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EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON DOUBLE SKINNED STEEL

TUBULAR (DSST) COLUMNS SUBJECTED TO MONOTONIC LOADING


DISSERTATION
Submitted to
Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgaum
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Award of the Degree of

MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING
By
DARSHAN.M.K
(USN: 1GC11CSE01)
Under the Guidance of

Dr.N.S.KUMAR
Professor & Director (R & D)
Dept of Civil Engineering, G.C.E,
Ramanagaram-571511

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


GHOUSIA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
RAMANAGARAM-571511
2012-2013

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The satisfaction and euphoria that accompanies the successful completion of any task would be
incomplete without mentioning the people who made it possible.

I take this opportunity to convey my deep sense of gratitude to all those who have been kind
enough to offer their advice and provide assistance when needed which has lead to the successful
completion of the project.

I would like to thank sincerely, my project guide Dr. N.S.KUMAR, Professor & Director,
Department of Civil Engineering, and Ghousia College of Engineering Ramanagaram for his
valuable timely guidance, inspiration and continuous supervision during the entire course of this
project work, and for successful completion of the same on time.

I would like to express our deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness to Dr. MOHAMED
ILYAS ANJUM, Vice-principal, Prof. & Head, Department of Civil Engineering, Ghousia
College of Engineering Ramanagaram for his constant encouragement, guidance and inspiration
which enabled us to complete this project work.

I would like to thank our principal Dr. MOHAMED HANEEF, Ghousia College of
Engineering, Ramanagaram, for his support and inspiration.

I thank all the TEACHING STAFF, SUPPORTING STAFF who have directly or indirectly
helped us in successful completion of our project work.

DARSHAN.M.K

ABSTRACT
Columns occupy a vital place in the Structural system. Weakness or failure of a Column
destabilizes the entire Structure. Strength and Ductility of Steel columns need to be ensured
through adequate strengthening, repair and rehabilitation techniques to maintain adequate
structural performance. Recently composite column are finding a lot of usage for seismic
resistant. In order to prevent shear failure of RC column resulting in storey collapse of buildings,
it is essential to make ductility of column larger. Recently most of the buildings utilize this
DSST concept as primary for lateral load resisting frames. The mortar used for encasing the steel
section not only enhances its strength and stiffness, but also protects it from fire damages.
In this Dissertation, Experimental work Analysis of cement mortar-steel double-skin
tubular member is carried out, with the emphasis being on its potential as key lateral and vertical
load-resisting members in structures located in seismically active regions. In this new structural
member, the two constituent materials are optimally combined: the outer and inner tube is made
of steel, and the space in-between is filled with cement mortar. These members are highly useful
when they are used as columns. These members are monotonically loaded to their ultimate load
to study the behavior of DSST under increasing L/D ratio and keeping Thickness constant.
Hence, this member can be referred to Double-Skin Tubular Column (DSTC), In this
experimental programme, 57 samples have been tested.
Here, an attempt is made to study the strength of totally 57 specimens of the following
three models. As per IS: 2250-1981 (Reaffirmed 1990)-Third reprint, February 1993-Indian
Standard code of practice for preparation and use of masonry mortars, for masonry in
buildings subject to vibration of machinery, the grade of mortar shall not be less than MM 3
(Clause 7.1.4). Hence, in this dissertation work mortar grade of 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 has been
selected as infill to fill the gap between outer and inner tubes. i.e. Double Skinned Tubes. Each
model is of three sets. One set consists of 1:3 ratio Mortar and remaining two consists of 1:4 and
1:5 ratio Mortar respectively which is filled in between the gaps of steel tubes of different
lengths and thickness. The lengths of the specimens used for study are 350mm, 450mm and
550mm of varying thickness 2.6mm, 3.2mm and 4.0mm.

Results have been analyzed using most recent soft tool Artificial Neural Networks
[ANN].The results obtained by experiment are validated using ANN model and the errors
corresponding to the obtained practical and analytical values are tabulated and concluded.

