK Model showing 1.0g/t cut-off resource (model panels scaled in the east
dimension by the proportion of contained resource)...............................................................212
Figure 17-40: Aliva MIK Model showing 1.0g/t cut-off resource (model panels scaled in the east
dimension by the proportion of contained resource)...............................................................213
Figure 17-41: Avrebo MIK Model showing 1.0g/t cut-off resource (model panels scaled in the east
dimension by the proportion of contained resource)...............................................................214
Figure 17-42: Nfutu MIK Model showing 1.0g/t cut-off resource (model panels scaled in the east
dimension by the proportion of contained resource)...............................................................215
Figure 18-1: Salman Central and South Pit Designs......................................................................228
Figure 18-2: Salman North Pit Designs..........................................................................................229
Figure 18-3: Akanko Pit Designs ...................................................................................................230
Figure 18-4: Anwia Ultimate Pit Design (Local Grid) ......................................................................231
Figure 18-5: Anwia Pit Stage Designs (Local Grid) ........................................................................232

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Southern Ashanti Gold Project, Ghana, Western Africa
Technical Report

1.0
1.1

August 2008
Page 1

SUMMARY
General

The Southern Ashanti Gold Project (the Project) comprises the greenfields development of an open
cut mining operation, a process plant and related infrastructure to mine and process ore from the
defined reserves of the Salman, Akanko and Anwia deposits. The Project is located in the Western
Region of Ghana, approximately 280 km west of the capital, Accra, and less than 20 kilometres from
the coast at Essiama. The Project area is accessed from Accra via the main coast highway to
Takoradi and from there by sealed road to the village of Teleku Bokazo and then by 10 kilometres of
gravel road.
In 2006 Adamus Resources Limited (ARL or Adamus) commissioned a feasibility study (Study) as part
of the technical and economic evaluation of the Project from experienced consultants including
Lycopodium Engineering Pty Ltd, Mining Solutions Consultancy Pty Ltd, SGS Environment (Ghana)
and Knight Piesold Consulting.
The Study had as its basis a treatment plant with a processing capacity of 1.3 million tonnes per
annum (Mtpa), which gave an approximate six and half year mine life based on the current reserve.
Following release of the Study results in June 2007, including the initial ore reserve estimate for the
Project, a NI43-101 compliant Technical Report of the Study was released in November 2007 with a
further revised report released in December 2007.
This report follows the release in February 2008 of the updated ore reserve and mineral resource
estimates for the Project and incorporates new data into both the mining and resource sections of the
previously published Technical Report. It incorporates new resource calculations for the Anwia and
Salman deposits and the inclusion of resources from Bokrobo, Aliva, Avrebo and Nfutu (the Satellite
Deposits) not previously included in the Study. It also updates the previous mining study to reflect
changes in the economics of mining and processing parameters since preparation of the December
2007 Technical Report.
The main changes are:
Gold price increase of approximately 35%
Contract mining cost increase of approximately 15%
Processing cost increase of approximately 15%
A reduction of the cut off grade from 1.0 to 0.8 g\t as the lower figure better reflects results
from the previous pit optimisations.
The updated reserve estimate is based on a gold price of $800/oz, a royalty of 3.6%, the escalation in
input costs from December 2006 and a change in cut-off grade to 0.8 g/t,
Changes to the resource estimate reflect the addition of data from drill programs undertaken between
March 2007 and December 2007. The main changes are:
An update of the Salman and Anwia resource models by Hellman and Schofield (H & S,
March 2008) as a result of further drilling
The inclusion of four satellite deposits contributing 2.5 Million tonnes @ 1.78 g/t measured
and indicated resources at 0.8g/t cut off.

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Southern Ashanti Gold Project, Ghana, Western Africa
Technical Report

August 2008
Page 2

A significant change has been the conversion of inferred resources to indicated resources allowing
this material to be incorporated into the pit optimisations.
With the change in parameters, new pit optimisation tables have been produced. Total reserve
estimate has increased to 10.46 M tonnes
Gold has been mined on a small scale from southwestern Ghana for centuries and the Gold Coast
Geological Survey recorded widespread bedrock and alluvial workings at many locations within the
area now covered by the Project. Historic production from the small Akanko gold mine (Salman north)
may have amounted to a few thousand ounces but otherwise there are no historic production
estimates. Small-scale artisanal gold mining activities (both alluvial and reef) continue to occur at a
few localities within the Project area.
The Project has a history of exploration going back to the late 1980s. Exploration efforts in the 1990s
by various companies including Tropical Exploration and Mining Company, BHP Minerals, SEMAFO
Inc, SAMAX Gold Inc, and Ashanti Goldfields Corporation led to the identification of a significant
northerly trending zone of gold mineralisation in the eastern part of the Project, termed the Salman
Trend, and several discrete mineralised zones, including the Anwia Deposit, in the western part.
Considerable drilling was undertaken at the Anwia Deposit by SEMAFO and SAMAX and a number of
resource estimates were subsequently made but the deposit was never progressed to mine.
ARL acquired the Salman deposit in 2002, the Anwia deposit in 2004 and the Akanko (Salman north)
deposit in 2005. Since acquisition ARL has continued exploration with both RC and diamond core
drilling campaigns, soil sampling and trenching over the three areas. The current resource has been
delineated by several phases of drilling from 1995 to 2007 by the various owners.
The Salman and Akanko deposits contain broad, near-surface zones of gold mineralisation extending
over several kilometres of strike. Approximately 8 kilometres of strike extent has been drill tested to
date indicating the presence of several discrete, multi-lode gold deposits, scattered along the shear
zone.
The Anwia deposit is located approximately 9 kilometres west of the Salman deposit. The surface
expression of the deposit consists of extensive, shallow dipping quartz veining, extending over several
hundred metres of strike.
The deposit is hosted by a northeast dipping package of greywacke
(footwall) and interbedded greywacke-phyllite (hanging-wall).
Throughout this report resources and reserves are quoted relative to the JORC (2004) code, these
resource and reserve terms are equivalent to those referred to in the CIM Standards on Mineral
Resources and Reserves Definitions and Guidelines, August 2000. Additionally all Mineral
Resources are quoted inclusive of Mineral Reserves.
This report has been compiled based on information available up to and including 31 December 2007.
All the currency reported in this document is in US dollars unless stated otherwise.

1.2

Ownership

ARL holds an interest in three granted prospecting licences, four granted mining licence and five
prospecting licence renewal applications currently covering a combined Project area of approximately
464 km2. A detailed description of these licenses is included in Table 4.1 of Section 4.2 below.

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Southern Ashanti Gold Project, Ghana, Western Africa
Technical Report

August 2008
Page 3

ARL owns those tenements comprising the Project area by way of the company structure shown on
Figure 1-1. The tenements comprising the Project area are subject to the statutory 10 per cent
interest retained by the Government of Ghana.
Figure 1-1 ARL Corporate Structure

BVI

Australia
Adamus Resources Limited

African Gold
Properties Ltd

Ghana

Notes:
1.
2.

Adamus Investment
Enterprises Pty Ltd

Semafo (Ghana)
Ltd(1)

Adamus Resources
Limited (Ghana) (1)

Castlegem
Pty Ltd

Nkroful Mining
Limited(1)

Adamus Holdings
Pty Ltd

Akanko Mining
Limited(2)

Ghanaian government holds statutory right to a 10% interest in the Ghanaian subsidiaries upon commencement of
production.
A third party holds 1,000 shares in Akanko Mining Limited representing 11% of the outstanding shares, so that ARL
has an 89% interest (8,000 shares) in Akanko Mining Limited which will be reduced to 80% on conversion of the
Ghanaian governments 10% interest.

The Anwia deposit lies on the Ebi-Teleku Bokazo mining licence ML2/192 held by ARL. The current
licence was granted on 11 April 2008 and has a ten year, extendable term. A royalty of 3 per cent of
net profit or 1 per cent of production (in each case, in relation to ore derived from the area of the
original Teleku Bokazo prospecting licence), whichever is greater, is payable by Adamus to Super
Paper Products Company, a previous holder of the original prospecting licence.
The Salman deposit lies on the Salman mining licencewhich was granted to Adamus Resources
Limited (Ghana) for a period of ten years commencing 11 April 2008 for a ten year, extendable term
The Akanko deposit lies on the Akanko mining licence granted under the same terms as the Salman
mining licence. Hereafter throughout this report, the Salman deposit and Akanko deposit are
collectively referred to as the Salman deposit.
The Akanko mining licence ML2/128 is held by Akanko Mining Limited, a company 89 per cent owned
by Adamus Holdings Pty Limited (a wholly owned subsidiary of ARL) and 11 per cent by Tropical
Mining and Exploration Ltd (TEMCO). Upon conversion of the Ghana governments 10% statutory
interest, ARLs interest will be reduced to 80 per cent.
Parts of both the Salman consolidated and Ebi-Teleku Bokazo prospecting licences are subject to
concessions in favour of Super Paper Products Company that permit the extraction of kaolin clays and
small-scale mining of kaolin near the village of New Aluku. To ARLs knowledge the kaolin

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Southern Ashanti Gold Project, Ghana, Western Africa
Technical Report

August 2008
Page 4

concessions do not impinge on any area proposed for the development of the gold mine or its
associated infrastructure.

1.3

Mineral Resource Estimate

Several discrete gold deposits (including the Salman and Akanko deposits), collectively referred to as
the Salman Trend, have now been delineated along the Salman Shear Zone within the Project area.
The Salman Shear Zone comprises a ductile shear between 10 and 50 metres thick separating a
western hanging-wall of deformed, graphitic phyllite and thin-bedded greywacke from an eastern
footwall of thick-bedded greywacke. The shear zone dips moderately to steeply west over much of
the 8 kilometres drilled extent but locally it rolls over to dip steeply to the east. An altered biotite
granitoid intrudes the shear zone in the northern portion of the resource area. Gold mineralisation
occurs predominantly in vertical to west-dipping lodes approximately parallel to and splaying out into
the footwall of the main shear zone, in quartz-veined silica-sericite-carbonate-arsenopyrite altered
greywacke and/or granite. Below the base of oxidation, most gold is associated with fine-grained
arsenopyrite and is partially refractory.
The Anwia deposit is a discrete zone of gold mineralisation located approximately 9 kilometres west of
the Salman Trend. The deposit is hosted by a northeast dipping package of greywacke (footwall) and
interbedded greywacke-phyllite (hanging-wall). In the western (footwall) part of the deposit gold
mineralisation is also hosted by a steeply northeast dipping granite dyke that gradually converges on
the hanging-wall in the northwest of the resource area. The few facing indicators apparent suggest
the metasedimentary package is overturned. Gold mineralisation is intimately associated with pyrite
disseminated within and around a complex array of deformed pale grey to dark blue-grey quartzcarbonate-sericitealbite veins. A broad sericite-carbonate alteration zone about 200 metres thick and
450 metres long is developed in the footwall greywacke. The silica-sericite alteration zone is more
extensive than the gold-pyrite mineralisation. Unlike the Salman Shear Zone, there is no significant
component of refractory gold in the sulphide zone at Anwia.
Estimates of resources at the Salman deposit rely predominantly on sampling by ARL. Since
commencement of drilling at the Salman deposit, Adamus has maintained a quality control protocol
that allows routine monitoring of sampling precision and assay accuracy. An examination of QAQC
sample data indicates satisfactory performance of field sampling protocols and of assay laboratories.
Estimates of resources for the Anwia deposit rely substantially on drill sample assays generated by
previous owners for which little QAQC information is available. A nearest-neighbour comparison of
gold grades in ARLs drill samples with those in samples from previous drilling demonstrates that the
two sample populations are equally representative of mineralisation grades at Anwia.
Two previous resource estimates have been completed for the Project at earlier stages of exploration
by independent resource consultants Ravensgate Pty Ltd (August 2004) and SRK Consulting
(February 2005). Additionally, to fulfil listing requirements for the TSXV, the Project was the subject of
an independent technical report by RSG Global Pty Ltd dated February 2004. An internal resource
estimate update was undertaken in January 2006 and a report detailing that work was filed with the
appropriate Canadian securities regulatory authorities in March 2006.
Recoverable resources at the Anwia and Salman deposits have been estimated using the method of
Multiple Indicator Kriging (MIK) with block support adjustment. Geological and weathering domains
were imposed to define domains of similar grade tenor and directional trends. The models estimate
resources into panels with dimensions of 20mE x 25mN x 3mRL. MIK of gold grades used indicator

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Southern Ashanti Gold Project, Ghana, Western Africa
Technical Report

August 2008
Page 5

variography based on the resource sample grades, with continuity of gold grades characterised by
indicator variograms at 14 indicator thresholds. A block support adjustment, incorporating an
adjustment for Information Effect, was used to estimate the recoverable gold resources assuming a
selective mining unit of 5mE x 8mN x 3mRL and grade control sampling at 5mE x 8mN x 1.5mRL.
The shape of the local block gold grade distribution has been assumed lognormal or normal
depending on the skewness of the local histogram of gold grades at sample support within each panel
as estimated by Indicator Kriging. The estimates are considered recoverable by open pit mining and
application of ore loss and dilution factors in quantifying ore reserves is not recommended.
The recoverable resource estimates within each panel have been classified according to the
distribution of sampling in the kriging neighbourhood. This classification scheme takes into account
the uncertainty in the estimates related to the proximity and spatial distribution of the informing sample
composites. A summary of the mineral resource estimates for the Anwia, Salman and Satellite
deposits at 0.8g/t Au cut-off grade is set out below in Table 1-1.

Table 1-1 Summary of Southern Ashanti Gold Project Resources at 0.8g/t cut-off

Category

Measured
Mtonnes

g/t
Au

Indicated
k oz
Au

Mtonne
s

g/t
Au

Inferred
k oz
Au

Mtonnes

g/t
Au

k oz
Au

Deposit

Cut off
grade
(g/t)

Anwia

0.8

6.2

2.01

400

2.8

2.00

180

2.6

1.7

140

Salman

0.8

11.4

1.73

630

5.6

1.54

280

2.5

1.5

125

Satellite
Deposits

0.8

1.0

2.10

70

1.5

1.57

70

1.3

1.8

75

Total

0.8

18.6

1.84

1,100

9.8

1.67

530

6.4

1.6

340

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Southern Ashanti Gold Project, Ghana, Western Africa
Technical Report

August 2008
Page 6

Variograms at both the Anwia and Salman deposits show short ranges along strike and down-dip.
This is typical of hydrothermal gold deposits and there is nothing to indicate that a sensible grade
control sampling strategy in future open pit mining operations could not outline ore parcels at an
economic cut-off grade.

1.4

Metallurgical Testing

1.4.1

General

The Anwia and Salman orebodies have been the subject of previous metallurgical testwork campaigns
by the present and former owners of the Project.
The most recent testwork programme was carried out from June 2006 through to May 2007 under the
direction of ARL and Ozmet. This testwork was primarily performed at Ammtec laboratories in
Australia on samples selected to be representative of the Project deposits.
A conventional cyanidation treatment route was assumed for the ores, based on assessment of the
earlier testwork.
The testwork programme had four objectives:
Establish (confirm) the processing route;
Determine the optimum plant operating parameters for the ores to be processed;
Evaluate the variability in metallurgical performance for the different deposits; and
Define parameters required for the engineering and design of the plant.

1.4.2

Comminution Testing

A full series of comminution testwork was completed on the Anwia and Salman primary orebodies.
The primary ore samples are classified as having low to moderate competency behaviour and
compressive strength testing classified the samples as weak.
Rod mill and ball mill work indices are moderate. The rod:ball ratio is low (1.13) suggesting there is a
low potential the ore will form critical sized material in a SAG mill.
The abrasiveness of all ore types is classified as moderate and indicates that liner and media
consumption will not be excessive.
Pebble crushing is not included although an allowance has been made in layouts and electrical design
for installation should any significant quantity of Salman primary ore be treated.

1.4.3

Metallurgical Testing

The approach taken to the metallurgical testwork was to compile master composite samples,
representing the majority of the known in pit resource established in the previously prepared Scoping

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Southern Ashanti Gold Project, Ghana, Western Africa
Technical Report

August 2008
Page 7

Study (2006). Variability composite samples were also compiled from appropriate combinations of
sample reserves used to form the master composite samples.
Each of the master composite samples was subjected to gravity/leach testing to assess the potential
for gravity concentration and determine the optimum leach conditions. The variability composite
samples were then subjected to testwork using the optimum conditions established from the master
composite sample testwork. The rationale was that the results obtained on the master composite
samples, rather than any of the minor components of the total resource, should dictate the process
design parameters.
The complete testwork programme comprised the following:
Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) determinations.
SMC Drop-Weight Testwork.
JK Drop Weight Testwork (for SAG mill amenability).
Bond Abrasion Index (Ai) Determinations.
Bond Rod Work Index (RWi) Determinations.
Bond Ball Work Index (BWi) Determinations.
Head Assay Analysis.
Cyanidation Optimisation Testwork.
Carbon Adsorption Testwork.
Cyanide Destruction Testwork.
Thickening and Viscosity Testwork on Slurries.
Arsenic precipitation.
Tailings Consolidation.
Tailings Geochemistry.

1.4.4

Testwork Summary

The metallurgical treatment route selected based on the results of the testwork can be summarised as
follows:
Primary crushing using a jaw crusher;
Single stage SAG milling;
Gravity concentration of a portion of cyclone feed using a centrifugal concentrator;
A thickening stage capable of being run in a leach feed or leach tail configuration;
Carbon in leach (CIL); and
Zadra stripping plant.
The key process design parameters derived from the testwork are set out below in Table 1-2. Plant
design has been based on design maximum recoveries for each of the ore deposits based on the
selected treatment route, as set out in Table 1-3.

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Southern Ashanti Gold Project, Ghana, Western Africa
Technical Report

August 2008
Page 8

Table 1-2 Key Process Design Parameters


Mill Circuit Design
UCS
Bond Rod Mill Work Index
Bond Ball Mill Work Index
Optimum Mill Product Size, P80
Leach Feed Thickening
Settling Rate
Flocculant Consumption
Underflow Density
Leach/CIP Design
Residence Time
Pulp Density (feed)
Cyanide Addition Rate
pH
Lime Requirement (>90% CaO)

MPa
kWh/t
kWh/t
microns

<180
14.7
13
106

t/m2/h
g/t ore
% solids

1.00
20.0
50

hours
% solids
kg/t
adjusted with lime
kg/t

30
50
2.0
10 - 10.5
2.0

Table 1-3 Metallurgical Recoveries


Deposit

Ore Type

Anwia

Oxide
Transitional
Primary
Oxide
Transitional
Primary

Salman

1.5

Option 5
Recoveries %
95.8
93.3
91.8
86.8
74.7
54.7

Mineral Processing

Since the Anwia primary ore will be the hardest ore type encountered it was initially agreed that the
front end plant design would be configured to achieve a 1.3 Mtpa throughput, at a grind of 80%
passing 75 micron, of this type of ore.
Project optimisation following the development of capital and operating costs for the Project resulted in
a series of plant options being considered which examined the effect of coarsening the target grind
size and determining the impact on Project capital costs, operating costs and gold recovery.
The five options reviewed are as follows:
Option 1: Deletion of the two stage grinding circuit and insertion of a 5.5m dia. x 6.0m EGL SAG mill
(based on Golden Pride mill size such that design time can be minimised), deletion of the
Intensive Cyanidation Reactor and insertion of a Gemini Table to treat gravity circuit
concentrates, deletion of leach feed thickening, deletion of one CIL tank, deletion of the
PSA plant, treatment of tails slurry via decant return dilution to meet <50ppm CN WAD
target and Arsenic precipitation only on supernatant solutions prior to discharge.

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Option 2: Deletion of the surge bin and dead stockpile and insertion of direct feed from the jaw
crusher to the SAG mill deletion of the two stage grinding circuit and insertion of a 5.5m dia
x 7.32m EGL SAG mill ( correct size to meet required 1.3 Mtpa throughput), deletion of the
Intensive Cyanidation Reactor and insertion of a Gemini Table to treat gravity circuit
concentrates, deletion of leach feed thickening, deletion of one CIL tank, deletion of the
PSA plant, treatment of tails slurry via thickening and decant return dilution to meet
<50ppm CN WAD target and Arsenic precipitation only on supernatant solutions prior to
discharge.
Option 3: Deletion of the surge bin and dead stockpile and insertion of direct feed from the jaw
crusher to the SAG mill deletion of the two stage grinding circuit and insertion of a 5.5m
DIA * 6.0m EGL SAG mill, deletion of the Intensive Cyanidation Reactor and insertion of a
Gemini Table to treat gravity circuit concentrates, deletion of leach feed thickening, deletion
of one CIL tank, deletion of the PSA plant, treatment of tails slurry via thickening and
decant return dilution to meet <50ppm CN WAD target and Arsenic precipitation only on
supernatant solutions prior to discharge and use of a single column for both acid wash and
elution cycles.
Option 4: Deletion of the Intensive Cyanidation Reactor and insertion of a Gemini Table to treat
gravity circuit concentrates, and deletion of one CIL tank.
Option 5: Deletion of the two stage grinding circuit and insertion of a 5.5m DIA * 6.0m EGL SAG mill,
deletion of the Intensive Cyanidation Reactor and insertion of a Gemini Table to treat
gravity circuit concentrates, and deletion of one CIL tank.

Following a review of all options, ARL concluded that Option 5 provided the best return for the Project
in terms of capital and operating costs and gold recovery. Option 5 includes a front end plant design
configured to achieve 1.3 Mtpa on a mill feed blend as designated by the mining schedule at a grind of
80% passing 106 micron.
The treatment plant flowsheet is based on single stage crushing, single stage SAG milling, gravity
recovery of free gold from a portion of cyclone feed, pre-leach thickening, a single stage of leaching
and a five stage CIL circuit. Gold will be recovered by a 5 tonne Zadra elution circuit with
electrowinning of the gold onto stainless steel cathodes. The electro-deposited gold will be removed
with high pressure water sprays and smelted to a final bullion product.
The design of the treatment plant will reflect:
A simple and robust process flowsheet based on the testwork completed and analysed;
Sturdy, well proven equipment;
A control philosophy for a plant with an appropriate level of automation and remote control
facilities, supplemented by sufficient alarming and diagnostics to facilitate troubleshooting; and
A proposed flowsheet which has been selected to suit the various orebodies associated with
the Project.
The critical characteristics of the plant design are:

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Inclusion of single stage SAG milling to achieve 80% passing 106 micron in leach feeds for the
average mill feed blend at 1.3 Mtpa.
Inclusion of a gravity circuit based on testwork results indicating high gravity gold recoveries
for Anwia ores.
Inclusion of a cyanide detoxification circuit to meet International Cyanide Code standards.
Inclusion of an arsenic precipitation stage due to elevated arsenic levels in Salman transitional
and Anwia transition and primary ores.
The summary process flow sheet is set out in Figure 1-2. The general control philosophy is for a plant
with minimal automation. The plant will have a crusher control panel and a central mill control room
from which the status of the major electrical equipment can be monitored, and from which some of the
regulatory control loops can be monitored and adjusted. The starting and stopping of most electrical
drives will be performed at the stop/start control stations located adjacent to each drive or in the case
of major equipment, started locally or by remote from the control room.

1.6

Open Pit Mining

The selected mining method for the Project is conventional open pit mining including drilling, blasting,
loading and hauling operations carried out by a qualified mining contractor with experience in Ghana.
The Salman (including Akanko) and Anwia deposits were the subjects of an open pit mining study.
The construction of the processing plant is currently planned close to the Salman deposit. The mining
contractor will also be responsible for hauling the ore from the Anwia pit to the plant site by way of a
public road.

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Figure 1-2 Mineral Processing Flowsheet Summary


ROM Ore Stockpile

Primary Crusher

Crushed Ore
Stockpile

Surge Bin

SAG Mill

Tail

Gravity Concentrator
Conc

Cyclones
Underflow
Overflow

Thickener

Carbon Regeneration

Carbon Stripping

Gold Room

Cyanide Leach

Leach/Carbon
Adsorption (CIL)

Cyanide Destruction

Arsenic Precipitation

Gold Bullion

Tailings Storage
Facility

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In the mining study update, a gold price of $800/oz was used in the pit optimisations and the
calculation of the economic cut-off grades for reserves reporting. No pit optimisations were
undertaken for the Satellite Deposits and therefore no reserves are reported for these deposits.
The plan views of the mine design and site layout for Salman and Anwia deposits are provided in
Figure 1-3 and Figure 1-4 . The depths of the proposed pits at the Salman deposit will generally vary
between 30 and 70m depending on the variable topography over a strike length of 7km. The final
open pit at Anwia will be developed in three major stages to a depth of 180m, some 30m deeper than
the previous design
The conventional excavator and truck mining will be performed on 3 m mining benches while drilling
and blasting operations will be based on 6 m benches. The grade control operations in the pits will be
based on RC drilling and sampling practice well ahead of the mining front to allow short and medium
term production planning. The ore from the pits will be hauled to the ROM pad and re-handled by
front-end loader into the ROM bin. The low grade ore will be stockpiled at the designated areas for
treatment at the end of the mine life. The final production schedule allows for the filling of 30% of the
waste cost-effectively back into the mined Salman pits.

1.7

Ore Reserve Estimate

The Project ore reserves are classified within the confidence categories in Table 1-4. The reserve
statement in the table complies with the AusIMM JORC guidelines and satisfies the requirements of
National Instrument 43-101 of the Canadian Securities Administrators as set forth in Section 2 of this
report.
The cut-off grades for the mineral reserves vary depending on the degree of oxidisation degree, host
rock type and deposit areas as specified in Section 18.7. The cut-off grades generally vary between
0.7g/t and 1.1g/t gold for majority of the reserves.

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Figure 1-3 Salman Mine Design

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Figure 1-4 Anwia Mine Design

Table 1-4 Ore Reserve Estimate


Pit Stage
Anwia 1
Anwia 2
Anwia 3
Anwia North

Proven Reserve
T*1000 Au g/t
1,381
1,645
2,327
144

2.01
2.15
2.10
1.48

Probable Reserve
T*1000
Au g/t
35
267
1,238
39

1.60
2.44
2.32
1.56

Total Reserve
T*1000 Au g/t
1,416
1,912
3,565
183

2.00
2.19
2.18
1.50

ANWIA TOTAL

5,497

2.08

1,579

2.31

7,076

2.13

Akango N2
Akango N
Akango
Akango South
Salman North
Teberu Footwall
Nugget Hill
Salman Central 1
Salman Central 2
Salman South 1
Salman South 2
Salman SW
SALMAN TOTAL

112
92
539
181
719
138
193
973
681
664
197
133
4,622

1.41
2.09
1.54
1.66
2.20
2.20
2.45
2.73
2.66
1.30
1.12
2.07
2.09

7
1
74
23
58
28
69
10
8
7
24
11
320

1.69
1.17
1.70
1.77
2.20
2.23
2.11
2.06
1.70
0.96
0.98
2.83
1.91

119
93
613
204
777
166
262
983
689
671
221
144
4,942

1.43
2.08
1.56
1.67
2.20
2.21
2.36
2.72
2.65
1.03
1.10
2.13
2.08

PROJECT TOTAL

10,119

2.08

1,899

2.24

12,018

2.11

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Financial Analysis Results

Only the changes in the parameters and the study results have been included in this revised technical
report.The details of the change in parameters, pit optimisation results, pit designs and production
schedules have been provided in the appendices. The reader should refer to the November 2007
and December 2007 technical reports for further details of the mining study and the financial analyses.

1.9

Current Project Status

1.9.1

Mining Lease and License

The development of the Project mine requires the grant of one or more mining leases. Application for
a mining lease in Ghana requires completion of a feasibility study to the satisfaction of the Ghana
Minerals Commission. ARL was granted Mining Leases over the Aniwa and Salman Deposits by the
Minerals Commission in April 2008.
In conjunction with the lodgement of a feasibility study with the Minerals Commission, ARL is also
required to lodge an environmental and social impact statement (ESIS) and Resettlement Action Plan
(RAP) for the relocation of Salman Village, to the Ghana Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
EPA approval of this documentation must be received in order for the Minerals Commission to grant
the mining lease. The ESIS and RAP have been submitted in relation to the Salman Deposits. In
relation to the Anwia Deposit, the ESIS has been submitted and the RAP is being finalised for
submission.
ARL are also in the process of negotiating a Project Stability Agreement with the Ghana Minister of
Finance which will set out guidelines for the payment of royalties, taxes and duties etc, during the
development and operational phases of the Project. Initial discussions have already been held with
the Finance Department with regard to establishing the terms upon which ARL will draft the proposed
agreement.

1.9.2

Project Implementation Plan

The recommended development methodology for the design and construction management of the
Project is the EPCM approach, thus allowing ARL, as owner, to maintain control of the budget,
schedule and quality of the end product through all stages of project development. The Project capital
cost estimate has been developed on the basis that a single organisation (the Engineer) will provide
the EPCM services with the assistance of specialist sub-consultants as required.
ARL will establish a management team to manage all aspects of Project development. The ARL team
will manage and liaise with the engineer delivery of the EPCM services during construction, and will
also be responsible for the various preproduction activities not included in the EPCM services
including:
Implementation of the contract mining operation;

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recruitment;
establishment of operating systems;
training; and
permitting and statutory liaison.
The project schedule indicates that 22 months will be required from the commencement of EPCM
services until practical completion (ie, completion of pre- and wet commissioning of the plant). A
further one month has been allocated to the completion of ore commissioning. The sourcing and
employment of the ARL operations personnel and the tender and award of the mining contract and the
mobilisation of the selected contractor will be undertaken during the 23 month schedule period. The
schedule is based on specific design requirements, vendor nominated manufacturing and delivery
periods and in-house experience with similar projects.

1.10

Conclusion and Recommendations

It is currently expected that the implementation of the Project schedule will commence following
confirmation of the availability of grid power. First gold production for the Project is expected to occur
within 2 years of commencement of construction.
The Project financial analysis supports the proposed future development of the Project, subject to
availability of grid power. However, exploration and development activities in 2008 should focus on
further enhancing the economics of the Project by endeavouring to add additional ore reserves and
reducing, where possible, the estimated capital costs, by further focused exploration and the
examination of alternative plant options where possible.

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2.1

August 2008
Page 17

INTRODUCTION AND TERMS OF REFERENCE


Terms of Reference

In October 2007, Mining Solutions Consultancy Pty Ltd (MSC) prepared a Technical Report on the
Project for ARL which complied with ARLs disclosure and reporting requirements set forth in the
National Instrument 43-101, Companion Policy 43-101CP, and Form 43-101F1. The
Technical Report was filed in Canada with the British Columbia Securities Commission and the
Alberta Securities Commission in November 2007. In December 2007 MSC prepared a revised
Technical Report on the Project for ARL which complied with ARLs disclosure and reporting
requirements set forth in the National Instrument 43-101, Companion Policy 43-101CP, and Form 43101F1. The revised Technical Report was filed in Canada with the British Columbia Securities
Commission and the Alberta Securities Commission in December 2007.
This update to the December 2007 Technical Report incorporates new data into the mining and
resource sections of the previously lodged Technical Report. The principal components of the Update
are an Update Study of the open pit mining components of the feasibility study completed in April
2008 (Dincer; 2008) and a Project Resource Update completed in January 2008 (Hellman and
Schofield; 2008a) and the Summary Resource Report for the Satellite Deposits (Hellman and
Schofield; 2008b) .

This updated Technical Report complies with Canadian National Instrument 43-101, for the Standards
of Disclosure for Mineral Projects (the Instrument) and the resource and reserve classifications
adopted by CIM Council in August 2000. The report is also consistent with the Australasian Code for
Reporting of Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves of September 2004 (the Code) as prepared by the
Joint Ore Reserves Committee of the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Australian
Institute of Geoscientists and Mineral Council of Australia (JORC).

2.2

The Purpose of this Report

This report has been prepared to comply with ARLs disclosure and reporting requirements set forth in
the National Instrument 43-101, Companion Policy 43-101CP, and Form 43-101F1.

2.3

Qualifications and Experience

This Technical Report has been authored by Mr Ron Heeks B.App Sc. (Geology) a member of the
Australian Institute for Mining & Metallurgy (AusIMM). Mr Heeks has over 25 years experience in the
mining industry with more than 15 years experience in the calculation of mineral resources and ore
reserves. Mr Heeks visited the Southern Ashanti Gold Project on 14 February 2008 for 13 days for
the purpose of reviewing deposit geology and resource drilling data
.

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Principal Sources of Information

The listing of the principal sources of information of this Report is provided in Table 2-1. This Report
has been compiled based on information available up to and including 31 December 2007.
Table 2-1 Principal Sources of Information
Activity

Company

Pit Optimisation, Pit Design, Mining Schedule and


Reserve estimation

Mining Solutions Consultancy Pty Ltd (MSC)

Drilling, Data Verification, Geology and Resource


Estimation
Metallurgical Testwork

Hellman & Schofield Pty Ltd (H&S)


Ammtec Pty Ltd (Ammtec)

Metallurgical testwork supervision and assessment


of results.

Kentgold Holdings Pty Ltd t/a Ozmet (Ozmet)

Plant and Infrastructure Engineering, Capital and


Operating Cost Estimates

Lycopodium Engineering Pty Ltd (Lycopodium)

Environmental Baseline Studies and preparation of


ESIS and Resettlement Action Plan

SGS Environment (SGS)

Tailings Storage Facility Design, Plant Geotechnical


assessment and overall Water Balance assessment

Knight Piesold Consulting (Ghana and


Australia) (Knight Piesold)

Pit Geotechnical Assessment

George, Orr and Associates Pty Ltd (GOA)

Hyrogeological Assessment

Knight Piesold Consulting (RSA) (KPRSA)

Project Management and Financial Analysis

Adamus Resources Limited (ARL)

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RELIANCE ON OTHER EXPERTS

In addition to the authors of this report, the updated ore reserve and mineral resource estimates for
the Project rely on the data, information and recommendations provided by the consultants listed in
Table 3-1.
Table 3-1 Reliance on Consultants
Activity
Pit Optimisation, Pit Design, Mining
Schedule and Reserve estimation

Company
Mining Solutions Consultancy Pty Ltd

Drilling, Data Verification, Geology and


Resource Estimation
Plant and Infrastructure Engineering,
Capital and Operating Cost Estimates
Metallurgical testwork supervision and
assessment of results.
Metallurgical Testwork

Hellman & Schofield Pty Ltd

Kentgold Holdings Pty Ltd t/a Ozmet

Sections
1.1, 1.6-1.10,
17, 18.1, 18.2,
19 and 20
1.3, 6-13 and
17
1.5, 16 and
19.1
1.4 and 15

Ammtec Pty Ltd

15

Hyrogeological Assessment

Knight Piesold Consulting (RSA)

16.10

Comminution Circuit Design

Oreway Mineral Consultants Pty Ltd

16

Lycopodium Engineering Pty Ltd

The author of this Report is not qualified to provide comment on the legal issues set out in Sections
1.2, 4.2 and 4.3 of this Report. The information contained in Sections 1.2, 4.2 and 4.3 of this Report
is based on reports prepared by ARLs Ghanaian legal counsel, Bentsi-Enchill Letsa & Ankomah, to
April 2007 and subsequent correspondence between ARL and the Ghanaian Minerals Commission.
The author of this Report is also not qualified to provide comment on the environmental matters set
out in Section 18.3 of this Report. The information contained in Section 18.3 is based on reports
prepared by Mr Andrew Hester BSc(Hons) MPhil (Environmental Management) Pr Nat Sci (South
Africa). Mr Heeks does not undertake or accept any responsibility or liability in any way whatsoever
to any person or entity in respect of those parts of this document, or any errors in or omissions from it,
whether arising from negligence or any other basis in law whatsoever.

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PROPERTY DESCRIPTION AND LOCATION


Project Area, Location and Access

The Project is centred on Latitude 500N and Longitude 214W in the Western Region of Ghana,
West Africa. The Project site is located in the south-west corner of the Western Region of Ghana and
is approximately 280 km west of the capital, Accra, and less than 20 km from the coast at Essiama
(Figure 4-1). The Project area is accessed from Accra via the main coast highway to Takoradi and
from there by sealed road to the village of Teleku Bokazo and then by 10 kms of all weather gravel
road. The Project area is approximately 464 km2.
Figure 4-1 Project Location

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Ownership

ARL owns those tenements comprising the Project area by way of the company structure shown on
Figure 4-2. The tenements comprising the Project area are subject to a statutory 10 per cent interest
retained by the Government of Ghana upon commencement of production.
Figure 4-2: ARL Corporate Structure

BVI

Australia
Adamus Resources Limited

African Gold
Properties Ltd

Ghana

Notes:
1.
2.

Adamus Investment
Enterprises Pty Ltd

Semafo (Ghana)
Ltd(1)

Adamus Resources
Limited (Ghana) (1)

Castlegem
Pty Ltd

Nkroful Mining
Limited(1)

Adamus Holdings
Pty Ltd

Akanko Mining
Limited(2)

Ghanaian government holds statutory right to a 10% interest in the Ghanaian subsidiaries upon commencement of
production.
A third party holds 1,000 shares in Akanko Mining Limited representing 11% of the outstanding shares, so that ARL
has an 89% interest (8,000 shares) in Akanko Mining Limited which will be reduced to 80% on conversion of the
Ghanaian governments 10% interest.

ARL holds interests in three granted prospecting licences, four granted mining lease and five
2
prospecting licence renewal applications covering a combined area of approximately 464 km (Table
4-1). ARL holds 100 per cent interest in the tenements set out in Table 4-1, subject to the right of the
Ghanaian government to retain a 10 per cent interest upon commencement of production, except for
the Akanko prospecting licence which is held by Akanko Mining Limited which is owned as to 89 per
cent by ARL and 11 per cent by a third party.
The Anwia and Salman gold deposits are located in the central part of the project area (Figure 4-3).
Property boundaries are located by description using latitudes and longitudes.

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Table 4-1 Tenure Summary Southern Ashanti Gold Project

Name

Holder

Area
km2

Granted

Comments

Salman
Prospecting
Licence

Adamus Resources
Ltd (Ghana)

48

30/06/2005

Granted to BHP Minerals in 1994, transferred to AGR in


1999 and reduced by 50% in 2002. In 2002 the licence
was transferred to AGP which subsequently transferred it
to Adamus Resources Ltd (Ghana) in 2004. This
prospecting licence was issued to Adamus Resources Ltd
(Ghana) in 2005 following consolidation of the then existing
Salman PL with Adamus' Tumentu PL and parts of
Adamus' Ankobra and Ankobra River PLs.
Salman Mining Licence area covering 26 square kilometres
was excised in April 2008.
Granted to Adamus Resources Ltd (Ghana) in 2008.
Excised from the Salman Prospecting Licence.

Salman
Mining
Licence
Ankobra
Prospecting
Licence

Adamus Resources
Ltd (Ghana)

26

11/04/2008

Adamus Resources
Ltd (Ghana)

10

14/10/1994

Ankobra River
Prospecting
Licence
Apa Tam
Prospecting
Licence
Asanta
Prospecting
Licence
Akanko
Prospecting
LIcence

Adamus Resources
Ltd (Ghana)

28

29/11/2004

Adamus Resources
Ltd (Ghana)

146

10/01/2005

Initially granted to BHP Minerals in 1994, transferred to


AGR in 1999 and reduced by 50% in 2001. In 2002, AGR
transferred the license to AGP which subsequently
transferred it to Adamus Resources Ltd (Ghana) in 2004.
Part of this licence was subsequently assigned to and
consolidated with the Salman PL in 2005.
Granted to Adamus Resources Ltd (Ghana) in 2004. Part
of the licence was subsequently assigned to and
consolidated with the Salman PL in 2005.
Granted to Adamus Resources Ltd (Ghana) in 2005.

Adamus Resources
Ltd (Ghana)

96

24/11/2004

Granted to Adamus Resources Ltd (Ghana) in 2004.

Akanko Mining Ltd

26

24/02/1995

Granted to Tropical Exploration and Mining Co Ltd


("TEMCO") in 1995. In 2002 TEMCO entered into a joint
venture with Hightime Investments Pty Ltd (Hightime),In
2003 Hightime assigned its interest in the joint venture to
Adamus Holdings Pty Ltd (Adamus Holdings).. The joint
venture agreement between TEMCO and Adamus
Holdings provided for (i) an initial option fee of US$15,000
followed by payment of US$10,000 annually by Adamus
Holdings to TEMCO until a decision to mine was made: (ii)
minimum expenditures of US$100,000 in year one and
US$200,000 over years 2 and 3 whereupon Adamus
Holdings would earn an 80% interest TEMCO would have
a 10% free carried to decision to mine and Adamus
Holdings would have an exclusive option to purchase
remaining 10% interest from TEMCO for USD$1 per
Proven Resource ounce, 2.5% net smelter return or
exploration expenditure over 3 years commencing
December 12, 2002. Adamus Holdings was acquired by
ARL in 2004. Adamus Holdings earned 80% under the

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11/04/2008

Akanko Mining
Licence

Name

Akanko Mining Ltd

Holder

17

Area
km2

11/04/2008

Granted

Ebi - Teleku
Bokazo
Prospecting
Licence

Semafo (Ghana) Ltd

31

4/01/1996

Ebi - Teleku
Bokazo Mining
LIcence
Anwia South
Mining Licence
Mfuma
Prospecting
LIcence

Adamus Resources
Ltd (Ghana)

50

11/04/2008

Nkroful Mining
Limited
Nkroful Mining
Limited

49

29/03/2006

30

03/04/2007

joint venture agreement in 2004, and the Akanko


Prospecting Licence was assigned to Akanko Mining Ltd (a
company owned 89% by Adamus Holdings and 11% by
TEMCO) in 2005.
Akanko Mining Licence area covering 17 square kilometres
was excised in April 2008. Amended PL application lodged
for area remaining after excision of ML
Granted to Akanko Mining Ltd in 2008. Excised from the
Akanko PL.

Comments
The Ebi - Teleku Bokazo prospecting licence initially
comprised two licences, the Teleku Bokazo prospecting
licence issued to Super Paper Products Limited (SPPC) in
1995, and the Ebi prospecting licence granted to Amuanyi
Co Ltd in 1996. Both licences were acquired by Semafo
(Ghana) Ltd in 1997 and approval to merge the two
prospecting licences to form the Ebi - Teleku Bokazo
prospecting licence was granted by the Minerals
Commission in 1998. In 1998 Semafo (Ghana) Ltd entered
into a joint venture with Samax Gold Inc.in respect of the
area covered by the licence.. Samax withdrew from the
joint venture in 2000 and ARL acquired Semafo (Ghana)
Ltd in 2004.
Ebi-Teleku Bokazo Mining Licence area covering 31 square
kilometres was excised in April 2008. Amended PL
application lodged for area remaining after excision of ML
Granted to Adamus Resources Limited (Ghana) in 2008.
Incorporates parts of the E-TB and Asanta Prospecting
Licences.
Granted to Nkroful Mining Limited for a period of 10 years.
Nkroful Mining was acquired by ARL in 2006.
Granted to Nkroful Mining Limited for a period of 2 years.
Nkroful Mining was acquired by ARL in 2006.

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Figure 4-3: Tenure Perimeter, Geology and Deposit Locations

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4.3

4.3.1

August 2008
Page 25

Description of Licences and Approvals

Anwia Deposit

The Anwia deposit lies on the Ebi-Teleku Bokazo prospecting licence PL2/192 held by Semafo
(Ghana) Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of ARL. Application was made for renewal of the
prospecting licence prior to its expiry on 2 January 2008. Subsequent to this PL application, ARL
applied for a Mining Licence over an area within the existing PL. The Ebi-Teluku Bokazo Mining
Licence was granted on 11 April 2008. ARL have lodged an amended PL application for a renewal of
the Ebi-Teluku Bokazo Prospecting Licence. The application is for a two year renewal of the area
remaining outside the Mining Licence

4.3.2

Salman Deposits

The Salman and Akanko gold deposits lie on the Salman Consolidated prospecting licence and the
Akanko prospecting licence, respectively.
The Salman consolidated prospecting licence PL2/193 was granted to Adamus Resources Limited
(Ghana) for a period of two years commencing 30 June 2005 replacing and consolidating several
fragmented prospecting licences previously held by ARL. ARL lodged an application for an extension
to the license and a one year extension was granted in March 2008. In March 2008, ARL applied for a
mining licence over an area within the existing PL. The Salman Mining Licence was granted on 11
April 2008. After expiry of the Salman PL in March 2009, ARL will lodge a two year renewal application
over the area remaining outside the Mining Licence.
The Akanko prospecting licence PL2/128 is held by Akanko Mining Limited, a joint venture company
89 per cent owned by Adamus Holdings Pty Limited (a wholly owned subsidiary of ARL) and 11 per
cent by Tropical Mining and Exploration Ltd (TEMCO). Application was made to renew the Akanko
Prospecting Licence prior to its expiry on 10 January 2008. Subsequent to this PL application, ARL
applied for a Mining Licence over an area within the existing PL. The Akanko Mining Licence was
granted on 11 April 2008 and Adamus lodged an amended PL application. The application is for a two
year renewal of the remaining area outside the Mining Licence.
4.3.3

Satellite Deposits

Bokrobo and Aliva deposits lie in the Anwia South Mining Licence. The licence was granted to Nkroful
Mining Limited for a period of 10 years in March 2006. Nkroful Mining was acquired by ARL in 2006.
Avrebo deposit lies in the Apa Tam Prospecting Licence granted to Adamus Resources Ltd (Ghana) in
2005.
Nfutu deposit lies in both the Ebi-Teluku Bokazo Mining Licence granted on 11 April 2008 and the
Asanta Prospecting Licence granted to Adamus Resources Ltd (Ghana) in 2004.

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4.3.4

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Page 26

Royalties and Other Agreements

Parts of both the Salman consolidated and Ebi-Teleku Bokazo prospecting licences are subject to
concessions in favour of Super Paper Products Company that permit the extraction of kaolin clays and
small-scale mining of kaolin is taking place near the village of New Aluku. To ARLs knowledge the
kaolin concessions do not impinge on any area proposed for the development of the Project mine or
its associated infrastructure.
A royalty of between 3-6% of the Project revenue is payable to the Ghanaian government. However,
historically no operating mine has paid in excess of 3%. In addition, a royalty of 1 per cent of gold
recovered or 3 per cent of net profits, (in each case, in relation to ore derived from the area of the
original Teleku Bokazo prospecting licence) whichever is greater is payable to Super Paper Products
Company, a previous holder of the original prospecting licence.
The Ghanian government retains the right to retain 10 per cent interest in any or all tenements upon
commencement of production.

4.3.5

Environmental Liabilities

There are no environmental liabilities associated with any tenements within the SAGP at this time.

4.3.6

Extension Application

In order to renew the granted prospecting licences an application which includes a technical report on
the work undertaken during the previous licence period, an application fee for renewal, advance
payment of the annual rent for the licence area, and a programme of exploration work for the
extension period must be submitted.
Submitted applications are assessed by a government committee. In general, and provided the
application is lodged with all required documentation, fees and other payments, the renewal is
accepted and the formal notification follows. ARL has lodged the technical reports and application
documentation in respect of those licences requiring renewal or partial renewal for submission by the
applicable due dates.

4.3.7

Grant of Mining Lease

The development of the Project mine requires the grant of several mining leases. Application for a
mining lease in Ghana requires completion of a feasibility study to the satisfaction of the Ghana
Minerals Commission.
In conjunction with the lodgement of the feasibility study with the Minerals Commission, ARL lodged
an environmental and social impact statement (ESIS) and resettlement action plan (RAP) for the
relocation of Salman Village, to the Ghana Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA approval of
this documentation must be received in order for the Minerals Commission to grant the mining lease.
The Salman, Akanko and Anwia Mining Licences were granted by the Minister of Lands, Forestry and
Mines on 11 April 2008. ARL has the exclusive rights to work, develop and produce within the Mining
Licence areas for an initial ten years. The initial term is renewable.

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Project Stability Agreement

ARL is also in the process of negotiating a Project Stability Agreement with the Ghana Minister of
Finance which will set guidelines for royalties, tax rates, and duties etc, during the development and
operational phases of the Project. Initial discussions have already been held with the Finance
Department with regard establishing the terms on which ARL will prepare a draft Project stability
agreement.

5.0

ACCESSIBILITY, CLIMATE, INFRASTRUCTURE AND


PHYSIOGRAPHY

5.1

Access

The Project site is accessed from Accra via a sealed road to Teleku Bokazo via Takoradi, and then by
10 kilometres of all weather roads. The sealed coastal highway linking Ghana and Cote dIvoire
passes through the southern edge of the Project, and a series of sealed and formed gravel roads
linking the coastal highway at Essiama with the regional mining centre Tarkwa, pass through the
centre of the Project area. Numerous unformed gravel roads link villages throughout the project
concessions. Access within more remote portions of the Project is restricted to footpaths and cutlines, and can become difficult during the peak of the monsoonal seasons (May to July and October to
November).

5.2

Climate

Ghana lies just north of the equator and the climate is tropical, particularly in the southern half of the
country. Seasonal temperature variations are minor. Daytime temperatures are high throughout the
year, reaching about 30 C on most days. Diurnal variation is about 6 to 10 C in the humid south and
somewhat larger in the drier northern areas.
In the Project area the climate is fairly typical of that for south-west Ghana, with wet seasons from
March to July and from September through October with a dry season between December and
February. The Project area has an average annual rainfall of 2,023 mm with an average humidity of
80 per cent. Annual evaporation is approximately 2,850 mm.

5.3

Topography, Elevation and Vegetation

The Project lies in the Nzema East District of the Western Region of Ghana. The Project is located in
hilly terrain dissected by broad, flat drainages that typically form swamps in the wet season between
May and late October. Hill tops are generally at very similar elevations, reflecting the elevation of a
previous erosional peneplane that is now extensively eroded. Drainages in the Anwia and Salman
areas are between 10 and 15 metres above sea level. Maximum elevations are around 80 metres
above sea level but the areas impacted by the Project generally lie at less than 50 metres elevation.

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Despite the subdued topography, hill slopes are typically steep. Ecologically, the Project area is
situated in the Wet Evergreen Forest Zone.
Vegetation cover is dominantly secondary forest and fallowed farming areas rapidly return to scrub
cover in the slash and burn farming cycle typically employed for subsistence crops. Dominant
subsistence crops are cassava and maize, grown in small allotments with no formal boundaries. The
dominant commercial crops are coconuts and oil palm and to a lesser extent, cocoa is grown in
isolated areas.
The Project site is largely transformed and has experienced extensive degradation in recent years.
The main land uses include secondary forest, subsistence and cash crop farming and artisinal mining.
There are several local villages near the Project site, the closest being the Salman and Anwia villages.

5.4

Local Infrastructure

The Salman Trend (containing the Salman deposit and the Akanko deposit) lies immediately west of
Salman and Akanko villages, and a periodically graded gravel road linking Teleku Bokazo with the
sealed Agona-Tarkwa road cuts across the mineralised trend between the Salman Central and Nugget
Hill deposits. A formed gravel road links the Salman and Akanko villages and runs parallel to the
Salman Trend providing ready access over approximately 3.5 kilometres. The Anwia deposit is
approximately 500 metres north of the town of Teleku Bokazo and is within 1 kilometre of the bitumen
road connecting Teleku Bokazo with Essiama on the southwest Ghana coastal highway. Several
kilometres of bulldozed exploration tracks have been established to provide access to the remainder
of the Salman Trend, Anwia, Nfutu and various less advanced prospects.
The Project is centred 80 kilometres west-northwest of Ghanas major export port of Takoradi. An
electricity power relay station connected to the national grid is located between the townships of
Nkroful and Essiama, within 14 kilometres of the Salman Trend and 500 metres of the Anwia deposit.
Abundant processing water is likely to be available from both the Ankobra River and ground-water
resources.

6.0
6.1

EXPLORATION AND MINING HISTORY


Historical Mining Activity

Small-scale colonial and artisanal (galamsay) gold workings were widespread throughout the Project
area, the most being significant being at Akanko and along the Salman Trend, Anwia and Nkroful.
There were several gold dredging operations in the Ankobra River between 1900 and 1920, and
reference is made to numerous small alluvial and hard rock gold workings in various Gold Coast
Geological Survey annual reports between 1930 and 1940, and in Junner (1935). Sporadic hard rock
mining commenced at Akanko in 1881, culminating with the efforts of Finsbury Pavement Financial
Trust Ltd. in 1934-1935.
Several shafts were sunk into the crest of the low ridge northwest of Akanko village and at least three
adits driven from the foot of the Akanko ridge. Some of the shafts reached at least 56 metres depth
and there was more than 250 metres of underground development along the mineralised quartz reef

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(Tropical Exploration and Mining Co Ltd, 1997). Gold production has been estimated at several
thousand ounces although there is no official record (Tropical Exploration and Mining Co Ltd, 1997).
Artisanal alluvial and reef mining activity continues intermittently at various locations including Nkroful
(hard rock), Anwia (hard rock), Bokrobo (hard rock) and Salman (alluvial) to the present day.
Secondary manganese mineralisation was identified east of Salman village during 1952-1953 and
investigated via pitting and trenching by the African Manganese Company Limited, which was then
mining the Nsuta manganese deposits near Tarkwa. The Salman manganese deposits are relatively
small and have not been developed.

6.2

Exploration and Ownership History of Salman Deposit Area

The Akanko area of the Salman deposit was held by Ghanorcan Resources Ltd in the 1987-1989
period. Exploration activity included geophysics, soil and rock chip sampling, and trenching, but was
limited to the immediate vicinity of the old Akanko mine (Tropical Exploration and Mining Co Ltd,
1997).
Tropical Exploration and Mining Company Limited (TEMCO) took up a prospecting licence, the
Akanko PL, covering the old Akanko mine in 1995. Ghana Manganese Corporation (GMC) held a
concession over the area of the Salman deposit (the Salman-Aboaji prospecting licence) in the early
1990s and engaged TEMCO to explore the area for manganese and gold. Between 1992 and 1997
TEMCO completed an extensive soil sampling program (2,716 samples assayed for gold, arsenic,
copper, antimony and manganese) and minor stream sediment and rock chip sampling over the
Salman area, identifying a strong (>200 ppb Au, peaking at c. 9 g/t Au) north-northeast trending goldarsenic anomalous zone extending over at least 8 kilometres and including scattered colonial and
artisanal gold workings which is now referred to as the Salman Trend.
Three parallel but lower level and less continuous gold-arsenic anomalous zones were also
recognized. TEMCO excavated and sampled 97 trenches across the Salman soil anomaly and
selected adjacent anomalies, intersecting numerous broad intervals of moderate grade gold
mineralisation (up to 86m at 5.60 g/t Au) associated with quartz veins in saprolitic and lateritic regolith
over a strike length of at least 8 kilometres of the Salman Trend. Additional activities included pitting
(51 pits) and banka drilling (14 holes) for alluvial gold, and pitting of the manganese deposits east of
Salman.
BHP Minerals (BHP) acquired and joint ventured into a number of concessions in the mid-1990s and
undertook a variety of activities including soil sampling, acquisition and processing of Landsat
imagery, and magnetic and GeoTEM surveying focusing on the previously identified Salman Trend
and parallel features. The tenor of mineralisation at surface encountered by TEMCO along the
Salman Trend was confirmed and some further lower level anomalies identified along strike to the
north of the Ankobra River and on parallel features.
BHP then completed 75 drill holes, including 4 HQ diameter diamond core holes for c. 571m and 71
reverse circulation (RC) holes for 6,961 m, on 12 northwest trending traverses across the Salman
Trend. The drill traverses were spaced between 200 and 500 metres apart over a total strike length of
c. 4 kilometres. Almost all drill holes were oriented at -45 towards 300 UTM (BHP local grid west).
Significant mineralisation was encountered on all but two of the traverses and confirmed the presence
of significant gold mineralisation (such as 34m at 3.50 g/t Au from 2m in SRCH018, and 25m at 4.52
g/t Au from 34m in SRCH082) to a vertical depth of at least 80 metres along the Salman Trend. A

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multi-lode system was implied and in some places appeared to dip west, almost parallel to the drill
holes, making sectional interpretation difficult. BHP interpreted a series of narrow, near-vertical
primary lodes which mushroomed out in the oxide zone, and estimated a resource of 1.1 Moz (Bolton
and Amegashi, 1996). The BHP estimate did not comply with currently applicable standards, is not
regarded as reliable and is not relevant to the Project study. Relevant mineral resource and ore
reserve estimates are provided in Section 16 of this Report.
The Salman prospect was acquired from BHP by African Gold Resources Limited (AGR) in 1999.
AGR completed a validation of the BHP database, undertook some additional soil sampling, trenching
and ground-based magnetic surveying, and carried out a program of mobile metal ion (MMI) soil
sampling. Hightime Investments Pty Ltd joint ventured into TEMCOs Akanko prospecting licence in
2002 and followed up some of the previously identified soil gold anomalies with more detailed soil
sampling and channel sampling of bulldozer traverses. Hightime Investments assigned its interest in
the joint venture to Adamus Holdings in 2003. Adamus Holdings was acquired by ARL in 2004. No
further holes were drilled into the Salman Trend until ARL became involved in 2002.

6.3

Exploration and Ownership History of Anwia Deposit Area

The exploration history of the western prospects including Anwia and Nfutu involved a different group
of companies. Between 1995 and 1998 the Teleku Bokazo and Ebi Prospecting Licences were held
by Canadian mineral exploration company SEMAFO Inc. (Semafo). During this period the company
completed a systematic soil sampling survey over the entire concession area. The majority of the
survey was conducted on a 30m by 120m pattern, and four prominent gold anomalies were identified
for infill sampling, down to 15m by 60m grid in the case of the Anwia deposit. A small trenching
program was carried out, mainly over the area of the Anwia deposit where 7 trenches were completed
in October 1995. All trenches returned some intercepts over 1g/t Au. Semafo went on to drill a total of
322 RC holes (22,448 m) and 75 diamond holes (12,911.5 m) at the Anwia deposit. Results were very
encouraging but a high density of drilling in four main orientations was applied in an attempt to clarify
the apparent poor continuity within and between mineralised zones, a distribution pattern now
considered to largely reflect a poor understanding of the controls on mineralisation.
SAMAX Gold Inc. (Samax) entered into a joint venture arrangement with Semafo on the Ebi Teleku
Bokazo property in 1998, with management of the project passing to Samax. Immediately following
the establishment of the Anwia joint venture, Samax was acquired by Ashanti Goldfields Company
Limited (AGC) and the joint venture continued to operate under the Samax name as a wholly owned
subsidiary of AGC. Two vertical RC drilling campaigns were undertaken by Samax to validate
proposed interpretations, refine the geometry and limits to mineralisation, and provide data to assist in
preparation of resource estimates. A total of 153 RC holes (9,002 m) were drilled, of which two were
completed with PQ-diameter diamond core tails of 29.3m and 48.5m length respectively. One further
diamond hole was drilled from surface with PQ core (70 m) to provide oriented geotechnical data and
representative samples for metallurgical testwork.
Semafo, Samax and AGC made several resource estimates for Anwia, ranging from 3.6 Mt at 1.29 g/t
for 147,000 oz Au (Semafo, 1997) to 2.94 Mt at 3.09 g/t for 292,000 oz Au. None of these estimates
complied with either the JORC Code or CNI 43-101 requirements.
Samax withdrew from the joint venture in 2000 and ARL acquired Semafo in 2004.

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6.4

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Page 31

ARL Exploration

ARL progressively acquired its current tenements between 2002 and 2006 pursuant to the acquisitions
and joint ventures described in Table 4.1 of Section 4.2 of this Report.
Adamus initially focused its attention on delineating and quantifying near-surface mineralisation along
the Salman Trend and adjacent structures. At the Ebi -Teleku Bokazo PL containing the Anwia
deposit and purchased by ARL in 2004, work focused on verifying and improving drill hole surveying,
geological logging and drill testing down plunge extensions to the known mineralisation. ARLs
activities on the combined tenure from 2002 includes geological mapping, soil sampling c. 10,000
samples), trenching and channel sampling of bulldozer traverses (11,200m), heliborne radiometric,
magnetic and electromagnetic surveying (c. 340 km2), and several exploration and resource
delineation RC and diamond core drilling campaigns (c. 150,000m combined RC and diamond core
drilling ).
In early 2006 ARL commenced a full feasibility study into the development of the Project following the
results of a detailed scoping study based on earlier resource estimates. Further in-fill drilling
programmes were undertaken as part of the feasibility study completed in June 2007 and are ongoing.
Results of those programmes completed before 31 December 2007, are incorporated into the mineral
resource and reserve estimates in this Revised Technical Report.
ARL commenced detailed exploration of the Satellite Deposits in 2006. At the time of the Feasibility
Study, insufficient data was available for incorporation of the Satellite Deposits into resource
categories. Results of programmes completed before 31 December 2007, are incorporated into the
mineral resource estimates in this Revised Technical Report.

6.5

Previous Resource Estimates

In addition to the resource estimates by previous property owners, Adamus commissioned consultants
to undertake resource estimates at Anwia and Salman. In August 2004 Ravensgate Pty Ltd undertook
estimates using ordinary kriging into blocks measuring 4mE x 10mN x 4mRL (Anwia) or 5mE x 5mN x
2.5mRL (Salman) constrained by mineralisation wireframes interpreted at approximately 0.5g/t Au cutoff grade (Ravensgate, 2004). The spatial influence of extreme grades was limited by application of a
filter in the kriging process. Resultant estimated resources are listed in Table 6-1
Table 6-1 Southern Ashanti Gold Resources at 1g/t cut-off estimated by Ravensgate
Cut-off g/t
Anwia
Salman
Total

Mtonnes
-

Measured
g/t Au
-

k oz Au
-

Mtonnes
2.350
5.067
7.417

Indicated
g/t Au
2.22
2.20
2.21

k oz Au
167.7
358.3
526.0

Mtonnes
1.825
0.767
2.592

Inferred
g/t Au
2.43
1.94
2.29

k oz Au
142.6
47.9
1905.0

In February 2005 SRK Consulting undertook an update of Anwia and Salman resource estimates
using the Uniform Conditioning method to estimate recoverable resources (SRK Consulting, 2005).
SRKs estimates are listed in Table 6-2..

Table 6-2 Southern Ashanti gold resources at 1g/t cut-off estimated by SRK

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Cut-off g/t
Anwia
Salman
Total

Mtonnes
3.045
2.758
5.803

Measured
g/t Au
2.39
2.19
2.29

k oz Au
234
194
428

August 2008
Page 32

Mtonnes
2.482
6.871
9.353

Indicated
g/t Au
2.20
1.90
1.98

k oz Au
176
419
595

Mtonnes
0.794
2.210
3.004

Inferred
g/t Au
1.74
1.72
1.73

k oz Au
44
122
166

Updated resource estimates for, for both Anwia and Salman deposits, were undertaken by ARL in
January 2006 using multiple indicator kriging to estimate recoverable resources. Anwia estimates
used updated interpretations of mineralisation domains but informing data were nearly identical to
those available to SRK. January 2006 Salman estimates were based on revised interpretations of
mineralised domains and used additional drill hole data available to November 2005. ARLs estimates
are listed in Table 6-3
Table 6-3 Southern Ashanti Gold Project resources at 1g/t cut-off estimate, ARL, January 2006

Cut-off g/t
Anwia
Salman
Total

Measured
Mtonnes
g/t Au
4.5
2.50
3.8
2.24
8.3
2.38

k oz Au
360
270
630

Mtonnes
1.8
4.6
6.4

Indicated
g/t Au
1.97
1.97
1.97

k oz Au
110
290
400

Mtonnes
2.4
5.2
7.7

Inferred
g/t Au
1.95
2.03
2.01

k oz Au
150
340
490

In January 2007 ARL updated resource estimates for the Salman deposit also employing multiple
indicator kriging to estimate recoverable resources. Anwia estimates were reported for completeness
but were unchanged from those reported in January 2006. Salman estimates were based on revised
interpretations of mineralised domains and used additional drill hole data available to 30 November
2006. The January 2007 ARL estimates are listed in Table 6-4..

Table 6-4: Southern Ashanti Gold Project Resources at 1g/t cut-off estimate ARL, January 2007

Cut-off
g/t
Anwia
Salman
Total

Measured
Mtonnes
g/t Au
4.5
7.3
11.8

2.50
2.14
2.28

k oz Au

Mtonnes

360
500
860

1.8
3.2
5.0

Indicated
g/t Au
1.97
1.89
1.92

k oz Au

Mtonnes

110
200
310

2.4
3.8
6.3

Inferred
g/t Au

k oz Au

1.95
1.90
1.92

150
240
390

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7.0
7.1

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Page 33

GEOLOGICAL SETTING
Regional and Local Geology

The major gold deposits in Ghana are hosted by Palaeoproterozoic rocks of the West African Craton,
which includes the Birimian Supergroup, a series of metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks, the
Tarkwaian Group, comprising fluvial metasedimentary rocks, and various gabbroic to granitic
intrusives Figure 7-1. Gold mineralisation within the Birimian Supergroup is associated with
mesothermal quartz veins and structurally controlled, while both mesothermal shear-hosted and
palaeoplacer gold deposits occur in the Tarkwaian Group. The Project is underlain by Birimian
Supergroup rocks with minor granitic intrusions, bounded by large granitoid bodies to the west and
east, and poorly defined areas of Tarkwaian Group in the east.
Figure 7-1 Regional Geology

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In Ghana, the Birimian Supergroup (c. 2.1-2.2 Ga) is divided into a series of narrow (typically 20-60
kilometres wide), northeast striking, laterally extensive volcanic belts separated by broader
sedimentary basins (formerly termed the Upper and Lower Birimian; Griffis et al. 2002). The volcanic
belts are dominated by massive andesitic to basaltic (tholeiitic) flows, coarse andesitic to dacitic
volcaniclastics, and locally abundant pillow lavas. Phyllite and greywacke dominate the basins, and
widely exhibit primary sedimentary structures indicative of deposition by subaqueous sediment gravity
flows. Redeposited tuffs of andesitic to dacitic composition are a feature of the basin margins, forming
packages a few metres to hundreds of metres thick intercalated with the epiclastic greywackes and
phyllites. Thin packages of chert, graphitic phyllite and fine-grained manganese-rich sediments often
mark the transitional zone between Birimian belt and basin.
The Tarkwaian Group (c. 2.1 Ga), comprising a sequence of conglomerate, arkosic sandstone and
quartzite, siltstone and shale, is in extent largely confined to fault-bound slivers and unconformable
packages within the Birimian volcanic belts. Detrital zircons from the Tarkwaian have returned ages
up to 2240 Ma but mostly in the range 2190 to 2130 Ma (Davis et al., 1994, Allibone et al., 2002a,
Griffis et al., 2002). Initially thought to be much younger than the Birimian units, regional mapping
suggests a common structural history (Eisenlohr and Hirdes, 1992). At the north end of the Ashanti
Belt the Tarkwaian Group is apparently intruded by the 208125 Ma Banso granitoid (Eisenlohr and
Hirdes, 1992, Davis et al, 1994), providing an upper age limit and bracketing deposition between c.
2081-2130 Ma.
Two main granitoid suites are recognized in Ghana, Dixcove-type and Cape Coast-type. The Dixcove
suite is generally confined to the volcanic belts and includes a range of small plutons to large
batholiths of mafic to intermediate composition. Hornblende is the dominant mafic phase and many
bodies are not foliated. U-Pb zircon dating of Dixcove granitoids indicates crystallization between c.
2135 and 2185 Ma (Hirdes et al., 1992, Boher et al., 1992, Oberthr et al., 1998). The larger Cape
Coast bodies are typically foliated (often gneissic) biotite granitioids, commonly with migmatitic
margins and prominent contact metamorphic aureoles. Cape Coast type granitoids are most
widespread in the sedimentary basins and U-Pb zircon dating indicates they are younger than the
Dixcove suite, crystallization occurring between c. 2116 and 2088 Ma (Hirdes et al., 1992, Boher et al.,
1992, Davis et al., 1994, Oberthr et al., 1998).
Intrusion of the Birimian mafic volcanics by Dixcove suite granitoids suggests eruption of the Ashanti
Belt before 2185 Ma, while a Sm-Nd isochron suggests metamorphism of the belt c. 215313 Ma
(Hirdes et al., 1992, Boher et al., 1992, Oberthr et al., 1998, Allibone et al., 2002a). Allibone et al.
(2002a) refer to this early metamorphism of the mafic belt volcanics and intrusion of the Dixcove suite
as the Eburnian I Orogeny. Detrital zircons from Birimian sedimentary rocks in the Ashanti and Sefwi
belts and Kumasi Basin have generally returned U-Pb dates in the 2130 to 2180 Ma range (Davis et
al., 1994), and in the southern Ashanti Belt up to 2260 Ma (Loh and Hirdes, 1996). Intrusion of the
Cape Coast suite granitoids provides an upper age limit of c. 2116 Ma for deposition of the Birimian
metasediments. The deformation and metamorphism of the entire Birimian Supergroup and
Tarkwaian Group and intrusion of the Cape Coast granitoid suite between c. 2116 and 2088 Ma is
widely referred to as the Eburnian Orogeny (e.g. Griffis et al., 2002), or more specifically, the Eburnian
II Orogeny (Allibone et al.,2002a).

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The detrital zircon age range for the Birimian metasediments is almost exactly coincident with those
from the Tarkwaian Group, leading to suggestions that the Tarkwaian and Birimian sediments were
deposited contemporaneously along and adjacent to an emergent Birimian volcanic chain, the
Tarkwaian within narrow, fault bounded terrestrial basins on the Birimian volcanic belts and the
Birimian sediments in the flanking marine basins (e.g. Griffis et al., 2002). Compositionally, the
Birimian sedimentary rocks could easily have been (and most likely were) derived from Birimian
volcanic belts and the presence of redeposited tuffs within the basins indicates active intermediate to
felsic volcanism during deposition. The youngest detrital zircons indicate Birimian metasediments
were still being deposited at least 55 m.y. after eruption of some of the Birimian metabasalts (before
2185 Ma, above), and the basalts could represent the older parts of the volcanic chains which
subsequently erupted more felsic volcaniclastic material into the adjacent basins. With an age range
of 2135 - 2185 Ma the Dixcove granitoid suite could represent the metamorphosed and eroded roots
of these andesite-dacite volcanoes. However, the quartz-rich composition and presence of foliated
clasts of Birimian sedimentary rocks within contemporaneous Tarkwaian conglomerates (Milsi et al.,
1991) indicates that many aspects of Birimian and Tarkwaian tectonic development have yet to be
satisfactorily resolved.
Metamorphic grade of the Birimian rocks is greenschist facies, with local amphibolite facies aureoles
around granitoid plutons. Recent work in the southern Ashanti region (John et al., 1999) suggests that
the greenschist facies is widely retrograde after amphibolite facies conditions. Both belt and basin
packages are highly deformed with widespread isoclinal folding and regional bedding-parallel
cleavage attributed to regional northwestsoutheast compression during the peak of the Eburnian
Orogeny c. 2100 Ma. Regional northeast striking shear zones parallel to the belt margins are also
assumed to have developed during peak Eburnian and appear to be fundamentally important in the
development of the Birimian gold deposits for which Ghana is well known such as Ashanti, PresteaBogosu, Konongo, and Bibiani. Adamus Southern Ashanti Gold Project covers the south-western
margin of the famous Ashanti Belt. The Salman Trend of gold deposits is believed to be associated
with the same belt-margin shear zones that host the Prestea, Bogosu, and Obuasi-Ashanti gold
deposits (Figure 7-1) and has many characteristics typical of these deposits. The Anwia Deposit is
located within the adjacent Birimian basin rocks, several kilometres west of the belt margin fault zone,
and has a contrasting mineralisation style.

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7.2

7.2.1

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Page 36

Project Geology

General

Basement exposure is generally poor within the Project and largely restricted to road cuttings, a few
stream beds, prospecting pits and trenches, and drill pads. Laterite and mottled clay zones are locally
developed on ridges, and saprolite typically extends to 10-30 metres beneath surface and locally as
much as 80 m. The eastern part of the project is largely underlain by Birimian volcanic and
volcaniclastic rocks assigned to the Ashanti Belt, the western part mainly by Birimian metasedimentary
rocks of basin and basin margin affinity in the southeastern corner of the Kumasi Basin. The Birimian
volcanics are thought to be faulted against the Tarkwaian Group immediately northeast of the current
tenure, and a small area of quartz-rich fluvial rocks immediately east of Axim may also belong to the
Tarkwaian (see also Loh and Hirdes, 1996, Griffis et al., 2002). A large biotite granite body is exposed
in the western part of the project area and probably belongs to the Cape Coast suite. Two large,
magnetically zoned probably Dixcove-type granitoid batholiths intrude the volcanics at the eastern
edge of the project, and curved magnetic ridges adjacent to these intrusives could represent contact
aureoles. Several narrow granitoid dykes and fault slivers up to 13 kilometres long and 700 metres
thick of uncertain affinity are scattered through the project area, and some near-circular geophysical
features (electromagnetic resistors with weakly magnetic edges) between 1.5 and 2 kilometres
diameter northeast of Anwia may represent subsurface plutons. Two north-striking dolerite dykes are
known from geophysics and drilling in the Nkroful-Anwia area.
There is no formal subdivision of the Birimian Supergroup in the Southern Ashanti area but several
lithologically and geophysically distinct units can be identified and three litho-structural domains are
recognised: Avrebo, Salman and Anwia (Figure 4-3).

7.2.2

Avrebo Domain

The Avrebo Domain encompasses the eastern part of the project area underlain by Birimian volcanic
and volcaniclastic rocks, minor Birimian greywacke and phyllite packages, and Dixcove-type intrusive
bodies. Primary layering is generally steep and strikes north-northeast to northeast. Cleavages are
not particularly well developed in the volcanic lithologies (cf. phyllite and greywacke packages) but at
least two or three weak foliations are evident in most exposures and are of similar orientation to those
of the Salman Domain (below). Scattered lenses of greywacke and phyllite within the volcanic rocks
are probably fault bounded, and a large north to northeast striking shear zone is identified within the
volcanics in the Avrebo area. The Avrebo Domain covers the southwestern edge Ashanti Belt, and
the volcanics appear to be faulted against a package of basin margin metasediments to the west
(Salman Domain). The eastern margin is undefined.

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Salman Domain

The Salman Domain comprises a zone 4-5 kilometres wide immediately west the Ashanti volcanic belt
comprising near-vertical north to northeast striking metasedimentary packages separated a series of
similarly oriented mylonitic shear zones informally termed the Ankobra Fault Zone. Greywacke and
phyllite packages dominate the Salman Domain, minor lithologies include redeposited andesitic to
dacitic crystal-lithic tuffs, pebbly volcanogenic greywackes and conglomerates, and rare andesitic
dykes or flows. The Adamanso Shear Zone separates the Salman Domain from the Avrebo Domain
(belt volcanics) to the east, and the Aluku Shear Zone from metasediments of the Anwia Domain
(basin) to the west.
Four distinct cleavages and fold generations recognised. S1 is a strong graphitic cleavage parallel to
S0 and presumably developed during regional isoclinal folding, the main architectural event. Facing is
rarely identifiable in saprolitic exposures but is generally westwards. Centimetre-scale isoclinal F1
folds in S0 were observed at one locality. S2, a thick graphitic crenulation, is generally the most
conspicuous cleavage and is axial planar to widespread metre-scale, south to southwest plunging,
open to close folds. Varying asymmetry suggests the presence of large scale F2 folding, and some
100-200 metre wavelength open folds mapped along the Salman Shear zone are thought to be F2
structures (Figure 7-2). S2 generally strikes between east and northeast, dips between 50 and 90 to
the southeast, and the average F2 axis is orientated c. 65220. S3 is a thinner and typically finer
crenulation than S2. Strike is northwest and dip is steep (average c. 80 to northeast). Metre-scale
open F3 folds in S0 and S2 can be observed at a few localities but are not as well developed and
widespread as F2 folds. Some of the larger scale (100-1000 m) rotation of S2 within the Salman
Domain is attributed to medium scale F3 folds. S4 is a weak sub-horizontal cleavage only locally
discernable associated with gentle open folding and warping of S0, S1 and S2.
The Salman Shear Zone, host to the Salman Trend gold deposits, is the best known and explored
fault within the Ankobra Fault Zone. While the Salman Shear Zone appears the main locus of gold
mineralisation, pockets of gold mineralisation have been identified on or adjacent to other faults within
the Ankobra fault set, including the Mamposo and Adamanso shear zones.

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Figure 7-2 Salman Deposit Geology (Including Akanko)

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The Salman and Mamposo shear zones are defined by both geological mapping and geophysics,
while the other members of the Ankobra fault set, including the Adamanso and Aluku shear zones, are
based on S0 discontinuities defined by geophysics. Detailed mapping and geophysical interpretation
shows that Salman Shear Zone extends from the Gulf of Guinea coast between Asanta and Sawoma
for at least 20 kilometres through Salman and Akanko and north of the Ankobra River to the Banso
area. It is then interpreted to continue for a further 30 kilometres north, along with several of the other
Ankobra faults, to merge with the Central Fault Zone of Allibone et al. (2002b) at Prestea-Bogosu:
fabrics and lithologies within the Salman Shear and Central Fault Zone are closely comparable.
Exposures of the Salman and Mamposo shear zones are characterised by the presence of tightly
folded and boudinaged greywacke beds and quartz veins within a highly deformed zone of graphitic
mylonite and phyllite up to c. 125 metres thick. The mylonitic fabric and S1 are both crenulated by S2
indicating a D1 origin for the Ankobra fault set and development was presumably associated with
Outcrop
regional D1 isoclinal folding during west-northwest east-southeast compression.
observations indicate dextral reactivation of the Salman Shear during D2 and sinistral reactivation
during D3, but the bulk of the strain appears to be D1. Several slices of altered, S1-foliated biotiteilmenite granitoid, termed the Akanko Granitoid, are included within the Salman Shear: all observed
contacts are faulted (typically mylonitic) and the bodies were either structurally modified after intrusion
within the shear zone or entirely structurally emplaced.

7.2.4

Anwia Domain

The Anwia Domain is characterised by modest S0 dips over large areas and large-scale open folding
of S0. Porphyroblastic greywackes, phyllite, and kaolinitic (ex-vitric?) redeposited tuff are the dominant
lithologies: the thick kaolinitic tuff packages, widespread porphyroblasts, and generally low graphite
content distinguish the Anwia Domain lithologically from the adjacent Salman Domain. There is no
evidence yet for the presence of the large graphitic phyllite and mylonite shear zones which
characterise the Salman Domain.
The S1, S2, S3 and S4 cleavages are of the same style as for the Salman Domain, although S2 and S3
are of much more variable orientation (rotated by up to 90) indicating large-scale, open post-F3
folding. Geophysical interpretation (especially EM) supported by a few field observations suggests a
kilometre-scale dome and basin geometry within the Anwia Domain (Figure 4-3): open, metre-scale
dome and basin folding produced by F2-F3 interference was observed in outcrop at the Anwia Deposit.
The few facings apparent suggest the sedimentary sequence is extensively overturned.
The western margin of the Anwia Domain is not defined; the eastern margin with the Salman Domain
is placed along the geophysically inferred Aluku Shear Zone. By analogy with thin-skinned fold-thrust
belts the Aluku Shear Zone could represent the oldest, basin-ward thrust in an imbricate fault zone,
and the Mamposo, Salman and Adamanso shear zones represent progressively younger thrusts
formed as the Birimian basin (Anwia Domain and west) was pushed eastwards over the Birimian
volcanic belt during regional D1 compression. Similar character of S2 to S4 in both Salman and Anwia
domains suggests a common post-D1 deformational history, comprising sinistral (D2) then dextral (D3)
modification and reactivation of the D1 architecture, followed by post-orogenic relaxation (D4). The
same sequence of compression with isoclinal folding and thrust fault development, followed by
sinistral then late dextral wrenching has been proposed for the Obuasi-Ashanti area c. 150 kilometres
along strike to the north-northeast (Allibone et al. 2002a).

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8.0

DEPOSIT TYPE AND MINERALISATION

8.1

Salman Deposit Type and Mineralisation

August 2008
Page 40

The Salman Trend is defined by a semi-continuous +200ppb gold in soil anomaly extending for at
least 9 kilometres along the Salman Shear Zone. Approximately 8 kilometres of strike extent has
been drill tested to date with several discrete, multi-lode gold deposits being found along the shear
zone (Figure 7-2). Significant gold deposits within the Salman Trend include, from south to north,
Salman South, Salman Central, Teberu Footwall, Salman North, North Hill, Akanko Central, and
Akanko North. Salman Central, Nugget Hill and Salman North deposits are located on conspicuous
north to north-northwest bends (left-hand flexures) up to 1000 metres long within the overall northnortheast strike of the shear zone. The smaller (100 m) flexures in the Salman Central Nugget Hill
area appear to be gentle F2 folds, while the broader bends may be a combination of D1 irregularities
and F2 folds.
The Salman Shear Zone is made up of a western hanging-wall c. 10-125 metres thick of deformed
phyllite and thin bedded greywacke with S-C bands and graphitic mylonite zones, and an eastern
footwall of thick bedded greywacke with minor sheared phyllite zones up to a few metres thick.
Boudinaged S0-parallel quartz veins and greywacke beds are a characteristic feature of the hanging
wall zone. Numerous metre-scale open to tight F2 folds are locally evident in both hanging-wall and
footwall, and quartz veins in a variety of orientations (below) are locally conspicuous. The shear zone
dips modestly to steeply west over much of the 8 kilometres drilled extent, but locally, such as at
Nugget Hill, North Hill and Salman South it rolls over to dip c. 60 to the east. Narrow slivers of altered
biotite granitoid are locally included within the shear zone south of Salman North. The granitoid
bodies exhibit S1 cleavage and exposures at Nugget Hill and drill core from Salman North show the
presence of graphitic mylonite faults on both western and eastern margins. The granitoid body
becomes continuous north of Salman North.
At Salman South, Central and Nugget Hill gold mineralisation occurs in vertical to west dipping lodes
approximately parallel to and splaying out from the main footwall-hanging-wall contact. Both the shear
zone and gold mineralisation roll over to dip steeply eastwards at about 100 metres depth within the
Salman South deposit. Most of the gold lodes are within the immediate footwall within quartz-veined
silica-sericite-carbonate-arsenopyrite altered greywacke and/or granite. Some narrow, shear zoneparallel zones of gold mineralisation are present in the hanging-wall. The mineralised zone at Salman
Central gradually transgresses the shear zone from mostly footwall-hosted at the southern end to
mainly hanging-wall hosted at the northern end. At Teberu the main gold lodes are within the footwall
greywacke, approximately 100-300 metres east of the footwall-hanging-wall contact, and presumably
associated with west dipping subsidiary shears. Both west and east dipping lodes are defined at
Salman North: west-dipping along the main shear zone on the western granite margin (hanging-wall
shear zone); east-dipping parallel to the footwall shears along and adjacent to the eastern granitoid
margin (footwall faults). The highly fractured granitoid beneath the intersection of west and east
dipping hanging- and footwall is extensively mineralised. Similar west and east dipping lodes are
present adjacent to and within the granitoid body at Akanko.

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Gold mineralisation is associated with a complex array of deformed quartz veins and arsenopyritesilica-sericite-carbonate alteration. Petrography, metallurgical work and field observations suggest
there are three principal styles of gold mineralisation, as follows:
Nuggety free gold within quartz veins;
Gold associated with fine acicular arsenopyrite disseminated (typically <5 per cent) in silicasericite-carbonate altered wallrocks adjacent to mineralised quartz veins, and probably within
some of the grey quartz veins;
Free particulate gold within the oxide zone, derived from the weathering of the former two
primary mineralisation types.
Most quartz veins are small (<2m thick and <10m long), and locally make up to c. 20 per cent of the
footwall and hanging-wall. At least five types of quartz vein sets are identified, all to some degree
gold-mineralised:
S1-parallel quartz veins, typically white, less commonly grey, extensively boudinaged parallel
to S1 and locally reduced to dislocated fragments within graphitic mylonite. These veins are
particularly characteristic of the hanging-wall, but also occur in the footwall and parallel to S1 in
the granitoid bodies. Individual boudins reach up to c. 2m thick and several metres long.
Accessory carbonate and sericite are widely present, less commonly also tourmaline. Niche
samples have returned up to 25 g/t Au and free gold observed in RC cuttings of white quartz
veins probably belonged to this set.
Sub-vertical S1-perpendicular quartz lenses, occurring immediately adjacent to the hangingwall footwall contact, and especially within the sheared granitoid bodies. Texture and colour
range from white with S1 fracture cleavage to breccias in which white to pale grey quartz
fragments are cemented by smoky grey quartz. Accessory sericite and/or tourmaline are
widespread, the latter becoming visually more abundant, along with granitoid bodies, north of
Salman Central. Niche samples have returned up to 9.5 g/t Au.
Steeply southwest dipping, north to northwest striking fractured grey quartz veins cross-cutting
S1, typically <0.5 metre thick and up to 10-20 metres long with widespread open F2 folds. This
set is particularly characteristic of the footwall greywacke zone. Sericite and carbonate are
widespread accessory components, locally tourmaline. Niche samples have returned up to
3.5 g/t Au.
Southeast dipping smoky grey quartz veins, cross-cutting S1, up to one metre thick and 220
metres long. The most conspicuous examples are in the footwall greywacke zone at the
historic Akanko mine where free gold was observed and niche samples returned up to 8.5 g/t
Au. Tourmaline alteration is particularly strong (in both veins and wall rock) at Akanko and
unpublished historic mining reports note an association between free gold and tourmalinebearing zones within the Akanko reef.
Sub-horizontal, fractured white and grey quartz veins, only observed in the footwall and mostly
within the granitoid fault slivers. Sericite and carbonate are widespread accessory
components. Niche samples have returned up to 0.95 g/t Au.

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Gold mineralisation does not appear restricted to a particular vein set or sets, and there are zones
where type 1 and 3 appear barren. The relative timing of gold mineralisation event or events has not
been satisfactorily established at Salman but a relatively late syn-D3 origin is currently preferred. At
Salman Central the S1-parallel veins (type 1) are widespread throughout all of the hanging-wall but
only at the northern end of the deposit are they significantly mineralised. This relationship suggests
the main gold mineralisation phase occurred after formation of the D1 type 1 S1-parallel veins. The
presence of gold within type 3 veins suggests mineralisation during or after D2 sinistral reactivation of
the Salman Shear Zone. Allibone et al. (2002b) proposed that mineralisation at Bogosu (50-70
kilometres along strike to the north-northeast of Salman) occurred during sinistral wrenching
(equivalent to Salman D2), with gold mineralisation concentrated principally in steeply plunging lodes
in dilational left-hand jogs and to lesser extent shallow dipping lodes in right-hand restraining bends
within the Central Fault Zone. The occurrence of the major Salman Central and North deposits on lefthand flexures agrees, at first glance, with the D2 sinistral wrench mineralisation model. However, the
shallow dipping footwall faults and lodes at Salman Central and North are more geometrically
compatible with mineralisation on restraining-bend thrusts. The left-hand bends along the Salman
Shear would have been restraining during dextral wrenching and mineralisation may have occurred
during D3.

8.2

Anwia Deposit Type and Mineralisation

The Anwia gold deposit is hosted by a northeast dipping package of greywacke (footwall) and
interbedded greywacke-phyllite (hanging-wall). In the western (footwall) part of the deposit gold
mineralisation is also hosted by a steeply northeast dipping granite dyke that gradually converges on
the hanging-wall to the northwest (Figure 8-1). Three cleavages are present: north-northeast striking
S2, east striking S3, and locally a sub-horizontal S4. Gentle to open, metre-scale F2 folds are
widespread, and small-scale open dome and basin F2-F3 interference patterns were locally observed
in outcrop. The few facing indicators apparent suggest the metasedimentary package is overturned.
Gold mineralisation is intimately associated with pyrite disseminated within and around a complex
array of deformed pale grey to dark blue grey quartz-carbonate-sericitealbite veins. A broad silicasericite alteration zone about 200 metres thick and 450 metres long is developed in the footwall
greywacke sequence and in some areas obliterates primary sedimentary structure. The silica-sericite
alteration zone is more extensive than the gold-pyrite mineralisation.
The surface projection of identified mineralisation trends northwest for approximately 900 metres and
is up to 400 metres wide (Figure 8-1). Within this zone seven distinct domains of varying orientation
and style were used for the resource estimation. Most of the gold mineralisation is located in the
southeastern part of the deposit where a very broad, modestly northwesterly plunging (c. 35) zone
transgresses the hanging-wall greywacke-phyllite sequence into the intensely silica-sericite altered
footwall greywacke unit. This broad zone passes upwards into an extensive horizontal mineralisation
zone around 50 metres beneath surface. Mineralisation becomes sporadic along trend to the
northwest until the northern end of the granite dyke is encountered. Limited drilling along the granite
dyke also indicates the presence of northeast dipping lodes parallel to the granite margins (Figure
8-1).

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Figure 8-1 Anwia Deposit Geology and Mineralisation

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8.3

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Page 44

Satellite Deposit Types and Mineralisation

The Bokrobo deposit on the Anwia South property, 3.2 km south-southeast of Anwia (Figure 4-3)
comprises generally north-south trending, steeply west dipping auriferous quartz veins hosted by
strongly silica-iron carbonate altered, medium to coarse grained, carbonaceous greywacke. A northsouth trending dolerite dyke, dipping sub-vertically to the west cuts the depth extension of the main
vein. In the southern portion of the deposit, an east-west trending, steeply dipping, steeply southsoutheast plunging dyke-like granitic intrusion is cut by numerous auriferous quarz veins. In the north
of the deposit, mineralisation generally occurs in a single lode. In the south, the mineralisation the
mineralisation occurs as two main lodes and a series of narrow stacked lodes around the granite
intrusion, Current interpretation has the main mineralisation occurring post-granite intrusion and predolerite intrusion. Some remobilisation occurred in favourable structural sites probably syn-dolerite
intrusion.
At Aliva, 1.6km southeast of Bokrobo, the gold mineralization occurs as a series of stacked,
moderately east-dipping lenses in the southern section of the deposit and in two narrow, steeper eastdipping lodes separated by a barren zone in the northern section.
At Avrebo, 12km southeast of Salman deposit, the gold mineralization occurs in north-northwest to
south-southwest trending, subvertical to steeply east-dipping, strongly sericite-iron carbonate altered
lodes within metabasalt.
At Nfutu, 2.7 km east of Anwia, interpretation of the limited drilling and trenching completed has not
yet adequately defined the style or constraints on the distribution of the mineralization.

9.0
9.1

EXPLORATION
Trenching Methods

Approximately 7040m of trenches were undertaken in several campaigns by TEMCO, AGR and ARL
for inclusion in the Salman Trend resource dataset. The breakdown by company is approximately
3934m of TEMCO trenches, 1263m of AGR trenches, and 1843m of ARL trenches and bulldozer
channel traverses.
Most of the trenches (5752m) were excavated manually to depths of 1 to 3 metres, generally reaching
the mottled clays around the base of the laterite gravel and, particularly along the ridges at Salman
Central and North, the top of the saprolite. BHP and AGR deepened and resampled some of the
original TEMCO trenches, returning results of similar magnitude and confirming the validity of the
TEMCO work. Most of these manual trenches are oriented northwest-southeast (c. 300) almost
perpendicular to the overall strike of the Salman Shear Zone and mineralisation.
ARL also channel sampled 23 selected bulldozed drill lines for 1288m at Salman Central, Salman
North and Akanko where saprolitic and mottled clay zone material was exposed. The channel lines at
Salman Central and Akanko trend UTM east-west, those at Salman North approx. northwest (c. 300).
Spacing between the trenches ranges from 40 metres to 100 metres, with a few gaps up to 1300
metres in swampy or alluvial areas such as between North Hill and Akanko South.

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Page 45

Pits

A recommendation arising from the February 2006 Salman resource estimate was to gain vertical
channel samples to better define gold grades in the near-surface, deflated laterite profile and the
uppermost saprolite. Through early 2006, 357 pits were manually excavated to depths of 3-4m on a
nominal 25mE x 50mN spacing between 551100N and 552700N (Salman South and Salman Central
areas) and between 554250N and 555550N (Salman North and North Hill areas). A total of 1316m
was sampled with vertical channel samples with lengths of individual samples between 0.5 and 1.5m,
the majority being 1m. Gold assays are available for 1319 samples.

9.3

Drilling Methods

The current Project resource estimate is based on a combined total of approximately 150 kilometres of
reverse circulation percussion (RC) and diamond core drilling. This breaks down to 40,120m RC and
24089.6m diamond drill core for a combined 64,209m at Anwia, and 81,084m RC and 4,740.7m
diamond drill core for a combined 85,824.8m within the Salman Trend. Almost all of the drilling within
the Salman Trend was conducted by ARL, while at the Anwia deposit the larger proportion was carried
out by Semafo and Samax. Drill spacing over the Salman resource area varies from 50m x 25m to
25m x 25m, with areas contributing the bulk of resource ounces drilled at the closer spacing. At
Anwia, the central part of the deposit is drilled to about 70 metres depth with holes spaced at 15m x
15m. Below this depth, and in peripheral areas, drill spacing averages 50m x 25m.
A further 26,712m of drilling, all conducted by ARL, has been used in the resource estimations of the
Satellite Deposits. Drill spacings vary from 50 x 50m down to 20 x 20m.
The drilling and the associated surveying methods in the deposit areas are detailed in Section 10
below.

10.0 DRILLING
10.1

Anwia Deposit Drilling

Semafo drilled a total of 322 RC holes for c. 22,448m and 75 diamond core holes for 12,912m at the
Anwia deposit between 1995 and 1998. Most of the drilling was done by Canadian contractor, St
Lambert. All Semafo RC and diamond core holes were geologically logged, although much data was
subsequently lost when Samax later rationalized the lithological codes. Most holes were declined
between 50 and 70 and four major azimuths were drilled; UTM northeast, northwest, southeast, and
southwest using Semafos Anwia local grid. Semafo diamond drill core was not oriented for structural
measurements.
Two campaigns of RC drilling were undertaken by Samax at Anwia during the 1998-2000 period for a
combined 9,002m in 153 holes. The holes were on approximately 15 metre centres and all were
vertical. Two PQ diamond core tails were drilled from RC pre-collars and one PQ hole from surface,
for a total of 148 m. The PQ drill core was used for geotechnical and metallurgical work. Detailed
geological and geotechnical logs were compiled; a photographic record of the core (core blocks,
orientation marks and bulk density determination intervals) was prepared and magnetic susceptibility
measurements recorded.

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Between 2003 and January 2006, ARL drilled 38 RC and diamond core holes at Anwia for a total of
4195m HQ and NQ diameter core and 2462m RC. Three holes were cored from surface, the majority
of diamond coring was from RC pre-collars. All drilling was undertaken by Minerex using a
multipurpose RC/DDC UDR650 drill rig with air capacity of 350psi/700cfm and a skid-mounted
diamond coring rig for some of the tails. A face-sampling RC hammer was employed with a bit
diameter of 5.25. Air capacity of the rig was deemed inadequate for RC drilling much deeper than 80
metres down hole, beyond which depth diamond core tails were generally used. RC drill holes were
typically collared with PVC pipe down to 6 metres, and recoveries from the first 3 metres were usually
quite poor. All ARL RC holes were logged on a one metre basis for lithology, weathering and
oxidation, and qualitative moisture content (dry, moist or wet) recorded. The one metre RC samples of
the cyclone were weighed using 60kg bench scales. Diamond drill core was typically extracted in 3
metre runs and fresh core was oriented using a spear or Craelius device at 6 to 12 metre intervals.
The core was placed in core trays by the drilling crew, with annotated core blocks inserted between
core runs. The core trays were then moved to the Adamus core yard in Nkroful for marking up,
geological logging, sampling and storage. The fresh core was marked with the intervals and a bottomof-hole line (based on spear orientation marks) prior to geological logging. Structure orientations were
then measured relative to the bottom-of-hole line. Logged diamond core recoveries within the primary
profile are typically 95-100%, in the oxide zone generally >70%.
The majority of the ARL drill holes were inclined toward the southwest, parallel to the Semafo grid, and
declinations range from -50 to -90 (dominantly -60) designed to provide an optimal intersection
through mineralised zones. A few of the ARL holes were drilled to the northeast and southeast, again
parallel to the Semafo grid.
During 2006 and early 2007 ARL undertook further drilling:
In January 2006, 1989m of RC drilling in 27 holes targeting extensions of mineralisation to the
NW and SE of Anwia, and mineralisation hosted by the granite dyke.
In June and August 2006, 552m of RC drilling in 7 holes drilled to gain samples for
metallurgical test work.
In June and August 2006, 364m of PQ diamond coring in 5 holes drilled to gain samples for
comminution and metallurgical test work.
In August to October 2006, 902m (including 156m in 2 RC pre-collars) of HQ diamond coring
in 6 holes for geotechnical logging.
In October 2006, 270m of RC and open hole drilling in 5 trial dewatering bores and
observation wells.
In December 2006 to March 2007, 1784m in RC precollars and 2526m of HQ core in 20 holes
designed to infill the main Anwia deposit to approximately 25m x 25m spacing between 120m
and 180m depth below surface.

10.2

Salman Deposits Drilling

BHP (1994-1995) completed 71 RC drill holes for 6,965m and 4 NQ and HQ diamond core holes for
571m on 12 traverses spread over 4 kilometres strike of the Salman Trend. The diamond coring was
conducted by Stanley Drilling Services using a truck mounted LM55 electric hydraulic diamond drill rig.
Ausdrill carried out the RC drilling using UDR650 and Drilteck D25K rigs with 4.5 drill pipe and 5
RC46 face sampling hammer with 5.25 bit. Most holes are oriented at -45 to 300 magnetic (Salman

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local grid west). All holes were geologically logged on a one metre basis. Diamond drill core was not
oriented for the collection of structural information.
To the end of November 2005, the data cut-off date for the February 2006 resource estimate, Adamus
had completed 662 drill holes for 49,389m of RC drilling and 2,754m of HQ and NQ diamond coring.
The first 66 RC holes were drilled by Canadian contractor, St Lambert Drilling, using an MPD1500 RC
drill rig with an air capacity of 350psi/900cfm, a face-sampling hammer and button bits of 5.25 or
5.75 diameter. All subsequent Adamus RC drilling programs were undertaken by Minerex using
multipurpose UDR650 and KL900 drill rigs with name plate air capacities of 350psi/700cfm and
500psi/1150cfm respectively. Face-sampling hammers were used with bits of 5.25 or 5.75 diameter.
The RC drill holes were typically collared with PVC pipe down to 6 metres. All Adamus RC holes were
logged on a one metre basis for lithology, weathering and oxidation, and qualitative moisture content
(dry, moist or wet) recorded. RC samples were weighed on a campaign basis to quantitatively check
sample recoveries. Five RC holes at Salman South, Central and North were twinned with HQ3
diamond core holes to confirm the integrity of the RC drilling.
The Adamus diamond core holes were variously drilled from surface or from RC pre-collars up to a
nominal depth of 80 metres. Diamond drill core was typically extracted in 3 metre runs and fresh core
was oriented using a spear or Craelius device at 6 to 12 metre intervals. The core was placed in core
trays by the drilling crew, with annotated core blocks inserted between core runs. The core trays were
then moved to the Adamus core yard at the Salman exploration camp for marking up, geological
logging, sampling and storage. The fresh core was marked with the intervals and a bottom-of-hole
line (based on spear orientation marks) prior to geological logging. Structure orientations were then
measured relative to the bottom-of-hole line. Logged diamond core recoveries within the primary
profile are typically 95-100 per cent, in the oxide zone generally >70 per cent. Minor intervals within
the transition zone, especially within the highly deformed hanging wall phyllite sequence, have proved
less acceptable, with logged recoveries in the 30-50 per cent range.
During 2006, Adamus undertook additional drilling:
In February and May to August 2006, 15,581m of RC drilling in 241 holes, mainly infilling
previous drill patterns to 25m x 25m spacing.
In April 2006, 3370m of RC drilling in 50 holes to gain samples for metallurgical test work.
These holes also serve to infill portions of the resource.
In July and August 2006, 572m of PQ diamond coring in 8 holes drilled to gain samples for
comminution and metallurgical test work.
In September 2006, 635m of HQ diamond coring in 5 holes for pit-slope geotechnical
investigations.
In August and September 2006, 800m of RC and open hole drilling in 17 trial dewatering bores
and observation wells.
Almost all of Adamus drilling within the Salman Trend has been conducted on UTM Zone 30N
WGS84 east-west lines which are, overall, approximately perpendicular to the strike of the gold
mineralisation. The exception is at Salman North where the Adamus drilling is parallel to that of BHP
(i.e. 120 - 300). Most holes were drilled at -45 either east or west as appropriate for the dip of the
target lode (both east and west dipping at Salman). A few holes were drilled between -60 and -90,
and a series of 6 RC holes were drilled approximately parallel to strike (c. north-south) at Salman
Central and Nugget Hill to test mineralisation continuity within lodes.