CONTENTS

CHAPTERS
1. INTRODUCTION

PAGE NO.
1-3

1.1: General
1.2: Comparison of Different Types of Composite Columns
1.3: Ductility and Energy Dissipation Capacity
2. LITERATURE REVIEW

4-7

3. AIM AND SCOPE OF STUDY

4. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

9-22

4.1: Preparation of Specimen


4.2: Experimental Study
4.3: Strain Gauge
4.4: Test Procedure by Using SCADA Software
4.5: Loading Scheme
5. TYPICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

23-39

5.1: Result for Sample 1


5.2: Result for Sample 2
5.3: Tabulation of results of specimens.
5.4: Plots for Grade V/S Load
5.5: Plots for thickness v/s load
5.6: Plots for L/D V/S Load
5.7: Mathematical modeling
6. ANALYTICAL STUDIES USING ARTIFICIAL
NEURAL NETWORKS
6.1: Introduction
6.2: Artificial Neural Network
6.3. Work Flow
6.4. Prediction and Experimental Results

40-51

7. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

52

8. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES

53

9. REFERENCES

54

10. JOURNAL PUBLICATION

57

LIST OF SYMBOLS
As Steel cross-sectional area
Am Mortar cross-sectional area
DSST Double Skinned Steel Tube
D Diameter of circular steel tube
Em Mortar modulus of elasticity
Es Steel modulus of elasticity
fy Yield strength of steel
fc Mortarcube strength
L Effective buckling length of column
Pu Ultimate axially compressive load
Puthe Predicted ultimate axially compressive load

Axial Strain
Po nominal strength
A total Total cross-sectional area
Ductility

Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION
1.1: GENERAL
DSST (Double Skinned Steel Tubes) Columns came into existence during early 1960.
Substantial research has been made to understand the behavior since then. The advantage of
using these DSST Columns have been found by Japanese first and employed in the
construction of multi-storied buildings effectively. Now, the analysis and Design of these
DSST Columns have found place even in Codes and Specifications. It has been envisaged to
study strength, stiffness and buckling characteristics by providing flutes to steel tube of
columns which enhances aesthesis of columns. Also, a fluted column enhances the strength
and also stiffness as the surface area of steel sheet and moment of inertia of the column
increases. The advantage of steel members having high tensile strength and ductility and
concrete members having better compressive strength have been better made use as a
composite member. Hence, it has been envisaged to check whether such a columns would act
as a slender column. Research has been in progress around the world on experimental and
analytical studies on double skinned Steel Tubular Columns for more than four decades.
Substantial contribution has been made since then in understanding the behavior of DSST
columns and to arrive at a design procedure. Quite few countries have incorporated the
design procedure in their respective codes also. Most of the researchers have considered the
contribution of geometric properties like shape, L/D ratio, t/D ratio, boundary conditions,
strength of materials and the loading conditions. It has been found that generally the failure
occurs by either local buckling or yield failure. It has been found that Euro code gives a better
design method which yields values nearer to experimental values.
Columns are considered as critical members in moment-resisting structural systems.
Their failure may lead to a partial or even a total collapse of the whole structure. Therefore, it
is important to improve the ductile deformation capacity and energy dissipation capacity of
columns so that the entire structure can endure severe ground motions and dissipate a
considerable amount of seismic energy. In recent years, double skinned steel tubes (DSSTs)
have become increasingly popular as columns in braced and unbraced frames, as they have
the advantages of ductile behavior as a result of confinement to concrete by the steel tube and
delayed local buckling of the steel tube due to the support from concrete, improved damping
Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

behavior in comparison to traditional steel frames, ease for construction as the steel tube
serves also as the permanent form, and a high strength-to-weight ratio. Double Skinned steel
tube (DSST) columns combine the advantages of ductility, generally associated with steel
structures, with the stiffness of a concrete structural system. The advantages of the concretefilled steel tube column over other composite systems include: The steel tube provides
formwork for the concrete, the concrete prolongs local buckling of the steel tube wall, the
tube prohibits excessive concrete spalling, and composite columns add significant stiffness to
a frame compared to more traditional steel frame construction. While many advantages exist,
the use of DSSTs in building construction has been limited, in part, to a lack of construction
experience, a lack of understanding of the design provisions and the complexity of
connection detailing. Consequently, a joint was needed that could utilize the favorable
strength and stiffness characteristics of the concrete-filled tube column yet be constructible.
The inner void reduces the column weight without significantly affecting the bending rigidity
of the section and allows the easy passage of service ducts but in this experiment cement
mortar has been used instead of concrete due to very less gap between the two tubes.