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Satellite Deposits Drilling

All diamond and RC drill holes used in the resource estimates were conducted according to Adamus
standard RC and diamond drill hole procedures as detailed above. Some historical drilling at Bokrobo
and Aliva which could not be verified was excluded from the resource calculations. At Avrebo, drilling
was undertaken on two different orientations. The original holes (50m spaced sections) were drilled
east-west while the later 20m spaced holes were drilled at 315.

10.4

10.4.1

Surveying

Anwia Surface Surveying

There is little information about Semafo surveying methods at Anwia. Samax identified potentially
serious collar survey errors in the Semafo database and resurveyed the drill collars in 1999. The
Semafo drill collars were generally clearly labelled and Samax managed to pick-up most of the holes
in the resurvey program. The survey was carried out with Sokkia total station equipment using new
local grid control stations which were linked to the Ghana National Grid.
Field checks by Adamus in 2004 indicated significant drill collar coordinate errors in the database
provided to Adamus upon acquisition of the Ebi Teleku Bokazo concession. Most of the Semafo
and Samax drill collar pipes were still readily visible and clearly labelled, and a second resurveying
program was carried out by using both total station and Differential GPS equipment in UTM Zone 30N
WGS84 coordinates. Accuracy by both methods is nominally centimetre to decimetre in the easting
and northing, sub-decimetre for the RL by total station and sub-metre by Promark 2 DGPS.
As part of the same program, an area approximately 1 km2 centred on the Anwia Deposit was
topographically surveyed by combination of Promark 2 DGPS to establish base stations and Sokkia
total station equipment along cut lines. Approximately 2000 stations were collected with a final grid
spot height spacing of approximately 25 m by 100 m. Those data have since been added to and
combined with surveyed collar positions to construct a digital terrain model suitable for resource
modelling based on approximately 5,200 spot heights.

10.4.2

Anwia Down-hole Surveys

The Semafo diamond core holes were sporadically surveyed during drilling by acid etch tube and the
results were of doubtful quality. Resource Services Group (RSG) was contracted by Semafo in 1997
to down-hole survey a selection of drill holes. Some 24 diamond core holes and 19 RC holes were
down-hole surveyed by RSG using a Reflex electronic survey instrument in the open hole. The
selected diamond drill holes were generally successfully surveyed, but many of the holes had
collapsed and could not be surveyed much beyond 20-40 metres down hole.
All Adamus diamond core holes and c. 40 per cent of Adamus RC holes at Anwia were down-hole
surveyed by the drilling contractor, Minerex, immediately at the completion of each hole, and/or by
Downhole Surveys using a Flexit Multismart electronic survey tool in the open hole. Minerex collected
both dip and azimuth for diamond core holes by hanging the Eastman single shot camera beyond the
end of the diamond core drill rods at approximately 30 metre intervals down the hole. For RC holes
Minerex surveyed inside the rods, hence only drill hole declination was reported.

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To address concerns about significant deviation in the historic bore holes Adamus employed Minerex
drilling contractors to re-enter and down-hole survey 22 of the 75 diamond drill holes completed by
Semafo. Both azimuth and declination was collected as for Adamus standard diamond drill hole
surveying procedure. The holes selected for resurvey included those with relatively high metal content
and/or important geometrical implications. Digital Surveying was also contracted by Adamus to check
some of the historic drill holes using the Flexit Multismart electronic tool. Some 33 holes were
resurveyed representing all of the previous drilling programs. Results from the open hole resurveying
program were very consistent with the Minerex re-entry program but hampered by a high frequency of
collapsed holes.

10.4.3

Salman Deposit Surface Surveying

All Adamus drill hole collars have been surveyed in UTM Zone 30N WGS84 coordinates with
centimetre accuracy using Sokkia total station equipment tied to a series of concrete control pillars
established by Promark2 DGPS. Any BHP drill collars which were still visible were also resurveyed
using the same technique.
A strip approximately 8 kilometres long and up to 1 kilometre across covering the Salman Trend has
been topographically surveyed using concrete pillars established by Promark 2 DGPS and Sokkia total
station equipment along cut lines. Over 17,000 spot heights on c. 10m x 50m centres were used to
construct a digital terrain model suitable for resource modelling.
Approximately 35 trenches (c. 2065 m) were at least partially surveyed with Sokkia total station
equipment, 50 trenches (c. 3604 m) were surveyed using a combination of Garmin GPS and chain
and compass then draped on the Adamus digital terrain model, and the remaining 22 trenches (c.
1371 m) were scaled from TEMCO local .grid plans and AGR drill plans (originally located using chain
and compass) then draped over the digital terrain model.
Locations of all pits manually dug in the 2006 campaign were surveyed by total station in the same
manner as drill hole collars.

10.4.4

Salman Deposit Down-hole Surveys

None of the BHP drill holes were down-hole surveyed. At the time of the feasibility study,
approximately 83 per cent of Adamus diamond core holes and 49 per cent of the RC holes had been
down hole surveyed with a range of equipment including Tropari, single shot down hole cameras and
electronic multishot tools. The breakdown by equipment is: 13 RC holes surveyed to bottom of hole
for both dip and azimuth using Tropari inside stainless steel starter rods; 10 RC holes surveyed to
bottom of hole for both dip and azimuth using an electronic multishot tool inside stainless steel starter
rods; 176 RC holes surveyed to bottom of hole for dip only by digital tool inside rods; 199 RC holes
surveyed to bottom of hole for dip only by single shot Eastman camera inside rods; 8 diamond core
holes surveyed to bottom of hole for dip and azimuth by hanging digital survey tool out end of drill
rods; 8 diamond core holes surveyed to bottom of hole for dip and azimuth by hanging single shot
Eastman camera out end of drill rods; 99 RC and diamond core drill holes partially to completely
surveyed with Flexit Multismart tool in the open hole after drilling. The Flexit Multismart tool was
operated by Digital Surveying; all other equipment by the drilling contractor during drilling. Open hole
surveys using the Flexit Multismart tool were hampered by widespread collapse of holes shortly after
drilling. The majority of RC holes at Salman are less than 100 metres long and the average length is

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about 80 metres. The down hole surveying results show a mean deviation of 3 in dip (n=138) and
less than 2 in azimuth (n=27).

10.4.5

Satellite Deposit Surveys

All collar and down hole surveys were conducted to Adamus standard RC and diamond drill hole
surveying procedures as detailed above.

11.0 SAMPLING METHODS


11.1

RC sampling

All RC samples were collected from the drill rig cyclone on a one metre basis into large plastic bags
then riffle split to collect sub-samples for assay. BHP, Semafo and Samax typically submitted one
metre sub-samples directly for assay, Adamus variably directly submitted one metre sub-samples or
composited the sub-samples for assay according to prospectivity and laboratory assay production
rates.
Semafo RC samples were passed through a 75:25 riffle splitter to produce a 3-4kg sub-sample from
each metre for submission to the assay laboratory. One sample in fifteen had a blind duplicate
prepared and submitted. Splitters were routinely cleaned with high pressure air. For the later part of
the Semafo drilling program a wet splitter was used as required. The wet sample was collected in a
30 litre tub and allowed to settle before the excess water was decanted off. The sample was then
passed through a wet splitter. Semafo had concerns that gold was lost during the decanting process
and a flocculent was added to prior to decanting. Blind field duplicate samples were prepared and
submitted to the laboratory along with the primary assay samples at a frequency of 1:15 samples.
The Samax RC drill samples were riffle split on a one metre basis to provide approximately 4kg from
each metre for assay. It is not known how any wet samples were dealt with. Blanks, standards and
field duplicates were inserted into the sampling sequence at a rates ranging from 1:10 to 1:50
samples.
The BHP RC samples were riffle split to 2kg on a one metre basis. It is not known how any wet
samples were dealt with. BHP used a computer generated random numbering system to label subsamples sent to the assay laboratory. Two standards were randomly included for 20 samples. The
standards, Sal1 and Sal2, were prepared by homogenizing crushed rock from a road cutting through
the main mineralised zone at Salman, and assayed values ranged 0.018 to 4.66 ppm and 0.01 to 0.29
ppm Au respectively. A blank was made from beach sand collected near Essiama and assayed less
than 0.02 ppm. Both of these materials are considered unsuitable for assay quality control purposes.

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All Adamus RC cuttings were collected from the drill rig cyclone at one metre intervals into large
plastic bags before splitting. The sampling cyclone was cleaned at the end of each rod using highpressure air from the rig compressor, a scraper, and a rubber mallet to avoid progressive sample
accumulation. The bags were clearly marked with the appropriate hole number and interval using a
permanent marking pen. The plastic bags of RC drill cuttings were weighed on bench scales and laid
out sequentially in rows of 10 or 20 on the drill pad during drilling. Prior to sub-sampling for assay,
each single metre field sample was rolled in the bag or tipped into a large clean plastic bucket and
mixed to reduce sample stratification. For the initial Adamus drill programs the one metre samples
were put through a three tier 87:13 riffle splitter and the small sub-samples combined into 4 metre
composite sub-samples weighing 2-3kg for assay. Any significantly mineralised intervals were
identified and single metre sub-samples collected from the original (bulk) samples using a single tier
50:50 riffle splitter then submitted for assay. For later programs the RC drill cuttings were subsampled and submitted for assay as one metre intervals from the outset (i.e. no 4 metre composites).
Wet samples were not immediately split, but instead tube or grab sampled to produce the 4 metre
composite sample then the mineralised one metre bulk samples were air dried before being weighed
and split for one metre assays. In all cases the samples were placed into calico bags labelled with a
unique sample number. Quality control samples, including standards, blanks and field duplicates,
were inserted into the sampling sequence at a rate of 1:20 (5 per cent) in accordance with standard
RSG Global quality control protocols (RSG Global, 2002). Laboratory submission sheets were then
completed and samples dispatched by the company or laboratory courtesy vehicle for assay. Upon
receipt of primary assays the pulps of selected mineralised samples were also periodically dispatched
to Genalysis Laboratories, Australia (ISO/IEC 17025: Accreditation No. 3244) for confirmatory
analysis.

11.2

Diamond Drill Core Sampling

The Semafo and BHP diamond drill core was mostly sampled in one metre intervals with the
remaining core (generally core) returned to the trays for storage stored. The three Samax PQ
diamond drill core holes were sampled and assayed on a lithological basis.
Most of the Adamus oxide and transition zone core was wrapped with plastic film immediately after
drilling for bulk density determinations which were performed on site (see below) prior to sampling. All
Adamus diamond core sampling occurred at the Salman exploration camp. The drill core was
sampled in 1 or 2 metre intervals according to prospectivity: Single metre samples of core were
collected through zones considered prospective by the supervising geologist, owing to them
containing visible gold or any mineral assemblage known from previous work to have potential to host
gold, quartz, quartz veining, fresh or oxidised sulphides, alteration and/or being within structurally
complex zones or packages. Two metre core samples were collected through zones considered to
be waste owing to the absence of any of the above markers of prospective mineralisation. Competent
(fresh and some transition) core was cut using core saw, soft oxide and transition material sampled
with a knife or spatula. The samples were placed into calico or plastic bags labelled with a unique
sampling number. The remaining core was returned to the trays for storage. Quality control reference
standards and blanks were inserted into the sampling sequence at a rate of 1:20 (5 per cent) in
accordance with RSG Global quality control protocols (RSG Global, 2002). Laboratory submission
sheets were then completed and samples dispatched by company or laboratory courtesy vehicle for
assay. Upon receipt of primary assays the pulps of selected mineralised samples were also
periodically dispatched to SGS Analabs (ISO/IEC 17025: Accreditation No. 1936) and Genalysis
Laboratories, Perth, Australia for confirmatory analysis.

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11.3

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Page 52

Trench and Pit Sampling

All trenches (TEMCO, AGR and Adamus) were geologically logged and sampling intervals of 1, 2 or 3
metres as appropriate marked with coloured flagging tape and/or aluminium permatags along the wall
using tape. Samples were collected as a continuous channel running along the base of one wall or
floor of the trench or bulldozer line as appropriate, placed in calico bags, given a unique sample
number and submitted for assay. Quality control samples, including standards, blanks and field
duplicates, were inserted into the Adamus sampling sequence at a rate of 1:20.
Manually dug pits dug at Salman during 2006 were sampled in vertical channels with individual
sample intervals ranging from 0.5 metres to 1.5 metres length.

12.0 SAMPLE PREPARATION, ANALYSES AND SECURITY


12.1

Sample Preparation

Sample preparation is described in Section 11 of this Report. Beyond this point, no employee, officer,
director or associate of Adamus was involved in any aspect of the preparation or analysis of samples
from the Project.

12.2

12.2.1

Analyses

TEMCO

The TEMCO trench samples were sent to SGS Laboratory, Accra where they were pulverized and
assayed for Au by aqua regia digest presumably with AAS finish. Most samples were also analysed
for As, Sb, Cu and/or Mn. Assay certificates are not available but TEMCO exploration reports with a
complete printout of trench sample descriptions with assays are held by Adamus (Tropical Exploration
and Mining Co Ltd, 1992, Tropical Exploration and Mining Co Ltd, 1993).

12.2.2

Semafo

Semafo diamond core and RC samples were submitted to SGS Laboratories, Tarkwa for assay of gold
by 50g charge fire assay. Assay certificates are not available to Adamus.

12.2.3

Samax

Samax RC and diamond core drilling samples of approximately 4kg each were submitted to SGS
Laboratories, Tarkwa, pulped and assayed for gold by 2kg agitated cyanide leach (bottled roll) with
AAS finish. Assay certificates are held by Adamus.

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BHP

BHP diamond core and RC samples were sent to SGS Laboratories in Accra where they were
assayed for gold by 50g charge fire assay with AAS finish. Lower limit of detection was 0.01 ppm. A
second 50g pulp sample was taken from each pulverized diamond core bulk residue at the laboratory
for aqua regia digest followed by assay of As, Cu and Sb by AAS. A batch of 149 duplicate samples
from RC holes with significant mineralisation was analyzed by CHEMEX laboratories in Canada; the
CHEMEX and SGS assays compared well (e.g. Bolton & Amegashi, 1996). A selection of assay
certificates and complete printout of digital BHP drill hole logs with assays is held by Adamus.

12.2.5

ARL

Adamus RC and diamond core samples were submitted to Transworld Laboratories and/or SGS
Laboratories both in Tarkwa, for industry standard 50g charge fire assay for gold with AAS finish and
0.01 ppm lower limit of detection. Approximately 1800 samples were pulped at SGS Tarkwa and 120
samples at Transworld then air-freighted to Genalysis, Perth for 50g charge fire assay for gold with
AAS finish (0.01 ppm lower limit of detection). Approximately 44,000 gold assays were successfully
conducted by the three laboratories, approx. 90 per cent by Transworld, 7 per cent by SGS Tarkwa,
and 3 per cent pulped by SGS Tarkwa and Transworld and assayed by Genalysis. During 2005, field
duplicates and pulps of selected mineralised samples from Transworld and SGS Tarkwa were
periodically air-freighted to SGS Analabs and Genalysis Laboratories, Perth for check assaying.
Approximately 5900 samples were also assayed for gold by 1kg agitated cyanide leach (bottle roll)
with Leachwell and tail fire assay at Transworld and SGS in Tarkwa. Approximately 200 samples
were assayed by 200 or 400g cyanide bottle roll with Leachwell and tail fire assay at Genalysis, Perth.
Standard sample preparation and fire assay procedure at all laboratories involved oven drying of
samples upon arrival, followed by jaw crushing to -2 mm, followed by complete pulverization to P90% 75m in LM2 or LM5 disk mills, followed by homogenisation and sub-sampling to obtain 150-200g
pulp, with 50g sub-sampled from the pulp for lead collection fire assay and AAS finish for Au.
Remaining pulps were returned to Adamus for storage or re-assay as appropriate. All assays were
supplied to Adamus in electronic form and as hardcopy assay certificates. From mid-2004 to mid2005, quality control data were periodically analysed by RSG Global and appropriate
recommendations made. Subsequent QCQA monitoring has been by Adamus.

12.3

12.3.1

Analyses - Bulk Densities

Anwia

About 1400 bulk density determinations have been undertaken by Adamus using air-dried HQ core
and the weight-in-air, weight-in-water method. Figure 12-1 to Figure 12-4 show summary statistics for
bulk densities in each of the weathering subdomains. In addition, Samax measured bulk densities on
27 samples taken from hand-dug pits at depths up to four metres below surface. Densities of those
samples ranged from 1.512 to 2.22 g/cc. Densities applied to the resource model are listed in Table
12-1.

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Table 12-1

August 2008
Page 54

Bulk densities applied to the Anwia resource model

Weathering subdomain
Very weathered, 1
Moderately weathered, 2
Weakly weathered, 3
Fresh rock, 4

Bulk density g/cc


1.8
2.1
2.5
2.8

Figure 12-1 Bulk densities of Anwia very weathered drill core


0.25

Histogram of density
Univariate Statistics
variable: density

0.20

Proportion of samples

weighted by: -mean: 1.878

0.15

varnc: 0.030
coefvrn: 0.092
min: 1.590

0.10

q1: 1.750
median: 1.850

0.05

q3: 1.950
max: 2.540

0
1.0

iqr: 0.200

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0
no. of data: 89 / 1393

grade class - density

(data is sub-setted)

Figure 12-2 Bulk densities of Anwia moderately weathered drill core


0.20

Histogram of density
Univariate Statistics
variable: density
weighted by: --

Proportion of samples

0.15

mean: 2.155
varnc: 0.036
coefvrn: 0.088

0.10

min: 1.710
q1: 2.000
median: 2.140

0.05

q3: 2.280
max: 2.850

0
1.0

iqr: 0.280

1.5

2.0
grade class - density

2.5

3.0
no. of data: 127 / 1393
(data is sub-setted)

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.
Figure 12-3 Bulk densities of Anwia weakly weathered drill core
0.25

Histogram of density
Univariate Statistics
variable: density

0.20

Proportion of samples

weighted by: -mean: 2.446

0.15

varnc: 0.028
coefvrn: 0.068
min: 1.990

0.10

q1: 2.300
median: 2.430

0.05

q3: 2.600
max: 2.770

0
1.0

iqr: 0.300

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0
no. of data: 92 / 1393

grade class - density

(data is sub-setted)

Figure 12-4 Bulk densities of Anwia fresh rock drill core


0.6

Histogram of density
Univariate Statistics

0.5

variable: density

Proportion of samples

weighted by: -mean: 2.774

0.4

varnc: 0.016
coefvrn: 0.046

0.3

min: 1.500
q1: 2.750

0.2

median: 2.780
q3: 2.810

0.1

max: 4.750

0
1.5

iqr: 0.060

2.0

2.5
grade class - density

3.0

3.5
no. of data: 1085 / 1393
(data is sub-setted)

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Salman

Adamus has measured about 1480 bulk densities on HQ drill core from Salman. Measurements used
the weight-in-air, weight-in-water method on air-dried HQ core. Figure 12-5 to Figure 12-8 show
summary statistics for bulk densities in each of the weathering subdomains and densities applied to
the resource model are listed in Table 12-2

Table 12-2 Bulk densities applied to the Salman resource model


Weathering subdomain
Very weathered, 1
Moderately weathered, 2
Weakly weathered, 3
Fresh rock, 4

Bulk density g/cc


1.8
2.1
2.5
2.8

Figure 12-5 Bulk densities of Salman very weathered drill core


0.15

Histogram of density
Univariate Statistics
variable: density

Proportion of samples

weighted by: -mean: 1.815

0.10

varnc: 0.046
coefvrn: 0.118
min: 1.220
q1: 1.720

0.05

median: 1.810
q3: 1.900
max: 2.670

0
1.0

iqr: 0.180

1.5

2.0
grade class - density

2.5

3.0
no. of data: 250 / 1481
(data is sub-setted)

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Figure 12-6 Bulk densities of Salman moderately weathered drill core


0.14

Histogram of density
Univariate Statistics

0.12

variable: density
weighted by: --

Proportion of samples

0.10
mean: 2.173
varnc: 0.041

0.08

coefvrn: 0.093

0.06

min: 1.550
q1: 2.060

0.04

median: 2.150
q3: 2.270

0.02

max: 2.680

0
1.0

iqr: 0.210

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0
no. of data: 101 / 1481

grade class - density

(data is sub-setted)

Figure 12-7 Bulk densities of Salman weakly weathered drill core


0.20

Histogram of density
Univariate Statistics
variable: density
weighted by: --

Proportion of samples

0.15

mean: 2.560
varnc: 0.010
coefvrn: 0.039

0.10

min: 2.200
q1: 2.490
median: 2.580

0.05

q3: 2.630
max: 2.760

0
1.0

iqr: 0.140

1.5

2.0
grade class - density

2.5

3.0
no. of data: 109 / 1481
(data is sub-setted)

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Figure 12-8 Bulk densities of Salman fresh rock drill core


0.4

Histogram of density
Univariate Statistics
variable: density
weighted by: --

Proportion of samples

0.3

mean: 2.763
varnc: 0.013
coefvrn: 0.041

0.2

min: 2.140
q1: 2.740
median: 2.760

0.1

q3: 2.790
max: 5.740

0
1.5

iqr: 0.050

2.0

2.5

3.0

grade class - density

3.5
no. of data: 1021 / 1481
(data is sub-setted)

12.3.3

Satellite Deposits

No bulk density data were available for the Satellite Deposits. The bulk densities assigned to the four
weathering zones modelled in this study are shown in Table 12-3. They are the same as the densities
calculated at Aniwa and Salman.
Table 12-3: Bulk densities applied to the Satellite Deposits resource models
Weathering subdomain
Very weathered, 1
Moderately weathered, 2
Weakly weathered, 3
Fresh rock, 4

12.4

Bulk density g/cc


1.8
2.1
2.5
2.8

Sample Storage and Security

RC samples are prepared and collected from the drill rig on a daily basis and periodically delivered to
Transworld and SGS Laboratories in Tarkwa for analysis by company vehicle or laboratory courtesy
vehicle. Similarly, the diamond core is transferred to the core yard at the Salman exploration camp on
a daily basis for geological logging and sampling prior to submission. All Adamus drill core, BHP drill
core, BHP and Adamus assay pulps, BHP RC chip-boards, Adamus RC chip trays and significantly
mineralised RC bulk residues from Adamus programs are stored at the Salman exploration camp.
Semafo drill core from Anwia is stored under cover at the old Semafo core yard in Nkroful. Semafo
and Samax RC bulk residues and drill core from the three Samax diamond holes are no longer
available.

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From mid-2004 to mid-2005, sample handling was monitored by RSG Global personnel to ensure
adequate sample quality and security. After establishment of standard operating procedures, all
subsequent sample handling has been by Adamus personnel.

12.5

Representivity of Samples

A discussion of the representivity of samples is set out in Section 13 of this Report.

12.6

Adequacy of Sample Preparation, Security and Analytical


Procedures

In the authors opinion, the methods of sample preparation and analysis used conform to those
described elsewhere as industry standards.
The sample security procedures conform to those instituted and revised by RSG Global in 2004-5. All
QCQA monitoring since has been undertaken by Adamus. The results of subsequent QCQA checks
are such that, in the authors opinion, sample security procedures have been adequate since 2004.

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13.0 DATA VERIFICATION


13.1

Anwia Assay Accuracy

Adamus has no record of reference standards submitted with drilling at Anwia by Semafo or
Samax/AGC but records do exist for blank samples submitted by Samax/AGC (Figure 13-1). Samples
from core and RC drilling by Adamus in 2004 were submitted with 1:20 sample blanks and reference
standards. Figure 13-2 shows assays of blanks and Figure 13-3 to Figure 13-9 show run charts for
assays of reference standards. Blank samples indicate that with few exceptions, that may have
resulted from sample switches, there is no evidence of significant sample-to-sample contamination.
Reference standards do not indicate any consistent bias in assays by SGS or Transworld laboratories
although Transworld tend to report low.

Figure 13-1 Assays of Samax/AGC blanks submitted with Anwia drill samples
Sam ple Blank Control Chart
SGS FA
1

g/t Au

0.5
0
-0.5
-1
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

Date sequence

Figure 13-2 Assays of Adamus blanks submitted with Anwia drill samples
Sam ple Blank Control Chart
SGS FA

TWL FA

1.00

g/t Au

0.50
0.00
-0.50
-1.00
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

240

260

Date s e que nce

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Figure 13-3 Assays of STD4B submitted with Adamus Anwia samples


Standard Control Chart
STD 4B 1.48g/t +/- 10%

SGS FA

TWL FA

g/t Au

1.75
1.5
1.25
1
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

32

Date s e que nce

Figure 13-4 Assays of STD5B submitted with Adamus Anwia samples


Standard Control Chart
STD 5B 0.50g/t +/- 10%

SGS FA

TWL FA

0.8
0.7
g/t Au

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

32

Date s e que nce

Figure 13-5 Assays of STD6B submitted with Adamus Anwia samples


Standard Control Chart
STD 6B 9.70g/t +/- 10%

SGS FA

TWL FA

12

g/t Au

11
10
9
8
7
0

10

12

14

16

Date s e que nce

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Figure 13-6 Assays of STD7B submitted with Adamus Anwia samples


Standard Control Chart
STD 7B 2.06g/t +/- 10%

SGS FA

TWL FA

2.5

g/t Au

2.25
2
1.75
1.5
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

Date s e que nce

Figure 13-7 Assays of STD8B submitted with Adamus Anwia samples


Standard Control Chart
STD 8B 2.36g/t +/- 10%

SGS FA

TWL FA

g/t Au

2.75
2.5
2.25
2
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

Date s e que nce

Figure 13-8 Assays of STD9B submitted with Adamus Anwia samples


Standard Control Chart
STD 9B 1.33g/t +/- 10%

SGS FA

TWL FA

g/t Au

1.75
1.5
1.25
1
0.75
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

32

Date s e que nce

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Figure 13-9 Assays of STD10B submitted with Adamus Anwia samples


Standard Control Chart
STD 10B 13.9g/t +/- 10%

SGS FA

TWL FA

18

g/t Au

16
14
12
10
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

Date s e que nce

13.2

Comparison of Adamus to Semafo and Samax/AGC Sampling

Estimation of gold resources at Anwia relies significantly on assay data deriving from previous drilling
by Semafo and Samax/AGC. The only way to check how reliably these samples represent
mineralisation was to compare them to subsequent Adamus drilling. Using one-metre sample
composites, a search was undertaken to find pairs of samples from holes drilled by Semafo or Samax
and samples drilled by Adamus lying within 10mE x 10mN x 0.5mRL of each other. The resulting
pairs were then filtered to remove duplicate pairings, i.e., to retain the unique earlier sample lying
nearest to each Adamus drill sample within the search radii. The search located 1405 unique nearest
neighbour pairs with a mean separation distance of 7.1 metres. It was reasonable to assume that
these pairs represent two independent samplings of the same region of mineralisation. Figure 13-10
shows a scatter plot of assays. Correlation between gold grades in individual pairs of samples is poor,
as is to be expected in a deposit such as Anwia. Figure 13-11 shows a quantile-quantile plot
comparing the marginal histograms of the two sample populations. There is no obvious bias to higher
gold grades in either sample population and the summary statistics of the two sample populations are
very similar. It may be concluded that the two samplings are equally representative of Anwia
mineralisation.

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Figure 13-10 Scatter plot of nearest neighbour sample pairs


Scatter plot

20

Data Statistics
variable: ADU_Au

AGC_Au

weight by: --

AGC_Au

15

--

mean: 0.527

0.549

varnc: 2.730

2.452

coefvrn: 3.134

2.852

min: 0.005

0.001

q1: 0.030

0.020

median: 0.070

0.080

q3: 0.320

0.350

max: 17.200

17.700

iqr: 0.290

0.330

10

covarnc: 0.423
Pearson: 0.163
Spearman: 0.454

0
0

10

15

no. data: 1389 / 1405

20

ADU_Au
(data is sub-setted)

Figure 13-11 Q-Q plot of nearest neighbour sample pairs


Q-Q Plot

20

Data Statistics
variable: ADU_Au

AGC_Au

weight by: --

AGC_Au

15

--

mean: 0.527

0.549

varnc: 2.730

2.452

coefvrn: 3.134

2.852

min: 0.005

0.001

q1: 0.030

0.020

median: 0.070

0.080

q3: 0.320

0.350

max: 17.200

17.700

iqr: 0.290

0.330

10

covarnc: 0.423
Pearson: 0.163
Spearman: 0.454

0
0

10

15

20

no. data: 1389 / 1405

ADU_Au
(data is sub-setted)

13.3

Anwia Sampling and Assaying Precision

Field re-splits of RC drill samples measure the accumulated errors of the entire sampling and assaying
procedure. Available data include re-splits by Samax/AGC during their 1998-2000 drilling campaigns,
and 1:20 field re-splits of RC samples submitted by Adamus during 2004 drilling.

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Figure 13-12 and Figure 13-13 show scatter and precision plots and summary statistics for field re-split
samples submitted by Samax/AGC. The correlation between first and second split samples is very
high because of good repeatability of high-grade samples. Those samples also influence the
precision statistics which, at 12 per cent, is high for RC drill samples from a gold deposit such as
Anwia. There is no obvious bias to higher grades in either sample split.
Figure 13-14 and Figure 13-15 show the same statistics for field re-split samples submitted by
Adamus. The correlation and precision are not as good as for the Samax/AGC pairs but there are far
fewer data to compare. At 34 per cent the precision is more typical of pairs of RC samples from lode
gold deposits.
Figure 13-12 Scatter plot: Samax/AGC Anwia field re-splits
Scatter plot

30

Data Statistics
variable: Au_FDPP

AU_FDP1

weight by: --

AU_FDP1

20

10

--

mean: 0.700

0.712

varnc: 5.253

5.579

coefvrn: 3.272

3.316

min: 0.005

0.001

q1: 0.020

0.020

median: 0.090

0.090

q3: 0.430

0.400

max: 25.600

28.800

iqr: 0.410

0.380

covarnc: 5.328
Pearson: 0.984
Spearman: 0.944

0
0

10

15

20

25

30

no. data: 844 / 850

Au_FDPP
(data is sub-setted)

Figure 13-13 Precision plot: Samax/AGC field re-splits

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Paired Data Precision plot

Data Statistics
variable: Au_FDPP

Pair Absolute Difference

AU_FDP1

weight by: --

--

mean: 0.700

0.712

varnc: 5.253

5.579

coefvrn: 3.272

3.316

min: 0.005

0.001

q1: 0.020

0.020

median: 0.090

0.090

q3: 0.430

0.400

max: 25.600

28.800

iqr: 0.410

0.380

covarnc: 5.328

Pearson: 0.984
Spearman: 0.944

0
0

10

20
Pair Av erage

30

precision: +/-12% @ 56%CI


no. data: 844 / 850
(data is sub-setted)

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Figure 13-14 Scatter plot: Adamus Anwia field re-splits


Scatter plot

2.5

Data Statistics
variable: Au_FDPP

Au_FDP1

weight by: --

2.0

Au_FDP1

1.5

1.0

0.5

--

mean: 0.182

0.189

varnc: 0.129

0.147

coefvrn: 1.965

2.037

min: 0.005

0.005

q1: 0.020

0.020

median: 0.050

0.060

q3: 0.130

0.160

max: 2.180

1.950

iqr: 0.110

0.140

covarnc: 0.120
Pearson: 0.872
Spearman: 0.897

0
0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

no. data: 95 / 98

Au_FDPP
(data is sub-setted)

Figure 13-15 Precision plot: Adamus Anwia field re-splits


Paired Data Precision plot

1.2

Data Statistics
variable: Au_FDPP

Pair Absolute Difference

1.0

Au_FDP1

weight by: --

0.8

0.6

0.4

--

mean: 0.182

0.189

varnc: 0.129

0.147

coefvrn: 1.965

2.037

min: 0.005

0.005

q1: 0.020

0.020

median: 0.050

0.060

q3: 0.130

0.160

max: 2.180

1.950

iqr: 0.110

0.140

covarnc: 0.120

0.2

Pearson: 0.872
Spearman: 0.897

0
0

0.5

1.0

1.5

Pair Av erage

2.0

2.5

precision: +/-34% @ 61%CI


no. data: 95 / 98
(data is sub-setted)

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13.4

August 2008
Page 68

Salman RC Sample Recovery

During 2002-2003 RC drilling at Salman and Akanko RC samples were weighed on a campaign basis
to quantitatively check sample recoveries. A total of 5,144 samples in 75 holes were weighed as they
were recovered from the drill cyclone. Figure 13-16 to Figure 13-19 show histograms and summary
statistics for per cent sample recoveries, grouped by degree of weathering (and thus also
approximately by down-hole depth). Based on experience, sample recoveries from RC drilling
commonly range from about 55 to 70 per cent, with industry best practice achieving about 85 per cent.
Available data indicate that sample recoveries in strongly and moderately weathered materials in early
Salman drilling were quite poor, averaging about 40 per cent. Recoveries from shallow depths are of
course adversely affected by loss of sample in the first five or six metres of drilling when confining
pressure around the bit face is low. Sample recoveries in weakly weathered material and fresh rock
are more acceptable, averaging 50 and 60 per cent respectively.
A large number of RC samples from resource definition drilling in 2006 were weighed. Data are
available for 13,016 samples from 212 holes. Figure 13-20 to Figure 13-23 show histograms and
summary statistics for sample recoveries, again grouped by degree of weathering. Sample recoveries
range from 57 per cent in near-surface, very weathered material though 69 per cent for moderately
weathered, 83 per cent for weakly weathered and 85 per cent for fresh rock. These are considered
better than normal industry practice.

Figure 13-16 Sample recoveries in 2002-2003 RC drilling, very weathered material


Histogram of %recov
0.14

Univariate Statistics

0.12

variable: %recov
weighted by: --

0.10
P roportion of s a m ple s

mean: 40.982
varnc: 738.762

0.08

coefvrn: 0.663
0.06

min: 1.000
q1: 15.000

0.04

median: 35.000
q3: 64.000

0.02

max: 100.000
0

iqr: 49.000
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

grade class - %recov

70

80

90

100

no. of data: 223 / 5144


(data is sub-setted)

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Figure 13-17 Sample recoveries in 2002-2003 RC drilling, moderately weathered material


Histogram of %recov
0.12

Univariate Statistics

variable: %recov

0.10

weighted by: -mean: 39.542

P r oportion of s a m ple s

0.08

varnc: 316.300
coefvrn: 0.450

0.06

min: 3.000
q1: 28.000

0.04

median: 40.000
q3: 50.000

0.02

max: 87.000
0

iqr: 22.000
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

grade class - %recov

no. of data: 618 / 5144


(data is sub-setted)

Figure 13-18 Sample recoveries in 2002-2003 RC drilling, weakly weathered material


Histogram of %recov
0.12

Univariate Statistics

variable: %recov

0.10

weighted by: -mean: 51.505

P roportion of s a m ple s

0.08

varnc: 278.469
coefvrn: 0.324

0.06

min: 3.000
q1: 40.000

0.04

median: 52.000
q3: 63.000

0.02

max: 100.000
0

iqr: 23.000
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

grade class - %recov

70

80

90

100

no. of data: 2622 / 5144


(data is sub-setted)

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Figure 13-19 Sample recoveries in 2002-2003 RC drilling, fresh rock


Histogram of %recov
0.10

Univariate Statistics

variable: %recov
0.08

weighted by: --

P roportion of s a m ple s

mean: 59.089
0.06

varnc: 411.963
coefvrn: 0.343
min: 4.000

0.04

q1: 44.000
median: 61.000
0.02

q3: 74.000
max: 100.000

iqr: 30.000
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

grade class - %recov

no. of data: 1681 / 5144


(data is sub-setted)

Figure 13-20 Sample recoveries in 2006 RC drilling, very weathered material


Histogram of %recov
0.10

Univariate Statistics

variable: %recov
0.08

weighted by: --

P roportion of s a m ple s

mean: 57.296
0.06

varnc: 655.806
coefvrn: 0.447
min: 8.000

0.04

q1: 38.000
median: 57.000
0.02

q3: 77.000
max: 100.000

iqr: 39.000
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

grade class - %recov

70

80

90

100

no. of data: 433 / 13016


(data is sub-setted)

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Figure 13-21 Sample recoveries in 2006 RC drilling, moderately weathered material


Histogram of %recov
0.15

Univariate Statistics

variable: %recov
weighted by: -mean: 68.999

P roportion of s a m ple s

0.10

varnc: 471.846
coefvrn: 0.315
min: 6.000
q1: 54.000

0.05

median: 70.000
q3: 86.000
max: 100.000
0

iqr: 32.000
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

grade class - %recov

no. of data: 5272 / 13016


(data is sub-setted)

Figure 13-22 Sample recoveries in 2006 RC drilling, weakly weathered material


Histogram of %recov
0.4

Univariate Statistics

variable: %recov
weighted by: --

0.3

P roportion of s a m ple s

mean: 83.273
varnc: 294.965
coefvrn: 0.206

0.2

min: 10.000
q1: 74.000
median: 88.000

0.1

q3: 99.000
max: 100.000
0

iqr: 25.000
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

grade class - %recov

70

80

90

100

no. of data: 3273 / 13016


(data is sub-setted)

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Figure 13-23 Sample recoveries in 2006 RC drilling, fresh rock


Histogram of %recov
0.25

Univariate Statistics

variable: %recov
0.20

weighted by: --

P roportion of s a m ple s

mean: 84.676
0.15

varnc: 212.565
coefvrn: 0.172
min: 7.000

0.10

q1: 79.000
median: 89.000
0.05

q3: 96.000
max: 100.000

iqr: 17.000
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

grade class - %recov

70

80

90

100

no. of data: 4038 / 13016


(data is sub-setted)

13.5

Salman Assay Accuracy

There are no records available for any reference standards or other check samples that may have
been submitted with drill samples by BHP. However, BHP drill samples now form a very small
proportion of the data informing resource estimates. From the commencement of drilling at Salman by
Adamus, blanks, reference standards and field-re-splits of RC samples have been interleaved with
samples prior to submission for assay.
Figure 13-24 to Figure 13-32 show run charts for blank samples submitted to SGS, Transworld and
Genalysis laboratories. Blank samples have, at various times, comprised crushed fire assay pots,
rejects from previously assayed RC samples that returned very low gold grades and portions of
Voltaian sandstone and grit. Many of the blanks that stand out on the charts as having returned
elevated gold grades derive from RC sample rejects. Otherwise there is no marked evidence of crosssample contamination in assay laboratories.

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Figure 13-24 Adamus blanks submitted for SGS fire assay with Salman drill samples
Sample Blank Control Chart
SGS FA
1

g/t Au

0.5
0
-0.5
-1
0

25

50

75

100

125

150

175

200

225

Date s e que nce

Figure 13-25 Adamus blanks submitted for Transworld CN leach assay with Salman drill
samples
Sample Blank Control Chart
TWL CN Leach
1

g/t Au

0.5
0
-0.5
-1
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Date s e que nce

Figure 13-26 Adamus blanks submitted for Transworld fire assay with 2002 drill samples
Sample Blank Control Chart
TWL FA 2002
1

g/t Au

0.5
0
-0.5
-1
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Date s e que nce

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Figure 13-27 Adamus blanks submitted for Transworld fire assay with 2003 drill samples
Sample Blank Control Chart
TWL FA 2003
1

g/t Au

0.5
0
-0.5
-1
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

Date s e que nce

Figure 13-28 Adamus blanks submitted for Transworld fire assay with 2004 drill samples
Sample Blank Control Chart
TWL FA 2004
1

g/t Au

0.5
0
-0.5
-1
0

25

50

75

100

125

150

175

Date s e que nce

Figure 13-29 Adamus blanks submitted for Transworld fire assay with 2005 drill samples
Sample Blank Control Chart
TWL FA 2005
1

g/t Au

0.5
0
-0.5
-1
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Date s e que nce

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Figure 13-30 Adamus blanks submitted for Transworld fire assay with 2006 drill samples
Sample Blank Control Chart
TWL FA 2006
1

g/t Au

0.5
0
-0.5
-1
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

Date sequence

Figure 13-31 Adamus blanks submitted for Transworld fire assay with 2007 drill samples
Sample Blank Control Chart
Genalysis FA
1

g/t Au

0.5
0
-0.5
-1
0

10

12

14

16

Date s e que nce

Figure 13-32: Adamus blanks submitted for Genalysis fire assay with Salman drill samples
Sample Blank Control Chart
Genalysis FA
1

g/t Au

0.5
0
-0.5
-1
0

10

12

14

16

Date s e que nce

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Figure 13-33 through to Figure 13-42 show run charts for reference standards submitted with drill
samples fire assayed by SGS Tarkwa. Standards are sourced from Rocklabs New Zealand and from
Gannet Industries, Perth. The erratic results of some standards possibly relates to the reference
material itself. In the authors experience, some reference materials produced by Gannet return
inconsistent gold grades. Bearing in mind that most sample batches submitted for analysis contain at
least four reference standards, there is no evidence for significant bias in the SGS assays.
Figure 13-43 to Figure 13-57 show run charts for standards submitted to Transworld Laboratories,
Tarkwa. Assays are mainly within 10 per cent error bounds and there is no consistent bias evident.
The erratic grades returned from high-grade standard 6B almost certainly reflect inhomogeneity in the
material.

Figure 13-33: Assays of STD1 submitted to SGS with Salman samples


Standard Control Chart
STD1 0.802g/t +/- 10%

SGS FA

g/t Au

0.75

0.5
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

Date s e que nce

Figure 13-34: Assays of STD4B submitted to SGS with Salman samples


Standard Control Chart
STD4B 1.48g/t +/- 10%

SGS FA

g/t Au

1.75
1.5
1.25
1
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

Date s e que nce

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Figure 13-35: Assays of STD5B submitted to SGS with Salman samples


Standard Control Chart
STD5B 0.50g/t +/- 10%

SGS FA

g/t Au

0.75

0.5

0.25
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

Date s e que nce

Figure 13-36: Assays of STD6B submitted to SGS with Salman samples


Standard Control Chart
STD6B 9.70g/t +/- 10%

SGS FA

12

g/t Au

11
10
9
8
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

Date s e que nce

Figure 13-37: Assays of STD7B submitted to SGS with Salman samples


Standard Control Chart
STD7B 2.06g/t +/- 10%

SGS FA

g/t Au

2.75

2.25
1.75

1.25
0

10

11

12

Date s e que nce

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Figure 13-38: Assays of STD8B submitted to SGS with Salman samples


Standard Control Chart
STD8B 2.36g/t +/- 10%

SGS FA

2.75

g/t Au

2.5
2.25
2
1.75
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Date s e que nce

Figure 13-39: Assays of STD9B submitted to SGS with Salman samples


Standard Control Chart
STD9B 1.33g/t +/- 10%

SGS FA

1.75

g/t Au

1.5

1.25

1
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

Date s e que nce

Figure 13-40: Assays of STD10B submitted to SGS with Salman samples


Standard Control Chart
STD10B 13.9g/t +/- 10%

SGS FA

18

g/t Au

16
14
12
10
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Date s e que nce

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Technical Report

August 2008
Page 79

Figure 13-41: Assays of STD11 submitted to SGS with Salman samples


Standard Control Chart
STD11 1.805g/t +/- 10%

SGS FA

2.5

g/t Au

2.25
2
1.75
1.5
1.25
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

32

34

Date s e que nce

Figure 13-42: Assays of STD12 submitted to SGS with Salman samples


Standard Control Chart
STD12 7.615g/t +/- 10%

SGS FA

9
8.5
g/t Au

8
7.5
7
6.5
6
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

Date s e que nce

Figure 13-43: Assays of STD1 submitted to Transworld with Salman samples


Standard Control Chart
STD1 0.802g/t +/- 10%

TWL FA

g/t Au

0.75

0.5
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Date sequence

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Figure 13-44: Assays of STD02 submitted to Transworld with Salman samples


Standard Control Chart
STD2 0.939g/t +/- 10%

TWL FA

g/t Au

1.25

0.75
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

Date sequence

Figure 13-45: Assays of STD3 submitted to Transworld with Salman samples


Standard Control Chart
STD3 2.427g/t +/- 10%

TWL FA

g/t Au

2.75
2.5
2.25
2
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

Date sequence

Figure 13-46: Assays of STD4 submitted to Transworld with Salman samples


Standard Control Chart
STD4 2.58g/t +/- 10%

TWL FA

g/t Au

2.75
2.5
2.25
2
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

Date sequence

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Figure 13-47: Assays of STD4B submitted to Transworld with Salman samples


Standard Control Chart
STD4B 1.48g/t +/- 10%

TWL FA

g/t Au

1.75
1.5
1.25
1
0

40

80

120

160

200

240

280

320

Date sequence

Figure 13-48: Assays of STD5 submitted to Transworld with Salman samples


Standard Control Chart
STD5 10.47g/t +/- 10%

TWL FA

g/t Au

12

11
10

9
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

Date sequence

Figure 13-49: Assays of STD5B submitted to Transworld with Salman samples


Standard Control Chart
STD5B 0.50g/t +/- 10%

TWL FA

g/t Au

0.65

0.55
0.45

0.35
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

Date sequence

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Figure 13-50: Assays of STD6 submitted to Transworld with Salman samples


Standard Control Chart
STD6 15.15g/t +/- 10%

TWL FA

g/t Au

18

16
14

12
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

Date sequence

Figure 13-51: Assays of STD6B submitted to Transworld with Salman samples


Standard Control Chart
STD6B 9.70g/t +/- 10%

TWL FA

12

g/t Au

11
10
9
8
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

Date sequence

Figure 13-52: Assays of STD7B submitted to Transworld with Salman samples


Standard Control Chart
STD7B 2.06g/t +/- 10%

TWL FA

g/t Au

2.75

2.25
1.75

1.25
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

Date sequence

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Figure 13-53: Assays of STD8B submitted to Transworld with Salman samples


Standard Control Chart
STD8B 2.36g/t +/- 10%

TWL FA

2.75

g/t Au

2.5
2.25
2
1.75
0

25

50

75

100

125

150

175

200

225

250

275

300

325

350

375

Date sequence

Figure 13-54: Assays of STD9B submitted to Transworld with Salman samples


Standard Control Chart
STD9B 1.33g/t +/- 10%

TWL FA

g/t Au

1.75

1.5
1.25

1
0

15

30

45

60

75

90

105

120

135

150

Date sequence

Figure 13-55: Assays of STD10B submitted to Transworld with Salman samples


Standard Control Chart
STD10B 13.9g/t +/- 10%

TWL FA

18

g/t Au

16
14
12
10
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

Date sequence

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Figure 13-56: Assays of STD11 submitted to Transworld with Salman samples


Standard Control Chart
STD11 1.805g/t +/- 10%

TWL FA

2.5

g/t Au

2.25
2
1.75
1.5
1.25
0

10

12

14

16

18

Date sequence

Figure 13-57: Assays of STD13B submitted to Transworld with Salman samples


Standard Control Chart
STD13B 13.9g/t +/- 10%

TWL FA

18

g/t Au

16
14
12
10
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

240

Date sequence

13.6

Salman Sampling and Assaying Precision

Almost from inception, Adamus has submitted field re-splits of Salman RC drill samples at a ratio of
1:20. Figure 13-58 and Figure 13-59 show scatter and precision plots and summary statistics for field
re-split samples submitted to SGS for fire assay and Figure 13-60 to Figure 13-63 show the same data
for samples fire assayed by Transworld and assayed by cyanide bottle roll by Transworld.
Correlations between first and second spit samples are satisfactory and precisions, at 25-35 per cent,
are typical of sampling in lode gold deposits. Some outliers probably represent mismatches of pairs.
In each of the data sets there is no obvious bias to higher grades in either sample split.