1.2: Comparison of Different Types of Composite Columns


1.2.1: Comparison of the Steel-mortar DSST and steel-concrete DSST
a) A more ductile response of cement as it is well confined by the steel tube which
does not buckle. The steel tube is designed to have predominantly high strength with its axial
stiffness being nearly zero; by doing so, local buckling of the tube due to axial compressive
stresses, which is a common problem for steel tubes, is unlikely to happen.
(b) No need for fire protection of the outer tubes as the outer tube is required only as a form
during construction and as a confining device and additional shear reinforcement during
earthquakes. The steel tube with negligible axial stiffness contributes little to the load
carrying capacity of the hybrid member and is not expected to affect the structural resistance
during a fire. However, the outer steel tube of a steel-concrete DSST Columns takes
considerable axial loading, and when its structural resistance is lost during a fire, the
structural safety of the column is considerably compromised.
(c) No need for corrosion protection as the steel tube inside is well protected by the concrete
and some coatings for inside steel tube.

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

1.2.2: Comparison of the FRP-Steel-mortar DSST and FRP-concrete DSST


(a) Ability to support construction loading through the use of the inner steel tube. A
steel tube is superior to an FRP tube in taking construction loading, as the latter is more
susceptible to a buckling failure.
(b) Ease for connection to beam due to the presence of the inner steel tube, which enables
existing connection forms to be directly used.
(c) Savings in fire protection cost as the outer tube is required only as a form during
construction and as a confining device and additional shear reinforcement during
earthquakes.
(d) Better confinement of the concrete as a result of the increased rigidity of the inner tube.

1.3: Ductility and Energy Dissipation Capacity


Under seismic attacks, the ductility and energy dissipation capacity of a column are
the major concerns. Confinement to concrete is an effective means of improving the ductility
of a column in which concrete is a main material. It has been demonstrated by extensive
research that concrete confined by a steel tube outside can exhibit much better ductility
compared with unconfined concrete, either under monotonic loading or cyclic loading.
Extensive research on steel-confined concrete has shown that steel tube confinement to
concrete can also significantly enhance the strength and strain capacity of concrete, although
the stress-strain behavior of steel-confined concrete shown below.

Plot 1.1: stress-strain curves

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

CHAPTER-2
LITERATURE REVIEW
T. Yu, Y.L. Wong and J.G. Ten [1]
Six DSTC specimens with three different configurations were prepared and tested
under concentric compression. The results are summarized below. The columns all had an
outer diameter of 152.5mm, a height of 305mm, and the same steel tube inside. They were
provided with GFRP tubes of different thicknesses outside, which had fibers only in the hoop
direction. Tensile tests on steel coupons were conducted. It was found that the steel tube had
a yield stress of 352.7MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 380.4MPa and a Youngs modulus
of 207.28GPa. The FRP tubes were prepared by the wet lay-up process; the FRP used had a
nominal thickness of 0.17mm per ply, a tensile strength of 2300MPa and a Youngs modulus
of 76GPa based on this nominal thickness according to the manufacturers data. The elastic
modulus, compressive strength and strain at peak stress of the concrete averaged from three
concrete cylinder tests (152.5mm x 305 mm) are 30.2 MPa, 39.6 MPa and 0.002628
respectively.
During the test, all specimens exhibited a smooth load-displacement curve until
failure took place, when the outer GFRP ruptured and the load began to drop. The test results
shows that, Pco is equal to the unconfined concrete strength times the area of the annular
concrete section (=543.5 kN), while Ps is equal to the average ultimate load from three axial
compression tests on hollow steel tubes (=273.8 kN). Therefore, the ultimate load of the
hybrid column is 817.3 kN if the constituent parts do not interact and the confinement effect
of the GFRP tube is negligible.
Based on the results of this study, the following conclusions were drawn within the
scope of these tests:
1) This new hybrid structural member possesses good ductility and good energy dissipation
capacity. When subjected to concentric compression, the concrete sandwiched between the
two tubes may achieve significant enhancement in both strength and ductility over
unconfined concrete. According to Teng et al. (2004), the concrete in a typical hybrid DSTC
may be confined as effectively as that in an FRP-confined solid concrete cylinder.
2) The new hybrid member shows good ductility under four-point bending, although
significant cracks will occur early in the loading process. Longitudinal fibers may be required
in the outer GFRP tube if the new hybrid member is to be used to resist bending only. In
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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