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Figure 13-58: Scatter plot: SGS fire assays of Salman field re-splits
Scatter plot

15

Data Statistics
variable: Au_FDPP

Au_FDP1

weight by: --

Au_FDP1

10

--

mean: 0.913

0.879

varnc: 2.491

1.908

coefvrn: 1.728

1.571

min: 0.010

0.005

q1: 0.090

0.080

median: 0.270

0.310

q3: 0.870

0.990

max: 12.300

10.000

iqr: 0.780

0.910

covarnc: 1.856
Pearson: 0.852
Spearman: 0.906

0
0

10

15

no. data: 369 / 1512

Au_FDPP
(data is sub-setted)

Figure 13-59: Precision plot: SGS fire assays of Salman field re-splits
Paired Data Precision plot

Data Statistics

variable: Au_FDPP

7
Pair Absolute Difference

Au_FDP1

weight by: --

6
5
4
3
2

--

mean: 0.913

0.879

varnc: 2.491

1.908

coefvrn: 1.728

1.571

min: 0.010

0.005

q1: 0.090

0.080

median: 0.270

0.310

q3: 0.870

0.990

max: 12.300

10.000

iqr: 0.780

0.910

covarnc: 1.856
Pearson: 0.852

Spearman: 0.906

0
0

4
Pair Av erage

10

precision: +/-36% @ 63%CI


no. data: 369 / 1512
(data is sub-setted)

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Figure 13-60: Scatter plot: Transworld fire assays of Salman field re-splits
Scatter plot
15

Data Statistics
variable: Au_FDPP

Au_FDP1

weight by: --

12

Au_FDP1

--

mean: 0.697

0.691

varnc: 6.135

6.183

coefvrn: 3.555

3.597

min: 0.005

0.005

q1: 0.030

0.030

median: 0.090

0.090

q3: 0.390

0.370

max: 57.370

59.760

iqr: 0.360

0.340

covarnc: 5.539
Pearson: 0.899
Spearman: 0.943

12

15

no. data: 2207

Au_FDPP
(data set at full limits)

Figure 13-61: Precision plot: Transworld fire assays of Salman field re-splits
Paired Data Precision plot
7

Data Statistics
variable: Au_FDPP

Au_FDP1

weight by: --

--

mean: 0.697

0.691

Pair Absolute Difference

varnc: 6.135

6.183

coefvrn: 3.555

3.597

min: 0.005

0.005

q1: 0.030

0.030

median: 0.090

0.090

q3: 0.390

0.370

max: 57.370

59.760

iqr: 0.360

0.340

covarnc: 5.539
1

Pearson: 0.899
Spearman: 0.943

9
Pair Average

12

15

precision: +/-32% @ 63%CI


no. data: 2207
(data set at full limits)

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Figure 13-62: Scatter plot: Transworld CN leach assays of Salman field re-splits
Scatter plot

15

Data Statistics
variable: Au_FDPP

Au_FDP1

weight by: --

Au_FDP1

10

--

mean: 1.925

1.937

varnc: 5.028

5.541

coefvrn: 1.165

1.215

min: 0.030

0.020

q1: 0.470

0.500

median: 0.950

1.080

q3: 2.580

2.180

max: 11.300

13.220

iqr: 2.110

1.680

covarnc: 4.741
Pearson: 0.898
Spearman: 0.840

0
0

10

15

no. data: 56 / 1512

Au_FDPP
(data is sub-setted)

Figure 13-63: Precision plot: Transworld CN leach assays of Salman field re-splits
Paired Data Precision plot

Data Statistics
variable: Au_FDPP

Pair Absolute Difference

Au_FDP1

weight by: --

--

mean: 1.925

1.937

varnc: 5.028

5.541

coefvrn: 1.165

1.215

min: 0.030

0.020

q1: 0.470

0.500

median: 0.950

1.080

q3: 2.580

2.180

max: 11.300

13.220

iqr: 2.110

1.680

covarnc: 4.741
Pearson: 0.898
Spearman: 0.840

0
0

Pair Av erage

10

12

14

precision: +/-25% @ 61%CI


no. data: 56 / 1512
(data is sub-setted)

13.7

Conclusion

The author considers sampling methods and assay accuracy and precision conform to industry
standards and that the sample data adequately reflect the tenor of mineralization in each of the
deposits.

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14.0 ADJACENT PROPERTIES


14.1

Adjacent properties

Adjacent properties are not relevant to the updated mineral resource and ore reserve estimates.

15.0 METALLURGICAL TESTING


15.1

Introduction

The approach taken to metallurgical testwork was to compile master composite samples, representing
the majority of the known in pit resource established in the ARL scoping study of 2005. Variability
composite samples were also compiled from appropriate combinations of sample reserves used to
form the master composite samples.
Each of the master composite samples was subjected to gravity/leach testing to assess the potential
for gravity concentration and determine the optimum leach conditions. The variability composite
samples were then subjected to testwork using the optimum conditions established from the master
composite sample testwork. The rationale was that the results obtained on the master composite
samples, rather than any of the minor components of the total resource, should dictate the process
design parameters.
The complete testwork programme comprised the following:
Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) determinations.
SMC Drop-Weight Testwork.
JK Drop Weight Testwork (for SAG mill amenability).
Bond Abrasion Index (Ai) Determinations.
Bond Rod Work Index (RWi) Determinations.
Bond Ball Work Index (BWi) Determinations.
Head Assay Analysis.
Cyanidation Optimisation Testwork.
Carbon Adsorption Testwork.
Cyanide Destruction Testwork.
Thickening and Viscosity Testwork on Slurries.
Arsenic precipitation.
Tailings Consolidation.
Tailings Geochemistry.

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15.2

15.2.1

August 2008
Page 89

Composite Samples and Sample Preparation

General

Three main types of composite samples were prepared:


Comminution composite samples, used to determine crushing, grinding and abrasion
parameters.
Leach master composite samples representing the main ore types and oxidation zones, used
to assess the potential for gravity concentration and determine the optimum leach conditions.
Leach variability composite samples representing different pits, rock types and oxidation
zones, used to assess the effect of varying pits, rock types and oxidation levels on gravity and
leach recoveries.

15.2.2

Comminution Composites

Five master comminution composite samples and twenty six comminution variability samples were
selected and compiled from portions of whole PQ diamond drill core.
Advanced Media Competency (AMC) and JK Drop Weight tests were performed with the master
composite samples and all the comminution composite samples were subjected to SAG Mill
Comminution (SMC), Bond Rod and Ball Mill Work Index and Bond Abrasion Index testing.
Due to the specific requirements of the feed sizing for the AMC and JK Drop Weight tests, separate
composites were created for the AMC and JK Drop Weight testing of each ore type. As a
consequence of their low strength and the resulting lack of suitably sized lump, no samples were
produced for AMC and JK Drop Weight testing of most of the oxide ores and some of the transition
ores.
Details of the comminution composite samples are listed in Table 15-1Table 15-1 to Table 15-7.

Table 15-1 Anwia Comminution Transition Master Composite Sample

Drill Hole No

From (m)

To (m)

AWDD 079
AWDD 080
AWDD 081
AWDD 082

27.2
38.1
40.7
24.8

55.2
45
46
38.4

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Table 15-2 Anwia Comminution Sulphide Master Composite Sample

Drill Hole No

From (m)

To (m)

AWDD 079
AWDD 081
AWDD 082
AWDD 085

55.2
51.9
38.4
57

84.2
55
56
94

Table 15-3 Anwia Comminution Variability Composite Samples


Sample No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Description

Drill Hole

From (m)

To (m)

Transition, Weakly Weathered


Transition, Weakly Weathered
Sulphide, Fresh
Oxide, Very-Moderately Weathered
Oxide, Weakly Weathered
Oxide, Weakly Weathered
Oxide, Weakly Weathered
Transition, Weakly Weathered
Sulphide, Fresh
Oxide, Very Weathered
Oxide, Moderately Weathered
Transition, Weakly Weathered
Sulphide, Weakly Weathered
Sulphide, Fresh
Oxide, Weakly Weathered
Sulphide, Fresh

AWDD 079
AWDD 079
AWDD 079
AWDD 079
AWDD 079
AWDD 081
AWDD 081
AWDD 081
AWDD 081
AWDD 082
AWDD 082
AWDD 082
AWDD 082
AWDD 082
AWDD 085
AWDD 085

27.2
45.1
55.2
4.5
27.6
12.0
32.3
40.7
51.9
0.0
10.0
24.8
38.4
49.1
3.8
57.0

45.1
55.2
84.2
27.6
38.1
32.3
40.7
46.0
55.0
10.0
24.8
38.4
49.1
56.0
15.0
94.0

Table 15-4 Salman Comminution Oxide Master Composite Sample


Drill Hole No
SNDD 671
SNDD 672
SNDD 673
SNDD 674
SNDD 678

From (m)

To (m)

0
0
26
0
0

16
36.2
43
23.9
26.5

Table 15-5 Salman Comminution Transition Master Composite Sample


Drill Hole No
SNDD 671
SNDD 672
SNDD 673
SNDD 674
SNDD 675
SNDD 678

From (m)

To (m)

16
36.2
43
13
8.2
26.5

36.8
54
47.7
56.8
11.2
35.8

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Table 15-6 Salman Comminution Sulphide Master Composite Sample


Drill Hole No

From (m)

To (m)

36.8
54
47.7
56.8
11.2
35.8

66.8
80.4
98
58.8
59.2
44.1

SNDD 671
SNDD 672
SNDD 673
SNDD 674
SNDD 675
SNDD 678

Table 15-7 Salman Comminution Variability Composite Samples


Sample
No.
1

Pit

Description

Drill Holes

From (m)

To (m)

Salman Central

Oxide, Very Weathered

Salman Central

Transition, Weakly Weathered

Salman Central

Sulphide, Fresh

Salman South

Oxide, Moderate-Weakly Weathered

Salman South

Transition, Weakly Weathered

Salman South

Sulphide, Weakly Weathered-Fresh

Salman North

Oxide, Moderately-Weakly Weathered

SNDD 671
SNDD 672
SNDD 671
SNDD 672
SNDD 671
SNDD 672
SNDD 673
SNDD 674
SNDD 673
SNDD 674
SNDD 673
SNDD 674
SNDD 678

0
0
16
36.2
36.8
54
26
0
43
23.9
47.7
56.8
0

16
36.2
36.8
54
66.8
84
43
23.9
47.7
56.8
98
58.8
26.5

Salman North

Transition, Weakly Weathered

Salman North

Sulphide, Weakly Weathered-Fresh

10

Salman North

Oxide, Weakly-Moderately Weathered

11

Salman North

Transition, Weakly-Moderately Weathered

12

Salman North

Sulphide, Weakly Weathered-Fresh

SNDD 675
SNDD 678
SNDD 675
SNDD 678
SNDD 676
SNDD 677
SNDD 676
SNDD 677
SNDD 676
SNDD 677

8.2
26.5
11.2
35.8
0
0
17.1
9.7
23.5
15.8

11.2
35.8
59.2
44.1
17.1
9.7
23.5
15.8
74.3
80.1

The Salman comminution variability composites 1 to 9 were greywacke and Salman comminution
variability composites 10 to 12 were granite.

15.2.3

Leach Master Composites

The leach master composite samples were selected so that they represented a high proportion of the
preliminary in pit resources established in the scoping study.

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The leach master composite samples were produced to allow testwork to be conducted to establish
the optimum leach conditions for each ore type and oxidation zone.
All of the leach master composite samples were compiled from samples derived from multiple intervals
from multiple reverse circulation (RC) drill holes. The weight of each contributing sample was
apportioned to obtain a blended grade within 10% of the mill feed grade determined in the preliminary
in pit resources and included approximately 10% waste dilution.
The leach master composite samples are listed in Table 15-8, together with the resource tonnes that
each composite represented. In total, they represented 94.2% of the in pit resource identified in the
scoping study.

Table 15-8 Leach Master Composite Samples


Leach Master Composite
Salman Oxide
Salman Transition
Anwia Oxide
Anwia Transition
Anwia Sulphide

15.2.4

% of Resources Tonnes
Represented
32.2
14.8
13.9
9.8
23.4

% of Resource Tonnes
36.2
16.7
13.9
9.8
23.4

Leach Variability Composites

The leach variability composite samples were selected so that they represented the main rock types
and oxidation zones in each mine area.
The weight of each contributing sample was apportioned to obtain a blended grade within 10% of the
mill feed grade determined in the preliminary in pit resources and included approximately 10% waste
dilution.
The number of drill holes used to form each leach variability composite sample was varied according
to the proportion of the resource tonnage identified in the scoping study, ie, the number of drill holes
used for each composite increased with increasing resource tonnes.
The leach variability composite samples were tested using the optimum leach conditions determined
by testing of the corresponding leach master composite samples.
The leach variability composite samples are listed in Table 15-9 and Table 15-10.

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Table 15-9

August 2008
Page 93

Salman Leach Variability Composite Samples

Leach Variability
Composite ID
1
2

Composite Series

Composite Details

Drill Hole

From (m)

To (m)

Greywacke Oxide
Greywacke Oxide

Akanko Central
Nugget Footwall

Greywacke Oxide

Salman Central

Greywacke Oxide

Salman North

Greywacke Oxide

Salman South

Greywacke Oxide

Salman SW

Greywacke Oxide

Teberu Footwall

Greywacke
Transition

Salman Central tr-lo

Greywacke
Transition
Greywacke
Transition

Salman North tr-lo

AKRC121
SNRC562
SNRC564
SNRC568
SNRC570
SNRC571
SNRC572
SNRC576
SNRC583
SNRC540
SNRC544
SNRC546
SNRC584
SNRC585
SNRC573
SNRC574
SNRC579
SNRC580
SNRC581
SNRC551
SNRC552
SNRC553
SNRC586
SNRC567
SNRC568
SNRC569
SNRC572
SNRC576
SNRC582
SNRC544

16
9
18
16
0
1
58
3
10
4
14
14
7
1
14
51
40
15
21
16
7
19
20
37
34
55
90
36
27
19

23
14
23
26
53
33
64
27
13
14
16
16
15
8
31
58
51
21
29
20
17
26
22
46
43
64
101
40
35
39

SNRC573
SNRC574
AKRC100
AKRC106
AKRC121
SNRC565
SNRC570
SNRC571
SNRC572
SNRC576
SNRC583
SNRC543
SNRC544
SNRC545
SNRC585
SNRC574

63
80
18
15
23
17
17
30
64
9
0
7
12
22
8
58

78
90
20
20
27
28
55
35
69
36
10
17
19
24
10
66

10

Salman South tr-lo

11

Greywacke
Transition

Akanko Central tr-up

12

Greywacke
Transition

Salman Central tr-up

13

Greywacke
Transition

Salman North tr-up

14

Greywacke
Transition

Salman South tr-up

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Table 15.9 Salman Leach Variability Composite Samples (continued)


Leach Variability
Composite ID
15
16

Composite Series

Composite Details

Drill Hole

From (m)

To (m)

Greywacke Transition
Greywacke Transition

Nugget Footwall
Salman SW

17

Greywacke Transition

Teberu Footwall tr

18

Granite Oxide

Akanko Central

19

Granite Oxide

North Hill

20

Granite Oxide

Salman North

21
22

Granite Transition
Granite Transition

Salman North tr-lo


Akanko Central tr-up

23

Granite Transition

Salman North tr-up

Sulphide

Nugget Footwall

SNRC562
SNRC579
SNRC580
SNRC581
SNRC551
SNRC586
AKRC106
AKRC117
AKRC118
AKRC120
AKRC123
SNRC548
SNRC549
SNRC538
SNRC545
SNRC546
SNRC547
SNRC540
AKRC100
AKRC106
AKRC117
AKRC120
AKRC123
SNRC538
SNRC543
SNRC545
SNRC561
SNRC563
SNRC564
SNRC570
SNRC575
SNRC537
SNRC539
SNRC541
SNRC541
SNRC542
SNRC574
SNRC577
SNRC579
SNRC554
SNRC560
AKRC103
SNRC541
SNRC542

7
35
13
20
20
22
21
27
6
0
1
37
7
0
24
16
0
57
11
16
32
18
9
14
17
28
36
41
27
55
74
60
36
44
79
43
111
82
51
32
31
35
46
103

28
40
15
21
23
27
28
32
15
18
14
38
14
14
36
23
8
68
18
26
34
22
11
17
26
38
44
55
31
60
88
76
44
79
95
66
123
120
69
44
39
45
52
113

Sulphide Comp #1

Sulphide Comp #2
Sulphide
Sulphide Comp #3
Sulphide
Sulphide Comp #4
Sulphide
Sulphide Comp #5
Sulphide
Sulphide Comp #6
Sulphide
Sulphide Comp #7
Sulphide
Sulphide Comp #8
Sulphide
Sulphide Comp #9
Sulphide
Sulphide Comp #10
Sulphide
Sulphide Comp #11
Sulphide
Sulphide Comp #12
Sulphide
Sulphide Comp #13
Sulphide
Sulphide Comp #14
Sulphide
Sulphide Comp #15
Sulphide
Sulphide Comp #16
Sulphide
tr-lo: lower transition, tr-up: upper transition

Salman Central
Salman Central
Salman North
Salman North
Salman North
Salman North,
Salman North
Salman South
Salman South
Salman SW
Teberu Footwall
Teberu Footwall
Akanko Central
Salman North
Salman North

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Table 15-10 Anwia Leach Variability Composite Samples


Leach Variability
Composite ID
24
25
26
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37

15.2.5

Composite Series

Drill Hole

From (m)

To (m)

Oxide
Oxide
Oxide
Sulphide
Sulphide
Sulphide
Sulphide
Transition
Transition
Transition
Transition
Transition
Transition

AWRC074
AWRC076
AWRC078
AWRC075
AWRC076
AWRC077
AWRC078
AWRC074
AWRC076
AWRC078
AWRC083
AWRC083
AWRC084

0
22
1
63
64
24
42
41
39
22
27
36
29

14
44
22
98
99
30
59
48
51
27
36
45
42

Head Assays

Head assays for the master and variability leach composite samples are summarised in Table 15-11 to
Table 15-13 The master leach composite sample gold head grades were within 10% of the scoping
study mill feed grades with the exception of the Anwia oxide master composite sample. Several
sample intervals used to create this sample were very high grade (>25g/t Au) and subject to significant
sampling and assay errors.
Table 15-11 Leach Master Composite Sample Head Assays
Composite

Salman Oxide
Salman Transition
Anwia Oxide
Anwia Transition
Anwia Sulphide

Au*
(ppm)

Ag
(ppm)

As
(ppm)

Corg
(%)

Stot
(%)

Sulphide
(%)

2.32
<0.3
1549
0.06
0.04
<0.02
2.75
<0.3
2942
0.16
0.40
0.30
3.26
0.40
387
0.05
0.02
<0.02
2.97
0.60
251
0.08
0.40
0.35
2.90
0.45
565
0.08
0.94
0.91
*Average of calculated head grades from leach optimisation testing

Scoping Study
Mill Feed Grade
Au (ppm)
2.52
2.84
2.06
2.94
2.95

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Table 15-12 Salman Leach Variability Composite Head Assays


Leach Variability
Composite ID
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Sulphide Comp #1
Sulphide Comp #2
Sulphide Comp #3
Sulphide Comp #4
Sulphide Comp #5
Sulphide Comp #6
Sulphide Comp #7
Sulphide Comp #8
Sulphide Comp #9
Sulphide Comp #10
Sulphide Comp #11
Sulphide Comp #12
Sulphide Comp #13
Sulphide Comp #14
Sulphide Comp #15
Sulphide Comp #16

Au
(ppm)
0.77
2.00
2.77
2.37
1.51
0.86
2.21
3.17
2.62
1.93
1.56
3.35
2.12
1.36
1.94
2.12
3.06
1.02
2.74
2.59
1.66
6.63
1.45
2.25
3.06
4.12
6.59
1.88
1.91
7.74
2.06
5.98
4.13
2.76
3.66
2.62
3.86
1.80
5.47

Ag
(ppm)
< 0.3
< 0.3
< 0.3
< 0.3
< 0.3
< 0.3
< 0.3
0.3
< 0.3
0.5
< 0.3
< 0.3
< 0.3
0.4
< 0.3
0.3
< 0.3
< 0.3
< 0.3
< 0.3
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.8
< 0.3
0.3
< 0.3
< 0.3
< 0.3
< 0.3
< 0.3
< 0.3
< 0.3
< 0.3
< 0.3
< 0.3
< 0.3
< 0.3
0.6

As
(ppm)
1250
1965
1520
1706
627
2382
2738
4805
3844
1576
784
2159
2662
424
1194
9296
2261
1045
3212
3104
5813
1100
5293
3029
5324
6926
8741
2283
2147
7200
2478
361
6251
1350
4033
3760
3620
4050
1591

Ctot
(%)
0.09
0.05
0.10
0.07
0.03
0.06
0.05
0.35
0.15
0.19
0.17
0.15
0.15
0.18
0.12
0.09
0.17
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.13
0.07
0.05
0.19
0.97
0.32
0.98
1.25
1.12
1.33
1.16
1.23
1.58
2.06
1.10
1.48
0.39
0.24
0.96

Stot
(%)
<0.02
0.06
0.02
0.05
<0.02
0.21
0.16
0.74
0.73
0.05
<0.02
<0.02
0.55
<0.02
0.36
1.25
0.52
<0.02
0.02
0.06
0.36
0.03
0.35
0.70
0.71
0.97
1.30
0.56
0.60
1.11
0.44
0.50
1.17
0.79
0.90
0.60
0.45
0.70
0.16

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Table 15-13 Anwia Leach Variability Composite Head Assays


Leach Variability
Composite ID
24
25
26
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37

15.3

15.3.1

Au
(ppm)
2.03
2.66
4.63
2.08
1.97
4.74
1.97
2.76
2.70
2.06
1.44
4.30
1.06

Ag
(ppm)
< 0.3
0.5
0.7
0.5
0.5
1.0
0.3
0.6
0.5
0.5
<0.3
0.7
<0.3

As
(ppm)
429
609
279
720
439
876
148
2030
335
191
429
323
109

Ctot
(%)
0.09
0.04
0.06
0.42
0.59
1.45
0.94
0.09
0.05
0.03
0.07
0.05
0.14

Stot
(%)
<0.02
<0.02
0.02
0.83
1.11
1.65
0.71
0.42
0.74
0.02
0.02
0.67
0.35

Comminution

General

Five master comminution composite samples and twenty six comminution variability samples were
selected and compiled from portions of whole PQ diamond drill core.
Advanced Media Competency and JK Drop Weight tests were performed with the master comminution
composite samples and all the comminution composite samples were subjected to SAG Mill
Comminution (SMC), Bond Rod and Ball Mill Work Index and Bond Abrasion Index testing.

15.3.2

Crushing Work Index

Bond impact crushing work index tests were performed for the Anwia and Salman comminution
transition and sulphide master composite samples. Due to the low competency exhibited by the oxide
ores no crushing work index tests were conducted with the oxide ores.
Results from the crushing work index testing are shown in Table 15-14

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Table 15-14 Crushing Work Index Test Results


Sample Description
Anwia Transition Master Composite
Anwia Sulphide Master Composite
Salman Transition Master Composite
Salman Sulphide Master Composite

Average
7.9
20.1
6.3
11.3

Crushing Work Index (kWh/t)


Maximum
Minimum
18.3
4.5
32.4
7.6
10.2
3.7
18.1
5.1

Std. Dev.
3.2
6.8
2.0
3.9

The crushing work indices for both ores increased with reduced weathering. The Anwia ore samples
were harder than the corresponding Salman ore samples and also showed greater variability in the
range of crushing work indices.

15.3.3

Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests

Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were performed for the Anwia and Salman comminution
variability composite samples. Results from the UCS testing of the comminution variability composite
samples are shown in Table 15-15 and Table 15-16. No competent core was available for some
samples and as a consequence no UCS test results are available for these samples.

Table 15-15 Anwia Variability Composite Sample Unconfined Compressive Strength


Sample No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
11A
11B
12
13
14
15
16

Description
Transition, Weakly Weathered
Transition, Weakly Weathered
Sulphide, Weakly Weathered
Oxide, Moderately Weathered
Oxide, Moderately Weathered
Oxide, Weakly Weathered
Oxide, Weakly Weathered
Transition, Weakly Weathered
Sulphide, Fresh
Oxide, Moderately Weathered
Oxide, Weakly Weathered
Transition, Weakly Weathered
Sulphide, Weakly Weathered
Sulphide, Fresh
Oxide, Weakly Weathered
Sulphide, Fresh

Drill Hole
AWDD 079
AWDD 079
AWDD 079
AWDD 080
AWDD 080
AWDD 081
AWDD 081
AWDD 081
AWDD 081
AWDD 082
AWDD 082
AWDD 082
AWDD 082
AWDD 082
AWDD 085
AWDD 085

Interval (m)
44.2
50.3
60.9
17.4
28.8
19.9
37.6
41.6
53.5
15.3
23.8
37.2
43.8
50.9
5.5
78.5

UCS (MPa)
8.0
93.2
60.3
4.7
195.2
7.5
6.4
15.0
24.8
10.2
1.4
160.4
43.9
91.0
0.8
134.2

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Table 15-16 Salman Variability Composite Sample Unconfined Compressive Strength


Sample
No.

Pit

1
2
3
5
6
8
9
9A
11
12A
12B

Salman Central
Salman Central
Salman Central
Salman South
Salman South
Salman North
Salman North
Salman North
Salman North
Salman North
Salman North

Description

Drill Hole

Interval
(m)

UCS
(MPa)

Oxide Greywacke, Weakly Weathered


Transition Greywacke, Weakly Weathered
Sulphide Greywacke, Fresh
Transition Greywacke, Weakly Weathered
Sulphide Greywacke, Fresh
Transition Greywacke, Weakly Weathered
Sulphide Greywacke, Fresh
Sulphide Greywacke, Fresh
Transition Granite, Weakly Weathered
Sulphide Granite, Fresh
Sulphide Granite, Fresh

SNDD 672
SNDD 671
SNDD 671
SNDD 674
SNDD 673
SNDD 678
SNDD 675
SNDD 678
SNDD 676
SNDD 676
SNDD 677

28.6
36.7
56.1
42.0
79.0
35.8
34.0
43.0
20.5
49.7
63.0

120.6
12.5
17.3
3.2
63.5
13.7
*
33.3
9.4
87.3
100.5

*Sample failed before testing

The Anwia samples showed a general increase in UCS with decreasing oxidation, as shown in Figure
15-1. The main exception to this trend was Anwia variability sample 5 (massive grey vein quartz)
which gave the highest UCS for all samples tested. This was a marked contrast to the other Anwia
oxide samples which were very weak and lacked any significant degree of competence.

Figure 15-1 Unconfined Compressive Strength of Anwia Ore Variability Samples

Anwia Variability Sample Unconfined Compressive Strength


250

150
100
50
0
15
-O
11 xid
B- e
O
xid
4- e
O
xid
7- e
O
xid
6- e
O
x
1Tr ide
an
s
11 itio
n
AO
xid
8Tr
e
an
si
ti
9Su on
l
13 p hi
-S de
ul
p
3- hid
e
Su
l
14 p hi
-S de
ul
2- phid
Tr
an e
16 siti
on
-S
ul
p
12
-T hide
ra
ns
itio
n
5O
xid
e

UCS (MPa)

200

Composite Number and Oxidation

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The Salman samples also showed a general increase in UCS with decreasing oxidation, as shown in
Figure 15-2. The main exceptions to this trend were Variability Sample 1 which gave the highest UCS
for all Salman samples tested and Variability Sample 9, which failed prior to testing.
The compressive strength of the Anwia and Salman ores is moderate to low.
strength increased with the proportion of quartz veins in the ore,

The compressive

Figure 15-2 Unconfined Compressive Strength of Salman Ore Variability Samples

Salman Variability Sample Unconfined Compressive Strength


140
120

UCS (MPa)

100
80
60
40
20

1O
xi
de

9Su
lp
hi
de
5Tr
an
sit
io
n
11
-T
ra
ns
i ti
on
2Tr
an
sit
io
n
8Tr
an
sit
io
n
3Su
lp
hi
de
9A
-S
ul
ph
id
e
6Su
lp
hi
de
12
A
-S
ul
ph
id
e
12
B
-S
ul
ph
id
e

Composite Number and Oxidation

The crushing work index and UCS results indicate that jaw crushers are suitable for crushing the
Anwia and Salman ores.

15.3.4

Advanced Media Competency Tests

Only the Anwia and Salman sulphide core samples had sufficient quantities of suitably sized pieces of
core to make up the 180kg sample necessary for Advanced Media Competency (AMC) testing. The
product size distributions obtained from the AMC tests with each sample are shown in Figure 15-3 and
are compared with the product size distribution obtained from the AMC testing of an extremely hard
ore.

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Figure 15-3 Media Competency Test Product Sizing

MEDIA COMPETENCY TEST - PRODUCT SIZING


100

CUMULATIVE WEIGHT RETAINED (%)

90
80
70
60
50

Anwia Sulphide
Salman Sulphide

40

Extremely Hard Ore

30
20
10
0
100

1000

10000

100000

SIZE (m)

Results from impact work index testing of the survivor particles from the AMC tests are shown in
Figure 15-4 and are compared with the impact work index results obtained from testing of ore from the
Three Mile Hill mine in Western Australia.

Figure 15-4 Impact Work Index Testing of AMC Test Survivors

Impact Work Index Testing of AMC Test Survivors


80

Impact Work Index (kWh/t)

70

Anwia Sulphide
Salman Sulphide

60

Three Mile Hill

50
40
30
20
10
0
22

32

45

64

89

Mean Particle Size (mm)

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The Salman and Anwia sulphide comminution master composite samples showed similar responses to
the AMC testing, with both samples exhibiting moderate to low resistance to tumbling and impact
breakage. Both ore types are considered amenable to SAG-Ball milling, with a very low potential for
build-up of critical size particles within the SAG mill.

15.3.5

JK Drop Weight Tests

JK Drop weight tests were performed for the Anwia transition and sulphide master composites and the
Salman oxide, transition and sulphide master composite samples.
No JK drop weight test was conducted with the Anwia oxide ore due to the lack of sufficient suitably
sized material in the available core.
Results from the JK drop weight testing are shown in Table 15-17.

Table 15-17 Master Composite JK Drop Weight Test Parameters


Sample
Anwia Transition Master Composite
Anwia Sulphide Master Composite
Salman Oxide Master Composite
Salman Transition Master Composite
Salman Sulphide Master Composite

A
53.70
59.16
69.75
72.95
60.09

b
2.45
1.33
3.75
4.09
1.41

A*b
131.5
78.5
261.4
298.7
84.9

t10 @ 1kWh/t
49.1
43.5
68.1
71.7
45.5

ta
1.50
0.65
2.63
4.33
0.90

Anwia Transition Master Composite


The Anwia Transition Master Composite has an A*b value of 131.5, which puts this material in the
very soft range of resistance to impact breakage. 90.7% of the 2,140 ore types contained In the
JKTech database have lower A*b values (are harder than the test sample).
With a ta of 1.50, the Anwia Transition Master Composite falls into the very soft abrasion range with
92.7% of the 2,255 ore types contained in the JKTech database having lower ta values (have greater
abrasion resistance than the test sample).
At low input energy levels (0.25 and 1.0 the Anwia Transition Master Composite displays decreasing
resistance to breakage with increasing particle size, as shown in Figure 15-5, with t10 values (t10 is
defined as the percentage of material passing 1/10th of the initial particle size) increasing with
increasing particle size. This indicates that particles in the 100 to 200mm size range (normal media
size) may not be strong enough to survive SAG milling.
The crusher model parameters for Anwia Transition Master Composite also show a decrease in
impact resistance with increasing particle size, as shown in Figure 15-6

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Figure 15-5 Variation of Impact Resistance with Particle Size Anwia Transition

Anwia Transition Master Composite


100
90
0.25 kWh/t

80

1.0 kWh/t

70

2.5 kWh/t

t10 (%)

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

Particle Size (mm)

Figure 15-6

Variation of Crushing Energy with Particle Size Anwia Transition

Anwia Transition Master Composite


0.50
0.45

10% minus t10


20% minus t10

0.40

30% minus t10

Ecs (kWh/t)

0.35
0.30
0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00
10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

Particle Size (mm)

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Anwia Sulphide Master Composite


The Anwia Sulphide Master Composite has an A*b value of 78.5, which puts this material in the soft
range of resistance to impact breakage. 77.4% of the 2,140 ore types contained In the JKTech
database have lower A*b values (are harder than the test sample).
With a ta of 0.65, the Anwia Sulphide Master Composite falls into the moderately soft abrasion range
with 69.3% of the 2,255 ore types contained in the JKTech database having lower ta values (have
greater abrasion resistance than the test sample).
The Anwia Sulphide Master Composite also shows decreasing resistance to breakage with increasing
particle size, as shown in Figure 15-7 and Figure 15-8

Salman Oxide Master Composite


The Salman Oxide Master Composite has an A*b value of 261.8, which puts this material in the very
soft range of resistance to impact breakage. 98.3% of the 2,140 ore types contained In the JKTech
database have lower A*b values (are harder than the test sample).
With a ta of 2.63, the Salman Oxide Master Composite falls into the very soft abrasion range with
98.5% of the 2,255 ore types contained in the JKTech database having lower ta values (have greater
abrasion resistance than the test sample).
The data for Salman Oxide Master Composite follows a trend of decreasing slope with decreasing
energy (Ecs values), as shown in Figure 15-9.
The crusher model parameters for Salman Oxide show no variation in impact resistance with particle
size, as shown in Figure 15-10.

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Figure 15-7 Variation of Impact Resistance with Particle Size Anwia Sulphide

Anwia Sulphide Master Composite


100
90
0.25 kWh/t

80

1.0 kWh/t

70

2.5 kWh/t

t10 (%)

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

Particle Size (mm)

Figure 15-8 Variation of Crushing Energy with Particle Size Anwia Sulphide

Anwia Sulphide Master Composite


0.8
10% minus t10

0.7

20% minus t10


30% minus t10

Ecs (kWh/t)

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

Particle Size (mm)

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Figure 15-9 Variation of Impact Resistance with Particle Size Salman Oxide

Salman Oxide Master Composite


100
90
0.25 kWh/t

80

1.0 kWh/t

70

2.5 kWh/t

t10 (%)

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

Particle Size (mm)

Figure 15-10 Variation of Crushing Energy with Particle Size Salman Oxide

Salman Oxide Master Composite


0.50
0.45

10% minus t10


20% minus t10

0.40

30% minus t10

Ecs (kWh/t)

0.35
0.30
0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00
10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

Particle Size (mm)

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Salman Transition Master Composite


The Salman Transition Master Composite has an A*b value of 298.7, which puts this material in the
very soft range of resistance to impact breakage. 98.8% of the 2,140 ore types contained In the
JKTech database have lower A*b values (are harder than the test sample).
With a ta of 4.33, the Salman Transition Master Composite falls into the very soft abrasion range and
has the highest ta (lowest abrasion resistance) of all ore types in the JKTech database.
The data for Salman Transition Master Composite follows a trend of decreasing slope with decreasing
energy (Ecs values), as shown in Figure 15-11. The crusher model parameters for Salman Transition
Master Composite show a slight decrease in impact resistance with increasing particle size, as shown
in Figure 15-12.

Salman Sulphide Master Composite


The Salman Sulphide Master Composite has an A*b value of 84.9, which puts this material in the soft
range of resistance to impact breakage. 80.1% of the 2,140 ore types contained In the JKTech
database have lower A*b values (are harder than the test sample).
With a ta of 0.90, the Salman Sulphide Master Composite falls into the soft abrasion range with 81.6%
of the 2,255 ore types contained in the JKTech database having lower ta values (have greater
abrasion resistance than the test sample).
The data for Salman Transition Master Composite follows a trend of decreasing slope with decreasing
energy (Ecs values), as shown in Figure 15-13.
The crusher model parameters for Salman Sulphide Master Composite show a marked increase in
impact resistance with decreasing particle size, as shown in Figure 15-14.

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Figure 15-11 Variation of Impact Resistance with Particle Size Salman Transition

Salman Transition Master Composite


100
90
0.25 kWh/t

80

1.0 kWh/t

70

2.5 kWh/t

t10 (%)

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

Particle Size (mm)

Figure 15-12 Variation of Crushing Energy with Particle Size Salman Transition

Salman Transition Master Composite


0.50
0.45

10% minus t10


20% minus t10

0.40

30% minus t10

Ecs (kWh/t)

0.35
0.30
0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00
10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

Particle Size (mm)

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Figure 15-13 Variation of Impact Resistance with Particle Size Salman Sulphide

Salman Sulphide Master Composite


100
90
0.25 kWh/t

80

1.0 kWh/t

70

2.5 kWh/t

t10 (%)

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

Particle Size (mm)

Figure 15-14 Variation of Crushing Energy with Particle Size Salman Sulphide

Salman Sulphide Master Composite


0.80
10% minus t10

0.70

20% minus t10


30% minus t10

Ecs (kWh/t)

0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
0.00
10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

Particle Size (mm)

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SMC Testing

SAG Mill Comminution (SMC) tests were performed for the Anwia and Salman variability samples.
Results from the JK drop-weight tests conducted with the master comminution composites were used
to calibrate the DWi versus A and b correlations. Database values were used where no results were
available for a comparable sample. Results from the SMC testing are shown in Table 15-18.

Table 15-18 SMC Test Results


Test
Sample
Anwia Transition Master
Anwia Sulphide Master
Anwia Variability 1
Anwia Variability 2
Anwia Variability 3
Anwia Variability 4
Anwia Variability 5
Anwia Variability 6
Anwia Variability 7
Anwia Variability 8
Anwia Variability 9
Anwia Variability 11
Anwia Variability 12
Anwia Variability 13
Anwia Variability 14
Anwia Variability 16
Salman Oxide Master
Salman Transition Master
Salman Sulphide Master
Salman Variability 1
Salman Variability 2
Salman Variability 3
Salman Variability 4
Salman Variability 5
Salman Variability 6
Salman Variability 7
Salman Variability 8
Salman Variability 9
Salman Variability 10
Salman Variability 11
Salman Variability 12

Calibration
Sample
Anwia Transition Master
Anwia Sulphide Master
Anwia Transition Master
Anwia Transition Master
Anwia Sulphide Master
SMC Database
SMC Database
SMC Database
SMC Database
Anwia Transition Master
Anwia Sulphide Master
SMC Database
Anwia Transition Master
Anwia Sulphide Master
Anwia Sulphide Master
Anwia Sulphide Master
Salman Oxide Master
Salman Transition Master
Salman Sulphide Master
Salman Oxide Master
Salman Transition Master
Salman Sulphide Master
Salman Oxide Master
Salman Transition Master
Salman Sulphide Master
Salman Oxide Master
Salman Transition Master
Salman Sulphide Master
SMC Database
SMC Database
SMC Database

SG
2.58
2.71
2.47
2.58
2.66
2.57
2.28
2.58
2.49
2.70
2.69
2.34
2.56
2.64
2.65
2.71
2.31
2.39
2.77
2.46
2.11
2.62
2.33
2.43
2.58
2.15
2.30
2.59
2.14
2.59
2.68

SMC
DWi
2.2
3.5
2.0
2.6
2.8
1.1
2.1
1.5
2.0
3.4
3.8
1.0
2.4
2.8
4.1
3.5
0.7
0.8
3.5
2.0
0.7
3.4
1.2
0.6
2.5
0.5
1.6
3.0
0.9
2.4
5.0

SMC Test Derived Values


A
B
69.2
2.02
61.2
1.27
71.6
2.08
72.0
1.66
62.6
1.50
73.7
3.21
73.4
1.50
68.5
2.48
70.6
1.81
73.5
1.27
64.4
1.09
75.8
3.15
73.9
1.73
67.7
1.41
63.7
1.01
63.0
1.23
77.9
4.17
78.4
3.92
66.4
1.21
70.6
1.76
63.7
4.53
66.1
1.18
73.0
2.64
71.0
5.53
64.8
1.61
75.4
5.43
79.8
1.86
68.5
1.24
79.0
3.09
77.1
1.38
77.3
0.69

The Salman and Anwia ores exhibit moderate to very low resistance to tumbling and impact breakage.
None of the JK Dropweight, SMC or AMCT tests suites showed any indication of the potential for
build-up of critical size particles within the SAG mill.
Due to the low resistance to impact breakage, the Anwia and Salman ores are not considered to be
suitable for fully autogenous (FAG) milling.

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The wide range of variability in comminution characteristics is likely to make the control of a single
stage SAG mill difficult. Blending of feed material will be necessary to minimise fluctuations in the
feed and appropriate instrumentation for SAG mill load control and measurement will be necessary to
ensure stable operation of the milling circuit.
A SAG-Ball mill circuit can be expected to provide a more consistent product and throughput and is
better able to accommodate variations in feed size and ore hardness.

15.3.7

Bond Comminution Tests

Bond abrasion, rod and ball mill index tests were performed for the Anwia and Salman master and
variability comminution composite samples. Results from the testing are shown in Table 15-19.

Table 15-19 Bond Test Results


Test
Sample
Anwia Transition Master
Anwia Sulphide Master
Anwia Variability 1
Anwia Variability 2
Anwia Variability 3
Anwia Variability 4
Anwia Variability 5
Anwia Variability 6
Anwia Variability 7
Anwia Variability 8
Anwia Variability 9
Anwia Variability 10
Anwia Variability 11
Anwia Variability 12
Anwia Variability 13
Anwia Variability 14
Anwia Variability 15
Anwia Variability 16
Salman Oxide Master
Salman Transition Master
Salman Sulphide Master
Salman Variability 1
Salman Variability 2
Salman Variability 3
Salman Variability 4
Salman Variability 5
Salman Variability 6
Salman Variability 7
Salman Variability 8
Salman Variability 9
Salman Variability 10
Salman Variability 11
Salman Variability 12

Ai
(g)
0.2742
0.2003
0.1876
0.2086
0.2316
0.0913
0.3323
0.2778
0.3342
0.1864
0.2085
0.0212
0.2183
0.2563
0.1337
0.2220
0.0234
0.1890
0.1503
0.1187
0.1173
0.1698
0.0928
0.0484
0.1701
0.3016
0.5017
0.2084
0.1343
0.2700
0.0782
0.2363
0.2385

Rod Wi
(kWh/t)
12.4
13.1
12.8
9.4
13.0
6.7
10.9
11.6
11.8
11.5
12.8
7.7
9.6
13.0
13.3
16.7
5.7
14.0
9.5
10.0
13.2
7.3
8.2
12.8
5.6
7.1
12.6
3.4
10.9
11.4
4.8
10.2
14.3

Ball Wi (kWh/t)
106m*
63m*
11.0
12.5
9.1
11.3
13.0
15.0
6.8
12.2
12.6
14.2
16.8
11.5
10.7
Levin Test
8.6
15.7
18.8
11.4
13.0
Levin Test
13.1
Levin Test
Levin Test
7.8
Levin Test
6.1
7.5
Levin Test
Levin Test
9.5
Levin Test
12.6
8.0
Levin Test
10.5
12.1

*Closing screen aperture

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Some samples were too fine to perform Bond ball mill work index tests and Levin tests were
performed with these samples. Results from the testing are shown in Table 15-20.

Table 15-20 Levin Test Results


Sample
Anwia Variability 10
Anwia Variability 15
Salman Oxide Master
Salman Transition Master
Salman Variability 1
Salman Variability 4
Salman Variability 5
Salman Variability 7
Salman Variability 10

Feed
1466
1473
1228
1575
1657
1508
1366
844
1407

P80 (m)
2.5 kWh/t
5 kWh/t
273
135
92
72*
172
96
222
116
231
111
114
45
105
52
112
72
149
85

10 kWh/t
90*
49*
57
56
51
21
28
44
64

*Estimated By Extrapolation

Results from the Bond Comminution testing are consistent with the results from the AMCT and JK
Drop Weight tests, ie, the ores exhibit moderate to low resistance to breakage and abrasion. Both the
Salman and Anwia ores are considered amenable to SAG-Ball milling.

15.4

15.4.1

Mineralogy

General

Five master leach composite samples and selected Salman transition leach variability samples were
submitted to Roger Townend and Associates for mineralogical examination. The method used for the
examinations was:
TBE separation to produce sinks (SG>~3) and floats (SG<~3) fractions.
Optical and SEM examination of "sinks" for Au and major minerals.
XRD of floats.
Results from the examinations are summarised in the following sections.

15.4.2

Anwia Oxide Master

The sinks fractions were comprised mainly of goethite with some titanium oxides and trace amounts of
pyrite and arsenopyrite.
Four gold occurrences were detected; all were associated with goethite and were between 3m and
6m in size.

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Anwia Transition Master

The sinks fractions were comprised mainly of goethite with pyrite and trace amounts of arsenopyrite,
chalcopyrite, covellite, bornite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, galena and titanium oxides.
Twelve gold occurrences were detected; 8 were associated with pyrite, 3 were fully liberated and 1
was in goethite. The gold particles ranged in size from 1m as inclusions in pyrite, up to 40m free
gold particles and 50m by 5m rims on coarse pyrite.

15.4.4

Anwia Sulphide Master

The sinks fractions were comprised mainly of pyrite with arsenopyrite and trace amounts of
chalcopyrite, covellite, bornite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, galena and titanium oxides.
Nine gold occurrences were detected; 7 were associated with pyrite and 2 were associated with
arsenopyrite. The gold particles ranged in size from 1m as inclusions in pyrite, up to 50m by 3m
rims on coarse pyrite.

15.4.5

Salman Oxide Master

The sinks fractions were comprised mainly of goethite with some titanium and manganese oxides and
trace amounts of pyrite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite and galena.
Four gold occurrences were detected; all were associated with goethite and were between 3m and
6m in size.

15.4.6

Salman Transition Master

The sinks fractions were comprised mainly of goethite, pyrite and arsenopyrite with some marcasite
and titanium and manganese oxides and trace amounts of, chalcopyrite and sphalerite.
One 1.5m gold particle was detected in goethite.
The amount of gold observed was much lower than that expected from the assayed gold content.
This may indicate the possibility of some of the gold being present in solid solution in the pyrite or
arsenopyrite.

15.4.7

Salman Central Upper Transition (Variability Composite 12)

The sinks fractions were comprised mainly of goethite with minor rutile and trace arsenopyrite, pyrite
and graphite.
Five types of gold particles were detected; 3 within goethite, 1 in quartz and 1 liberated. The gold
particles ranged in size from 1m inclusions in coarse goethite up to one 150m free particle.

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Salman Central Lower Transition (Variability Composite 8)

The sinks fractions were comprised mainly of goethite, arsenopyrite and pyrite with rutile and graphite
and trace chalcopyrite, covellite and sphalerite.
Four types of gold particles were detected; 3 within arsenopyrite and 1 in pyrite. The gold particles
ranged in size from 0.5m to 2m inclusions in arsenopyrite up to one 7m particle in pyrite.

15.4.9

Salman North Upper Transition (Variability Composite 13)

The sinks fractions were comprised mainly of goethite, arsenopyrite and pyrite with rutile and graphite
and trace chalcopyrite covellite, galena and sphalerite.
Three types of gold particles were detected, all within arsenopyrite, and ranged in size from 0.5m to
17m.

15.4.10 Salman North Lower Transition (Variability Composite 9)


The sinks fractions were comprised mainly of pyrite, arsenopyrite and rutile with goethite, chalcopyrite
and marcasite and galena and sphalerite.
Three types of gold particles were detected, all within arsenopyrite, and ranged in size from 0.5m to
10m.

15.4.11 Salman North Upper Transition (Variability Composite 23) Granite


The sinks fractions were comprised mainly of pyrite, arsenopyrite and rutile with marcasite, magnetite
and goethite and trace pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite and galena.
Three types of gold particles were detected, 2 were within arsenopyrite and 1 within pyrite. The
particles ranged in size from 1m to 6m.

15.4.12 Salman North Lower Transition (Variability Composite 21) Granite


The sinks fractions were comprised mainly of arsenopyrite with pyrite, marcasite and rutile and trace
chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite and galena.
Four types of gold particles were detected; all were within arsenopyrite. The particles ranged in size
from 2m to 16m.
Bismuth and bismuth tellurides were also detected as 1m to 2m inclusions in arsenopyrite.

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15.4.13 Salman Sulphide AMC Comminution Composite


The sinks fractions were comprised mainly of arsenopyrite, pyrite and goethite with marcasite, rutile
and graphite and trace pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, covellite, bornite and galena.
Three types of gold particles were detected; all were within arsenopyrite. The particles ranged in size
from 0.5m to 16m.
A large proportion of the gold occurrences observed in the Anwia ore samples are associated with
pyrite, however the ore can be considered to be free-milling, with no evidence of any refractory gold
occurring in the Anwia ores.
The Salman ores contain higher levels of graphitic carbon and arsenopyrite than the Anwia ores.
Some of the gold in the transition and sulphide ores is likely to be present in solid solution in the pyrite
or arsenopyrite. The presence of organic carbon supports the use of carbon-in-leach processing to
minimise soluble gold losses to pre-robbing carbon.

15.5

15.5.1

Thickening

General

Samples of master leach composite slurries were prepared by Ammtec and submitted to Outokumpu
Technology for flocculant screening and dynamic bench scale thickening testwork.

15.5.2

Flocculant Screening Tests

The flocculant screening tests showed a low charge anionic polyacrylamide (SNF AN910VHM)
flocculant achieved the most rapid settling rate and a good clarity at a reasonable flocculant dosage
for all ore types, except for the oxide ores which showed a better response to a medium charge
anionic polyacrylamide (SNF AN923VHM).

15.5.3

Dynamic Thickening Tests

All dynamic thickening tests were performed at pH 10.5 with AN923VHM flocculant for the oxide
samples and AN910VHM flocculant for the transition and sulphide samples.

Anwia Oxide Master


Results from the dynamic thickening testing of the Anwia oxide master sample are shown in Table
15-21.

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Table 15-21 Anwia Oxide Master Dynamic Thickening Tests


Feed
Run
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6

Solids
(t/m.h)
1.03
1.01
1.20
1.15
1.14
0.96

(%w/w)
12.1
12.1
11.8
11.6
11.7
12.0

Floc
Liquor Rise Rate
(m/h)
7.8
7.7
9.4
9.2
9.0
7.4

Dose
(g/t)
15
10
15
43
32
56

Underflow
(%w/w)
54.7
51.7
47.8
49.2
47.5
50.7

Shear
(Pa)
50
29
*
*
*
*

Overflow
Clarity
(ppm)
80
170
440
85
100
50

*No measurement

Anwia Transition Master


Results from the dynamic thickening testing of the Anwia transition master sample are shown in Table
15-22.
Table 15-22 Anwia Transition Master Dynamic Thickening Tests
Feed
Run
No.
1
2

Solids
(t/m.h)
0.97
1.18

(%w/w)
11.8
12.0

Liquor Rise Rate


(m/h)
7.6
9.0

Floc
Dose
(g/t)
21
22

Underflow
(%w/w)
Shear
(Pa)
58.1
34
54.8
*

Overflow
Clarity
(ppm)
40
70

*No measurement

Anwia Sulphide Master


Results from the dynamic thickening testing of the Anwia sulphide master sample are shown in Table
15-23.
Table 15-23 Anwia Sulphide Master Dynamic Thickening Tests
Run
No.
1
2

Solids
(t/m.h)
1.05
1.15

Feed
(%w/w)
12.3
11.7

Liquor Rise Rate


(m/h)
7.8
9.1

Floc
Dose
(g/t)
10
21

Underflow
(%w/w)
Shear
(Pa)
56.4
111
51.3
*

Overflow
Clarity
(ppm)
30
70

*No measurement

Salman Oxide Master


Results from the dynamic thickening testing of the Salman oxide master sample are shown in Table
15-24.