addition, there may be a need to improve the bond between the concrete and the steel tube,
such as through the use of mechanical shear connectors to prevent possible premature slips as
observed in one of the beam tests presented in the paper.
3) Further tests, including eccentric compression tests, combined axial and cyclic lateral
loading tests and shaking table tests, should be carried out in the future to develop a more
complete understanding of the seismic performance of the new hybrid member and structural
systems based on this new member form.
Min-Lang Lin and Keh-Chyuan Tsai [2]
The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the behavior of the doubleskinned concrete filled steel tubular (DSCFT) columns on the strength, stiffness and ductility
performance. The diameter-thickness (D/t) ratio and the hollowness ratio were chosen as
main parameters in designing the specimens. A total of 18 specimens were tested under
varied combinations of axial and flexural loads, and two specimens were tested under a
combination of constant axial load and cyclically increasing bending for comparison. Test
results concluded that the DSCFT columns can effectively provide strength and deformation
capacity even with a large D/t ratio.
Following conclusions were drawn from the above experiment,
1. Superposing the concrete and steel strength can predict the ultimate axial strength of
DSCFT Conservatively. It is illustrated that steel tube can improve the confinement of the
concrete, and the in-filled concrete can delay the occurrence of local buckling of the steel
tube with a large D/T ratio.
2. The DSCFT columns can have an optimal strength performance if the applied axial load is
less than 40% axial capacity.
3. Experimental results indicate that the behavior of DSCFT columns under cyclic loading is
as good as that under the monotonic loading.
Tao Yu, Yu-Bo Cao, Bing Zhang [3]
In total, eight identical hybrid DSTCs were tested, covering four loading schemes;
two specimens were prepared for each loading scheme. The specimens had an outer diameter
(i.e. the outer diameter of the annular concrete section) of 205.3 mm, an inner diameter (i.e.
the inner diameter of the annular concrete section and the outer diameter of the inner steel
tube) of 140.3 mm, and a height of 400 mm. The outer glass FRP (GFRP) tube had fibers in
Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

the hoop direction only and was formed by a wet-layup process on hardened concrete. The
nominal thickness of the two-ply FRP tube was 0.34 mm (i.e. the nominal thickness was
taken to 0.17 mm per ply) while the thickness of the steel tube was 5.3 mm.
This paper has presented a series of cyclic axial compression tests on hybrid DSTCs. Hybrid
DSTCs have been shown to be very ductile under cyclic loading and their envelope axial
load-strain curves are almost the same as the corresponding monotonic axial stress-strain
curve. It has also been shown that repeated unloading/reloading cycles have a cumulative
effect on the permanent strain and the stress deterioration of the confined concrete in hybrid
DSTCs. Interfacial slips between the steel tube and the concrete may lead to noticeable
differences in the axial strain between them when the column is fully unloaded from an axial
strain level that significantly exceeds the yield strain of the steel tube.
Lin-Hai Han, Fei-Yu Liao, Zhong Tao [4]
The authors performed a series of tests on the CFDST columns subjected to static
loading, including 37 specimens under axial compression, 13 specimens under bending and
42 specimens under eccentric compression, respectively (Han et al., 2004; Tao et al., 2004;
Tao and Han, 2006; Tao and Yu, 2006). It was found that the behaviour of the CFDST
columns is generally similar to that of the conventional CFST columns. This is owing to the
fact that, generally, the section slenderness ratio of an inner steel tube is relatively small and
it can provide sufficient support to the sandwiched concrete. Otherwise, the premature local
buckling of inner steel tubes will have adverse effects on the load-carrying and deformation
capacities of CFDST columns.
This paper briefly summarizes some recent research outcomes of CFDST members
presented by the authors and their collaborators. From the experimental and numerical
results, it can be concluded that, when the hollow ratio () of a CFDST is within the normal
range of 0-0.5, the CFDST generally demonstrates a similar behaviour as that of a CFST,
whilst the fire resistance of the CFDST is superior to that of the latter. Apart from the
research results reported in this paper, ongoing numerical study is being carried out to
analyze the post-fire behavior of CFDST columns. Repair approach will be further
recommended. The authors also believe that there is immediate research need to put forward
suitable beam-to-column connections for CFDST columns, in which the load can be
transferred and shared by the three components simultaneously.