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Table 15-24 Salman Oxide Master Dynamic Thickening Tests


Run
No.
1
2
3
4

Solids
(t/m.h)
0.65
0.85
1.11
1.06

Feed
(%w/w)
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6

Liquor Rise Rate


(m/h)
4.8
6.2
8.1
7.7

Floc
Dose
(g/t)
19
19
18
14

Underflow
(%w/w)
Shear
(Pa)
53.9
59
53.4
43
50.4
32
49.5
28

Overflow
Clarity
(ppm)
20
20
50
110

Salman Transition Master


Results from the dynamic thickening testing of the Salman transition master sample are shown in
Table 15-25.
Table 15-25
Run
No.
1
2
3

Solids
(t/m.h)
0.89
0.96
1.22

Salman Transition Master Dynamic Thickening Tests

Feed
(%w/w)
11.7
11.8
12.1

Liquor Rise Rate


(m/h)
7.0
7.5
9.3

Floc
Dose
(g/t)
23
19
20

Underflow
(%w/w)
Shear
(Pa)
53.0
31
48.6
47.4

Overflow
Clarity
(ppm)
10
540
10

All of the ore types tested can be flocculated and thickened to produce underflow densities between
50% and 55% solids w/w with an overflow of suitable clarity for recycling.
The Salman transition ore is the most difficult to flocculate and settle and the Anwia sulphide ore the
easiest, with the former requiring a higher flocculant addition.
A single high rate thickener would suffice for the intended thickening application, with a flocculant
addition of 20 to 25g/t and a design solids settling rate of 0.9 t/m2.h.

15.6

15.6.1

Viscosity

General

Viscosity tests were conducted using slurry samples prepared from master leach composites for
gravity and leach testing. Results from the viscosity testing of slurries are summarised in the following
sub-sections.

15.6.2

Anwia Oxide Master

Results from viscosity testing of Anwia oxide master slurries at varying pulp density are summarised in
Table 15-26.

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Table 15-26 Anwia Oxide Master Viscosity Test Summary


Sample
ID
Pre-CIL
No Gravity

Pre-CIL
Gravity
Tailings

CIL
Tailings

SHEAR
RATE
(sec-1)
4.1
7.4
13.1
21.8
38.9
67.4
119.2
209.4
4.1
7.4
13.1
21.8
38.9
67.4
119.2
209.4
4.1
7.4
13.1
21.8
38.9
67.4
119.2
209.4

40%w/w
Viscosity
(cP)
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
37
49
70
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
35
42
58
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
35
46
60

45%w/w
Viscosity
(cP)
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
59
52
59
81
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
43
52
73
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
43
51
71

50%w/w
Viscosity
(cP)
500
298
188
124
86
76
80
96
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
67
62
68
89
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
49
52
68
98

55%w/w
Viscosity
(cP)
1120
668
430
282
185
130
127
140
644
280
187
129
89
82
84
98
n/a
n/a
n/a
86
81
80
90
121

60%w/w
Viscosity
(cP)
3288
2020
1292
853
543
350
239
239
991
673
453
312
200
135
135
146
594
341
242
187
148
148
158
186

Anwia oxide ore displays moderate viscosity at high pulp density and exhibits shear thinning, with the
viscosity decreasing with increasing shear rates. Viscosity also reduced following gravity separation
and leach processing. The effect of varying pulp density and shear rate for Anwia oxide ore is shown
in Figure 15-15. Anwia oxide ore could be leached at up to 50% solids w/w without the pulp viscosity
adversely affecting mixing/interstage screening.

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Figure 15-15

August 2008
Page 119

Variation in Viscosity with Shear Rate and Pulp Density Anwia Oxide
Anwia Oxide - Pre-CIL, No Gravity

10000
40% SOLIDS (w /w )
45% SOLIDS (w /w )
50% SOLIDS (w /w )

Viscosity (cP)

55% SOLIDS (w /w )

1000

60% SOLIDS (w /w )

100

10
1

10

100

1000

Shear Rate (sec-1)

15.6.3

Anwia Transition Master

Results from viscosity testing of Anwia transition master slurries at varying pulp density are
summarised in Table 15-27. Anwia transition ore displays low viscosity at high pulp density and could
be leached at up to 50% solids w/w without the pulp viscosity adversely affecting mixing/interstage
screening.
Table 15-27 Anwia Transition Master Viscosity Test Summary
Sample
ID
Pre-CIL
Gravity
Tailings

CIL
Tailings

SHEAR
RATE
(sec-1)
4.1
7.4
13.1
21.8
38.9
67.4
119.2
209.4
4.1
7.4
13.1
21.8
38.9
67.4
119.2
209.4

40%w/w
Viscosity
(cP)
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
31
42
64
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
34
46
63

45%w/w
Viscosity
(cP)
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
39
51
64
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
44
52
71

50%w/w
Viscosity
(cP)
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
47
57
80
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
61
63
73
94

55%w/w
Viscosity
(cP)
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
58
55
64
100
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
76
74
100
120

60%w/w
Viscosity
(cP)
n/a
n/a
n/a
101
92
91
107
121
1279
460
253
185
176
196
216
253

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15.6.4

August 2008
Page 120

Anwia Sulphide Master

Results from viscosity testing of Anwia sulphide master slurries at varying pulp density are
summarised in Table 15-28. Anwia sulphide ore displays very low viscosity at high pulp density and
could be leached at up to 50% solids w/w without the pulp viscosity adversely affecting
mixing/interstage screening.

Table 15-28 Anwia Sulphide Master Viscosity Test Summary


Sample
ID
Pre-CIL
Gravity
Tailings

CIL
Tailings

15.6.5

SHEAR
RATE
(sec-1)
4.1
7.4
13.1
21.8
38.9
67.4
119.2
209.4
4.1
7.4
13.1
21.8
38.9
67.4
119.2
209.4

40%w/w
Viscosity
(cP)
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
38
45
63
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
35
45
61

45%w/w
Viscosity
(cP)
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
39
52
70
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
41
46
69

50%w/w
Viscosity
(cP)
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
48
53
66
87
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
53
54
66
95

55%w/w
Viscosity
(cP)
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
68
65
85
122
n/a
n/a
n/a
78
80
80
86
105

60%w/w
Viscosity
(cP)
n/a
n/a
151
131
138
146
153
174
696
455
306
216
150
137
140
166

Salman Oxide Master

Results from viscosity testing of Salman oxide master slurries at varying pulp density are summarised
in Table 15-29.
Salman oxide ore displays high viscosity at high pulp density and exhibits shear thinning, with the
viscosity decreasing with increasing shear rates. The effect of varying pulp density and shear rate for
Salman oxide ore is shown in Figure 15-16.
Salman oxide ore had the highest viscosity of all ores tested and the pulp density for leaching will be
limited to less than 45% w/w when processing this ore without the inclusion of other ores in the feed
blend.

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Table 15-29 Salman Oxide Viscosity Test Summary


Sample
ID
Pre-CIL
No Gravity

Pre-CIL
Gravity
Tailings

CIL
Tailings

15.6.6

SHEAR
RATE
(sec-1)
4.1
7.4
13.1
21.8
38.9
67.4
119.2
209.4
4.1
7.4
13.1
21.8
38.9
67.4
119.2
209.4
4.1
7.4
13.1
21.8
38.9
67.4
119.2
209.4

40%w/w
Viscosity
(cP)
608
352
222
144
95
73
69
80
N/A
N/A
N/A
83
59
49
52
66
530
274
170
112
76
61
61
76

45%w/w
Viscosity
(cP)
1055
607
407
253
167
106
94
103
536
335
205
133
85
68
65
75
738
476
297
191
121
88
80
88

50%w/w
Viscosity
(cP)
2074
1233
788
498
322
202
147
137
940
573
343
220
138
97
85
93
1713
978
587
367
226
145
116
119

55%w/w
Viscosity
(cP)
5405
3204
2089
1321
831
520
314
242
1514
702
464
305
192
124
108
110
2302
1397
819
561
349
232
165
156

60%w/w
Viscosity
(cP)
17870
11420
6965
4379
2601
1559
985
602
2230
1442
958
631
394
248
167
157
3663
2476
1599
1143
686
444
277
217

Salman Transition Master

Results from viscosity testing of Salman transition master slurries at varying pulp density are
summarised in Table 15-30.
Salman transition ore displays high viscosity at high pulp density and exhibits shear thinning, with the
viscosity decreasing with increasing shear rates. Viscosity also reduced following gravity separation
and leach processing. The pulp density for leaching of Salman transition ores will be limited to less
than 45% w/w when processing this ore without the inclusion of other ores in the feed blend.

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Figure 15-16 Variation in Viscosity with Shear Rate and Pulp Density Salman Oxide
Salman Oxide - Pre-CIL, No Gravity
100000
40% SOLIDS (w /w )
45% SOLIDS (w /w )
50% SOLIDS (w /w )

10000

55% SOLIDS (w /w )

Viscosity (cP)

60% SOLIDS (w /w )

1000

100

10
1

10

100

1000

Shear Rate (sec-1)

Table 15-30 Salman Transition Viscosity Test Summary


Sample
ID
Pre-CIL
Gravity
Tailings

CIL
Tailings

SHEAR
RATE
(sec-1)
4.2
7.4
13.1
21.9
38.9
67.4
119.2
209.6
4.2
7.4
13.1
21.9
38.9
67.4
119.2
209.6

40%w/w
Viscosity
(cP)
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
48
42
49
69
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
40
47
67

45%w/w
Viscosity
(cP)
N/A
N/A
144
94
69
58
61
80
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
56
49
55
80

50%w/w
Viscosity
(cP)
711
411
267
177
113
89
87
101
518
311
197
130
88
78
78
96

55%w/w
Viscosity
(cP)
1728
853
552
374
235
155
137
143
721
597
374
259
170
125
119
130

60%w/w
Viscosity
(cP)
2496
1960
1295
852
554
364
240
225
2113
1481
927
647
451
303
232
226

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15.7

15.7.1

August 2008
Page 123

Gravity Recovery

General

Gravity recovery tests were conducted prior to leach optimisation and variability testing using 3kg
samples. Bulk gravity recovery tests were also performed on slurry samples prior to carbon
adsorption and cyanide detoxification testing.
Results from the gravity testing are summarised in the following sections.

15.7.2

3kg Batch Gravity Tests

Gravity recovery tests were performed with 3kg feed samples to provide slurry for leach optimisation
testing. The samples were ground to the required size and treated with a 3 Knelson concentrator per
the following conditions:
Feed rate ~300g "dry solids"/minute.
Initial fluidisation water pressure: 17kPa.
Concentrate Treatment: Amalgamation.
The Knelson tails and amalgamation residue were then combined for subsequent leach tests.
Average results from gravity testing of 3kg samples of Anwia ore are summarised in Table 15-31.
Anwia ores show a weak relationship between gravity recovery, head grade and grind size, with
gravity recovery increasing with decreasing grind size and increasing head grade.

Table 15-31 Average 3kg Batch Gravity Test Results Anwia


Grind
P80
(m)
75
106
150

Oxide
Head Grade
Gravity
(g/t)
Rec (%)
3.31
31.83
3.35
28.58
3.05
28.92

Transition
Head Grade
Gravity
(g/t)
Rec (%)
2.81
27.91
3.09
34.36
2.92
37.39

Sulphide
Head Grade
Gravity
(g/t)
Rec (%)
3.12
2.87
2.87

49.23
47.61
42.34

Results from gravity testing of 3kg samples of Anwia ore variability samples ground to P80 75m are
summarised in Table 15-32, 15-33, and 15-34.

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Table 15-32 3kg Batch Gravity Test Results Anwia Oxide Variability Samples
Sample
ID
Oxide Master Composite
Variability Composite 24
Variability Composite 25
Variability Composite 26

Drill
Hole
AWRC074
AWRC076
AWRC078

Head Grade
(g/t)
2.78
2.34
3.64
3.51

Gravity
Rec (%)
33.17
19.36
53.99
48.57

Table 15-33 3kg Batch Gravity Test Results Anwia Transition Variability Samples
Sample
ID
Transition Master Composite
Variability Composite 32
Variability Composite 33
Variability Composite 34
Variability Composite 35
Variability Composite 36
Variability Composite 37

Drill
Hole
AWRC074
AWRC076
AWRC078
AWRC083, 27m-36m
AWRC083, 36m-45m
AWRC084

Head
Grade (g/t)
2.64
2.28
2.46
1.37
1.09
4.30
0.76

Gravity
Rec (%)
36.99
54.19
63.74
51.54
25.95
51.90
62.73

Table 15-34 3kg Batch Gravity Test Results Anwia Sulphide Variability Samples
Sample
ID
Sulphide Master Composite
Variability Composite 28
Variability Composite 29
Variability Composite 30
Variability Composite 31

Drill
Hole
AWRC075
AWRC076
AWRC077
AWRC078

Head
Grade (g/t)
2.64
2.94
1.68
4.64
2.34

Gravity
Rec (%)
56.42
63.46
54.75
54.28
54.18

Results from gravity testing of 3kg samples of Salman ore are summarised in Table 15-35.
Results from gravity testing of 3kg samples of Salman ore variability samples ground to P80 75m are
summarised in Table 15-36, 15-37 and 15-38.
There is a very weak relationship between gravity recoveries, head grade and grind size, with gravity
recovery increasing with decreasing grind size and increasing head grade. Gravity gold recovery from
transition ore was substantially lower than that obtained from the oxide ore.
Gravity recoveries for Salman ores are much lower than those obtained for the Anwia ores.

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Table 15-35 Average 3kg Batch Gravity Test Results Salman


Grind
P80
(m)
38
53
75
90
106
150

Oxide
Head Grade
Gravity
(g/t)
Rec (%)
2.22
12.07
2.52
13.31
2.34
11.12
2.37
10.92

Transition
Head Grade
Gravity
(g/t)
Rec (%)
3.23
9.38
3.28
11.08
2.72
4.51
2.56
3.98
2.66
6.31
3.23
9.38

Table 15-36 3kg Batch Gravity Test Results Salman Oxide Variability Samples
Comp.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
18
19
20

Rock
Type
Greywacke
Greywacke
Greywacke
Greywacke
Greywacke
Greywacke
Greywacke
Granite
Granite
Granite

Pit

Head
Grade (g/t)

Akanko Central
Nugget Footwall
Salman Central
Salman North
Salman South
Salman SW
Teberu Footwall
Akanko Central
North Hill
Salman North

1.55
2.59
3.06
2.44
1.96
2.61
2.32
1.68
3.70
2.20

Gravity
Rec (%)
44.12
2.60
9.83
8.11
50.54
64.33
11.13
37.83
35.99
8.18

Table 15-37 3kg Batch Gravity Test Results Salman Transition Variability Samples
Comp.
No.
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
21
22
23

Rock
Type
Greywacke
Greywacke
Greywacke
Greywacke
Greywacke
Greywacke
Greywacke
Greywacke
Greywacke
Greywacke
Granite
Granite
Granite

Pit/
Oxidation Zone
Salman Central tr-lo
Salman North tr-lo
Salman South tr-lo
Akanko Central tr-up
Salman Central tr-up
Salman North tr-up
Salman South tr-up
Nugget Footwall
Salman SW
Teberu Footwall tr
Salman North tr-lo
Akanko Central tr-up
Salman North tr-up

Head
Grade (g/t)
3.62
2.92
2.45
1.59
3.37
2.30
1.57
2.32
2.23
3.21
2.19
2.73
1.54

Gravity
Rec (%)
5.98
7.36
6.79
29.60
8.67
6.52
38.92
15.33
18.94
23.98
55.51
45.69
18.38

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Table 15-38 3kg Batch Gravity Test Results Salman Sulphide Variability Samples
Sulphide
Comp. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

15.7.3

Rock
Type
Greywacke
Greywacke
Greywacke
Greywacke
Greywacke
Greywacke
Greywacke
Greywacke
Greywacke
Greywacke
Greywacke
Greywacke
Greywacke
Granite
Granite
Granite

Pit/Drill Hole

Head
Grade (g/t)

Nugget Footwall, SNRC561


Salman Central, SNRC570
Salman Central, SNRC575
Salman North, SNRC537
Salman North, SNRC539
Salman North, SNRC541 44m-79m
Salman North, SNRC541 79m-95m
Salman North, SNRC542
Salman South, SNRC574
Salman South, SNRC577
Salman SW, SNRC579
Teberu Footwall, SNRC554
Teberu Footwall, SNRC560
Akanko Central, AKRC103
Salman North, SNRC541
Salman North, SNRC542

2.19
2.57
4.47
6.52
1.83
1.83
7.36
2.37
1.45
3.88
1.53
3.57
2.42
1.89
2.12
2.41

Gravity
Rec (%)
12.63
4.32
9.71
8.43
3.86
10.90
3.39
17.33
70.60
11.72
67.29
15.14
4.68
49.25
9.36
69.14

Bulk Gravity Tests

Gravity recovery tests were performed with 32 to 45kg feed samples to provide slurry for carbon
adsorption and cyanide detoxification testing. The samples were ground to the required size and
treated with a 3 Knelson concentrator per the following conditions:
Grind P80: 75m.
Feed rate ~300g "dry solids"/minute.
Initial fluidisation water pressure: 17kPa.
Concentrate Treatment: Intensive cyanidation, with diagnostic leaching of intensive
cyanidation residue.
Results from the bulk gravity tests are summarised in Table 15-39 and Table 15-40.

Table 15-39 Anwia Bulk Gravity Test Results


Sample
ID

Test
No.s

Anwia Oxide
Anwia Transition
Anwia Sulphide

SN1625,1619-1621
SN1624, 1616-1618
SN1567, 1568-1570

Feed
Mass
(kg)
32
45
45

Head Grade
(g/t)

Concentrate
Leach Rec
(%)

Gravity
Rec (%)

2.82
2.27
2.59

99.48
99.32
98.91

39.68
41.70
36.15

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Table 15-40 Salman Bulk Gravity Test Results


Sample
ID

Test
No.s

Feed
Mass (kg)

Head Grade
(g/t)

Salman Oxide
Salman Transition

SN1614, 1608-1610
SN1613, 1605-1607

45
36

3.07
2.97

Concentrate
Leach Rec
(%)
98.01
69.93

Gravity
Rec (%)
27.53
12.02

High intensity cyanidation gave excellent gold recovery from the bulk gravity concentrates, except for
the Salman transition sample. Diagnostic leaching of the leach residue obtained following high
intensity cyanidation of gravity concentrates from the Salman transition ore showed 92.8% of the
remaining gold was locked in sulphides.
Gravity gold recovery from all Anwia ore samples was significant and the installation of a well
designed gravity gold recovery circuit, with intensive cyanidation of the gravity concentrates, can be
expected to achieve 25 to 30% gold recovery via gravity and minimise gold losses to tailings due to
incomplete leaching of coarse free gold.
Gravity gold recovery from the Salman ores will be significantly lower than that obtained from the
Anwia ores (5 to 20%), but removal of gravity gold will help to ensure that the loss of free gold to the
leach tailings is minimised.

15.8

15.8.1

Leaching

General

Leach optimisation tests were conducted for each leach master composite sample. Variability tests
were then performed using the optimum conditions determined by results from the leach optimisation
tests and preliminary grinding and leaching capital and operating costs.
The leach optimisation testwork involved investigating the response of the master composite samples
to variations in grind size, pH, cyanide concentration and other leach conditions.

15.8.2

Leach Optimisation Testing

Samples of the master leach composites were ground in 3kg batches to the desired P80 and
processed by 3 Knelson concentrator. Gravity gold was removed from the concentrates by mercury
amalgamation. The amalgamation residue was then combined for subsequent leach testing.
Results from the leach optimisation tests are summarised in Table 15-41 to Table 15-45 and
discussed in the following sections.

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Table 15-41 Anwia Oxide Leach Optimisation Test Results


Test No.

P80

NaCN

(m)

(%)

SN1450

106

0.025

SN1451

75

SN1452
SN1453

pH

Head

Gravity

NaCN

Lime

(g/t)

(%)

2h

4h

Overall Recovery
8h

24h

48h

(kg/t)

(kg/t)

10.5

3.22

28.75

72.27

79.36

87.27

95.37

95.95

1.03

1.02

0.050

10.5

3.03

30.21

80.03

86.70

92.38

95.79

97.28

1.47

0.98

150

0.050

10.5

3.02

27.71

77.32

83.54

90.75

93.81

94.72

1.50

1.03

106

0.100

10

3.32

26.02

81.42

87.88

93.83

96.61

97.17

2.76

0.00

SN1454

75

0.025

10

3.54

25.93

74.64

87.28

94.44

97.09

97.63

1.23

0.96

SN1455

150

0.025

10

3.04

30.32

79.78

87.88

93.62

96.07

96.68

1.43

0.84

SN1456

106

0.050

10

3.06

33.07

87.06

93.69

97.00

97.59

98.21

2.04

0.64

SN1457

75

0.100

10

3.07

34.97

87.96

93.32

96.09

96.54

96.96

2.87

0.63

SN1458

150

0.100

10

3.21

32.35

84.04

89.56

92.99

95.25

97.27

2.95

0.58

SN1459

106

0.025

9.5

3.25

31.96

83.01

88.64

92.03

94.22

96.21

1.31

0.66

Note

SN1460

75

0.050

9.5

3.59

36.19

85.47

89.51

92.68

93.20

93.71

1.62

0.36

SN1461

150

0.050

9.5

2.94

25.31

74.05

84.43

92.50

92.93

93.56

1.67

0.31

SN1462

106

0.100

9.5

3.26

18.98

73.77

85.76

89.98

91.30

91.88

2.65

0.34

SN1463

106

0.050

9.5

3.83

21.94

81.07

89.91

94.70

96.40

96.88

2.07

0.35

SN1464

106

0.050

10.5

3.51

27.17

83.64

91.37

94.05

94.58

95.11

1.53

0.96

SN1465

106

0.050

10.5

3.33

35.90

78.92

84.63

90.52

95.64

97.57

0.63

0.73

No Carbon

SN1466

106

0.050

10.5

3.03

34.00

82.10

89.42

93.93

96.30

97.67

0.67

1.01

No Carbon

SN1467

106

0.050

10.5

3.68

28.01

78.79

89.36

94.70

96.74

97.17

1.28

1.24

45%w/w

SN1468

106

0.050

10.5

3.45

27.81

74.67

83.23

89.60

93.38

97.43

1.08

1.14

50%w/w

SN1469

106

0.050

10.5

3.57

0.00

51.58

68.95

83.69

92.88

96.88

1.43

1.31

No Gravity

SN1470

106

0.050

10.5

3.57

0.00

51.23

70.35

85.05

93.44

97.43

1.42

1.25

No Gravity

128

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Technical Report

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Table 15-42 Anwia Transition Leach Optimisation Test Results

Test No.

P80

NaCN

(m)

(%)

SN1499

106

0.025

SN1500

75

0.050

SN1501

150

SN1502

pH

Head

Gravity

Overall Recovery

NaCN

Lime

(g/t)

(%)

2h

4h

8h

24h

10.5

2.66

36.47

70.24

85.47

89.55

10.5

2.60

19.04

84.90

88.48

92.56

0.050

10.5

2.85

33.90

81.75

85.97

106

0.100

10

3.43

36.01

87.84

SN1503

75

0.025

10

2.74

17.20

SN1504

150

0.025

10

3.20

SN1505

106

0.050

10

2.98

SN1506

75

0.100

10

SN1507

150

0.100

SN1508

106

SN1509

75

SN1510

Note

48h

(kg/t)

(kg/t)

91.43

93.53

0.62

0.66

94.69

96.84

1.09

0.60

89.32

91.04

93.01

1.25

0.57

91.03

94.12

95.74

97.37

2.02

0.43

63.12

79.82

88.83

92.65

94.68

0.67

0.30

40.50

79.77

84.79

89.30

92.55

94.28

0.79

0.35

36.86

85.62

89.36

92.87

94.74

96.60

1.59

0.23

2.93

36.44

86.24

90.00

93.60

95.48

97.39

2.64

0.21

10

2.76

40.88

82.62

86.60

90.42

92.43

94.44

2.61

0.19

0.025

9.5

2.94

38.86

81.12

86.30

89.89

91.76

93.65

0.95

0.13

0.050

9.5

2.98

38.95

86.55

90.24

93.76

95.61

97.48

1.43

0.15

150

0.050

9.5

2.88

34.27

83.08

87.74

91.38

93.31

95.24

1.56

0.16

SN1511

106

0.100

9.5

3.24

28.52

82.17

87.59

90.86

92.57

94.28

2.40

0.14

SN1512

106

0.050

9.5

3.26

30.84

78.15

85.12

91.33

94.71

96.41

1.62

0.15

SN1513

106

0.050

10.5

3.27

38.82

84.48

89.86

93.07

94.76

96.46

1.45

0.44

SN1514

106

0.050

10.5

3.19

37.15

83.03

89.22

90.73

94.63

96.18

0.70

0.36

No Carbon

SN1515

106

0.050

10.5

3.15

30.99

78.71

85.60

86.94

92.70

92.73

0.64

0.37

No Carbon

SN1516

106

0.050

10.5

2.76

29.03

81.43

88.78

92.07

93.79

95.52

0.95

0.35

45% w/w

SN1517

106

0.050

10.5

3.00

35.54

85.94

89.97

92.59

93.96

95.33

0.95

0.34

50% w/w

SN1518

106

0.050

10.5

2.66

0.00

69.36

83.64

89.39

93.33

95.42

1.24

0.43

No Gravity

SN1519

106

0.050

10.5

2.97

0.00

73.43

83.92

90.97

94.47

96.34

1.27

0.44

No Gravity

129

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Page 130

Table 15-43 Anwia Sulphide Leach Optimisation Test Results


Test No.

P80

NaCN

(m)

(%)

SN1471

106

0.025

SN1472

75

SN1473
SN1474

pH

Head

Gravity

NaCN

Lime

(g/t)

(%)

2h

4h

Overall Recovery
8h

24h

48h

(kg/t)

(kg/t)

10.5

3.61

41.17

71.73

77.94

85.42

90.55

95.85

0.88

0.95

0.050

10.5

3.41

45.93

83.84

88.41

92.60

95.85

97.48

1.46

0.73

150

0.050

10.5

3.08

42.11

78.27

85.21

90.03

93.62

95.39

1.40

0.62

106

0.100

10

3.09

43.25

81.92

85.62

89.21

93.79

97.34

2.45

0.51

SN1475

75

0.025

10

3.00

46.83

83.38

88.13

91.79

95.48

97.34

1.18

0.49

SN1476

150

0.025

10

2.86

38.43

73.41

82.93

88.24

92.15

94.10

0.86

0.00

SN1477

106

0.050

10

2.92

41.85

77.16

84.92

88.72

92.57

96.58

1.47

0.30

SN1478

75

0.100

10

3.00

49.03

86.44

90.11

93.80

95.62

97.48

2.27

0.31

SN1479

150

0.100

10

2.73

44.77

82.31

86.29

90.35

92.35

94.39

2.50

0.27

SN1480

106

0.025

9.5

2.44

48.30

80.49

84.92

89.54

91.76

94.06

0.98

0.26

Note

SN1481

75

0.050

9.5

3.09

55.11

85.24

88.83

92.46

94.26

96.09

1.55

0.17

SN1482

150

0.050

9.5

2.80

44.03

78.58

82.59

86.55

88.54

90.51

1.64

0.18

SN1483

106

0.100

9.5

2.79

51.50

82.90

86.80

90.77

92.79

94.80

2.60

0.17

SN1484

106

0.050

9.5

2.82

52.64

82.78

86.65

90.66

92.64

94.59

1.50

0.19

SN1485

106

0.050

10.5

2.93

46.49

83.64

87.41

91.20

93.06

94.96

1.27

0.59

SN1486

106

0.050

10.5

2.73

45.73

87.30

91.21

91.93

93.85

96.06

0.61

0.34

No Carbon

SN1487

106

0.050

10.5

2.79

49.94

87.42

91.16

92.72

94.56

96.13

0.62

0.34

No Carbon

SN1488

106

0.050

10.5

2.59

55.25

86.12

89.48

92.95

94.81

96.65

1.20

0.45

45%w/w

SN1489

106

0.050

10.5

2.93

53.49

87.73

90.43

93.24

94.66

96.07

0.99

0.48

50%w/w

SN1490

106

0.050

10.5

2.52

0.00

40.49

67.24

82.39

91.64

96.08

1.33

0.69

No Gravity

SN1491

106

0.050

10.5

2.82

0.00

38.53

66.43

83.78

91.94

95.85

1.35

0.75

No Gravity

130

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Page 131

Table 15-44 Salman Oxide Leach Optimisation Test Results


Test No.

P80

NaCN

(m)

(%)

SN1230

106

0.025

SN1231

75

SN1232
SN1233

pH

Head

Gravity

NaCN

Lime

(g/t)

(%)

2h

4h

Overall Recovery
8h

24h

48h

(kg/t)

(kg/t)

10.5

2.12

12.85

82.77

88.98

92.10

92.54

92.97

0.82

1.49

0.050

10.5

2.39

12.96

81.18

87.99

91.66

93.48

94.54

1.29

1.93

150

0.050

10.5

2.48

8.28

73.90

82.71

88.22

91.38

93.69

1.36

1.79

106

0.100

10.5

2.49

11.95

77.92

84.53

88.68

91.75

94.51

2.01

1.82

SN1234

75

0.025

10

2.13

13.04

82.27

89.56

92.68

93.12

93.55

0.91

1.80

SN1235

150

0.025

10

1.99

12.04

81.97

88.32

91.53

92.00

92.46

0.96

1.58

SN1236

106

0.050

10

2.31

15.19

85.65

90.70

93.85

94.25

94.65

1.22

1.43

SN1237

75

0.100

10

2.09

10.80

86.43

91.26

93.39

93.83

94.27

2.32

1.45

SN1238

150

0.100

10

2.49

15.18

82.15

88.08

89.73

91.43

91.81

2.19

1.35

SN1239

106

0.025

9.5

2.41

14.20

76.21

83.77

86.13

88.48

88.86

0.93

1.24

Note

SN1240

75

0.050

9.5

2.29

11.48

85.68

88.89

90.80

91.20

91.60

1.62

1.09

SN1241

150

0.050

9.5

2.53

8.19

73.18

80.13

85.68

88.16

88.53

1.62

1.09

SN1242

106

0.100

9.5

2.36

7.76

79.35

85.92

88.21

88.61

89.00

2.39

0.88

SN1243

106

0.050

9.5

2.41

6.91

76.41

84.67

87.31

89.29

90.67

1.54

1.08

SN1244

106

0.050

10.5

2.37

4.78

78.36

84.00

87.67

91.42

92.56

1.54

1.35

SN1444

90

0.025

10.5

2.25

11.77

80.37

86.89

87.38

89.48

91.24

0.51

2.05

45%w/w

SN1445

90

0.025

10.5

2.74

18.46

86.48

91.92

91.59

92.58

92.84

0.45

2.14

50%w/w

SN1446

90

0.025

10.5

2.50

10.83

81.61

85.98

87.31

88.61

91.85

0.39

2.08

No Carbon

SN1447

90

0.025

10.5

2.60

12.17

81.61

85.98

87.31

88.61

91.85

0.40

2.06

No Carbon

SN1448

90

0.025

10.5

2.35

0.00

57.77

73.65

86.57

90.87

91.27

0.70

2.39

No Gravity

SN1449

90

0.025

10.5

2.44

0.00

55.66

73.08

85.12

88.43

90.67

0.67

2.33

No Gravity

131

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Table 15-45 Salman Transition Leach Optimisation Test Results


Test No.

P80

NaCN

(m)

(%)

SN1245

106

0.025

SN1246

75

SN1247
SN1248

pH

Head

Gravity

NaCN

Lime

(g/t)

(%)

2h

4h

Overall Recovery
8h

24h

48h

(kg/t)

(kg/t)

10.5

2.76

3.18

43.34

51.55

56.31

59.64

62.11

0.70

1.03

0.050

10.5

2.58

4.98

55.02

58.95

59.95

60.31

60.66

1.34

1.30

150

0.050

10.5

2.79

7.90

45.12

50.13

51.91

54.29

54.62

1.28

1.23

106

0.100

10.5

2.35

6.21

46.31

50.64

52.47

53.54

53.93

2.00

1.13

SN1249

75

0.025

10

2.98

3.35

50.74

60.00

63.68

65.24

65.55

0.87

1.00

SN1250

150

0.025

10

2.60

6.86

37.40

53.75

58.69

61.45

62.45

0.94

0.81

SN1251

106

0.050

10

2.80

17.85

60.45

66.37

68.52

71.00

72.61

1.39

0.76

SN1252

75

0.100

10

2.54

3.47

56.44

58.80

60.79

62.81

63.83

2.05

0.72

SN1253

150

0.100

10

2.58

5.01

51.28

55.52

58.83

61.21

62.65

2.30

0.78

SN1254

106

0.025

9.5

2.68

4.28

40.29

54.40

59.01

61.85

63.10

1.03

0.61

SN1255

75

0.050

9.5

2.60

5.20

49.45

56.49

58.78

61.19

63.08

1.47

0.49

SN1256

150

0.050

9.5

2.61

4.17

47.91

55.58

58.67

60.72

62.58

1.41

0.51

SN1257

106

0.100

9.5

2.43

4.29

58.81

61.89

64.31

66.10

68.31

2.31

0.48

SN1258

106

0.050

9.5

2.53

3.49

57.05

62.07

65.06

67.62

69.41

1.58

0.46

SN1259

106

0.050

10.5

2.40

5.28

57.99

63.20

65.19

69.46

71.28

1.51

0.65

SN1434

75

0.100

10.5

2.78

10.15

59.35

60.46

61.94

63.44

64.12

2.13

1.18

SN1495

53

0.025

10.5

3.24

9.11

40.70

55.99

60.47

64.21

67.77

0.81

1.28

SN1496

53

0.025

10.5

3.33

13.05

44.20

57.60

64.51

67.82

69.49

0.88

1.34

SN1497

38

0.025

10.5

3.23

10.28

45.16

56.70

62.71

67.80

69.52

0.88

1.15

SN1498

38

0.025

10.5

3.22

8.48

43.60

56.89

61.47

65.20

68.64

0.88

1.13

Note

100g/t Pb(NO3)2 added

132

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Effect of Grind Size


Anwia oxide ore displays little variation in recovery when varying P80 between 75m and 150m, with
similar recoveries obtained at 75m and 106m (~95%), and decreasing slightly to ~94% when the
grind is coarsened to 150m.
Anwia transition ore displays a slight variation in recovery when varying P80 between 75m and
150m, with recoveries increasing from ~94% at 150m to ~96% at 75m.
Anwia sulphide ore displays a pronounced variation in recovery when varying P80 between 75m and
150m, with recoveries increasing from ~93% at 150m to ~97% at 75m.
Salman oxide ore gave similar recoveries at 75m and 106m (~92.5%) decreasing ~91% when the
grind is coarsened to 150m.
Salman transition ore shows little variation in recovery when varying P80 between 38m and 150m,
with ~1g/t residues obtained at all grind sizes.

Effect of pH and Cyanide Concentration


The effect of varying pH and cyanide concentration are relatively unimportant from a design
perspective, since both variables can be easily changed in operation. However, an understanding of
the interaction of pH and cyanide concentration on recovery and reagent consumptions is necessary
for the estimation of operating costs and recovery for the selected operating conditions.
Comparison of tests conducted at 0.05% NaCN and pH 9.5 and pH 10.5 shows leaching at pH 10.5
gives higher recoveries for the majority of the ores and grind sizes tested.
Comparison of tests conducted at varying cyanide concentration shows that leaching at higher
cyanide concentration gave increased leaching rates. The effect of increased cyanide concentration
diminished with decreasing grind size and increasing leach time.
Cyanide consumption increased two to three times when increasing the cyanide concentration from
0.025% NaCN to 0.10% NaCN. The variation of cyanide consumption with cyanide concentration for
Salman and Anwia ores is shown in Figure 15-17 and Figure 15-18

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Figure 15-17 Effect of Cyanide Concentration on Cyanide Consumption Salman

Cyanide Consumption (kg/t)

3.0
2.5

Salman Oxide
Salman Transition

2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.00

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.10

0.12

Cyanide Concentration (% NaCN)

Figure 15-18 Effect of Cyanide Concentration on Cyanide Consumption Anwia


3.5

Cyanide Consumption (kg/t)

3.0

Anwia Oxide
Anwia Transition
Anwia Sulphide

2.5

2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.00

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.10

0.12

Cyanide Concentration (% NaCN)

134

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Effect of Gravity
Results from tests performed with and without gravity recovery were compared to assess the effect of
gravity gold recovery on overall recovery.
The effect of gravity gold recovery for Salman and Anwia ores is shown in Figure 15-19 to Figure
15-22.
The tests with Salman oxide ore with gravity recovery prior to leaching at 106m provide 2% higher
recovery after 48 hours leaching, when compared with leaching without gravity recovery at 90m.
Gravity recovery prior to leaching gave higher recovery for leach times less than ~38 hours for Anwia
oxide ore.
Gravity recovery prior to leaching of Anwia transition ore gave 0.6% higher recovery after 48 hours
leaching, when compared with leaching for the same time without gravity recovery.
Gravity recovery prior to leaching gave higher recovery for leach times less than ~42 hours for Anwia
sulphide ore.

Figure 15-19 Effect of Gravity Gold Recovery Salman Oxide

Salman Oxide

100

Recovery (%)

90

80
No Gravity (90m)
Gravity (106m)
70

60

50
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Leach Time (h)

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Figure 15-20 Effect of Gravity Gold Recovery Anwia Oxide

Anwia Oxide

100

80
No Gravity

70

Gravity

60
50
40
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Leach Time (h)

Figure 15-21 Effect of Gravity Gold Recovery Anwia Transition

Anwia Transition
100

90
Recovery (%)

Recovery (%)

90

80

No Gravity
Gravity

70

60
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Leach Time (h)

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Figure 15-22 Effect of Gravity Gold Recovery Anwia Sulphide

Anwia Sulphide

100
90

Recovery (%)

80
No Gravity
70

Gravity

60
50
40
30
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Leach Time (h)

A preliminary financial analysis indicates that an improvement in recovered grade of 0.008g/t (30
Concentrator) to 0.014g/t (48 Concentrator) is necessary to justify the installation of a gravity recovery
circuit. For a mill feed grade of 2.70 g/t this equates to an improvement of 0.3% to 0.5% recovery.
Inclusion of a gravity circuit when processing Salman oxide ore provides a payback period of 5 months
(30 Concentrator) to 9 months (48 Concentrator) and the installation of a gravity circuit with a 40
concentrator is recommended.
The main parameters used in the economic analysis are summarised in Table 15-46.

Table 15-46 Gravity Circuit Economic Analysis Parameters


Parameter
Plant Throughput
Plant Availability
Interest rate
Loan period
Gold Price
Capital Cost - 48 Concentrator
Capital Cost - 40 Concentrator
Capital Cost - 30 Concentrator

Unit
Mt/a
%
%
years
US$/oz
US$M
US$M
US$M

Value
1.32
91.32
6
3
600
1.00
0.78
0.53

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Effect of Carbon Addition


Previous testwork conducted for the Scoping Study indicated that the Salman ore had a slight preg
robbing capacity and the majority of tests conducted during this programme were performed with
carbon present through out leaching. Some tests were carried out to without carbon present to
confirm the requirement for the presence of carbon during leaching.
Salman oxide and Anwia transition ore gave improved recovery with carbon present during leaching,
where as higher recovery was obtained for Anwia oxide and sulphide ore without carbon present
during leaching.
To provide suitable flexibility within the circuit it is recommended that provision be made for carbon
addition to all tanks, with recovery of loaded carbon possible from either of the first two tanks.

Effect of Pulp Density


The majority of tests conducted during the leach optimisation programme were performed at 40% w/w
slurry density. Tests were also carried out at 45% w/w and 50% w/w to determine if there were any
beneficial, or adverse, effects from increasing the pulp density.
The tests with Salman oxide ore at increased pulp density showed reduced reagent consumption with
increasing pulp density. Residue grades increased with increasing pulp density; however the feed
grade for the tests varied widely, with the test performed at 50% w/w having the highest head grade,
making any comparison of recoveries difficult.
The tests with Anwia oxide ore at increased pulp density showed reduced reagent consumption and
increased recovery with increasing pulp density.
The tests with Anwia transition ore at increased pulp density showed reduced reagent consumption
and a slight decrease in recovery with increasing pulp density.
The tests with Anwia sulphide ore at increased pulp density showed reduced reagent consumption
and increasing recoveries with increasing pulp density.
Leaching should be performed at the highest possible slurry density, within the constraints of cyclone
performance, thickening capacity and slurry viscosity.

138

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Technical Report

October 2007
Page 139

Optimum Grind Size and Leach Residence Time Determination


A simple economic analysis was performed to establish the optimum grind size and leach residence
time for plant design. The economic analysis considered the following criteria, for P80 from 75m to
150m and up 48 hours leach residence time:
Mill operating power (calculated by Orway Mineral Consultants).
Mill liners and grinding media consumption (calculated by Orway Mineral consultants).
Cyanide and lime consumption.
Grinding and Leaching Capital.Costs (estimated to 30% by Lycopodium).
Gold Recovery.
The main parameters used in the economic analysis are summarised in Table 15-47.

Table 15-47 Economic Analysis Parameters


Parameter
Plant Throughput
Plant Availability
Fixed Annual Operating Cost
Power Cost
Cyanide
Lime
SAG Mill Balls
SAG Mill Liners
Ball Mill Balls
Ball Mill Liners
Interest rate
Loan period
Gold Price

Unit
Mt/a
%
US$M/year
US$/kWh
US$/t
US$/t
US$/t
US$/t
US$/t
US$/t
%
years
US$/oz

Value
1.32
91.32
10.13
0.053
2035
246
1181
2700
1163
2700
6
3
600

The effect of varying grind size and leach residence time for the two major ore types, Anwia sulphide
and Salman oxide, are shown in Figure 15-23 and Figure 15-24. (Note: Revenue only considers the
capital and operating costs associated with grinding and leaching.)
A 75m P80 provides the maximum revenue for both the Anwia sulphide and Salman oxide ores at all
leach times considered. The optimum leach time was 24 hours for Salman oxide ore, compared with
36 hours for the Anwia sulphide ore.
Based on this analysis a 106m P80 and 30 hour leach time were considered to provide the optimum
economic benefit.

139

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Technical Report

October 2007
Page 140

Figure 15-23 Effect of Varying Grind Size and Leach Time Anwia Sulphide
Sensitivity to Grind Size and Residence Time
- Anwia Sulphide ($600/oz & 5.3/kWh)

Revenue (US$/t)

40.0

39.5

48 h

39.0

36 h
30 h
24 h

38.5
60

75

90

105

120

135

150

165

Grind P80 (m)

Figure 15-24 Effect of Varying Grind Size and Leach Time Salman Oxide

Sensitivity to Residence Time and Grind Size


- Salman Oxide ($600/oz & 5.3/kWh)

39.0

Revenue (US$/t)

38.5

38.0

37.5
48 h
36 h
30 h
24 h

37.0

36.5
60

75

90

105

120

135

150

165

Grind P80 (m)

140

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Southern Ashanti Gold Project, Ghana, Western Africa
Technical Report

15.8.3

October 2007
Page 141

Leach Variability Testing

Conditions for the variability tests were selected using results from the leach optimisation tests in
conjunction with preliminary grinding and leaching capital and operating costs to determine the
grind/leach circuit configuration and operating conditions providing the optimum financial benefit for
the respective ores.
Samples of the variability leach composite samples were ground in 3kg batches to the desired P80
and processed by 3 Knelson concentrator. Gravity gold was removed from the concentrates by
mercury amalgamation. The amalgamation residue was then combined for subsequent leach testing.
Results from the leach variability tests are summarised in Table 15-48 to Table 15-50 All leach
variability tests were performed using the same conditions, except the Salman oxide samples which
were leached at 45% w/w due to the higher viscosity exhibited by this ore:
P80 75m
0.025% NaCN
pH 10.5.
50% w/w

15.8.4

Effect of Oxygen Addition

A series of leach tests were performed with samples of Anwia sulphide AMC composite to determine
the effect of varying oxygen/aeration conditions on leach recoveries. Results from these tests are
summarised in Table 15-51.
Tests SN1690 to SN1697 were carried out as CIL tests, with carbon addition after 5 hours of leaching.
The feed for each test batch in this series was treated in the Knelson concentrator separately. The
calculated recoveries from the tests display a significant decrease following the addition of activated
carbon. This most likely due to the sampling and assay errors associated with the carbon (carbon was
sampled by dips, rather than total replacement).
The uncertainty of the results obtained, in particular the intermediate recoveries (between 10 and 30
hours leaching), and the differences in feed grades for the tests the makes it difficult to determine the
effect of the varying aeration conditions with a high level of confidence. For leach residence times
less than 24 hours, it appears that oxygen may improve gold recovery by ~1% (~0.03g/t). There
appeared to be no benefit in more than 5 hours of oxygen addition.
A further series of tests was performed with a modified procedure to eliminate variability in feed grades
and reduce sampling/assay errors. The feed samples for this series of tests (SN1701 to SN1709)
were split from the tailings obtained by processing a single 24kg batch treated in the Knelson
concentrator. No carbon was added during the leach to remove carbon sampling and assaying errors.

141

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Southern Ashanti Gold Project, Ghana, Western Africa
Technical Report

October 2007
Page 142

Table 15-48 Anwia Leach Variability Test Results


Test No.

Sample

Head

Gravity

NaCN

Lime

ID

(g/t)

(%)

2h

4h

Overall Recovery
8h

24h

30h

36h

(kg/t)

(kg/t)

SN1623

Oxide Master Composite 1 and 2 Blend

2.44

34.52

73.23

87.97

91.42

91.52

94.87

95.89

0.54

0.55

SN1553

Oxide Master Composite 1

2.78

33.17

74.56

92.86

94.00

95.65

95.70

95.92

0.49

0.53

SN1554

Variability Composite 24

2.34

19.36

80.03

90.45

89.40

90.68

90.79

92.21

0.45

0.77

SN1555

Variability Composite 25

3.64

53.99

73.06

85.20

95.70

98.28

99.02

98.04

0.49

0.42

SN1556

Variability Composite 26

3.51

48.57

89.63

93.26

91.06

95.16

95.63

95.89

0.57

0.49

SN1622

Transition Master Composite 1 and 2 Blend

2.28

37.60

78.14

85.59

91.42

93.67

93.87

93.52

0.50

0.26

SN1557

Transition Composite 1

2.64

36.99

69.17

87.16

93.47

93.99

95.62

95.70

0.54

0.27

SN1558

Variability Composite 32

2.28

54.19

65.39

78.67

87.53

91.12

91.35

92.19

0.63

0.46

SN1559

Variability Composite 33

2.46

63.74

77.55

87.48

86.19

96.06

96.16

95.70

0.61

0.31

SN1560

Variability Composite 34

1.37

51.54

88.31

106.31

92.23

94.37

96.88

97.34

0.54

0.40

SN1561

Variability Composite 35

1.09

25.95

43.44

83.34

88.57

89.57

91.10

92.04

0.65

0.31

SN1562

Variability Composite 36

4.30

51.90

82.54

94.33

92.40

93.53

95.19

96.65

0.57

0.32

SN1563

Variability Composite 37

0.76

62.73

95.12

113.11

83.78

86.64

94.51

95.04

0.52

0.27

SN1548

Sulphide Master Composite

2.64

56.42

90.24

94.32

93.49

93.54

93.86

93.98

0.44

0.28

SN1549

Variability Composite 28

2.94

63.46

94.93

97.74

94.72

94.36

94.31

95.76

0.56

0.20

SN1550

Variability Composite 29

1.68

54.75

93.48

95.07

92.89

94.78

94.62

94.00

0.54

0.22

SN1551

Variability Composite 30

4.64

54.28

98.68

99.48

95.94

97.18

96.87

97.55

0.64

0.52

SN1552

Variability Composite 31

2.34

54.18

93.03

94.66

95.67

96.49

95.67

96.52

0.61

0.32

142

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Technical Report

October 2007
Page 143

Table 15-49 Salman Leach Variability Test Results Oxide and Transition
Test No.

Comp

Deposit

No.

Rock

Ox.

Head

Gravity

NaCN

Lime

Type*

Class

(g/t)

(%)

2h

4h

Overall Recovery
8h

24h

30h

36h

(kg/t)

(kg/t)

SN1593

18

Akanko Central

IGRA

Ox

1.68

37.83

89.22

91.02

92.42

92.99

96.15

96.17

0.61

0.85

SN1594

19

North Hill

IGRA

Ox

3.70

35.99

92.66

92.95

93.16

94.11

95.00

96.59

0.84

2.60

SN1595

20

Salman North

IGRA

Ox

2.20

8.18

39.56

54.99

71.08

83.68

83.82

83.83

0.78

0.77

SN1576

Akanko Central

SW

Ox

1.55

44.12

70.32

78.29

94.38

94.87

99.60

99.69

0.71

1.20

SN1577

Nugget Footwall

SW

Ox

2.59

2.60

79.68

80.27

80.87

81.13

81.18

82.04

0.76

1.47

SN1578

Salman Central

SW

Ox

3.06

9.83

76.20

83.38

86.70

87.72

89.34

91.57

0.75

2.00

SN1579

Salman North

SW

Ox

2.44

8.11

80.65

82.56

82.79

83.54

83.65

84.32

0.77

1.66

SN1580

Salman South

SW

Ox

1.96

50.54

94.32

95.74

95.74

96.33

96.61

97.71

0.49

0.75

SN1581

Salman SW

SW

Ox

2.61

64.33

78.55

87.08

88.97

92.16

93.94

95.08

0.79

1.42

SN1582

Teberu Footwall

SW

Ox

2.32

11.13

74.43

74.13

74.77

75.89

76.75

77.65

0.77

1.84

SN1590

15

Nugget Footwall

SW

Tr

2.32

15.33

66.07

72.68

78.45

78.81

78.97

80.73

0.74

1.34

SN1591

16

Salman SW

SW

Tr

2.23

18.94

47.60

71.07

80.24

83.70

85.69

86.24

0.73

1.47

SN1592

17

Teberu Footwall

SW

Tr

3.21

23.98

64.61

68.22

69.23

69.81

70.13

70.33

0.65

1.13

SN1597

22

Akanko Central

IGRA

Up-Tr

2.73

45.69

89.12

94.41

94.81

95.68

96.21

97.45

0.50

0.93

SN1598

23

Salman North

IGRA

Up-Tr

1.54

18.38

37.64

38.07

58.41

68.59

69.24

70.79

0.85

0.23

SN1586

11

Akanko Central

SW

Up-Tr

1.59

29.60

81.77

90.02

92.71

94.28

96.48

97.01

0.21

0.61

SN1587

12

Salman Central

SW

Up-Tr

3.37

8.67

80.26

84.24

84.40

84.44

85.37

87.70

0.63

0.88

SN1588

13

Salman North

SW

Up-Tr

2.30

6.52

35.83

36.87

37.14

40.00

40.47

41.65

0.67

1.07

SN1589

14

Salman South

SW

Up-Tr

1.57

38.92

82.90

86.08

87.30

88.13

88.59

91.05

0.43

0.49

SN1596

21

Salman North

IGRA

Lo-Tr

2.19

55.51

80.32

85.73

91.79

92.16

94.27

94.96

0.58

0.48

SN1583

Salman Central

SW

Lo-Tr

3.62

5.98

31.10

32.82

36.26

36.29

36.35

38.14

0.82

0.82

SN1584

Salman North

SW

Lo-Tr

2.92

7.36

24.17

26.01

28.29

31.59

33.26

34.03

0.65

0.83

SN1585

10

Salman South

SW

Lo-Tr

2.45

6.79

69.51

72.35

73.44

73.46

73.93

74.94

0.60

0.72

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Page 144

Table 15-50 Salman Leach Variability Test Results Sulphide


Test No.

Comp

Deposit

No.

Rock

Ox.

Head

Gravity

NaCN

Lime

Type*

Class

(g/t)

(%)

2h

4h

Overall Recovery
8h

24h

30h

36h

(kg/t)

(kg/t)

SN1648

Nugget Footwall

SW

Su

2.19

12.63

27.92

33.10

33.78

34.54

34.75

35.23

0.65

0.83

SN1649

Salman Central

SW

Su

2.57

4.32

38.60

40.57

43.62

44.26

45.55

46.20

0.85

2.00

SN1650

Salman Central

SW

Su

4.47

9.71

31.13

40.10

41.80

43.63

44.13

45.54

0.66

0.58

SN1651

Salman North

SW

Su

6.52

8.43

14.79

15.54

15.99

16.30

16.99

17.19

0.57

0.30

SN1652

Salman North

SW

Su

1.83

3.86

21.14

21.34

21.48

21.60

22.99

23.76

0.59

0.32

SN1653

Salman North

SW

Su

1.83

10.90

26.05

26.16

26.57

28.83

29.07

31.53

0.56

0.28

SN1654

Salman North

SW

Su

7.36

3.39

12.19

13.31

14.15

15.10

15.34

16.09

0.48

0.31

SN1655

Salman North

SW

Su

2.37

17.33

30.91

32.73

32.11

32.81

33.09

33.10

0.54

0.25

SN1656

Salman South

SW

Su

1.45

70.60

92.01

92.11

93.63

94.12

94.28

94.86

0.57

0.32

SN1657

10

Salman South

SW

Su

3.88

11.72

28.57

28.87

29.57

30.29

30.35

30.87

0.57

0.25

SN1658

11

Salman SW

SW

Su

1.53

67.29

85.68

91.53

91.54

94.03

96.86

97.72

0.64

0.33

SN1659

12

Teberu Footwall

SW

Su

3.57

15.14

35.91

36.54

38.02

38.10

38.29

38.96

0.62

0.29

SN1660

13

Teberu Footwall

SW

Su

2.42

4.68

12.46

14.72

15.85

16.39

16.63

16.95

0.58

0.33

SN1661

14

Akanko Central

IGRA

Su

1.89

49.25

75.88

83.47

88.76

93.77

94.59

95.68

0.59

0.35

SN1662

15

Salman North

IGRA

Su

2.12

9.36

17.74

21.09

21.63

22.74

22.97

23.24

0.61

0.26

SN1663

16

Salman North

IGRA

Su

2.41

69.14

91.49

91.65

95.19

96.14

97.74

98.08

0.58

0.22

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Page 145

Table 15-51 Effect of Varying Oxygen/Aeration


Test No.

Aeration

Head

Gravity

Final Residue

NaCN

Lime

Conditions

(g/t)

(%)

2h

5h

Overall Recovery
10h

24h

30h

36h

(g/t)

(kg/t)

(kg/t)

SN1692

36 Hrs O2

1.27

52.96

91.06

96.83

90.00

94.09

95.98

92.43

0.10

0.54

0.24

SN1693

36 Hrs O2

1.39

51.74

84.77

88.28

85.55

87.44

91.13

92.91

0.10

0.55

0.35

SN1696

10 Hrs O2/26 Hrs Air

1.46

52.18

89.77

91.88

86.53

88.31

88.33

89.98

0.15

0.54

0.25

SN1697

10 Hrs O2/26 Hrs Air

1.43

45.98

83.51

88.22

84.70

84.71

86.44

89.80

0.15

0.56

0.25

SN1694

5 Hrs O2/31 Hrs Air

1.47

48.32

85.34

89.13

82.36

85.84

89.18

90.77

0.14

0.56

0.25

SN1695

5 Hrs O2/31 Hrs Air

1.44

50.75

83.15

89.17

83.43

86.93

90.37

90.38

0.14

0.56

0.26

SN1690

36 Hrs Air

1.49

47.23

82.23

88.23

80.89

82.64

85.90

92.16

0.12

0.54

0.24

SN1691

36 Hrs Air

1.67

61.68

85.32

89.83

88.08

88.03

90.96

92.37

0.13

0.51

0.24

SN1703

36 Hrs O2

2.03

32.68

75.96

84.89

87.06

89.73

90.47

92.19

0.14

0.51

0.22

SN1704

36 Hrs O2

2.01

33.01

76.23

85.25

87.92

90.13

91.86

93.10

0.12

0.55

0.23

SN1707

10 Hrs O2/26 Hrs Air

1.98

33.56

73.97

82.09

86.77

90.49

91.23

93.98

0.10

0.57

0.22

SN1708

10 Hrs O2/26 Hrs Air

2.02

32.84

76.33

84.82

86.99

90.16

90.90

92.63

0.13

0.54

0.22

SN1705

5 Hrs O2/31 Hrs Air

1.98

33.54

75.42

85.57

88.78

90.00

92.25

93.50

0.11

0.60

0.23

SN1706

5 Hrs O2/31 Hrs Air

1.99

33.38

73.07

83.65

86.83

90.03

91.77

93.01

0.12

0.58

0.22

SN1701

36 Hrs Air

2.00

33.20

64.18

75.58

80.14

86.25

87.93

89.13

0.20

0.52

0.24

SN1702

36 Hrs Air

2.02

32.86

63.52

74.32

79.81

85.86

86.55

88.72

0.21

0.57

0.21

145

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Page 146

Tests SN1701 to SN1709 showed oxygen addition gave a noticeable improvement in recovery, when
compared with tests using only air addition, as shown in Figure 15-25.

Figure 15-25 Effect of Oxygen Addition Anwia Sulphide

Effect of Oxygen Addition - Anwia Sulphide


100
90
80

Recovery (%)

70
60

5 hours oxygen

50

10 hours oxygen
36 hours oxygen

40

36 hours air

30
20
10
0
0

12

18

24

30

36

Leach Time (h)

The tests using oxygen addition provided ~4% higher recovery (~0.08g/t) after 24 hours of leaching.
There appeared to be no benefit in more than 5 hours of oxygen addition.
Provision should be made for oxygen addition to the first leach tank.

15.9

15.9.1

Oxygen Uptake

General

Oxygen uptake tests were conducted with samples of each leach master composite. The tests were
performed with oxygen, with the gas flow rate adjusted to maintain similar dissolved oxygen levels to
those measured during the leach testwork (15-20ppm dO2). One test was performed with air and
Anwia sulphide for comparison.
Results from these tests are summarised in Table 15-52

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Table 15-52 Summary of Oxygen Uptake Test Results


Sample/Oxidant
0h
0.023
0.002
0.015
0.030
-0.030
0.091

Anwia Oxide (O2)


Anwia Transition (O2)
Anwia Sulphide (air)
Anwia Sulphide (O2)
Salman Oxide (O2)
Salman Transition (O2)

1h
0.013
0.130
0.008
0.108
0.114
0.108

Oxygen Demand (mg/L/min)


2h
3h
4h
5h
0.113
0.116
0.118
0.100
0.130
0.136
0.147
0.145
0.013
0.030
0.024
0.021
0.079
0.108
0.084
0.101
0.093
0.063
0.079
0.077
0.100
0.087
0.061
0.064

6h
0.153
0.117
0.020
0.084
0.035
0.095

24h
0.020
0.165
0.007
0.100
0.038
0.074

Av
dO2
19.5
17.5
7.9
32.3
20.3
23.1

The Anwia transition ore sample has the highest measured oxygen demand, as illustrated in Figure
15-26. The oxygen demand for this ore also increased significantly between 6 and 24 hours. This
may be due to the oxidation of sulphide minerals; however the observed behaviour doesnt match the
typical response for ores containing reactive sulphides, which often display very high oxygen
consumption at the commencement of the test followed by a gradual decline in demand. The results
may have been affected by the loss of oxygen due to poor sealing of the test vessel lid.

Figure 15-26 Oxygen Demand - Anwia and Salman Ores


Oxygen Demand

0.20

O2 Demand (mg/L/min)

0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00

Anwia Oxide

Anwia Transition

Anwia Sulphide (air)

Anwia Sulphide (O2)

Salman Oxide

Salman Transition

-0.05
0

12

16

20

24

Time (h)

A 1.5 t/day oxygen plant would be suitable to satisfy the calculated oxygen demand for the first leach
tank, with oxygen levels in the remaining tanks maintained by sparging up to 225Nm/h of air.

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Page 148

Carbon Adsorption

15.10.1 General
Equilibrium loading and kinetic tests were conducted with slurry samples produced from bulk gravity
recovery and leach testing of the leach master composite samples. Results from these tests are
summarised in Table 15-53.
Table 15-53 Summary of Carbon Adsorption Test Results
Sample
Anwia Oxide
Anwia Transition
Anwia Sulphide
Salman Oxide
Salman Transition

Equilibrium Carbon Loading (g/t)


0.2 ppm Au
0.5 ppm Au
1 ppm Au
3947
5806
7774
2479
3559
4679
2100
3149
4277
3721
4902
6037
3357
4945
6630

Kinetic Constants
k (h-1)
n
142
0.73
192
0.67
200
0.64
160
0.77
202
0.67

The measured equilibrium loading and kinetic constants fall within the typical normal range of values.
Analysis of loaded carbon from these tests showed low to moderate levels (100 to 500 ppm) of copper
and nickel. The presence of copper and nickel at these levels is not expected to have any adverse
affect on gold recovery.

15.11

Cyanide Detoxification and Arsenic Precipitation

15.11.1 General
Cyanide detoxification (SO2/air) and arsenic precipitation (ferric salt addition) tests were conducted
with tailings slurry samples produced from bulk gravity recovery, leach and carbon adsorption testing
of the leach master composite samples. Results from these tests are summarised in Table 15-54 to
Table 15-57.
15.11.2 Cyanide Detoxification
All samples tested responded well to cyanide detoxification using the SO2/air process, with WAD
cyanide levels less than 0.5ppm (by picric acid assay method) achieved following detoxification.
The total cyanide concentration for some samples exceeded 1ppm due to the presence of residual
ferricyanide following detoxification. If there is a requirement to achieve total cyanide levels less than
1ppm then increased copper addition will be required to precipitate ferricyanide as Cu2Fe(CN)6.

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15.11.3 Arsenic Precipitation


Arsenic precipitation tests were conducted for slurries that contained more than 1ppm arsenic
following cyanide detoxification, per the World Bank Environment, Health and Safety Guidelines for
effluent discharged to receiving waters from tailings impoundments, mine drainage, sedimentation
basins, sewage systems, and stormwater drainage.
The conditions used for the initial arsenic precipitation tests were:
Retention time: 15 minutes
pH: 8.5
Target Fe:As mol Ratio: 4:1
With the exception of one test with Anwia Sulphide sample (D26) the arsenic concentration in the final
solution exceeded the 1ppm target after ferric precipitation. Additional tests were performed to
determine the effect of the following criteria:
Increased Fe:As mol ratio.
Air/Na2S2O5 oxidation prior to ferric addition.
Oxidation by Caros acid salt (KHSO5) prior to ferric addition.
Sighter tests were also performed to assess the suitability of phosphate as an alternative precipitant
with prior oxidation by Na2S2O5 and KHSO5. Results from these tests are summarised in Table 15-56.
Although the tests conducted using the Anwia sulphide sample with the increased Fe:As mol ratio
achieved arsenic levels less than 1ppm, the arsenic levels in tests with the Salman transition sample
increased significantly. The poor performance achieved with the Salman transition sample may have
been due to the higher pH at which these tests were conducted. The tests were conducted at pH 8.6
to 8.8, compared with the Anwia sulphide tests which were conducted at pH 8.0 to 8.1.

The arsenic levels increased significantly in all tests conducted with phosphate addition and no further
tests were conducted with phosphate.
Following review of the results from the preliminary and sighter arsenic precipitation tests a series of
optimisation tests were carried out to determine the effect of increased residence time, varying ferric
addition and reduced pH. Conditions used for the optimisation tests were:
Retention time: 60 minutes
pH: 7 and 8
Target Fe:As mol Ratio: 3.7, 7 and 10
Results from these tests are summarised in Table 15-57. Figure 15-27 shows the arsenic precipitation
optimisations results and the response surface for a fitted equation.

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Table 15-54 Summary of Cyanide Detoxification Test Results - Anwia


Sample

Oxide

Transition

Sulphide

ID

SO2

CuSO4.5H2O

Lime

Precip.

Fe

pH

Addition

Cu

Ni

Fe

Zn

As

CNfree

CNWAD

CNtotal

Addition

Addition

Addition

(ppm)

(ppm)

(ppm)

(ppm)

(ppm)

(ppm)

(ppm)

(ppm)

(g SO2/g CNWAD)

(ppm)

(g Ca(OH)2/g SO2)

Feed

2.40

<0.05

0.35

0.28

0.25

52

55

56

Fe:As Mol Ratio


-

D17

0.07

0.04

0.18

0.15

<0.1

0.17

0.39

5.03

77

0.19

D18

0.21

0.05

0.19

2.59

0.13

0.18

0.57

3.77

74

D19

0.07

0.05

0.34

0.09

0.20

<0.1

0.94

2.52

74

D24

0.20

0.34

0.58

0.05

0.15

0.27

1.87

2.39

74

0.10

D25

0.25

0.29

1.48

0.05

0.20

0.35

4.43

1.98

33

Feed

13.20

0.07

1.32

0.51

9.00

49

65

69

D14

0.17

0.03

0.76

0.03

9.25

0.29

2.28

5.18

41

0.99

D15

0.09

0.03

1.04

<0.02

9.99

0.29

3.05

3.77

38

0.38

D16

0.22

0.06

1.23

6.75

7.88

0.29

2.44

2.51

41

D22

2.15

0.26

0.97

2.16

2.92

5.59

2.0

83

0.38

8.57

3.99

D23

0.19

0.17

2.40

3.78

0.48

7.09

3.0

40

8.92

2.70

Feed

4.20

0.08

2.52

0.40

16.60

52

57

64

D1

0.21

0.09

1.06

0.04

7.85

0.38

3.30

7.71

0.83

D2

0.08

0.06

1.42

<0.02

6.93

0.34

4.26

6.42

0.71

D3

0.10

<0.05

0.54

<0.02

6.17

0.13

1.61

6.42

39

0.40

D4

0.10

<0.02

1.26

<0.02

6.66

0.53

4.00

5.18

82

0.64

D5

0.15

0.05

0.09

<0.02

2.97

0.30

0.53

6.00

79

0.41

8.49

2.64

D26

1.22

1.08

0.36

<0.02

0.77

0.28

1.27

2.55

84

0.41

8.55

4.86

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Table 15-55 Summary of Cyanide Detoxification Test Results Salman


Sample

Oxide

Transition

ID

SO2

CuSO4.5H2O

Lime

Precip.

Fe

pH

Addition

Cu

Ni

Fe

Zn

As

CNfree

CNWAD

CNtotal

Addition

Addition

Addition

(ppm)

(ppm)

(ppm)

(ppm)

(ppm)

(ppm)

(ppm)

(ppm)

(g SO2/g CNWAD)

(ppm)

(g Ca(OH)2/g SO2)

Feed

<0.02

<0.05

0.15

0.16

0.40

53

53

54

Fe:As Mol Ratio


-

D11

0.21

0.02

0.15

0.05

0.19

0.46

0.88

5.03

86

0.19

D12

0.17

<0.02

0.11

0.03

0.20

0.29

0.59

4.02

86

D13

0.12

<0.02

0.06

0.02

0.24

<0.1

0.17

3.11

88

D20

1.71

<0.05

0.11

<0.02

0.15

1.86

2.16

3.06

82

0.32

D21

0.06

<0.05

0.20

<0.02

0.24

0.46

1.02

3.59

85

0.62

Feed

8.82

<0.05

0.32

0.45

34.00

50

61

62

D6

0.16

<0.02

0.28

0.04

28.83

0.19

0.96

5.99

44

0.63

D7

0.15

<0.02

0.32

0.05

35.27

0.34

1.23

4.53

46

0.49

D8

0.31

0.04

0.27

0.03

38.83

0.28

1.03

3.02

44

0.79

D9

0.33

0.11

0.22

0.09

3.68

0.58

1.01

3.06

46

0.13

8.64

2.84

D10

0.44

<0.02

0.31

<0.02

4.96

0.97

1.81

2.51

46

8.97

3.86

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Table 15-56 Arsenic Precipitation Sighter Tests


Sample

Test

Anwia Sulphide

Salman Transition

Na2S2O5

KHSO5

P:As

Fe:As

mol
Ratio

Molar
Ratio

pH

As
(ppm)

Feed

1.50

MH7030

8.08

0.70

MH7031

7.98

0.53

MH7032

7.97

0.47

MH7033

9.05

2.90

MH7034

9.06

3.00

Feed

3.68

MH7035

8.78

10.30

MH7036

8.59

9.52

MH7037

8.57

8.29

MH7038

9.06

22.10

MH7039

9.05

19.30

Table 15-57 Summary of Arsenic Precipitation Optimisation Test Results


Sample

ID

Precip.
pH

Acid

Fe:As

Addition

Molar

As

(kg H2SO4/t)

Ratio

(ppm)

Salman

Feed

3.87

Transition

D27

8.01

1.17

3.39

1.71

JK Comp

D28

8.01

0.84

4.12

1.39

D29

8.02

0.67

10.16

1.13

D30

7.28

3.76

2.94

0.78

D31

6.99

5.37

7.72

0.47

D32

7.04

4.24

11.32

0.54

Increasing the Fe:As mol ratio increased arsenic precipitation, however reducing the pH gave a much
greater reduction in arsenic levels.
Additional precipitation tests are recommended for the Anwia transition and sulphide ores to confirm
the optimum pH, Fe:As mol ratio and corresponding acid consumption.

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Figure 15-27 Final Arsenic Concentration Variation with pH and Fe:As Molar Ratio

Recommended conditions for cyanide detoxification and arsenic precipitation are summarised in
Table 15-58.

Table 15-58 Recommended Cyanide Detoxification and Arsenic Precipitation Parameters


Sample
Anwia Oxide
Anwia Transition
Anwia Sulphide
Salman Oxide
Salman Transition

g SO2/g CNWAD

g Na2S2O5/g CNWAD

ppm CuSO4.5H2O

Precip.
pH

2.5
3.0
2.5
3.6
3.0

3.7
4.5
3.7
5.3
4.5

75
80
80
90
50

7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5

Fe:As
Ratio
5
5
5
5
5

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15.12

Flowsheet Selection

Testwork has been completed to a level that is sufficient to provide process plant design criteria
required for the detailed design. General conclusions drawn from the testwork performed on the
samples examined are:
The preferred Base Case milling circuit comprises a SAG-Ball mill comprising a 1500kW SAG
mill and 2000kW ball mill. The selected circuit will generate a product having a P80 of 75m
when treating 162.5t/h of the hardest ore type ((Anwia sulphide).
The ores show a wide range of variability in comminution characteristics which could make
the control of a single stage SAG mill difficult. Single stage SAG milling is not recommended
where a grind size less than 80% passing 106m is required.
Irrespective of the selected milling circuit configuration, blending of the mill feed will be
necessary to minimise fluctuations in throughput and grind size and appropriate
instrumentation for SAG mill load control and measurement will be necessary to ensure stable
operation of the milling circuit.
Inclusion of a gravity circuit when processing Salman oxide ore provides a payback period of
less than 9 months and the installation of a gravity circuit with 40 concentrator with intensive
leaching of gravity concentrates is recommended.
Some Salman ores exhibit low-level preg-robbing and CIL processing is recommended when
processing Salman ores.
A leach residence time of 30 hours is recommended.
Oxygen addition over the first 5 hours of leaching is beneficial and a 1.5t/d PSA oxygen plant
is considered sufficient to meet this demand.
The measured carbon adsorption parameters are within the normal range of values and
carbon adsorption can be expected to provide satisfactory adsorption recovery of gold.
Thickening of the leach feed reduces leach reagent consumptions and the capital cost of the
leach circuit. Leach feed thickening is recommended
All ore samples tested responded well to cyanide detoxification using the SO2/air process with
moderate reagent additions able to produce slurries meeting the required discharge levels for
cyanide compounds.
Ferric precipitation is the recommended process for arsenic stabilisation, with 1 hour
residence time, pH 7.5 and a 5:1 Fe:As molar ratio required to obtain arsenic levels less than
1 ppm.
Additional ferric precipitation tests are required for the Anwia transition and sulphide ores to
confirm the operating conditions for these ores.

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15.13

Recovery Forecasts

Data from the leach optimisation tests conducted at 0.025% - 0.50% NaCN and pH 9.5 10.5 was
analysed using regression analysis to obtain expressions for the prediction of recovery with varying
grind size and leach times.
A typical response curve for the fitted data is shown in Figure 15-28.

Figure 15-28 Recovery Variation with P80 and Leach Time

Tailings grades were calculated using for each ore type over the project life, based on the following
criteria:
The average P80 was calculated by Orway Mineral Consultants using the average feed blend
for each year from the proposed mine schedule.
The leach residence times were calculated using the weighted average of the proportion of
each ore in the feed blend and operating leach densities for each ore type advised by
Lycopodium for a throughput of 1.32 Mtpa and a total leach capacity of 8,100m.
Where the forecast P80 was coarser than 75m, the predicted recoveries for Salman oxide
and transition variability samples were adjusted on a pro-rata basis using the grind-leach time
relationships determined from the leach optimisation testing of the associated leach
composite sample.
Recoveries for Anwia oxide, transition and sulphide ores were forecast from regression
analysis expressions derived from associated the leach optimisation tests.

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Where the forecast P80 was finer than 75m, recoveries for Salman oxide, Anwia oxide,
transition and sulphide ores were fixed at the same value as that predicted for a 75m P80.
An allowance of 0.25% for solution losses was included for all ore types.

The mill feed blend, calculated P80 and leach residence time for selected plant configuration (Option
5) are summarised in Table 15-59.

Table 15-59 Summary of Mill Feed and Operating Parameters


Year

Mill Feed Blend (%)


Anwia
Oxide

Anwia
Transition

Anwia
Sulphide

Salman
Oxide

Salman
Transition

Salman
Sulphide

P80

Leach Time

(m)

(h)

4.51

0.00

0.00

73.99

19.18

2.31

65

28

52.64

28.57

7.99

3.96

5.55

1.29

104

30

7.33

29.59

63.02

0.02

0.03

0.01

130

33

4.15

0.32

64.26

26.08

5.02

0.16

115

31

0.67

0.02

16.02

51.06

20.80

11.43

82

29

0.00

0.00

0.00

63.43

25.08

11.49

69

29

The predicted tailings grades for the calculated P80 and leach residence time are summarised in
Table 15-60.

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Table 15-60 Predicted Tailings Grades

Ore Source, Oxidation, Rock type

Year
1

Akanko Central, Oxide, Granite

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.07

0.07

0.08

North Hill, Oxide, Granite

0.21

0.21

0.21

0.21

0.20

0.20

Salman North, Oxide, Granite

0.36

0.37

0.38

0.37

0.36

0.36

Akanko Central, Oxide, Greywacke

0.03

0.02

0.02

0.01

0.02

0.02

Nugget Footwall, Oxide, Greywacke

0.50

0.50

0.51

0.51

0.50

0.50

Salman Central, Oxide, Greywacke

0.35

0.35

0.34

0.34

0.34

0.35

Salman North, Oxide, Greywacke

0.41

0.41

0.42

0.42

0.41

0.41

Salman South, Oxide, Greywacke

0.07

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.07

0.07

Salman SW, Oxide, Greywacke

0.18

0.17

0.18

0.17

0.17

0.17

Teberu Footwall, Oxide, Greywacke

0.55

0.55

0.56

0.55

0.55

0.55

Nugget Footwall, Transition, Greywacke

0.50

0.50

0.54

0.51

0.49

0.50

Salman SW, Transition, Greywacke

0.34

0.33

0.38

0.34

0.33

0.33

Teberu Footwall, Transition, Greywacke

0.97

0.97

1.04

0.99

0.97

0.97

Akanko Central, Upper Transition, Granite

0.12

0.11

0.19

0.13

0.11

0.12

Salman North, Upper Transition, Granite

0.48

0.48

0.50

0.48

0.48

0.48

Akanko Central, Upper Transition, Greywacke

0.07

0.06

0.10

0.07

0.06

0.07

Salman Central, Upper Transition, Greywacke

0.52

0.51

0.57

0.52

0.51

0.52

Salman North, Upper Transition, Greywacke

1.38

1.38

1.40

1.38

1.38

1.38

Salman South, Upper Transition, Greywacke

0.19

0.19

0.22

0.19

0.18

0.19

Salman North, Lower Transition, Granite

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.40

Salman Central, Lower Transition, Greywacke

2.32

2.31

2.34

2.32

2.31

2.32

Salman North, Lower Transition, Greywacke

1.97

1.96

1.97

1.96

1.96

1.96

Salman South, Lower Transition, Greywacke

0.65

0.65

0.69

0.66

0.64

0.65

Nugget Footwall, Sulphide, Greywacke

1.44

1.44

1.43

1.43

1.44

1.44

Salman Central, Sulphide, Greywacke

1.97

1.96

1.94

1.95

1.96

1.96

Salman North, Sulphide, Greywacke

1.44

1.43

1.43

1.43

1.44

1.44

Salman South, Sulphide, Greywacke

1.40

1.40

1.39

1.40

1.40

1.40

Salman SW, Sulphide, Greywacke

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.06

Teberu Footwall, Sulphide, Greywacke

2.12

2.12

2.11

2.11

2.12

2.12

Akanko Central, Sulphide, Granite

0.11

0.11

0.10

0.10

0.11

0.11

Salman North, Sulphide, Granite

0.85

0.85

0.84

0.85

0.85

0.85

Anwia Oxide

0.07

0.09

0.08

0.06

0.06

Anwia Transition

0.18

0.20

0.20

0.18

Anwia Sulphide

0.23

0.21

0.21

0.18

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16.0 MINERAL PROCESSING


16.1

Engineering Design and Control Philosophy

The design of the treatment plant will reflect:


A simple and robust process flowsheet based on the testwork completed by ARL.
Sturdy, well proven equipment.
A control philosophy for a plant with an appropriate level of automation and remote control
facilities, supplemented by sufficient alarming and diagnostics to facilitate troubleshooting.
The proposed flowsheet has been selected to suit the various orebodies associated with the Project.
The major characteristics of the plant design are:
Inclusion of 2 stage milling to achieve 80% passing 75 micron in leach feeds for Anwia
Sulphide ores.
Inclusion of a gravity circuit based on testwork results indicating high gravity gold recoveries
for Anwia ores.
Inclusion of a cyanide detoxification circuit to meet International Cyanide Code standards.
Inclusion of an arsenic precipitation stage due to elevated arsenic levels in Salman
transitional ores.
The general control philosophy is for a plant with minimal automation. The plant will be provided with
a crusher control panel and a central mill control room from which the status of the major electrical
equipment can be monitored, and from which some of the regulatory control loops can be monitored
and adjusted. The starting and stopping of most electrical drives will be performed at the stop/start
control stations located adjacent to each drive or in the case of major equipment, started locally or by
remote from the control room.

16.2

Plant Configuration Options

On completion of the Base Case plant design, a review of several options was completed for changes
to the processing plant configuration to reduce the initial capital cost. For each of the options, the
operating costs and also impact on gold recovery due to the plant changes were considered. The five
options reviewed are as follows:
Option 1:
Deletion of the two stage grinding circuit and insertion of a 5.5m dia. x 6.0m EGL
SAG mill (based on Golden Pride mill size such that design time can be minimised), deletion of the
Intensive Cyanidation Reactor and insertion of a Gemini Table to treat gravity circuit concentrates,
deletion of leach feed thickening, deletion of one CIL tank, deletion of the PSA plant, treatment of tails
slurry via decant return dilution to meet <50ppm CN WAD target and Arsenic precipitation only on
supernatant solutions prior to discharge.
Option 2:
Deletion of the surge bin and dead stockpile and insertion of direct feed from the jaw
crusher to the SAG mill deletion of the two stage grinding circuit and insertion of a 5.5m dia x 7.32m

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EGL SAG mill ( correct size to meet required 1.3 Mtpa throughput), deletion of the Intensive
Cyanidation Reactor and insertion of a Gemini Table to treat gravity circuit concentrates, deletion of
leach feed thickening, deletion of one CIL tank, deletion of the PSA plant, treatment of tails slurry via
thickening and decant return dilution to meet <50ppm CN WAD target and Arsenic precipitation only
on supernatant solutions prior to discharge.
Option 3:
Deletion of the surge bin and dead stockpile and insertion of direct feed from the jaw
crusher to the SAG mill deletion of the two stage grinding circuit and insertion of a 5.5m DIA * 6.0m
EGL SAG mill, deletion of the Intensive Cyanidation Reactor and insertion of a Gemini Table to treat
gravity circuit concentrates, deletion of leach feed thickening, deletion of one CIL tank, deletion of the
PSA plant, treatment of tails slurry via thickening and decant return dilution to meet <50ppm CN WAD
target and Arsenic precipitation only on supernatant solutions prior to discharge and use of a single
column for both acid wash and elution cycles.
Deletion of the Intensive Cyanidation Reactor and insertion of a Gemini Table to treat
Option 4:
gravity circuit concentrates, and deletion of one CIL tank.
Deletion of the two stage grinding circuit and insertion of a 5.5m DIA * 6.0m EGL
Option 5:
SAG mill, deletion of the Intensive Cyanidation Reactor and insertion of a Gemini Table to treat gravity
circuit concentrates, and deletion of one CIL tank.
Following a review of all options, ARL concluded that Option 5 provided the best Project return in
terms of capital and operating costs and gold recovery. The process flowsheet for Option 5 plan
configuration can be seen in Figure 16-1.
The treatment plant flowsheet is thus based on single stage crushing, single stage SAG milling,
gravity recovery of free gold from a portion of cyclone feed, pre-leach thickening, a single stage of
leaching and a five stage CIL circuit. Gold will be recovered by a 5 tonne Zadra elution circuit with
electrowinning of the gold onto stainless steel cathodes. The electro-deposited gold will be removed
with high pressure water sprays and smelted to a final bullion product.

16.3

Run of Mine (ROM) Pad

ROM ore will be delivered by haul trucks and dumped on the ROM pad.
There will be limited stockpiles maintained at the various pit locations and provision has been made
for a ROM stockpile to allow blending to optimise plant performance. The ROM pad will be
constructed with material found near the plantsite or mine waste as required.

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Figure 16-1 Summary Process Flowsheet Option 5


ROM Ore Stockpile

Primary Crusher

Crushed Ore
Stockpile

Surge Bin

SAG Mill

Tail

Gravity Concentrator
Conc

Cyclones
Underflow
Overflow

Thickener

Carbon Regeneration

Carbon Stripping

Gold Room

Cyanide Leach

Leach/Carbon
Adsorption (CIL)

Cyanide Destruction

Arsenic Precipitation

Gold Bullion

Tailings Storage
Facility

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16.4

Crushing

ROM ore will be loaded into the crusher ROM bin either by a CAT 988 or equivalent front end loader
(FEL). The loader for ROM pad reclaim will be provided by the mining contractor. The crusher will be
operated on a 24 hour basis.
The ROM bin will have a live capacity of 200 tonnes and ore will be extracted from the bin by a
primary apron feeder and fed directly into a 42 x 55 (1,070 mm x 1,400 mm) single toggle jaw
crusher. The crusher will produce a product with a P80 of 110 mm, at the rate of 220 wet tph to allow
for a 24 hour per day crusher operation. The jaw crusher will handle ROM ore with a maximum lump
size of 800 mm x 800 mm. It is likely that slabby material will be encountered and a static grizzly
screen will be installed above the ROM bin to ensure that the crusher feed chamber does not become
jammed with oversize material. Handling of oversize from the static grizzly will be via the mine
contractors mobile excavator using a rock breaker tool. Provision will be made for the installation of a
suitable pedestal at the jaw crusher level should operational experience indicate the requirement for a
rock breaker at this level.
Primary crushed material will discharge onto a 1,200 mm wide conveyor, CV-01, for feeding direct to
a 90 tonne surge bin. From the surge bin, the primary crushed material will be fed at a controlled rate
to a 1,200 mm wide conveyor belt, CV-02, via a 900 mm wide electro-mechanically driven, variable
speed apron feeder. Conveyor CV-02 will transfer the crushed ore directly to the SAG mill feed chute.
Excess ore, not withdrawn to feed the SAG mill, will overflow from the surge bin and discharge onto a
750 mm wide stockpile feed conveyor, CV-03. The stockpile will have an 8,000 tonne capacity equal
to 48 hours of SAG Mill feed and will provide a reserve stockpile of crushed ore to ensure crusher
maintenance can be scheduled without interruptions to the mill operations. Crushed ore will be
reclaimed from the stockpile by FEL and transferred to the surge bin for feeding to the SAG mill.
Quicklime will be added directly from a lime silo onto the mill feed conveyor CV-02 for CIL circuit pH
control.

16.5

Grinding and Classification

The grinding circuit will consist of a Semi Autogenous Grinding (SAG) mill in closed circuit with
hydrocyclones. The 5.50 m diameter x 6.0 m EGL SAG mill with a 3,000 kW drive will operate at up
to 15% volumetric ball loading. Variable speed control of the mill, accomplished through a liquid
resistance starter and heat exchanger system, will provide additional flexibility for processing of
various ore types, ranging from 65 to 80% critical speed.
The discharge from the mill will feed the mill discharge hopper and will be diluted with process water
to approximately 60% solids prior to classification. The mill discharge slurry will be pumped to a
cluster of 6 duty and 1 standby classifying hydrocyclones.

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Cyclone overflow at 40% w/w solids will gravitate to a trash screen ahead of the leach feed thickener.
A portion of the cyclone feed will also be fed from a spigot off take to the gravity circuit. The trash
screen will be a horizontal vibrating unit installed with 0.63 by 18 mm slotted aperture crossflow
polyurethane panels. Trash screen oversize will gravitate to the tails hopper and underflow will
gravitate to the leach feed thickener.
The cyclone underflow will report to the SAG mill feed chute.
The cyclone feed offtake to the gravity circuit will feed a single-deck degritting screen located above
and feeding a single 30" gravity concentrator. The concentrator tails stream will gravitate to the mill
discharge hopper.
The mill floor slab will be sloped to a sump where a vertical spindle pump will return spillage to the mill
discharge hopper.
Grinding balls will be delivered to site and will be unloaded into concrete storage bunkers. Balls will
be loaded into the SAG mill via the Surge Bin Secondary Feeder and conveyor CV-02.

16.6

Gravity Concentration

The gravity concentrates recovered from the gravity concentrator will report to the gravity concentrate
hopper in the goldroom. The concentrates will then be fed over a Gemini Table with table tails
pumped to the mill discharge hopper and table concentrates collected by hand and dried in the drying
oven prior to being smelted.

16.7

Leach Feed Thickening

Trash screen underflow will launder to a 15 m diameter high rate thickener. Thickener overflow will
gravitate to the process water tank. Thickener underflow will be pumped to the CIL feed distributor
with the discharge stream being directed to either the leach tank, CIL tank 1 or the first adsorption
tank, CIL tank 2.

16.8

Leach and Adsorption Circuit

The CIL circuit will consist of one leach and five adsorption tanks each with a live capacity of 1,350
m3. The tanks will be interconnected with launders and slurry will flow by gravity through the tank
train. Each tank will be fitted with a dual stage mechanical agitator to ensure uniform mixing.
The five adsorption tanks will each be fitted with a mechanically swept wedge wire screen to retain the
carbon. A travelling gantry hoist will facilitate the removal of the screens for maintenance and routine
cleaning and will allow maintenance of all tank top equipment including agitators. All tanks will be
fitted with bypass facilities to allow any tank to be removed from service for agitator or screen
maintenance.
Provision will be made for the addition of sodium cyanide solution to the CIL feed distributor from a
main header pipe fed from the cyanide recirculation pumps.

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Carbon will enter the circuit at CIL tank 6 and will be advanced counter-current to the slurry flow by
pumping slurry, with a recessed impeller pump, from CIL tank 6 to CIL tank 5. The carbon will be
retained by the intertank screens in tank CIL 5 and the slurry will flow by gravity back to tank CIL 6.
This counter-current process will be repeated until the carbon eventually reaches CIL tank 2, the first
adsorption tank. A recessed impeller pump will be used to transfer slurry and loaded carbon to the
loaded carbon recovery screen mounted above the carbon elution column in the stripping plant. The
loaded carbon, reporting as screen oversize, will gravitate to the elution column and the screen
undersize slurry will return to CIL tank 1.
The tanks will be constructed on concrete ring beams in a bunded area with a sloping concrete floor.
Any spillage from the circuit will report to one of two sumps located on the periphery of the bunded
area. The spillage will either be pumped back to the circuit via the trash screen or the CIL feed
distributor or to tailings, either directly to the tails pumps or via the carbon safety screen.
Discharge from the last tank (CIL tank 6) will gravitate to the tailings hopper via a vibrating carbon
safety screen designed to recover any carbon leaking from a holed screen in the last tank. The
carbon safety screen will be a horizontal vibrating unit installed with slotted aperture crossflow
polyurethane panels. Carbon recovered on the carbon safety screen will be manually returned to the
circuit via the carbon sizing screen.
Barren carbon returning to the adsorption circuit from the carbon regeneration kiln will report to the
carbon sizing screen above CIL tank 6.

16.9

Elution and Gold Room Operations

The following operations will be carried out in the elution and gold room areas:

Acid Washing of Carbon.


Stripping of gold from loaded carbon using the Zadra method.
Electrowinning of gold from pregnant solution.
Smelting of electrowinning and gravity concentration products.

The stripping and gold room areas will operate 5 days per week, with the majority of loaded carbon
preparation and stripping occurring during day shift. The Zadra stripping circuit will be manually
operated and will contain a separate rubber lined mild steel acid wash column and a stainless steel
elution column.

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16.9.1

Acid Wash

Loaded carbon will be received into the 5 tonne capacity acid wash column. Transfer, fill and acid
wash operations will be controlled manually.
During acid washing the dilute solution of hydrochloric acid pumped into the bottom of the column will
remove contaminants, predominantly carbonates, from the carbon. This process improves the elution
efficiency and has the beneficial effect of reducing the risk of calcium magnesium slagging within the
carbon during the regeneration process.
A metered 0.6 bed volumes of dilute acid solution will be pumped into the acid wash column and after
the predetermined soaking period the loaded carbon will be rinsed with water. Water rinsing will
consist of pumping 4 bed volumes of raw water through the column in order to displace any residual
acid from the loaded carbon. Dilute acid and rinse water will be disposed of to the tailings hopper.
Acid washed loaded carbon will be hydraulically transferred from the acid wash column to the elution
column.

16.9.2

Zadra Elution Circuit

Fresh strip solution will be prepared prior to stripping each new batch of carbon. Sodium hydroxide
and sodium cyanide will be pumped from the respective storage and mixing tanks into the strip
solution tank and mixed with raw water to the required concentrations of cyanide (0.2 w/v %) and
caustic soda (2.0 w/v %).
The strip solution will be pumped from the strip solution tank through the reclaim heat exchanger and
then the inline strip solution heater and injected into the base of the elution column at a temperature of
125 C.
The strip solution will be pumped through the carbon in the stripping column and then pass through
eluate filters and the reclaim heat exchanger before entering the flash vessel.
The pregnant strip solution will then gravitate from the flash vessel to the electrowinning cells.

16.9.3

Electrowinning and Gold Room

In the Zadra system the elution and electrowinning are integral and continuous operations. When the
stripping solution exits the electrowinning cells it will gravitate into the strip solution tank and then be
recirculated to the elution column. The strip solution will be recirculated continuously for a designated
time of 10 hours or until the gold level of the strip solution exiting the elution column reaches a desired
level. At that stage the barren carbon level should be less than 70 g Au/t carbon. Once elution and
electrowinning are completed the strip solution will be directed to the CIL feed distributor, allowing any
residual gold to be recovered in the CIL circuit.

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The electrowinning cells will be of polypropylene construction with stainless steel lockable lids and
sloping floors and will be located within the security area of the gold room. Rectifiers, one per cell, will
be located in a non-secure room below the cells allowing maintenance access without going through
security. Rectifier remote ammeters and manual controls will be located external to the gold room
security area. The cells will be arranged in parallel.
The two electrowinning cells will be fitted with stainless steel anodes and stainless steel wool
cathodes. A direct current will be passed through the cells between the electrodes and the electrolytic
action will cause the gold in solution to plate out on the cathodes. The gold will be removed from the
stainless steel wool cathodes by high pressure water blasting and then filtered in a pressure filter prior
to drying.
An overhead electric chain hoist will be provided to assist with handling of cathodes as necessary.

16.9.4

Gold Barring

The filtered dried gold sludge recovered from the cathodes of the carbon elution/electrowinning circuit
and the Gemini Table concentrates will then be direct smelted with fluxes in a diesel-fired furnace to
produce dor bars.
Fume extraction equipment will be provided to remove noxious and explosive gases from the
electrowinning cells and barring furnace.

16.9.5

Gold Room Security

The gold room design is based on full security surveillance by a security guard and a second level of
surveillance by remote control CCTV cameras with viewing facilities in the Process Manager and
Security Foreman offices. Clean and dirty change rooms are provided adjacent to the security office.
Toilet and crib rooms will be provided within the secure area to minimise entries. Access to the gold
room will be via proximity card and turnstile.

16.9.6

Carbon Regeneration

After completion of the elution process, the barren carbon will be transferred from the elution column
to a dewatering screen prior to entering the feed hopper of the carbon regeneration kiln. In the kiln
feed hopper any residual and interstitial water will be drained from the carbon before it enters the kiln.
Kiln off-gases will also be used to dry the carbon prior to entering the kiln.
The carbon will be heated to 650 - 750C and held at this temperature for 15 minutes to allow
regeneration to occur. Regenerated carbon from the kiln will discharge to a single deck carbon sizing
screen located above CIL tank 6. The carbon sizing screen will be fitted with a 0.6 mm square
aperture woven wire screen cloth.
Carbon reporting to screen oversize will be returned to CIL tank 6, and the fine carbon reporting to
screen undersize will discharge directly to the tailings hopper.

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16.10

Cyanide Destruction and Tailings Disposal

Tailings will gravitate from the final adsorption tank (CIL tank 6) via the carbon safety screen to the
Cyanide Detoxification Tanks. Two stages of detoxification each having one hours residence time
followed by a third stage for arsenic precipitation shall be provided. Detoxification shall be via the
Air/SO2 method.
Post cyanide destruction tails will be pumped with variable speed pumps to the tailings storage facility
(TSF). The tailings facility will comprise a cross-valley storage located to the north of the plant site.
Tailings will be discharged into the facility using sub-aerial deposition methods, through a combination
of banks of conventional spigot type discharges at regular intervals, and also single point discharges
from the heads of valleys. This will generate and maintain a supernatant pond at the southern end of
the facility where a decant tower based return water pumping system will be located. The supernatant
water will be pumped back to the process water pond.
Due to the site having a positive water balance there will be the need to periodically discharge water
to the environment. Where the cyanide and arsenic levels do not meet Ghana discharge
requirements the excess water to be discharged shall be treated via a cyanide detoxification step
followed by arsenic precipitation to meet the required discharge levels. It is expected that this second
stage of detoxification and arsenic precipitation may not be required given the first stage prior to
discharge to the Dam will meet Ghana requirements. Detoxification shall be via the Air/SO2 method.

The TSF design will incorporate an underdrainage system to minimise seepage to the local
groundwater. The basin underdrainage collection system will take advantage of the natural drainage
pattern existing in the tailings storage area, and will consist of two drainage units:

A main collector drain; and


finger drains.

The collector drains would be placed along the spine of the major drainage systems. The collector
drains consist of lengths of 160 mm diameter perforated drainage pipe, surrounded by drainage sand,
running either side for the existing stream beds. The drainage pipe is installed in a 600 mm deep veeshaped ditch, which is backfilled with sand drainage material to within approximately 200 mm of the
stripped ground surface. The rest of the excavation is backfilled to just above ground level with spoil
from the excavation.
The remaining areas of the under-drainage system are covered by finger drains at approximately 25
m spacings. The finger drains comprise sand surrounded, 63 mm diameter perforated drainage pipe
installed in a 400 mm deep, grader-cut, vee-ditch. The spoil from the vee ditch is used to construct a
compacted earth, erosion protection bund immediately upstream of the drain.
The placement of the drainage pipelines is arranged to take advantage of the existing ground fall and
minimal reshaping is therefore required for the drainage system.
The main collector drains will terminate in a sump constructed adjacent to and upstream of the main
embankment. From the sump seepage collected would be pumped back to the facility for collection in
the supernatant pond.

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16.11

Reagents

16.11.1 Lime
Provision has been made for quicklime to be delivered in bulk 20 tonne road tankers. The road
tankers will be pneumatically unloaded directly to the 80 tonne silo. Quicklime will be metered via a
rotary valve directly onto the SAG mill feed conveyor CV-02 for circuit pH control. Quicklime required
for the detoxification circuit shall be loaded into a hopper via a screw feeder and transported to the
detoxification circuit.

16.11.2 Cyanide
Cyanide will be delivered in 1.0 tonne bulk bags. The bulk bags will be lifted by monorail hoist to an
enclosed bag breaker above a cyanide mixing tank. Cyanide will be mixed to a 20% w/v solution with
process water and then transferred to a cyanide solution storage tank.
Cyanide will be added to the leach feed distributor and the Intensive Cyanidation Reactor from a
single ring main system fed by duty and standby fixed speed, centrifugal distribution pumps. Cyanide
will be dosed into the strip solution tank during preparation and mixing of the strip solution via a
dedicated variable speed, positive displacement pump.

16.11.3 Caustic
Caustic will be delivered in 25 kg bags and will be manually added to the caustic mixing tank. Caustic
will be mixed to a 20% w/v solution with raw water. Caustic will be dosed into the strip solution tank
during preparation and mixing of the strip solution via a dedicated variable speed, positive
displacement pump.

16.11.4 Hydrochloric Acid

Hydrochloric acid will be delivered in bulk in an isotainer and will be transferred into a storage tank as
required. The dilute acid will be delivered to the acid wash column by the dedicated centrifugal
magnetic drive pump.

16.11.5 Activated Carbon

Fresh activated carbon will be delivered in 600 kg bulk bags. The bulk bags will be lifted by the CIL
gantry crane to the chute above the carbon sizing screen. The carbon sizing screen will remove
carbon fines from the fresh material and feed new coarse carbon into CIL tank 7.

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16.11.6 Sodium Metabisulphite

Sodium Metabisulphite (SMBS) will be delivered in 1 t bulk bags. The bulk bags will be lifted by
monorail hoist to an enclosed bag breaker above a mixing tank. SMBS will be mixed to a 20% w/v
solution with raw water before being pumped to a storage tank. It will then be dosed to the cyanide
destruction circuit.

16.11.7 Copper Sulphate


Copper Sulphate will be delivered in 1 t bulk bags. The bulk bags will be lifted by monorail hoist to an
enclosed bag breaker above a mixing tank. Copper Sulphate will be mixed to a 15% w/v solution with
raw water before being pumped to a storage tank. It will then be dosed to the flotation plant and
cyanide destruction circuit.

16.11.8 SAG Mill Balls


The 125 mm SAG mill grinding media will be delivered in bulk and stored in the SAG ball bunker.
SAG balls will be loaded into the Surge Bin and deposited into the mill via conveyor CV-02 as
required.

16.11.9 Flocculant
Flocculant will be received in bulk bags and lifted by chain hoist to the bag breaker/surge hopper of a
package mixing plant. It will be blown into a cyclone mixer and mixed to a solution strength of 0.25%
w/v with raw water and then aged in the mixing tank. It will then be transferred to a storage tank from
which it will be distributed to the thickener feed well by metering pump. The solution will be diluted
with raw water to a solution strength of 0.025% w/v prior to the thickener.

16.11.10 Ferric Sulphate


Ferric Sulphate will be delivered in 1 t bulk bags. The bulk bags will be lifted by monorail hoist to an
enclosed bag breaker above a mixing tank. Ferric Sulphate will be mixed to a 15% w/v solution with
raw water before being pumped to a storage tank. It will then be dosed to the arsenic precipitation
tank.

16.11.11 Sulphuric Acid


Sulphuric acid will be delivered in 1,000 litre bulki-boxes and will be delivered to the arsenic
precipitation tank by a dedicated dosing pump.

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16.12

Services and Water

16.12.1 Raw Water Supply


A raw water storage tank of 500 m3 nominal capacity will be in the reagents mixing/storage area. The
volume includes 200 m3 reserved for fire fighting purposes. This will receive water from:

Pit dewatering Bores.

Overflow from the raw tank will be diverted to the process water pond.

16.12.2 Process Water


A process water pond of 2,000 m3 capacity will receive process water from the thickener overflow,
decanted supernatant from the TSF and make-up water from the overflow of the raw water tank.
Duty and standby low pressure pumps will be provided for plant process water with an additional
dedicated duty and standby set of low pressure pumps for the gravity concentrators.

16.12.3 Potable Water


Potable water will be supplied from the Raw Water Tank. This water will be filtered through a sand
filter and chemically treated prior to storage in a 60 m3 potable water tank. Duty and standby
pressure system pumps will be connected to this tank and distribute potable water around the plant, to
the mine workshop, the safety showers in the plant, the laboratory, and the administration and plant
buildings.

16.12.4 Instrument Air


The plant instrument air system will be provided via take-off from the plant air system, two stage
coalescing air filter system, refrigerated air driers and a dedicated air receiver. The system will feed
the carbon regeneration kiln, the CV-01 and lime silo dust collectors and mill girth gear lubrication
systems.

16.12.5 Plant Air


The plant air system will be supplied with clean, dry air from high pressure screw compressors
complete with an air filter system. A discharge manifold will then distribute the air around the plant
from the air receiver.

16.12.6 Low Pressure Air


Low pressure air for the leach circuit and cyanide destruction circuits shall be supplied from multistage blowers complete with air filtration system. Discharge manifolds will distribute the air to the
usage points.

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16.12.7 Oxygen
Oxygen will be generated on site via a pressure swing absorption (PSA) plant of 1.5 tonne per day
capacity. The system will be fed from the plant/instrument air system and will consist of PSA air
receiver, PSA oxygen plant and an oxygen receiver.
Oxygen will be distributed to the leach tank and the first two adsorption tanks, CIL tanks 2 and 3, and
injected through the shaft of the agitators.

16.12.8 Diesel Fuel


Diesel fuel will be received into a 10 m3 storage facility. A diesel distribution pump will deliver fuel to
the smelting furnace in the gold room and the regeneration kiln in the CIL plant.

16.12.9 Emergency Power Supply


An emergency power generating set will be provided, sufficient to provide lighting and sufficient power
to drive agitator motors, thickener drives, mill lubrication systems, heaters etc. In the event of a power
outage all drives will have to be started manually following bringing on line of the emergency power
supply.

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17.0 MINERAL RESOURCE ESTIMATE


17.1

17.1.1

Data Preparation and Treatment

Anwia Modelling Domains

Although structural controls on gold mineralisation at Anwia are not well understood, drilling in the
central part of the deposit is sufficiently close spaced that the orientations of mineralised zones are
beyond dispute. The present interpretation favours mineralization occurring in stacked primary lode
structures and this is supported by exposures presently being exploited by small-scale miners.
However, there are significant drill intercepts, particularly at depth, that fall outside of interpreted
mineralised domains. In the previous modelling, mineralised lenses were delimited using an
approximate mineralisation indicator grade of 0.2g/t Au on cross-sections looking both N40W and
N50E. Digitised outlines were then joined to form three-dimensional wireframes. In the authors
opinion, the resulting interpretations were too constrained and resulted in an overly complicated
arrangement of domain boundaries inappropriate to the modelling method employed.
An alternative set of domains used in the current study simply groups the resource data into to
primary mineralised domains and are shown in Figure 17-1 and described in Table 17-2.
Note that the grid coordinates shown in the figures refer to a rotated local grid; grid transformation
parameters are listed in Table 17-1
Table 17-1: Anwia grid transformation parameters
Origin point (UTM)
574630.83E
550671.00N

Rotation
40 degrees clockwise

The current study has also re-interpreted the weathering and oxidation surfaces using the appropriate
logging code provided in the geological data set. These logs were used to interpret weathering
profiles on cross-sections (looking toward 320 degrees on UTM grid) that were then joined to form
surfaces describing the bases of very weathered and moderately weathered rock and the top of fresh
rock for the purpose of assigning bulk densities in resource estimation. Depth to fresh rock at Anwia
varies between 25 and 50 metres over the resource area. Figure 17-2 shows the interpreted geology,
weathering profiles and mineralisation of a representative cross-section.

Table 17-2: Anwia resource modelling domains


Domain
number
0
1
2

Description
Peripheral, essentially barren, undefined mineralisation
Main Zone series of stacked primary lode structures
Granite hosted gold mineralisation

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Figure 17-1 Plan view of Anwia model domain wireframes

Figure 17-2 Interpreted geology, weathering and mineralisation, Anwia section 550350N

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17.1.2

Salman Modelling Domains

A series of mineralised lenses was interpreted over the eight and a half kilometres established strike
length of gold mineralisation, delimiting mineralised zones of similar tenor and directional trends at a
cut-off grade of about 0.2g/t Au. The approach is essentially identical to that applied by SRK in the
February 2005 resource estimate (Kentwell et al, 2005) and the Adamus January 2007 estimate, and
the wireframes are very similar. Outlines were digitized on E-W cross-sections, with points snapped
to drill traces in three-dimensions and those outlines then joined to form three-dimensional
wireframes. May 2005 logging data was used to interpret weathering profiles on cross-sections that
were then joined to form surfaces describing the bases of very weathered and moderately weathered
rock and the top of fresh rock to assign bulk densities in resource estimation. The elevation of the
fresh rock interface is fairly consistent across the resource area but because recent erosion is cutting
into the previously developed weathering profile, topography results in depth to fresh rock varying
from 80 metres beneath hills to less than 10 metres in low-lying areas.
Mineralisation in near-surface remnant lateritic scree and soil was delimited by the base of very
weathered (vox) material, equivalent to the top of recognizable weathered bedrock or saprolite.
Figure 17-3 shows a plan view of mineralisation wireframes and Figure 17-4 to Figure 17-7 show
interpreted geology, weathering profiles and mineralisation on several cross-sections. Table 17-3 lists
domain names and extents.
Table 17-3: Salman-Akanko resource modelling domains
Domain
Number
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
11
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

Description
Waste domain: all samples outside of mineralisation wireframes and
below vox surface
All surficial material above vox surface
Salman South mineralisation associated with main Salman Shear
Salman South: west-dipping mineralisation in footwall of main shear
Northern part of Salman South mineralisation on main shear
Western phyllite-hosted mineralisation, west of Salman South
Salman Central main lens
West-dipping footwall lens east of Salman Shear
Nugget Hill
West-dipping footwall lenses east of Nugget Hill
Nugget North main shear
Nugget North west-dipping footwall lens 1
Nugget North west-dipping footwall lens 2
Teberu footwall lens
Salman North granite and phyllite-hosted mineralisation associated with
Salman Shear
Salman North east-dipping mineralisation hosted by footwall greywacke
North Hill granite-hosted mineralisation
Akanko South granite-hosted mineralisation
Akanko Central granite-hosted mineralisation associated with Salman
Shear
East-dipping Akanko footwall reef

Extents

550837.5N 551412.5N
551437.5N 551925N
551687.5N 551937.5N
551312.5N 551487.5N
551937.5N 552662.5N
551787.5N 552087.5N
552762.5N 552962.5N
552987.5N 553112.5N
553137.5N 553412.5N
553187.5N 553362.5N
553400N 553562.5N
553587.5N 554037.5N
554125N 555105N
554125N 554680N
555262.5N 555512.5N
556237.5N 556462.5N
557062.5N 557887.5N
557137.5N 557462.5N

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Figure 17-3: Plan view of the Salman-Akanko mineralisation wireframes

North

Central

South Model

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Figure 17-4: Interpreted geology and mineralisation on Salman South section 551850N

Figure 17-5: Interpreted geology and mineralisation on Salman Central section 552200N

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Figure 17-6: Interpreted geology and mineralisation on Teberu section 553800N

Figure 17-7: Interpreted geology and mineralisation on Salman North skewed section 554300N

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17.1.3

Satellite Deposit Modelling Domains

Mineralised zones of similar tenor and directional trends were delimited at a cut-off grade of
approximately 0.2g/t Au for each Satellite Deposit. The selection approach and the procedure used in
developing the wire-frame models is similar to that used by Hellman and Schofield in their previous
SAGP resource estimates (Hellman and Schofield; 2008a). Table 17-4 lists the domains used for
each satellite deposit and their summary descriptions
Table 17-4: Satellite Deposits resource modelling domains
Deposit

Domain
Number
0
1
2

Main Mineralised Zone-Strikes N and dips steeply to W


Dyke-Barren

Aliva

0
1
2
3

Peripheral (Essentially Barren)


Stacked, moderately E-dipping Mineralised Zones
Central Area- Narrow Steeper E-dipping Mineralised Zones
North Area- Narrow Steeper E-dipping Mineralised Zones

Avrebo

0
1

Peripheral (Essentially Barren)


Main Mineralised Zone (Weakly Kinked NNW-SSW striking lode)

Nfutu

No geometry of mineralization able to be interpreted.

Bokrobo

Description

The main mineralised zone at Bokrobo dips steeply to the west and strikes in a northerly direction. An
east dipping barren dyke stopes out the main zone on some levels. The gold mineralisation at
Bokrobo has been defined over a strike of some 350 metres and up to approximately 200 metres
vertically. The bulk of the available sample information is located on approximately 50 metre spaced
sections between 548,050 and 548,400mE. Figure 17-8 shows the mineralisation and dyke
wireframes used in the MIK estimate.

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Figure 17-8 Pseudo 3D view of Bokrobo model domain wireframes

The gold mineralisation at Aliva has been defined over a strike of some 2,000 metres and up to 90
metres vertically. The bulk of the available sampling from drill holes is located on approximately 50
metre spaced sections between 548,500 and 550,500mE. The trenches sampled are spaced
irregularly along the deposit, at approximately 100m intervals.
The Aliva drill holes and trench coordinates were rotated before modeling. Table 17-5 details the
rotation used to transform UTM coordinates into the local modeling grid.

Table 17-5: Aliva grid transformation parameters


UTM Coordinate
East
North
Rotation

Equivalent Local Grid


Coordinate
574,000
550,700

574,630.83
550,671.00
-40

Figure 17-9 shows the mineralisation and dyke wireframes used in the MIK estimate at Aliva.

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Figure 17-9: Pseudo 3D view of Aliva model domain wireframes in rotated grid

The gold mineralisation at Avrebo has been defined over a strike of some 670 metres and up to
approximately 170 metres vertically. The bulk of the available sampling from drill holes is located on
approximately 50 and 20 metre spaced sections between 544,350E and 545,050mE. The trench
sampling is spaced irregularly along the deposit. Two orientations have been used during drilling.
The 50 metre-spaced sections are drilled along roughly east-west sections while the 20 metre spaced
sections are oriented at 315.
Figure 17-10 shows the mineralised envelope used in the MIK estimate at Avrebo. This domain was
interpreted from logged geology based on alteration.

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Figure 17-10: Pseudo 3D view of Avrebo model domain wireframe

The gold mineralisation at Nfutu has been defined over a strike of some 400 metres and up to 90
metres vertically. The bulk of the available sampling from drill holes is located on approximately 50
metre spaced sections and 2 surface trenches are present in the resource data set. The Nfutu drill
holes and trench coordinates were rotated before modelling. Table 17-6 details the rotation used to
transform UTM coordinates into the local modelling grid.

Table 17-6: Nfutu grid transformation parameters


UTM Coordinate
East
North
Rotation

Equivalent Local Grid


Coordinate
577,985
551,565

577,985
551,565
45

Figure 17-11 shows the drill holes, trenches used in the MIK estimate at Nfutu. The Nfutu data set
was insufficient to formalise an interpretation of the mineralised geometry, therefore all data was
grouped into a single modelling domain.

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Figure 17-11: Pseudo 3D view of Nfutu drill holes and trenches

17.1.4

Mine Voids

Areas known to be affected by voids from previous mining are the Akanko footwall lode mined in the
late 1800s and early 1900s and the shallow pits and shafts recently mined by small-scale miners at
Anwia. The impact of these voids on resource estimates is considered negligible and no attempt has
been made to deplete resources for material previously mined.
At the Bokrobo Satellite Deposit an allowance has been made for resources which have been
depleted by artisanal mining activities. ARL produced a wireframe solid that defined the area/volume
affected by mining and the resources estimated within the mined wireframe have been removed prior
to reporting the resources.

17.1.5

Derivation of Preferred Assay Values

At both Anwia and Salman, 50g fire assays have been used in all cases where they are available.
Where repeat assays are available the results have not been averaged; initial assays have been
used. Table 17-7 lists the origins of assays used to inform the Anwia resource estimate. Samples
from RC holes drilled by Samax/Ashanti Goldfields at Anwia were routinely assayed by cyanide leach.
Of the 9039 samples assayed by that method, 710 have fire assays available for the leach residues
and total gold could be calculated.

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The samples with residue assays indicate that cyanide leach recoveries were generally greater than
90 per cent and normally in the range 92-96 per cent. The use of cyanide leach assays for samples
for which total gold cannot be calculated is therefore not considered unduly conservative. One
hundred and thirty-six samples from several RC holes drilled by Adamus soon after acquisition of
Anwia were also assayed by cyanide leach. Fire assays of leach residues are available for all of
those samples and total gold was calculated and used to inform the resource estimate. A number of
pulp residues from core samples were shipped to Australia for check assays by Genalysis in Perth.
The Genalysis assays have been used in preference to previous assays.
Table 17-8 lists the sources of assays used to inform resource estimates at Salman. A number of
core and RC samples have been re-assayed using cyanide leach but in all cases initial fire assays
have been used. Pulp residues from 346 core samples and 3363 RC samples were shipped to
Genalysis Laboratories in Perth for check fire assaying. The Genalysis assays have been used in
preference to the original assays by SGS or Transworld in Ghana.
Table 17-7: Anwia drill holes preferred gold assay sources
Company

Drill holes

Sample
Type

Metres
Sampled

Laboratory

Assay Method

Semafo

TB0001-TB0075

core

12912

SGS Accra

50g fire assay

Semafo

RC0001-RC0412

RC

22448

SGS Accra

50g fire assay

Samax/AGC

RC0450-RC0599

RC

8104

SGS Tarkwa

2kg CN leach

Samax/AGC

RC0450-RC0599

RC

710

SGS Tarkwa

2kg CN leach with 50g


fire assay of residues

Samax/AGC

RCD600-602

core

225

SGS Tarkwa

2kg CN leach

Adamus

AWRCD027-032

core

243

Genalysis Perth

50g fire assay

Adamus

AWDD006, 015, 016,


AWRCD009, 010,
012-014, 027-032

core

2086

SGS Tarkwa

50g fire assay

Adamus

AWDD006,
AWRCD005, 007, 008,
033-038

core

1850

Transworld
Tarkwa

50g fire assay

Adamus

AWRC017-019, 022026

RC

136

SGS Tarkwa

1kg CN leach with 50g


fire assay of residues

Adamus

AWRCD005, 008-010,
012, 013, 027, 031

RC

69

SGS Tarkwa

50g fire assay

Adamus

AWRC001-004,
AWRCD005, 007-010,
012-014, 017-038

RC

2254

Transworld
Tarkwa

50g fire assay

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Table 17-8: Salman drill holes preferred gold assay sources


Company

Drill holes

Sample Type

Metres
Sampled

Laboratory

Assay Method

BHP

SDDH001-004

core

571

SGS Accra

50g fire assay

BHP

SRCH001-096

RC

6929

SGS Accra

50g fire assay

Adamus

SNDD088, 136, 236,


SNRCD246-247, 390, 395

core

496

SGS Tarkwa

50g fire assay

Adamus

SNDD088, 136,
SNRCD087, 110-112, 137138, 405, 407, 422, 430,
434-435, 445

core

2107

Transworld
Tarkwa

50g fire assay

Adamus

SNDD088, 136, 210, 213,


217, 225, 236, SNRCD246

core

346

Genalysis Perth

50g fire assay

Adamus

AKRC013-033, SNRC192401, SNRCD395

RC

6673

SGS Tarkwa

50g fire assay

Adamus

AKRC001-181, SNRC001797, SNRCD087-445

RC

58972

Transworld
Tarkwa

50g fire assay

Adamus

AKRC014-015, 017,
SNRC148-282

RC

1287

Genalysis Perth

50g fire assay

17.1.6

Compositing

Prior to compositing, all intervals for which assays were not available were allocated gold grades of
-999 g/t.
Of the 64,209.6 metres of drilling available at Anwia, 4,204 metres has been assayed in four metre
intervals, 1,288 metres in intervals between 1 and 4 metres in length, and the remainder in intervals of
one metre or less. The longer sample intervals are almost exclusively in barren or very low grade
material so weighted average grades were calculated for one metre sample composites. Composites
with negative gold grades, indicating they were affected by intervals for which assays are not
available, were discarded. Residual intervals less than 0.5m length were also discarded. The
resulting located sample composites total 29,855 samples. The few available trench samples at
Anwia were not used to inform the resource estimate.
A number of trenches in the Salman database have been excluded from data informing the resource
estimate because of uncertainty concerning sample locations or because they lie outside of the
resource area. Names of excluded trenches are: AKTROADCUT, EBT001, EY2T1, EY3T1, EYR01,
SET01 to SET11, SNT0E, SNT0FE, SNT0FW, SNT26TEM, SNT30TEM, SNT51WTEM, all TUT prefix
trenches, SNT04CTEM, SNT05ATEM, SNT34TEM, SNT41ETEM, SNTRTTEM, SNT07ATEM and
SNT09ITEM. In remaining trenches over the Salman resource area there are 8169 metres of
horizontal channel sampling available from 137 trenches and bulldozer cuts. About 150 metres of
trenching has been sampled in three metre intervals, 1870 metres in two metre intervals and the
remainder in one metre intervals. Considering that the longer sample intervals are generally in barren

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or very low grade material, and desiring to render the trench sample data compatible with drill hole
sampling, weighted average grades were calculated for 1.5 metre composites of channel samples.
Intervals with negative gold grades (1266) and residuals less than 0.75 metres length were discarded,
leaving 5225 located sample composites.
Gold assays are available for 1316 metres of vertical channel sampling in 357 manually dug pits from
the 2006 sampling campaign. One thousand and sixty four channel samples are in intervals of one
metre or less; 255 samples are in 1-2 metre intervals. Pit channel samples were composited to
uniform one metre length and residuals less than 0.5 metres length were discarded, leaving 1327
sample composites to inform estimates.
The Salman-Akanko resource estimate utilises samples from drill holes up to AKRC263 and
SNRC826, available at 31 October 2007. Drill holes SNRC064, 065, 369, 370, 371 and 372 lie
outside of the resource area and were excluded from the resource drill data. Gold assays are
available for 85,824.8 metres of drilling in 1,141 holes, including 4740.7 metres of HQ and PQ
diamond core in 49 holes. About 34,340 metres of RC drilling in material grading less than 0.2g/t Au
has been sampled in four metre intervals, 507 metres in three metre intervals and 936 metres in two
metre intervals; all remaining RC drilling has assays available for one metre intervals. In diamond drill
core, 2,698.5 metres has been sampled and assayed in lengths of one metre or less; 1,242.2 metres
sampled in intervals longer than 1.5 metres is almost exclusively in waste material. Weighted
average grades were calculated for two metre down-hole composites and intervals with negative gold
grades (affected by intervals for which assays are not available) and residuals less than 2.0 metres
length were discarded. The remaining data set comprised 45,711 composites (inc. channel samples).
Similar assay data compositing was undertaken for the Satellite Deposits resource modelling. At
Bokrobo, assays were available for 68 drillholes totalling some 8300 metres. The final resource data
set comprised 3,637 composites. At Aliva, assays were available for 36 surface trenches (composited
to 1.5m intervals) and 88 drill holes totalling 4778m. The final resource data set comprised 3,036
composites. At Avrebo, assays were available for 10 surface trenches totalling 1,139m (composited to
1.5m intervals) and 96 drill holes totalling 8579m. The final resource data set comprised 4,417
composites. At Nfutu, assays were available for 2 surface trenches totalling 1,139m (composited to
1.5m intervals) and 63 drill holes totalling 5,055m. The final resource data set comprised 2,505
composites.
The volume differences between one metre RC samples, one metre diamond core samples and 1.5
metre trench channel samples are considered insignificant and the compositing down of 4 metre
sample intervals in waste material is considered unlikely to significantly impact models of spatial
continuity of gold grades.
At Anwia, Salman and the Satellite Deposits, sample composites were flagged with primary
(mineralisation) domain codes using the wireframes of mineralised domains.
Sub-domain
(weathering) codes 1 to 4 (very weathered, moderately weathered, weakly weathered and fresh rock)
were allocated using the interpreted weathering surfaces. Salman pit and trench sample codes were
forced to Dom1sub1. The numbers of sample composites reporting to each of the modelling domains
at Anwia, Salman and the Satellite Deposits are listed in Table 17-9,,Table 17-10 and Table 17-11

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Table 17-9: Numbers of sample composites contained in Anwia modelling domains


Domain

Subdomain 1
very
weathered
1349
1921
378

0
1
2

Subdomain 2
moderately weathered

Subdomain 3
weakly weathered

Subdomain 4
fresh rock

2418
3225
593

1565
2967
384

5623
8296
1136

Table 17-10: Numbers of sample composites contained in Salman modelling domains


Model

Domain

South

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
0
1
2
3
4
5
6

Central

North

Subdomain 1
very
weathered
2471
248
25
278
20
545
37
44
11
14
640
184
186
983
28
19
144
22
9
22

Subdomain 2
moderately
weathered
3574
466
35
677
25
599
22
87
48
53
669
299
387
2346
103
68
386
170
96
149

Subdomain 3
weakly weathered

Subdomain 4
fresh rock

5236
561
73
913
58
1325
18
153
188
74
1059
424
921
1093
95
34
121
87
6
13

7232
510
36
585
116
525
38
165
228
143
1613
878
2234
1807
469
42
270
179
-

Table 17-11: Numbers of sample composites contained in Satellite Deposits modelling


domains
Model
Bokrobo
Aliva
Avrebo
Nfutu

Domain 0
3287
2194
1989
2505

Domain 1
203
460
2428
-

Domain 2
147
278
-

Domain 3
104
-

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17.2

17.2.1

Exploratory Data Analysis

Anwia

In some of the Anwia domains only low numbers of samples lie within particular weathering horizons,
rendering it necessary to combine the samples prior to calculation of conditional statistics for resource
estimation. Considering that there are no pronounced differences in the tenor of gold mineralisation
across weathering boundaries, such as may be caused by supergene gold enrichment, the
approximations are considered reasonable.
The mineralised domains, with mean sample grades ranging from 1.5 to 4.5g/t Au, show coefficients
of variation (CV) from about 3.0 to 5.0, which are high, and are typical for gold deposits with gold
mineralisation similar to that seen at Anwia. CV at these levels indicate that reliable estimation of
recoverable gold grades using a linear estimator would be difficult. The grade populations show the
positive skew typical of gold deposits with high maximum grades seen in the main domain (Domain
1).

17.2.2

Salman

As at Anwia, some of the domain/subdomain subsets contain too few samples to provide reliable
conditional statistics for input to resource estimation and have been combined as indicated by the
histograms in the appendix. In contrast to Anwia mineralisation, most Salman mineralised domains
show coefficients of variation less than 3.0 with many less than 2.0 and 70 per cent of the domains
contain maximum sample grades less than 30g/t Au.

17.2.3

Satellite Deposits

At Bokrobo, Domains 0 and 2 contain very few composites with elevated gold values . Statistics show
the Domain 1 composites have an average grade of 2.69 g/t Au and a CV of 2.04. The maximum
sample grade is 35.9 g/t. The high CV suggests a modelling method such as MIK would be needed to
effectively model the Bokrobo Deposit gold resources
At Aliva, statistics for the mineralised domain composites show their CVs lie between 1.1 and 1.5.
Maximum sample grades in the 3 mineralised domains are less than 9 g/t.
At Avrebo, the CV of the mineralised domain composites is 2.64 and at Nfutu, where all the
composites were lumped into one domain, the CV of 5.23 reflects this.

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17.3

17.3.1

Spatial Continuity Analysis

Measures of Spatial Continuity

Most resource estimation methods use a measure of spatial continuity to estimate the grade of blocks
in a resource model. In some methods the measure is implicit; for example, a polygonal method
assumes that the grade is perfectly continuous from the sample to its surrounding polygon boundary.
Geostatistical methods like Ordinary Kriging and Indicator Kriging are among those methods for which
the continuity measure is explicit and is customised to the data set being studied. This measure in its
many forms is usually called the variogram.
Geostatistics provides several measures for describing spatial continuity: the variogram, the
covariance, the correlogram and many others. All are valid descriptions but not all provide a basis for
constructing kriging models of mineralisation. Whatever the method of description used, it is common
to use the term variogram in a generic sense to describe contour plots and directional plots of spatial
continuity measures. Throughout the present work, the maps and directional variograms used are all
based on the correlogram measure. Directional correlograms are displayed inverted so as to
resemble familiar variogram plots. The use of the correlogram as a robust and reliable measure of
spatial continuity is proposed by Srivastava & Parker (1988) and Isaaks & Srivastava (1989). The
correlogram measure has the advantages of being standardised to a sill of 1 and being robust with
respect to clustering in the sample data. Models of the sample correlogram can be used directly in
Ordinary Kriging and Indicator Kriging.
The various parameters of the variogram model, such as the nugget effect and ranges in different
directions, describe properties of the statistical continuity of metal grades. For example, a variogram
with high nugget may indicate that there is a high level of error in the sample grades being used to
construct the variograms or that there is a high degree of variability in the grade over very short
distances in the mineralisation. A different range in one direction compared to another is likely to be
indicating that grade is more continuous in one direction than another.

17.3.2

Directional Controls on Gold Mineralisation

Gold and indicator variograms were calculated and modelled for each of the mineralised domains and
for the waste domains at each of Anwia, Salman and the Satellite Deposits of Bokrobo, Aliva and
Avrebo. Indicator transforms were undertaken with probability thresholds 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6,
0.7, 0.75, 0.8, 0.85, 0.9, 0.95, 0.97 and 0.99 for data in each domain subset. In all cases the data from
moderately weathered, weakly weathered and primary sub domains were combined for variogram
modeling. The modelled variograms as inputted into the resource model are complicated and are
difficult to visualise. Figure 17-12 to Figure 17-26 have been included to aid the interpretation of
these variogram models. The plots show the 3D-variogram surface maps for the median indicator
variogram for each of the mineralised domains modelled. The viewing angle is generally looking north
and down (arrow indicates north on the plots). No indicator variograms were able to be interpreted for
Nfutu owing to the limited data. Indicator variograms from Anwia were used as the Nfutu
mineralization is believed to be similar in nature to that seen at Anwia.
The spatial continuity of gold grades in Domains 1 and 2 at Anwia show contrasting orientations.
Figure 17-12 shows the median variogram for the main domain (Domain 1) and Figure 17-13 shows
the same plot for the granite domain (Domain 2). Whereas the dominant orientation to gold
mineralised structures in Domain 1 tends to strike NE and dip steeply towards north (modelling grid)

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the mineralisation in Domain 2 strikes in a northerly direction and dips steeply towards east. The
indicator and gold variograms for Domain 1 have been used to model the gold in Domain 0 at Anwia.

Figure 17-12: 3D variogram map,Indicator Threshold P 0.5, Anwia, Domain 1

Figure 17-13: 3D variogram map, Indicator Threshold P 0.5, Anwia, Domain 2

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At Salman, the spatial continuity of gold mineralization below the surficial cover, changes from
moderate to steep west dipping in the southern areas (Salman South domains) to being vertical or
east dipping at Salman Central , Salman North and Akanko areas. The local strike and dip changes
to the gold mineralisation are reflected in the variograms and these orientations are confirmed by
observations on the plots of gold grades in section and plan.
Figure 17-14, Figure 17-15 and Figure 17-16 show the 3D variogram map for the domains modeled
for indicator and gold variograms for use in the Salman South model. The variogram modeling was
restricted to Domains 1, 3 and 5 for this area owing to there being too few data in the remaining
domains to obtain useful variograms. The variograms modelled based on Domain 1 data were used
in the kriging of gold in Domain 2, Domain 5 variograms were used in Domains 0, 6, 7 and 9 and
Domain 3 variograms were used for modeling the gold grades in Domains 4 and 8.

Figure 17-14 3D variogram map, Indicator Threshold P 0.5, Salman South Model, Domain 1

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Figure 17-15 3D variogram map, Indicator Thresold P 0.5, Salman South Model, Domain 3

Figure 17-16 3D variogram map, Indicator Thresold P 0.5, Salman South Model, Domain 5

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Figure 17-17 and Figure 17-18 show the 3D variogram map for the domains modelled for indicator
and gold variograms for use in the Salman Central model. Domain 1 indicator and gold variograms
were used for modelling the gold in Domain 0.

Figure 17-17 3D variogram map, Indicator Threshold P 0.5, Salman Central Model, Domain 1

Figure 17-18 3D variogram map, Indicator Threshold P 0.5, Salman Central Model, Domain 2

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Figure 17-19, Figure 17-20 and Figure 17-21show the 3D variogram map for the domains modeled for
indicator and gold variograms for use in the Salman North model. The gold and indicator variograms
for Domain 2, 3 and a combined data set for Domains 4, 5 and 6 were modelled. The modelled
variograms of Domain 3 were used in the kriging of gold in Domains 0 and 1.

Figure 17-19 3D variogram map, Indicator Threshold P 0.5, Salman North Model, Domain 2

Figure 17-20: 3D variogram map, Indicator Threshold P 0.5, Salman North Model, Domain 3

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Figure 17-21: 3D variogram map, Indicator Threshold P 0.5, Salman North Model, Domain
4, 5 and 6

The gold and indicator variograms used in the kriging of gold in the surficial zones at Salman (Sub
Domain 1 for all primary domains) were sourced from previous ARL work. For completeness, the 3D
variogram map at the median indicator threshold is shown in Figure 17-22

Figure 17-22: 3D variogram map, Indicator Threshold P 0.5, Salman all models and all Primary
Domains, Sub Domain 1

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Figure 17-23 to Figure 17-26 show the 3D variogram maps for the domains modelled for indicator and
gold variograms for use in the models for individual Satellite Deposits..
Figure 17-23 3D variogram surface for the median indicator variogram model, Bokrobo Main
Zone (used for all domains)

Figure 17-24: 3D variogram surface for the median indicator variogram model, Aliva Domain 1

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Figure 17-25: 3D variogram surface for the median indicator variogram model, Aliva Domain 2
and 3 (also Domain 0)

Figure 17-26: 3D variogram surface for the median indicator variogram model,
Avrebo-All Domains

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17.4

17.4.1

Indicator Kriging

Indicator Kriging for Recoverable Resource Estimation

Data viewing, compositing and wireframing at Anwia and Salman have been performed using
Micromine software. Exploratory data analysis, variogram calculation and modelling, and resource
estimation have been performed using Hellman & Schofields GS3 software. GS3 is designed
specifically for estimation of recoverable resources using multiple indicator kriging (MIK).
The MIK method was developed in the early 1980s to address some of the problems associated with
estimation of resources in mineral deposits. These problems arise where sample grades show the
property of extreme variation and consequently where estimates of grade show extreme sensitivity to
a small number of very high grades. These characteristics are typical of many lode gold deposits,
where the coefficient of variation in samples commonly exceeds 2. MIK is one of a number of
methods that can be used to provide better estimates than the more traditional methods such as
ordinary kriging and inverse distance weighting.
It is fundamental to the estimation of resources that the estimation error is inversely related to the size
of the volume being estimated. To take the extreme case, the estimate of the average grade of a
deposit generated from a weighted average grade of the entire sample data set is much more reliable
than the estimate of the average grade of a small block of material within the deposit generated from
a local neighbourhood of data. Small blocks cannot provide the basis for reliable estimates of
recoverable resources.
Another fundamental notion relevant to the optimisation of resources to develop an open pit mine and
schedule is that the optimisation algorithm does not require the resource be defined on extremely
small blocks relative to data spacing.
The basic unit of an MIK block model is a panel that normally has the dimensions of the average drill
hole spacing in the horizontal plane. The panel should be large enough to contain a reasonable
number of mining blocks, or Selective Mining Units (SMUs; about 15). The SMU is the smallest
volume of rock that can be mined separately as ore or waste and is usually defined by a minimum
mining width. Based on experience at a number of open pit mining operations in hydrothermal gold
deposits, the dimensions of SMUs at Anwia and Salman are assumed to be in the order of 5mE x
8mN x 3mRL. The Satellite Deposits have slightly smaller SMUs in the order of 4mE x 8mN x 3mRL
excepting Nfutu which has SMU dimensions of 5mE x 8mN x 2mRL
The goal of MIK is to estimate the tonnage and grade of ore that would be recovered from each panel
if the panel were mined using the SMU as the minimum selection criteria to distinguish between ore
and waste. To achieve this goal, the following steps are performed:
Estimate the proportion of each domain within each panel. This estimation can be achieved
by kriging of indicators of domain classifications of sample data points or by intersecting a
template model with the domain wireframes. At both Anwia and Salman panel domain
proportions were calculated by passing the panels through the domain wireframes.
Estimate the histogram of grades of sample-sized units within each domain within each panel
using MIK. MIK actually estimates the probability of the grade within each panel being less
than a series of indicator threshold grades. These probabilities are interpreted as panel
proportions.

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For each domain, and for each panel that receives an estimated grade greater than 0.0g/t Au,
implement a block support correction (variance adjustment) on the estimated histogram of
sample grades in order to achieve a histogram of grades for SMU-sized blocks. This step
incorporates an explicit adjustment for Information Effect.
Calculate the proportion of each panel estimated to exceed a set of selected cut-off grades,
and the grades of those proportions.
Apply to each panel, or portion of a panel below surface, a bulk density to achieve estimates
of recoverable tonnages and grades for each panel.
Apart from considerations of resource confidence classification, step 5 completes construction of the
resource model. The estimates of recoverable resources for each panel may be combined to provide
an estimate of global recoverable resources for the deposit.
17.4.2

Indicator Kriging Parameters

The input parameters to Indicator Kriging of the Anwia, Salman and Satellite Deposits mineralisation
include:
Indicator variogram models describing the spatial continuity of indicator variables within each
domain at each indicator threshold.
Variogram models describing the spatial continuity of gold grades within each domain.
Mean gold grades of each of the indicator classes within each domain.
Variogram models were rotated, where appropriate, to conform to the dip and plunge of mineralisation
as indicated by raw data plots and by variogram maps. The rotations specified conform to the
Cartesian convention wherein a positive rotation is clockwise when looking toward the positive end of
the rotation axis. Rotations are performed in the order in which they are listed. At Salman there are
insufficient regularly spaced samples in Domain 5 to allow calculation of reliable variograms;
variogram models for nearby Domain 2 were applied to estimation. Similarly, resources in Domain 18
were estimated using variogram models of the east-dipping, greywacke-hosted mineralisation at
Salman North Domain 14 and variogram models from granite-hosted mineralisation in Domains 15, 16
and 17 were applied to estimation in Domain 19.
No cuts were applied to high-grade assays at either Anwia or Salman. The reduced ranges of
variogram models at high indicator thresholds effectively reduce the spatial influence of extreme
grades.
Table 17-12 and 17.13 show the grid framework and kriging parameters used in the indicator kriging
models at Aniwa and Salman. Table 17-14 to 17.17 show the grid framework and kriging parameters
used in the indicator kriging models at the Satellite Deposits. Panels were placed so that, as near as
possible, panel centroids lie between drill sections. No search rotations were imposed. The
allocation of resource confidence categories is described in Section 16.7 below.
At Anwia, all domain boundaries were treated as soft boundaries in the kriging process, i.e. estimation
in any one domain was permitted to see samples in neighbouring domains. This minimises
boundary problems and permits consistency of estimates in each panel. At Salman, all domain
boundaries were treated as soft boundaries with the exception of the interface between Domain 1, the
surficial material, and all underlying material. A hard boundary was imposed at that interface to

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prevent trench and pit samples influencing estimates in underlying saprolite material. At the Satellite
Deposits all domain boundaries were treated as soft boundaries.
Table 17-12: Anwia Model Framework & Kriging Search Parameters (Rotated Space)

Panel origin (centroid)


Panel Dimensions
No. of panels
Panel Discretisation
Criteria
Min no. of data
Max no. of data per octant
Min no. of octants with data
X (east) search radius (metres)
Y (north) search radius (metres)
Z (rl) search radius (metres)

Panel Model Extents


East
North
574850
550045.5
20
25
44
39
5
5
Kriging Parameters (all domains)
Measured
Indicated
16
16
4
4
4
4
25
32.5
30
39
10
13

Elevation
-298.5
3
119
2
Inferred
8
4
2
32.5
39
13

Table 17-13: Salman Model Framework and Kriging Search Parameters

Panel origin (centroid)


Panel Dimensions
No. of panels
Panel Discretisation

Panel origin (centroid)


Panel Dimensions
No. of panels
Panel Discretisation

Panel origin (centroid)


Panel Dimensions
No. of panels
Panel Discretisation
Criteria
Min no. of data
Max no. of data per octant
Min no. of octants with data
X (east) search radius (metres)
Y (north) search radius (metres)
Z (rl) search radius (metres)

Panel Model Extents, South Model


East
North
553850
550812.5
20
25
53
131
4
4
Panel Model Extents, Central Model
East
North
584210
554087.5
20
25
25
61
4
4
Panel Model Extents, North Model
East
North
584510
555612.5
20
25
25
148
4
4
Kriging Parameters (all model areas)
Measured
Indicated
16
16
6
6
4
4
25
37.5
30
45
10
15

Elevation
836.5
3
88
2
Elevation
836.5
3
78
2
Elevation
896.5
3
55
2
Inferred
8
6
2
37.5
45
15

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Table 17-14: Bokrobo Model Framework and Kriging Search Parameters


Panel Model Extents
East
North
Model origin (centroid)
575,130
548,062.5
Block Dimensions
20
25
Block Discretisation
5
5
GC SMU size
4
8
Kriging Parameters
Criteria
Category 1
Category 2
16
Min no. of data
16
4
4
Max no. of data per octant
48
48
Min no. of octants with data
37.5
25
X (east) search radius (metres)
60
40
Y (north) search radius (metres)
15
10
Z (rl) search radius (metres)

Elevation
712.5
3
2
3
Category 3
8
2
48
37.5
60
15

Table 17-15: Aliva Model Framework and Kriging Search Parameters


Panel Model Extents
East
North
Model origin (centroid)
577,510
548,587.5
Block Dimensions
20
25
Block Discretisation
5
5
GC SMU size
4
8
Kriging Parameters
Criteria
Category 1
Category 2
16
Min no. of data
16
4
4
Max no. of data per octant
48
48
Min no. of octants with data
30
45
X (east) search radius (metres)
40
60
Y (north) search radius (metres)
10
15
Z (rl) search radius (metres)

Elevation
-61.5
3
2
3
Category 3
8
2
48
45
60
15

Table 17-16: Avrebo Model Framework and Kriging Search Parameters


Panel Model Extents
East
North
Model origin (centroid)
592,250
544,412.5
Block Dimensions
20
25
Block Discretisation
5
5
GC SMU size
4
8
Kriging Parameters
Criteria
Category 1
Category 2
16
Min no. of data
16
4
4
Max no. of data per octant
32
32
Min no. of octants with data
20
30
X (east) search radius (metres)
25
37.5
Y (north) search radius (metres)
10
15
Z (rl) search radius (metres)

Elevation
-121.5
3
2
3
Category 3
8
2
32
30
37.5
15

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Table 17-17: Nfutu Model Framework and Kriging Search Parameters


Panel Model Extents
East
North
Model origin (centroid)
592,250
544,412.5
Block Dimensions
20
25
Block Discretisation
5
5
GC SMU size
4
8
Kriging Parameters
Criteria
Category 1
Category 2
16
Min no. of data
16
4
4
Max no. of data per octant
32
32
Min no. of octants with data
30
20
X (east) search radius (metres)
37.5
25
Y (north) search radius (metres)
15
10
Z (rl) search radius (metres)

17.5

17.5.1

Elevation
-121.5
3
2
3
Category 3
8
2
32
30
37.5
15

Block Support Adjustment (Variance Adjustment)

General

The block support adjustment is one of the most important properties of a recoverable resource model
based on non-linear estimation methods like MIK. It is an essential part of the model and involves
important assumptions about the nature of the block grade distribution within each panel of the model.
Indicator Kriging provides a direct and reliable estimate of the histogram of grades of sample-sized
units within each panel of the model provided the panel dimensions are of an appropriate size.
However, ore is not selected on sample-sized units during mining; it is selected by shovels that have a
minimum mining width and loaded into trucks that are despatched to either ore or waste. The
flexibility of digging equipment and the size of the trucking equipment provide an indication of the size
of the smallest block of rock that will be mined as ore or waste. To estimate with some accuracy the
resources in a deposit that will be recovered with a certain set of mining equipment, the histogram of
grades of sample-sized units in a panel provided by MIK must be adjusted to account for the size of
the mining block.
There are a number of adjustment methods that can be used and most of these are described well in
Journel & Huijbregts (1978) or Isaaks & Srivastava (1989). These methods make three reasonable
assumptions:

The average grade of sample-sized units and blocks within the panel is the same and is equal
to the estimated average grade of the panel.
The variance, or spread, of the block grades within the panel is less than the variance of
grades of sample-sized units within the panel and the change of variance from sample-sized
units to blocks can be calculated from the variogram of gold grades.
The approximate shape of the histogram of block grades can be reasonably predicted by
some appropriate assumptions.

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17.5.2

The Variance Adjustment

The size of the variance adjustment needed to obtain the variance of the block grade distribution
within the panel can be calculated using the rule of additivity of variances, which in the case of block
support adjustment is often called Kriges Relationship:
Var (samples in a panel) = Var (samples in a block) + Var (blocks in a panel)
The variance of sample grades in a panel and the variance of samples within a block can be directly
calculated from the variogram of gold grades for the particular domain. The ratio of Var (blocks in
panel) to Var (samples in panel) is that required to implement the block support adjustment.

17.5.3

Shape of the Block Grade Distribution

There are a number of rules of thumb that are useful when making judgements about the shape of the
block grade distribution within each panel and they relate to the size of the variance adjustment ratio:
If the variance adjustment ratio is greater than 0.7, it may be useful to assume that the shape
of the histogram of block grades is similar to that of the histogram of grades of sample-sized
units. This is known as the Affine Correction method. Its application to gold deposits is
usually inappropriate.
If the variance adjustment ratio is between 0.3 and 0.7 and the information adjustment is
negligible, then the Indirect Lognormal Correction method of Isaaks & Srivastava (1989) can
be useful.
If the variance adjustment ratio is less than 0.3, it is reasonable to assume there is a high
degree of symmetrization in the block grade histogram. If the histogram of sample grades in
a panel is positively skewed, the histogram of block grades is assumed to be lognormal in
shape. If the histogram of sample grades in a panel is approximately symmetrical or
negatively skewed, the block grade histogram is assumed to be normal in shape. The
theoretical support for these assumptions comes from the Central Limit Theorem of
probability. The theory supports the interpretation that as the variance adjustment ratio
becomes very small, the shape of the block grade distribution must approach that of a normal
distribution. In the GS3 software the shape of the histogram of sample-sized units is
assessed on a panel-by-panel basis and this approach to variance adjustment is called the
Lognormal-Normal Correction method. This model is well supported by reconciliation studies
of resource and grade control models.

17.5.4

The Information Effect

The variance adjustment described above is only part of the adjustment required in many gold
deposits because the short scale variation in gold grades is extreme, as is the case at Anwia and in
some of the Salman domains. This variance adjustment provides an estimate of the variance of true
block grades under the assumption that grade control selection will operate with knowledge of the true

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block grades. While this assumption is never absolutely true, it can be a reasonable assumption in
some deposits where the short scale variability is small and the grade control sampling density is
high. In many deposits, however, an additional variance adjustment must be undertaken to account
for the Information Effect.
In the absence of production information or grade control sampling, the Information Effect ratio is
based on the variograms of gold grade and on the grade control sample spacing expected to be used
during mining.
17.5.5

Variance Adjustments Applied to the Resource Models

Variance adjustment ratios applied in estimating Anwia and Salman recoverable gold resources are
listed in Table 17-18 and 17.19 respectively. These ratios have been applied using the LognormalNormal Correction method (i.e., incorporating symmetrization of block grade distributions). Selective
mining (SMU) dimensions of 5mE x 8mN x 3mRL and grade control sample spacing of 8mE x 5mN x
1.5mRL have been assumed. Variance adjustment ratios applied in estimating Satellite Deposit
recoverable gold resources are listed in Table 17-20. These ratios have been applied using the
Lognormal-Normal Correction method (i.e., incorporating symmetrization of block grade distributions).
With the exception of Nfutu, selective mining (SMU) dimensions and grade control sample spacing of
4mE x 8mN x 3mRL have been assumed. At Nfutu, a GC SMU size of 4mE x 8mN x 2mRL is
assumed. The variance adjustments applied to the models represent large reductions of variance,
typical of hydrothermal gold deposits.

Table 17-18: Variance adjustments applied to the Anwia resource model


Domain
Domain 0
Domain 1
Domain 2

Panel to block
adjustment
0.087
0.087
0.183

Information effect
0.326
0.326
0.482

Total ratio
0.029
0.029
0.088

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Table 17-19: Variance adjustments applied to the Salman resource model


Model Area
South

Domain
Domain 0
Domain 1
Domain 2
Domain 3
Domain 4
Domain5
Domain 6
Domain 7
Domain 8
Domain 9
Domain 0
Domain 1
Domain 2
Domain 0
Domain 1
Domain 2
Domain 3
Domain 4
Domain 5
Domain 6

Central

North

Panel to block
adjustment
0.354
0.118
0.118
0.149
0.149
0.354
0.354
0.354
0.149
0.354
0.176
0.176
0.108
0.160
0.160
0.203
0.160
0.151
0.151
0.151

Information effect

Total ratio

0.805
0.549
0.549
0.376
0.376
0.805
0.805
0.805
0.376
0.805
0.321
0.321
0.572
0.382
0.382
0.774
0.382
0.413
0.413
0.413

0.285
0.065
0.065
0.056
0.056
0.285
0.285
0.285
0.023
0.285
0.057
0.057
0.062
0.061
0.061
0.157
0.061
0.062
0.062
0.062

Table 17-20: Variance adjustments applied to the Satellite Deposits resource models
Deposit

Domain

Total Block Variance Correction

Bokrobo

Domain 0, 1 and 2

0.172

Aliva

Domain 0, 2 and 3

0.216

Domain 1

0.215

Avrebo

Domain 0 and 1

0.082

Nfutu

Domain 1

0.034

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17.6

Resource Classification

Panels in the resource models have been allocated confidence categories based on the number and
location of samples used to estimate proportions and grade of each panel. The approach is based on
the principle that larger numbers of samples, which are more evenly distributed throughout the search
neighbourhood, will provide a more reliable estimate. The number of samples and the particular
geographic configurations that may qualify the panel as Measured rather than Indicated or Inferred
are essentially the domain of the Qualified Person. The search parameters used to decide the
classification of a panel resource in this study are:
Minimum number of samples found in the search neighbourhood.
For Indicated resources, this parameter is set to sixteen. For Inferred category, a minimum of eight
samples is required. This parameter ensures that the panel estimate is generated from a reasonable
number of sample data.
Minimum number of spatial octants informed.
The space around the centre of a panel being estimated is divided into eight octants by the axial
planes of the data search ellipsoid. This parameter ensures that the samples informing an estimate
are relatively evenly spread around the panel and do not all come from one drill hole. For Indicated
resources, at least four octants must contain at least one sample. For Inferred panels, at least two
octants must contain data.
The distance to informing data.
The search radii define how far the kriging program may look in any direction to find samples to
include in the estimation of resources in a panel. Panel dimensions and the sampling density in
various directions usually influence the length of these radii. It is essential that the search radii be
kept as short as possible while still achieving the degree of resolution required in the model. For
Measured resources at Anwia, the easting, northing and elevation search radii were set to 25, 30 and
10 metres respectively. For Indicated and Inferred resources the radii were expanded by 30 per cent
to 32.5mE x 39mN x 13mRL. Measured resources at Salman were estimated using search radii of
20mE x 30mN x10mRL; Indicated and Inferred resources were estimated with radii expanded by 50
per cent to 30mE x 45mN x 15mRL. For resources within the Satellite Deposits, the easting, northing
and elevation search radii were set according to the sample densities which varied for each deposit.
Search radii for resource confidence categories are detailed in Table 17-12 through to Table 17-17
At Anwia, Salman and the Satellite Deposits, the majority of panels in areas drilled at 25m x 25m
spacing or closer report to measured category, most panels in areas consistently drilled at 50m x 50m
spacing or less report to indicated category and panels in peripheral areas and at depth with less
consistent drill coverage report to inferred category.

17.7

Anwia Resource Model

Figure 17-27 to Figure 17-29 show an example cross-section through the Anwia model. The plots
show estimated mean panel grades (e-type estimates), recoverable proportions above 1.0g/t cut-off
and panel confidence categories. Figure 17-30, Figure 17-31 and Figure 17-32 show mean panel

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grades, recoverable proportions and confidence categories on an example plan view slice through the
model at about 40 metres below surface.

Figure 17-27: Anwia Panel Mean Grade Estimates, Section 550400N

Figure 17-28: Anwia Panel Recoverable Proportions at 1 g/t Cut-off, Section 550400N

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Figure 17-29: Anwia Panel Confidence Categories, Section 550400N

Figure 17-30: Anwia Panel Mean Grade Estimates, Plan at 1.5RL

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Figure 17-31: Anwia Panel Recoverable Proportions at 1 g/t Cut-off, Plan at 1.5RL

Figure 17-32: Anwia Panel Confidence Categories, Plan at 1.5RL

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17.8

Salman Resource Model

Figure 17-33 to Figure 17-35 show estimated mean panel grades, recoverable proportions above 1g/t
cut-off and panel confidence categories on an example cross-section through Salman Central, an
area that contributes a large proportion of resource tonnes and ounces. Figure 17-36, Figure 17-37
and Figure 17-38 show the same on an example plan view slice through the model at about 45 metres
below surface.
Figure 17-33: Salman Panel Mean Grade Estimates, Section 552137.5N

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Figure 17-34: Salman Panel Recoverable Proportions at 1 g/t Cut-off, Section 552137.5N

Figure 17-35: Salman Panel Confidence Categories, Section 552137.5N

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Figure 17-36: Salman Central Panel Mean Grade Estimates, Plan at 1001.5RL

Figure 17-37: Salman Central Panel Recoverable Proportions at 1g/t Cut-off, Plan at 1001.5RL

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Figure 17-38: Salman Central Panel Confidence Categories, Plan at 1001.5RL

17.9

Satellite Deposits Resource Models

The resource estimates for each of the SAGP Satellite Deposits have been calculated at cut-off
grades which span the range appropriate for open pit mining: in the case of Bokrobo, between natural
surface and a maximum depth of about 200 metres; at Avrebo to a maximum depth of about 170
metres and at Aliva and Nfutu to a maximum depth of about 90 metres
The estimates have been truncated to the current land surface (interpreted from drill hole collars). At
Bokrobo, an allowance has also been made for resources which have depleted by artisanal mining
activities. The resources that were estimated within the mined wireframe were removed prior to
reporting the resources.
Figure 17-39 through to Figure 17-42 show 3D views of the resource composites and MIK models of
the various Satellite Deposits. The MIK model panels on these plots have been scaled to show the
proportion of recoverable resource above 1.0 g/t cut-off and coloured by the average block grade.

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Figure 17-39: Bokrobo MIK Model showing 1.0g/t cut-off resource (model panels scaled in the
east dimension by the proportion of contained resource)

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Figure 17-40: Aliva MIK Model showing 1.0g/t cut-off resource (model panels scaled in the east
dimension by the proportion of contained resource)

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Figure 17-41: Avrebo MIK Model showing 1.0g/t cut-off resource (model panels scaled in the
east dimension by the proportion of contained resource)

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Figure 17-42: Nfutu MIK Model showing 1.0g/t cut-off resource (model panels scaled in the east
dimension by the proportion of contained resource)

NB: Southern Zone


not modeled

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17.10

Mineral Resource Statement

Considering the precision inherent in the resource estimates and their informing data, the resource
estimate for the Project should be reported as listed in Table 17-21. The figures in the table have
been rounded to reflect the level of confidence in the resource. Figures may not sum owing to the
effects of rounding.

Table 17-21: Summary of Southern Ashanti Gold Project Resources at 0.8g/t cut-off
Category

Measured

Indicated

Inferred

Deposit

Cut off
grade
(g/t)

Mtonnes

g/t
Au

k oz
Au

Mtonne
s

g/t
Au

k oz
Au

Mtonnes

g/t
Au

k oz
Au

Anwia

0.8

6.2

2.01

400

2.8

2.00

180

2.6

1.7

140

Salman

0.8

11.4

1.73

630

5.6

1.54

280

2.5

1.5

125

Satellite
Deposits

0.8

1.0

2.10

70

1.5

1.57

70

1.3

1.8

75

18.6

1.84

1,100

9.8

1.67

530

6.4

1.6

340

Total

17.11

Other

Information regarding legal titles, environmental, permitting, taxation, socio-eceonomic and political
issues that may impact upon the mineral resources are described elsewhere in this report and have
not been independently verified by the author. Nevertheless the author believes that there are no
issues arising from such considerations that would materially impact the quantum of the mineral
resources or Adamus ability to access them.

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18.0 ORE RESERVE ESTIMATE


18.1

Introduction

The scoping study completed in March 2006 was based on a processing throughput rate of 1.3 million
tonnes of gold ore per annum, requiring the movement of 6.0-8.0 million tonnes of total material per
annum from the open pits. The study indicated a mine life of more than 6 years.
Following the completion of the scoping study, Mining Solutions Consultancy Pty Ltd (MSC) prepared
the open pit mining section of the feasibility study for further development of the Project. In line with
the scoping study, the feasibility study was based on an ore throughput rate of 1.3 million tonnes per
annum. The finalisation of the mining study followed the completion of the geotechnical, metallurgical
and resource studies based on the in-fill resource and test-work drilling results.
In April 2008 Mining Solutions Consultancy Pty Ltd (MSC) prepared an update of the open pit mining
section of the feasibility study incorporating changes to the mining study parameters brought about by
an increase in the estimated mineral resources, an increase in the gold price to $800/oz, a
government royalty of 3% and an Anwia royalty of 1% and cost escalations in mining and processing
since December 2006.
The selected mining method for the Project is conventional open pit mining including drilling, blasting,
loading and hauling operations carried out by a mining contractor with experience in Ghana. The
construction of the processing plant is currently planned close to the Salman deposit. The mining
contractor will also be responsible for the haulage of the ore from the Anwia pit to the plant site via a
public road.
The topography in the Project area consists of a series of 20-50m high hills with the peaks separated
by horizontal distances of 200-400m. The average slope of the hills is approximately 20 degrees,
varying generally between 15 and 30 degrees. The low lying areas between the wider spaced hills
contain standing surface water in the form of swamps. The low lying area to the east of the northern
areas of the Salman deposit has been identified as a major swamp. Generally, the mine haul roads
and waste dumps will be located at the relatively higher elevations avoiding the swamp areas.
The Salman and Anwia deposits, located 9km apart to the east and west respectively in the Project
area are the subject of the open pit mining study. The depths of the proposed pits at Salman will
generally vary between 30 and 70m depending on the variable topography over a strike length of
7km. The final open pit at Anwia was to be developed in two major stages to a depth of 150m.

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18.2

Mining Study Scope

The tasks completed in parallel for the open pit planning of the Salman and Anwia deposits can be
summarised as follows:

mining contract budget pricing tender preparation and evaluation of the received submissions

Data transfer and preparation of the mining resource, metallurgical recovery and operating
costs models for pit optimisation and reserve estimation purposes
Pit limit optimisations and sensitivity analysis to determine the ultimate pit limits and stages for
incremental pit development
Pit designs, analysis of mining quantities and preliminary schedules to determine the open pit
development strategy
Site layout and waste dump designs including waste backfill options
Various iterations of the interdependent planning tasks above as the confidence in the
parameters increased during the study
Calculation of open pit mining inventories and reserves statement
Preparation of detailed production schedules for mining, milling and stockpiling operations
based on multiple pits and ore types
Mining cost model and schedule based on final production schedule and budget prices
received from an experienced Ghana based mining contractor
Mining equipment and manpower estimates based on final production schedule
Shadow mining cost estimate from first principles to confirm the budget prices received from
mining contractors
Reconciliation of the study results and preparation of final study report
Site visit before the completion of the study report to identify any issues that may affect the
development of the open pits and operating cost estimates
In terms of the mine planning software, Whittle Four-X optimisation software was used in the
generation and analysis of the optimal pit shells. MineSight was used as the main software to store
the resource models, create the pit optimisation models; design the open pits and waste dumps,
calculate the mining inventories, visualise and plot the resource and design data. The resultant
production schedules and mining cost models were prepared using an advanced spreadsheet
capable of evaluating and balancing ore and waste production from multiple open pits.

18.3

Parameters

This section of the Report discusses only the changed parameters in the updated Mining Study. Refer
to the previous Technical Report for all other details used previously for pit optimisations, designs,
production scheduling and operating cash flow estimates.
The main changes in the mining study parameters can be summarised as follows:

Gold price increase of approximately 35%

Contract mining cost increase of approximately 15%

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18.3.1

Processing cost increase of approximately 15%

Update of the Salman and Anwia resource models by Hellmann & Schofield (H&S,
March 2008) as a result of further drilling

Parameters Summary

The parameters used in this ore reserve update study have been summarised in Table 18-1 and
Table 18-2 for Salman and Anwia deposits respectively.

18.3.2

Gold Price and Royalty

The most significant change in the reserves update is the change in the gold price from $575/oz to
$800/oz. The government royalty of 3.0% and other royalty on the Anwia ore of 1.0% have been
deducted from the gold price in the calculation of the net revenues in pit limit optimisations.

18.3.3

Throughput Costs

Lycopodium provided the update for the general, administration and processing costs for the project
based on the changes in the consumable, power and labour rates. The mining supervision, grade
control, ore haulage and crusher loading costs have been increased depending on the increases in
the contract mining rates and labour costs. The throughput costs assigned to the ore tonnes
processed have increased by approximately 15% since the feasibility study.

18.3.4

Contract Mining Costs

The mining contractors were requested to confirm / revise their budget prices for the feasibility study.
The data sent to the contractors were based on the feasibility study final results reported in May 2007.
Although the requests were sent to PMC, AMS and PWL mining contractors, the responses were
received only from AMS and PWL as can be seen in Appendix C.
The mining costs used in the study have been revised on the basis of the indications and revised
rates received from the mining contractors.
The overall mining costs have increased by
approximately 15% based on the 20% increase in load and haul rates, 10% increase in drilling and
blasting rates and 5% increase in the supervision and overheads. The most significant increase in the
load haul rates is due to the increase in fuel price from US$0.72/litre to US$1.16/litre.

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Table 18-1 Salman Pit Optimisation Parameters Summary

Throughput Rate
Mill Feed

Mtpa

Throughput Costs
Metallurgy Labour
General & Admin Labour
Operating Consumables
Power
Maintenance
Laboratory
General & Admin

$/t ore
$/t ore
$/t ore
$/t ore
$/t ore
$/t ore
$/t ore

Total Processing and G & A

Oxide

Trans.

Primary

1.30

1.30

1.30

Oxide

Trans.

Primary

1.35
1.54
3.45
2.59
0.92
0.44
1.56

1.35
1.53
5.73
2.78
0.92
0.44
1.55

1.35
1.53
5.73
2.78
0.92
0.44
1.55

11.85

14.30

14.30

Mine Supervision
Grade Control
Ore Haulage
Crusher Loading
Rehandling Cost (25% of ore)
Rehabilitation Cost

$/t ore
$/t ore
$/t ore
$/t ore
$/t ore
$/t ore

1.12
1.18
0.54
0.59
0.32
0.15

1.12
1.18
0.54
0.59
0.32
0.15

1.12
1.18
0.54
0.59
0.32
0.15

Total Mining

$/t ore

3.91

3.91

3.91

Total Throughput Cost

$/t ore

15.76

18.21

18.21

Oxide

Trans.

Primary

0.64

0.73

0.73

Processing Parameters
Recovered Au Cut-off at US$800/oz Price

g/t

Based on Lycopodium Memo 7 Dec 07


Based on Lycopodium Memo 7 Dec 07
Based on Lycopodium Memo 7 Dec 07
Based on Lycopodium Memo 7 Dec 07
Based on Lycopodium Memo 7 Dec 07
Based on Lycopodium Memo 7 Dec 07
Based on Lycopodium Memo 7 Dec 07

Escalated by 5% since Dec'06


Escalated by 10%, Since Dec'06
Escalated by 21%, since Dec'06
Escalated by 21%, Since Dec'06

Residual grades and recoveries vary in the recovered grade model by rock types, oxidisation degree and deposit areas.
Gold Price and Royalty
Gold Price

Min

Base

Max

600
19.29

800
25.72

900
28.94

3.6%

3.6%

3.6%

US$/oz
US$/gm

578.4
18.60

771.2
24.79

867.6
27.89

%pa

10%

US$/oz
US$/gm

Royalty
Gold Price after Royalty

Discount Rate
Overall Slope Angles

Oxide

from min to max in $25/oz increments

Fresh

East Wall

deg

41.0

48.0

Other Walls

deg

44.5

44.5

Resource Model
Waste dilution & Recovery

Included in the recoverable resource model

Classification used:

Measured and Indicated only

Table 18-2 Anwia Pit Optimisation Parameters Summary

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Throughput Rate
Mill Feed

Mtpa

Throughput Costs

Oxide

Trans.

Primary

1.30

1.21

1.30

Oxide

Trans.

Primary

Metallurgy Labour
General & Admin Labour
Operating Consumables
Power
Maintenance
Laboratory
General & Admin
Total Processing and G & A

$/t ore
$/t ore
$/t ore
$/t ore
$/t ore
$/t ore
$/t ore

1.36
1.54
4.20
2.94
0.93
0.44
1.55
12.96

1.46
1.65
5.09
3.08
0.99
0.47
1.67
14.40

1.36
1.54
5.23
3.16
0.93
0.44
1.55
14.21

Based on Lycopodium Memo 7 Dec 07


Based on Lycopodium Memo 7 Dec 07
Based on Lycopodium Memo 7 Dec 07
Based on Lycopodium Memo 7 Dec 07
Based on Lycopodium Memo 7 Dec 07
Based on Lycopodium Memo 7 Dec 07
Based on Lycopodium Memo 7 Dec 07

Mine Supervision
Grade Control
Ore Haulage
Crusher Loading
Rehandling Cost (25% of ore)
Rehabilitation Cost
Total Mining

$/t ore
$/t ore
$/t ore
$/t ore
$/t ore
$/t ore
$/t ore

1.12
1.18
2.29
0.59

1.12
1.18
2.29
0.59

Escalated by 5% since Dec'06


Escalated by 10%, Since Dec'06
Escalated by 21%, since Dec'06

0.15
5.33

1.21
1.26
2.29
0.59
Salman Only
0.16
5.51

Total Throughput Cost

$/t ore

18.29

19.91

19.54

Oxide

Trans.

Primary

Oxide LG

Trans LG

Prim LG

Processing Parameters

0.15
5.33

Leach Residue Grades

g/t

0.086

0.202

0.242

0.086

0.202

0.242

Average Grade

g/t

0.88

1.06

1.09

0.76

0.90

0.95

Process Recovery at Cut-off

90.2%

80.9%

77.8%

88.7%

77.6%

74.5%

Cut-off Grade at US$800/oz Price

g/t

0.82

0.99

1.01

0.64

0.79

0.82

Min

Base

Max

600
19.29

800
25.72

900
28.94

Gold Price and Royalty


Gold Price
Royalty
Gold Price after Royalty

Discount Rate

US$/oz
US$/gm
No royalty is

3.6%

3.6%

3.6%

US$/oz
US$/gm

578.4
18.60

771.2
24.79

867.6
27.89

%pa

10%

from min to max in $25/oz increments

Overall Slope Angles


South & North Walls (Incl. ramp)

deg

39.5

East and West Walls (Incl. ramp)

deg

43.5

Resource Model
Waste dilution & Recovery

Included in the recoverable resource model

Classification used:

Measured and Indicated only

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August 2008
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18.3.5

Resource Model and Surfaces

The revised Salman and Anwia resource models were received from Hellmann and Schofield (H&S)
in the same format as received in the feasibility study. The surfaces defining the oxide, transitional
and sulphide resource zones were also updated by H&S. The resource summaries for Salman and
Anwia deposits received from H&S can be seen in Appendix D.

18.3.6

Other Parameters

Other parameters used in the reserve update study are the same as used in the feasibility study in
2007.
The resultant process recoveries summarised in Table 18-3 are slightly (-1%) lower due to the lower
cut-off grades and slightly lower resource model grades within the pit limits.

Table 18-3 Resultant Average Process Recoveries for Resource Areas

18.4

Resource Area

Oxide

Transitional

Sulphide

Total

Salman Deposit

85.2%

72.9%

58.0%

79.3%

Anwia Deposit

95.2%

90.7%

90.6%

90.9%

Project Total

86.4%

83.8%

87.2%

86.2%

Pit Limit Optimisations

The pit optimisations have been carried out for a range of gold prices from $600/oz to $900/oz in
$25/oz increments. Table 18-4 to Table 18-6 summarise the pit optimisation results for Salman,
Anwia deposits and project totals. The details of the pit optimisation input parameters and results
have been provided in Appendix E.
Although in general the global resources have increased significantly, especially in the Salman group
of deposits, the review of the pit optimisation results indicated that most of the resource increase is
peripheral to the optimal pit limits. The results also indicated a slight reduction in the resource grade
within the optimal pit limits.
Compared to the feasibility study results reported in May 2007, the operating cost per ounce is
significantly higher for the optimal pit shells. The review of the optimisation results and the resource
models indicated to the following breakdown of factors causing an increase of $130/oz in the
operating costs:

$50/oz cost increase due to the approximately 15% increase in the operating costs

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Page 223

$50/oz cost increase due to the higher gold price, larger pit shells and lower cut-off
grade (approximately $700/oz cost for the incremental ounces between $575/oz and
$800/oz gold price)

$30/oz cost increase due to the approximately 10% reduction in resource grade within
the feasibility study pit designs

Adamus Resources Limited


Southern Ashanti Gold Project Feasibility Study Open Pit Mining
Doc.Ref.: Draft Technical Report FINAL 21 Aug 2008.doc

April 2008
Page 224

Table 18-4: Salman Pit Optimisation Results

Physicals
Gold

Waste

Price

Pit

US$/oz

Total

Economics
W/O

Contn'd

Recv'd

Ratio

Ounces Ounces

Recv.

Mining

Th'put

Cost

Cost

Worst

Avg.

Cost

Cost

Cost

Cost

Case

Case

Case

$'000

$'000

$'000

$'000

$/t

$/t

$/oz

$/t Ore

$'000

$'000

$'000

46,289

114,729

51,722

1.84

16.21

318

22.1

45,999

45,201

45,600

49,094

123,801

56,699

1.84

16.23

327

22.2

50,293

49,360

49,827

19,924

52,735

134,541

61,882

1.84

16.26

338

22.4

54,733

53,555

54,144

82.8%

21,268

55,988

144,464

67,208

1.84

16.29

348

22.5

59,275

57,808

58,542

272,621 225,158

82.6%

21,268

58,054

151,935

72,613

1.84

16.28

352

22.2

63,775

62,139

62,957

2.32

284,913 233,917

82.1%

23,240

61,921

163,483

78,322

1.84

16.31

364

22.4

68,524

66,599

67,562

13,824,064

2.43

296,648 242,831

81.9%

25,522

65,877

175,566

84,167

1.85

16.33

376

22.7

73,390

70,991

72,191

10,418,076

14,578,690

2.50

303,945 247,702

81.5%

26,924

68,010

185,059

90,125

1.85

16.35

383

22.8

78,394

75,807

77,101

2.24

12,492,747

17,125,328

2.70

333,881 265,557

79.5%

32,090

76,182

204,801

96,529

1.87

16.44

408

23.4

83,441

80,435

81,938

2.22

12,419,409

17,125,328

2.64

336,519 267,070

79.4%

32,090

77,374

212,397

102,933

1.87

16.44

410

23.3

88,685

85,569

87,127

4,955,407

2.21

13,700,316

18,655,723

2.76

351,874 276,410

78.6%

35,122

81,710

226,486

109,654

1.88

16.49

423

23.6

94,108

90,584

92,346

4,971,013

2.21

13,684,710

18,655,723

2.75

352,519 276,742

78.5%

35,122

81,987

233,430

116,321

1.88

16.49

423

23.6

99,578

95,955

97,767

5,096,427

2.17

13,559,296

18,655,723

2.66

355,923 279,099

78.4%

35,122

83,984

242,146

123,040

1.88

16.48

427

23.4

104,966

100,842

102,904

No

Total
Tonnes

Au
g/t

Tonnes

Tonnes

t/t

600

14

2,855,966

2.57

6,232,469

9,088,435

2.18

236,367 198,354

83.9%

16,718

625

15

3,025,535

2.53

6,759,780

9,785,315

2.23

245,877 205,477

83.6%

18,008

650

16

3,242,899

2.48

7,582,572

10,825,471

2.34

258,068 214,712

83.2%

675

17

3,437,366

2.43

8,110,957

11,548,323

2.36

268,051 222,018

700

17

3,565,795

2.38

7,982,528

11,548,323

2.24

725

18

3,797,482

2.33

8,807,522

12,605,004

750

19

4,034,449

2.29

9,789,615

775

20

4,160,614

2.27

800

21

4,632,581

825

21

4,705,919

850

22

875

22

900

22

koz

koz

Reven.

NPV Analysis

C'Flow

Ore

Undisc'd Mining Th'put

Unit

Unit

Best

Adamus Resources Limited


Southern Ashanti Gold Project Feasibility Study Open Pit Mining
Doc.Ref.: Draft Technical Report FINAL 21 Aug 2008.doc

April 2008
Page 225

Table 18-5: Anwia pit Optimisation Results

Physicals
Gold

Ore

Waste

Total

Economics
W/O

Contn'd Recv'd

Ratio

Ounces Ounces

Th'put

Reven.

NPV Analysis

Recv.

Mining

Undisc'd Mining Th'put

Unit

Unit

Best

Worst

Avg.

Cost

Cost

C'Flow

Cost

Cost

Cost

Cost

Case

Case

Case

$'000

$'000

$'000

$'000

$/t

$/t

$/oz

$/t Ore

$'000

$'000

$'000

Price

Pit

US$/oz

No

Total
Tonnes

Au
g/t

Tonnes

Tonnes

t/t

600

12

3,251,187

2.79

17,613,134

20,864,321

5.42

291,696 269,757

92.5%

45,737

64,343

156,028

45,948

2.19

19.79

408

33.9

38,855

37,582

38,219

625

13

3,753,971

2.69

19,987,959

23,741,930

5.32

324,435 299,122

92.2%

51,986

74,302

180,222

53,934

2.19

19.79

422

33.6

44,643

42,028

43,336

650

15

4,116,663

2.62

21,439,243

25,555,906

5.21

346,105 318,078

91.9%

56,034

81,498

199,311

61,779

2.19

19.80

432

33.4

50,883

47,625

49,254

675

15

4,118,504

2.61

21,437,402

25,555,906

5.21

346,180 318,135

91.9%

56,034

81,535

207,006

69,437

2.19

19.80

432

33.4

57,183

53,851

55,517

700

16

4,404,756

2.54

22,073,699

26,478,455

5.01

359,903 330,144

91.7%

58,169

87,200

222,778

77,409

2.20

19.80

440

33.0

63,649

59,397

61,523

725

16

4,609,490

2.48

21,868,965

26,478,455

4.74

367,443 336,109

91.5%

58,169

91,254

234,906

85,483

2.20

19.80

445

32.4

70,298

65,363

67,831

750

17

5,005,786

2.49

26,860,902

31,866,688

5.37

400,530 366,189

91.4%

70,485

99,124

264,754

95,145

2.21

19.80

463

33.9

77,806

70,942

74,374

775

18

5,488,372

2.46

31,017,390

36,505,762

5.65

433,286 395,431

91.3%

81,673 108,756

295,429

105,000

2.24

19.82

482

34.7

85,213

76,405

80,809

800

18

5,828,717

2.37

30,677,045

36,505,762

5.26

444,338 404,182

91.0%

81,673 115,423

311,709

114,613

2.24

19.80

488

33.8

91,744

82,570

87,157

825

18

5,847,483

2.37

30,658,279

36,505,762

5.24

444,960 404,663

90.9%

81,673 115,796

321,823

124,354

2.24

19.80

488

33.8

99,283

89,918

94,601

850

19

5,879,490

2.37

30,930,709

36,810,199

5.26

447,075 406,529

90.9%

82,412 116,429

333,107

134,266

2.24

19.80

489

33.8

106,935

97,314

102,125

875

20

6,108,978

2.32

31,283,487

37,392,465

5.12

455,981 413,922

90.8%

83,787 121,051

349,142

144,304

2.24

19.82

495

33.5

113,724

103,428

108,576

900

21

6,155,353

2.31

31,465,297

37,620,650

5.11

458,077 415,721

90.8%

84,316 121,968

360,680

154,396

2.24

19.81

496

33.5

121,309

110,767

116,038

koz

koz

Adamus Resources Limited


Southern Ashanti Gold Project Feasibility Study Open Pit Mining
Doc.Ref.: Draft Technical Report FINAL 21 Aug 2008.doc

April 2008
Page 226

Table 18-6: Project Total Pit Optimisation Results


Physicals
Gold
Price

Ore

Waste

Total

Economics
W/O

Contn'd Recv'd

Ratio

Ounces Ounces

Th'put

Reven.

NPV Analysis

Recv.

Mining

Undisc'd Mining Th'put

Unit

Unit

Best

Worst

Avg.

Cost

Cost

C'Flow

Cost

Cost

Cost

Cost

Case

Case

Case

$'000

$'000

$'000

$'000

$/t

$/t

$/oz

$/t Ore

$'000

$'000

$'000

US$/oz

Total
Tonnes

Au
g/t

Tonnes

Tonnes

t/t

600

6,107,153

2.69

23,845,603

29,952,756

3.90

528,062 468,110

88.6%

62,455

110,632

270,757

97,670

2.09

18.12

370

28.3

77,472

75,642

76,557

625

6,779,506

2.62

26,747,739

33,527,245

3.95

570,312 504,599

88.5%

69,994

123,396

304,023

110,633

4.03

18.20

383

28.5

86,454

83,403

84,928

650

7,359,562

2.55

29,021,815

36,381,377

3.94

604,173 532,791

88.2%

75,958

134,233

333,852

123,661

4.03

18.24

395

28.6

95,948

92,131

94,040

675

7,555,870

2.53

29,548,359

37,104,229

3.91

614,231 540,154

87.9%

77,302

137,523

351,470

136,645

4.03

18.20

398

28.4

105,593

101,427

103,510

700

7,970,551

2.47

30,056,227

38,026,778

3.77

632,524 555,302

87.8%

79,437

145,254

374,713

150,022

4.04

18.22

405

28.2

115,331

110,251

112,791

725

8,406,972

2.41

30,676,487

39,083,459

3.65

652,357 570,026

87.4%

81,409

153,175

398,389

163,805

4.04

18.22

412

27.9

125,465

119,543

122,504

750

9,040,235

2.40

36,650,517

45,690,752

4.05

697,178 609,020

87.4%

96,007

165,001

440,320

179,312

4.06

18.25

429

28.9

136,413

128,454

132,433

775

9,648,986

2.38

41,435,466

51,084,452

4.29

737,230 643,132

87.2%

108,597 176,766

480,488

195,125

4.08

18.32

444

29.6

147,417

137,695

142,556

800

10,461,298

2.31

43,169,792

53,631,090

4.13

778,219 669,739

86.1%

113,763 191,605

516,510

211,142

4.11

18.32

456

29.2

157,754

147,317

152,535

825

10,553,402

2.30

43,077,688

53,631,090

4.08

781,479 671,733

86.0%

113,763 193,170

534,220

227,287

4.11

18.30

457

29.1

169,104

158,403

163,753

850

10,834,897

2.29

44,631,025

55,465,922

4.12

798,948 682,939

85.5%

117,534 198,139

559,593

243,920

4.12

18.29

462

29.1

180,725

169,408

175,067

875

11,079,991

2.27

44,968,197

56,048,188

4.06

808,500 690,664

85.4%

118,909 203,038

582,572

260,625

4.12

18.32

466

29.1

191,694

179,732

185,713

900

11,251,780

2.25

45,024,593

56,276,373

4.00

814,000 694,820

85.4%

119,438 205,952

602,826

277,436

4.12

18.30

468

28.9

203,226

190,563

196,895

koz

koz

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Doc.Ref.: Draft Technical Report FINAL 21 Aug 2008.doc

18.5

April 2008
Page 227

Mine Design

The pit optimisation results update provided the basis for the new pit designs. The criteria for the pit
designs were maintained the same as reported in the feasibility study (May 2007).
The size of the Salman pit designs shown in Figure 18-1 to 18-3 are similar to the previous feasibility
study designs. Similarly, the South and Central areas have been planned to mine in two pit stages
each along strike. The designs extend further north with the addition of a small pit (Akanko North 2)
500m north of the Akanko North Pit.
The new Anwia pit design is 30m deeper than the feasibility design and larger enough to mine the
main pit in three cutbacks. The Anwia ultimate pit design and the pit stage designs have been shown
in Figure 18-4 and Figure 18-5.

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Figure 18-1: Salman Central and South Pit Designs

April 2008
Page 228

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Figure 18-2: Salman North Pit Designs

April 2008
Page 229

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Figure 18-3: Akanko Pit Designs

April 2008
Page 230

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Figure 18-4: Anwia Ultimate Pit Design (Local Grid)

April 2008
Page 231

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Figure 18-5: Anwia Pit Stage Designs (Local Grid)

April 2008
Page 232

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18.6

18.6.1

April 2008
Page 233

Mining Quantities and Reserves

Cut-off Grades

The revised cut-off grades for the calculation of the ore reserves have been listed in Table 18-7 for the
deposit areas and ore types. The cut-off grades are slightly lower (~0.1g/t) as a results of the changes
in the gold price, operating costs and process recoveries.
Table 18-7: Cut-off Grades for Ore Reserves

Salman
Deposit
Area

Oxide
Au g/t

Akanko
Akanko South
North Hill
Salman North
Teberu Footwall
Teberu
Nugget Hill
Salman Central
Salman South
Salman SW

Anwia Deposit

Salman
Deposit
Area

0.8
0.8
0.9
0.9

0.8
0.9
1.1
1.1

0.9
1.1
1.2
1.2

1.0
1.2
1.5
1.5

0.9
0.9

1.1
1.1

1.2
1.2

1.5
1.5

Oxide
Au g/t

Transition
Au g/t

Sulphide
Au g/t

0.8

1.0

1.0

Oxide
Au g/t

Akanko
Akanko South
North Hill
Salman North
Teberu Footwall
Teberu
Nugget Hill
Salman Central
Salman South
Salman SW

Anwia Deposit

Mill Feed Ore Cut-off Grades


Granite Formation
Transition
Sulphide
Oxide
Upper
Lower
Au g/t
Au g/t
Au g/t
Au g/t
0.8
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.1
1.1
1.1
0.9
0.8
0.8

Low Grade Ore Cut-off Grades


Granite Formation
Transition
Sulphide
Oxide
Upper
Lower
Au g/t
Au g/t
Au g/t
Au g/t

0.6
0.7
0.7
0.7

0.6
0.8
0.9
0.9

0.7
1.0
1.1
1.1

0.8
1.0
1.3
1.3

0.7
0.7

0.9
0.9

1.1
1.1

1.3
1.3

Oxide
Au g/t

Transition
Au g/t

Sulphide
Au g/t

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.6
0.9
0.9
0.9
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.6

Greywacke Formation
Transition
Sulphide
Upper
Lower
Au g/t
Au g/t
Au g/t
0.9
1.3
1.6
1.6
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
1.0

1.2
1.7
2.1
2.1
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.4
1.4

1.7
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.7
2.2
2.2
2.7
2.1
1.7

Greywacke Formation
Transition
Sulphide
Upper
Lower
Au g/t
Au g/t
Au g/t
0.7
1.2
1.5
1.5
1.2
1.2
1.1
0.9
0.8
0.8

1.1
1.6
2.0
2.0
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.2
1.2

Note:
In the mining inventory, the Salman ore quantities are based on the operating value calculation for each model block.

1.5
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.0
2.5
1.9
1.5

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18.6.2

April 2008
Page 234

Open Pit Quantities

The quantities reported within the pit designs have been summarised in Table 18-8 classified by the
ore types and deposit areas. The indicative economic values and the operating costs in the table
provided guidance to determine the mining order of the pit areas in the production schedules as
follows:
1. Salman Central pits would be mined first at the lowest operating cost per ounce.
2. The mining of the larger Anwia pit would be completed second at a reasonable cost and
providing mill feed for 4 years from a single source.
3. Salman South and Southwest pits would be mined third and waste would be backfilled
into the Central Stage 1 and 2 pits.
4. Salman North pits would be mined next with partial backfilling of the mined pits.
5. The Akanko pits would be mined last, with the cost effective backfilling of the smaller pits
to the South and North.
Note that the mining transition between the areas 3, 4 and 5 above would not be a clear cut since
these areas need to be mined simultaneously due to the smaller size of the open pits.
The details of the pit quantities by mining levels have been reported in Appendix G.
18.6.3

Ore Reserve Estimate

Based on the revised feasibility study parameters and in compliance with the JORC guidelines
(AusIMM 2004), the ore reserves estimate for the Southern Ashanti Gold Project is provided in Table
18-9. All the estimated ore reserves are included within the mineral resource as defined in Table
17-21
This report summarises the changes in the mining study parameters and the effect on the ore reserve
estimates following the completion of the feasibility study in May 2007. The reader should refer to the
feasibility study report for the complete details of the project
All the work providing the basis for the ore reserves statement has been carried out by Mr Tamer
Dincer, BSc and MSc degrees in mining engineering, a fulltime employee of Mining Solutions
Consultancy Pty Ltd, who is a Member of Australasian Institute of Mining & Metallurgy, a Member of
the Mineral Industry Consultants Association and who is a Competent Person under the JORC
definition of competent person for the estimation of ore reserves.

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Southern Ashanti Gold Project Feasibility Study Open Pit Mining
Doc.Ref.: Draft Technical Report FINAL 21 Aug 2008.doc

April 2008
Page 235

Table 18-8: Open Pit Quantities and Economics


Deposit
Area

Oxide Ore
Transition Ore
Fresh Ore
Tonnes Au g/t Rec Au Tonnes Au g/t Rec Au Tonnes Au g/t Rec Au

Mill Feed Ore


Tonnes Au g/t Rec Au

Cont'd
Au Oz

Recv'd
Au Oz

Recov
%

Waste
Tonnes

Total
Tonnes

SR
t/t

Mining
Cost
$'000

Th'put
Cost
$'000

Total
Cost
$'000

Recv'd Revenue Operating


Ounces
Value
$'000
$'000
$'000

Unit
Cost
$/oz

SALMAN GROUP
Akanko N2
Akanko North
Akanko
Akanko South
Salman North
Teberu Footwall
Nugget Hill
Salman Central 1
Salman Central 2
Salman South 1
Salman South 2
Salman SW

102,663
52,414
431,777
84,485
285,896
117,965
115,253
796,980
455,536
339,684
136,222
55,856

1.48
2.11
1.58
1.67
1.93
2.26
2.22
2.85
2.53
1.37
1.26
1.92

1.38
1.97
1.45
1.46
1.50
1.69
1.71
2.45
2.13
1.20
1.09
1.68

6,680
25,679
69,079
26,772
128,027
22,557
112,465
106,524
149,038
163,636
18,951
52,626

1.66
2.64
1.84
2.04
2.49
2.65
2.66
2.82
3.47
1.70
1.29
2.32

1.34
2.46
1.66
1.66
1.32
1.44
1.92
2.02
2.56
1.40
1.07
1.78

471
1,375
23,721
47,611
246,474
5,823
15,726
6,929
25,915

2.00
3.75
3.52
2.14
2.79
3.09
2.64
3.61
3.53

1.33
3.37
2.64
1.58
1.56
1.06
1.19
1.60
1.52

14,327

3.97

2.97

109,813
79,468
524,577
158,868
660,397
146,345
243,445
910,434
630,489
503,320
155,173
122,808

1.49
2.31
1.70
1.87
2.36
2.35
2.45
2.85
2.79
1.48
1.27
2.33

1.37
2.16
1.53
1.53
1.48
1.62
1.77
2.40
2.21
1.27
1.09
1.87

5,265
5,900
28,681
9,559
50,043
11,080
19,190
83,528
56,593
23,948
6,322
9,191

4,846
5,508
25,872
7,792
31,513
7,640
13,889
70,111
44,747
20,493
5,441
7,397

92.1%
93.4%
90.2%
81.5%
63.0%
69.0%
72.4%
83.9%
79.1%
85.6%
86.1%
80.5%

293,365
357,429
1,982,838
781,641
3,738,973
610,382
1,208,279
1,688,691
1,174,813
1,409,936
365,439
1,201,555

403,178
436,898
2,507,415
940,510
4,399,370
756,727
1,451,724
2,599,125
1,805,302
1,913,256
520,613
1,324,364

2.7
4.5
3.8
4.9
5.7
4.2
5.0
1.9
1.9
2.8
2.4
9.8

755
819
4,698
1,762
8,244
1,418
2,720
4,870
3,383
3,585
976
2,482

1,748
1,319
8,495
2,686
11,326
2,376
4,151
14,627
10,365
8,333
2,492
2,100

2,504
2,137
13,193
4,448
19,569
3,794
6,871
19,497
13,748
11,918
3,468
4,581

4,846
5,508
25,872
7,792
31,513
7,640
13,889
70,111
44,747
20,493
5,441
7,397

3,877
4,407
20,697
6,234
25,211
6,112
11,111
56,089
35,798
16,394
4,353
5,917

1,373
2,269
7,504
1,785
5,641
2,318
4,240
36,592
22,050
4,476
885
1,336

517
388
510
571
621
497
495
278
307
582
637
619

2,974,731

2.13

1.81

882,037

2.47

1.80

388,371

2.86

1.66

4,245,139

2.27

1.80

309,301

245,249

79.3%

14,813,342 19,058,481 3.5

35,712

70,017

105,729 245,249

196,199

90,470

431

ANWIA DEPOSIT
Anwia 1
Anwia 2
Anwia 3
Anwia North

256,794
16,016
120,031
80,280

1.85
1.43
1.80
1.71

1.76
1.35
1.72
1.63

729,853
436,642
350,310
61,776

2.30
2.14
2.03
1.63

2.10 174,151 2.62


1.94 1,116,439 2.62
1.82 2,452,906 2.55
1.42

2.38
2.38
2.31

1,160,798
1,569,097
2,923,247
142,056

2.25
2.48
2.46
1.68

2.06
2.25
2.23
1.54

83,861
124,954
231,248
7,652

77,056
113,387
209,556
7,028

91.9%
90.7%
90.6%
91.9%

3,158,452 4,319,250 2.7


6,868,128 8,437,225 4.4
22,547,814 25,471,061 7.7
400,020
542,076
2.8

9,663
18,876
56,985
1,213

22,987
31,269
57,960
2,741

32,650 77,056
50,146 113,387
114,946 209,556
3,954
7,028

61,645
90,710
167,645
5,623

28,995
40,564
52,699
1,669

424
442
549
563

Anwia Total

473,121

1.80

1.71 1,578,581 2.17

1.97 3,743,496 2.58

2.34

5,795,198

2.40

2.18

447,714

407,028

90.9%

32,974,414 38,769,612 5.7

86,738

114,958 201,696 407,028

325,622

123,927

496

3,447,852

2.08

1.80 2,460,618 2.28

1.91 4,131,867 2.60

2.27

10,040,337

2.35

2.02

757,015

652,277

86.2%

47,787,756 57,828,093 4.8

122,450 184,975 307,425 652,277

521,821

214,397

471

Salman Total

PROJECT TOTAL

Note: Financials are based on average costs for indicative purposes only, excluding LG stockpiles.

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April 2008
Page 236

Table 18-9: Ore Reserves by Mining Areas and Ore Types


Proved Reserve

Probable Reserve

Total Reserve

Tonnesx1000

Au g/t

Ouncesx1000

Tonnesx1000

Au g/t

Ouncesx1000

Tonnesx1000

Au g/t

Ouncesx1000

ANWIA TOTAL

5,497

2.08

367

1,579

2.31

117

7,076

2.13

484

SALMAN TOTAL

4,622

2.09

310

320

1.91

20

4,942

2.08

330

PROJECT TOTAL

10,119

2.08

677

1,899

2.24

137

12,018

2.11

814

Anwia 1
Anwia 2
Anwia 3
Anwia North

1,381
1,645
2,327
144

2.01
2.15
2.10
1.48

89
114
157
7

35
267
1,238
39

1.60
2.44
2.32
1.56

2
21
92
2

1,416
1,912
3,565
183

2.00
2.19
2.18
1.50

91
135
249
9

ANWIA TOTAL

5,497

2.08

367

1,579

2.31

117

7,076

2.13

484

112
92
539
181
719
138
193
973
681
664
197
133

1.41
2.09
1.54
1.66
2.20
2.20
2.45
2.73
2.66
1.30
1.12
2.07

5
6
27
10
51
10
15
85
58
28
7
9

7
1
74
23
58
28
69
10
8
7
24
11

1.69
1.17
1.70
1.77
2.20
2.23
2.11
2.06
1.70
0.96
0.98
2.83

0
0
4
1
4
2
5
1
0
0
1
1

119
93
613
204
777
166
262
983
689
671
221
144

1.43
2.08
1.56
1.67
2.20
2.21
2.36
2.72
2.65
1.30
1.10
2.13

5
6
31
11
55
12
20
86
59
28
8
10

4,622

2.09

311

320

1.91

20

4,942

2.08

330

Akanko N2
Akanko North
Akanko
Akanko South
Salman North
Teberu Footwall
Nugget Hill
Salman Central 1
Salman Central 2
Salman South 1
Salman South 2
Salman SW
SALMAN TOTAL

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Southern Ashanti Gold Project, Ghana, Western Africa
Technical Report

19.0
19.1

August 2008
Page 237

OTHER RELEVANT DATA AND INFORMATION


Production Schedules

As the reserve base for the project increased with the increasing gold price, the larger throughput
rates have become an option. In addition to the 1.3Mtpa throughput rate schedule prepared in the
original feasibility study, 1.5Mtpa and 1.8Mtpa cases have been included in the update study. Table
19-1 below summarises and compares the schedules while the detailed schedules can be seen in
Appendix H.

Table 19-1 Production Schedule Results Summary


Schedule Version

7a

7b

7c

Processing Rate

Mt pa

1.3

1.5

1.8

Processing life

Years

9.25

8.00

6.75

Average mill feed ore grade (First 5 years)

g/t Au

2.46

2.44

2.38

First 5 years average gold production

Oz pa

91,000

104,000

120,000

Tonnes

310,000

525,000

510,000

Low grade stockpile feed grade

g/t Au

0.91

0.91

0.91

Low grade gold production (last year)

oz pa

27,500

32,000

38,500

Open pit mine life

Years

8.5

7.5

6.5

Tonnes

260,000

260,000

260,000

Months

1-2

1-2

1-2

Mt pa

4.1

5.1

6.7

Total movement for 2 year

Mt pa

6.9

7.8

11.8

Total movement for 3rd and 4th years

Mt pa

11.6

13.2

16.8 , 9.7

Total movement for 5 year

Mt pa

7.3

7.0

8.0

Average movement for rest of mine life

Mt pa

6.3

7.0

8.0

Maximum ROM stockpile balance

Pre-stripping requirement
Pre-stripping duration (incl. ramp up)
st

Total material movement for 1 year


nd

th

Adamus Resources Limited


Southern Ashanti Gold Project, Ghana, Western Africa
Technical Report

August 2008
Page 238

20.0 INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS


This updated Technical Report incorporates new data into the mining and resource sections of the
previously lodged Technical Report of December 2007. The principal components of the Update are a
Project Resource Update completed in January 2008 (Hellman and Schofield; 2008a) and the
Summary Resource Report for the Satellite Deposits (Hellman and Schofield; 2008b) and an Update
Study of the open pit mining components of the feasibility study completed in April 2008 (Dincer;
2008).
Since the compilation of the Technical Report, Adamus exploration in the SAGP has focussed on two
objectives:

Converting inferred resources to measured and indicated resources by infill drilling (and
thereby allow their incorporation into the mining reserve); and

Proving up measured and indicated resources on smaller prospects proximal to the major
deposits to provide more flexibility in the mining and processing of the SAGP resources.

The January 2008 resource estimate at Anwia incorporated data from the 2006 to 2007 diamond drill
program undertaken to infill drill coverage between about 130 and 175 metres below surface. The
updated resource model converted much of the previous inferred resource to Measured and Indicated
categories. The updated resource model resulted in a deeper optimum pit. Further drilling northwest
of the main mineralisation in this area may delineate resources amenable to underground mining.
The areas that contribute the most resource ounces to the Salman deposit have been drilled at a
spacing that allows confident estimation of recoverable resources. Infill drilling in the Salman north
area to convert resources to Measured and Indicated status has resulted in extensions of optimum pit
shells and additional ore reserves. Additional resource and reserve ounces could be found with
shallow drilling in the Teberu and Akanko North areas. Deeper drilling at many of the deposits on the
Salman trend will result in substantial increases to the Measured and Indicated resources in the
sulphide zones of these deposits.
Continued exploration of the Satellite Deposits has resulted in the addition of 2.5 Million tonnes @
1.78 g/t to the SAGP Measured and Indicated resources. Newly identified mineralisation in granite at
Bokrobo is likely to substantially increase the resource there.
Although in general the global mineral resources have increased significantly, especially in the Salman
group of deposits, the pit optimisation results indicate that most of the mineral resource increase is
peripheral to the optimal pit limits. The Proven and Probable Mineral Ore Reserves have increased to
12.02 Million tonnes. with a slight reduction in the resource grade within the optimal pit limits.
Compared to the feasibility study results, the operating cost per ounce is $130/oz higher for the
optimal pit shells.

Adamus Resources Limited


Southern Ashanti Gold Project, Ghana, Western Africa
Technical Report

August 2008
Page 239

21.0 RECOMMENDATIONS
Exploration and development activities in 2008 should focus on further enhancing the economics of
the Project by endeavouring to add additional ore reserves and reducing, where possible, the
estimated capital costs, by further focused exploration and the examination of alternative plant options
where possible
In the event of a decision to mine, the recommended development methodology for the design and
construction management of the Project is the EPCM approach, thus allowing ARL to maintain control
of the budget, schedule and quality of the end product through all stages of project development. The
project capital cost estimate has been developed on the basis that a single organisation (the Engineer)
will provide the EPCM services with the assistance of specialist sub-consultants as required.
Detailed planning of the roads and other site layout will be required before the implementation stage of
the Project.

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22.0 REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY


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AGR Limited, 2000. Information Memorandum on the Salman Gold Project, Ghana.
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Allibone, A., McCuaig, T. C., Harris, D., Etheridge, M., Munroe, S., Byrne, D., Amanor, J.,
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Bloomer, Tony, 1997. Teleku Bokazo Project - Specific Gravity determinations on diamond
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Junner, N. R., 1935. Gold in the Gold Coast. Gold Coast Geological Survey Memoir. 4, 67p,
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report for the Minerals Commission.
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prepared by Pontifex & Associates Pty Ltd for BHP Minerals Ghana Ltd, held by Adamus
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& Associates Pty Ltd for Adamus Resources Ltd.
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Adamus Resources Limited. Report prepared for Adamus Resources Ltd by Ravensgate Pty
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WA6163.

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Roger Townend and Associates Pty Ltd, 2002. Preparation of 5 thin sections and
petrographic descriptions of 5 cores. Preparation of 6 polished thin sections and petrographic
/ minerographic descriptions of 6 cores (Salman Prospect, Ghana). Report number 20535.
Unpublished petrographical report for Adamus Resources Ltd.
Roger Townend and Associates Pty Ltd, 1999. Unpublished draft report of the mineralogy of
Anwia drill hole samples previously described by VM Robb and Associates Geological
Services. Unpublished petrographical report held by Adamus Resources Ltd.
Resource Service Group, 2002. Independent Technical Valuation of Mineral Properties.
Prepared for Adamus Resources Limited for inclusion in a Notice of Meeting of Shareholders.
RSG Global, 2002. Quality Control Procedures, Salman Project. Memoradum from Colin
Jones of RSG Global to Adamus Resources Ltd detailing RSG Globals recommended sample
quality control procedures.
RSG Global, 2003. Adamus QAQC Review to 21 January 2003. Interim analytical quality
control monitoring report prepared for Adamus Resources Limited by RSG Global.
RSG Global, 2003. Adamus QAQC Review to November 2003. Interim analytical quality
control monitoring report prepared for Adamus Resources Limited by RSG Global.
RSG Global, 2003. Qualified Persons Report, Salman Gold Project, Ghana, West Africa.
Unpublished report prepared for Adamus Resources Limited by RSG Global.
Semafo Ghana Ltd, 1997. Retrocession of the Teleku Bokazo and Ebi Concessions.
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SRK Consulting, 2005. Independent resource report on the Salman and Anwia gold deposits
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Western Australia 6005.
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on the Salman-Aboaji Concession belonging to Ghana National Manganese Corporation.
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Tropical Exploration and Mining Co Ltd, 1993. Report on Geological Exploration Phase 2
carried out on the Salman-Aboaji Concession belonging to Ghana National Manganese
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Tropical Exploration and Mining Co Ltd, 1997. Terminal Geological Report on
Akanko/Kwatechi Concessions. Unpublished report for Minerals Commission, Ghana.
VM Robb and Associates Geological Services, 1997. Petrographic descriptions of borehole
samples from the Teleku Bokazo project, Ghana. Unpublished report to Semafo Ghana Ltd.