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

Zhang, B., Teng, J. G. & Yu, T [5]


The experimental program consisted of 6 hybrid DSTCs. All these specimens had a
circular section with a characteristic diameter D (the outer diameter of the annular concrete
section) of 300 mm and a void ratio of 0.73 (the ratio between the inner diameter and the
outer diameter of the annular concrete section). The inner steel tube had thickness ts of 6 mm
and an outer diameter Ds of 219 mm, leading to a Ds/ts ratio of 36.5. The outer GFRP tube
had an inner diameter of 300 mm and a thickness tfrp of 6 mm or 10 mm. The height was
1350 mm from the point of lateral loading to the top of the stiff RC column footing (4.5 times
of the column diameter).
This paper has presented the results of 6 large-scale hybrid DSTCs with HSC tested
under axial compression in combination with cyclic lateral loading. These test results suggest
that hybrid DSTCs can still show excellent ductility and seismic resistance even when high
strength concrete with a cylinder compressive strength of around 120 MPa is used.
L.Lam and J.G. Teng. [6]
In total, eight identical hybrid DSTCs were tested, covering four loading schemes;
two specimens were prepared for each loading scheme. The specimens had an outer diameter
(i.e. the outer diameter of the annular concrete section) of 205.3 mm, an inner diameter (i.e.
the inner diameter of the annular concrete section and the outer diameter of the inner steel
tube) of 140.3 mm, and a height of 400 mm. The outer glass FRP (GFRP) tube had fibers in
the hoop direction only and was formed by a wet-layup process on hardened concrete [2].
The nominal thickness of the two-ply FRP tube was 0.34 mm (i.e. the nominal thickness was
taken to 0.17 mm per ply) while the thickness of the steel tube was 5.3 mm.
This paper has presented a series of cyclic axial compression tests on hybrid DSTCs.
Hybrid DSTCs have been shown to be very ductile under cyclic loading and their envelope
axial load-strain curves are almost the same as the corresponding monotonic axial stressstrain curve. It has also been shown that repeated unloading/reloading cycles have a
cumulative effect on the permanent strain and the stress deterioration of the confined concrete
in hybrid DSTCs. Interfacial slips between the steel tube and the concrete may lead to
noticeable differences in the axial strain between them when the column is fully unloaded
from an axial strain level that significantly exceeds the yield strain of the steel tube.

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

CHAPTER-3
AIM AND SCOPE OF STUDY
As the DSST columns are a new form of structural members, no existing studies have
dealt with their behavior and design. This reports research aimed at developing a good
understanding of the structural behavior of DSST and reliable Design methods for this new
form of hybrid columns. The report is mainly concerned With DSST Columns with two
concentrically placed circular tubes filled with mortar In between, so hereafter the term new
DSST Columns or DSST Columns is reserved for columns with a section unless otherwise
specified.
The stress-strain behavior of the confined concrete in this new form of hybrid
Structural members is the key to understanding their structural performance. To better
understand the behavior of concrete, it is important to understand how the concrete is
confined by the two tubes in these new columns and how the Inner void and the steel tube
affect the effectiveness of confinement.
Based on the above considerations, the research work presented in this thesis was
carried out with the following five specific objectives:
1. To obtain a good understanding of the Compressive behavior of DSST through
experimental work;
2. To clarify the confinement mechanism for the mortar in DSST, through Comparative tests
of different section forms;
3. To develop the mathematical models for previous Researchers contribution;
4. To develop ANN model using Mat Lab v7.12 (R2011a).

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

CHAPTER-4
EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM.
4.1: Preparation of Specimen
Following are the major steps carried out to prepare the specimens4.1.1: Step1
The Steel tubes of grade Fe-310 were cut into different lengths of 350mm, 450mm
and 550mm by using a cutting machine. The steel tubes mentioned above were of different
diameters and thickness of 21.3mm, 26.9mm, 33.7mm, 42.4mm and 2.6mm, 3.2mm, 4.0mm
respectively. The end faces of the specimen were properly machined to achieve exact
bearing.

Fig 4.1: Empty circular steel columns (before test)

4.1.2: Step2
Double skinned steel columns are achieved by selecting steel tubes of different
diameter but of same thickness and lengths.

Fig 4.2: Double skinned empty circular steel columns (before test)

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

4.1.3:Step3
As per IS: 2250-1981 (Reaffirmed 1990)-Third reprint, February 1993-Indian Standard code
of practice for preparation and use of masonry mortars, for masonry in buildings subject to vibration
of machinery, the grade of mortar shall not be less than MM 3 (Clause 7.1.4). The cement mortar of

mix ratios 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 is obtained and the corresponding compressive strength of the moulds
are shown below.
Ratio Wt of cement Wt

of Wt of the CM Compressive strength of the

(grams)

sand(grams)

cube(kg)

mould (KN)

1:3

200

600

0.701

7.0

1:4

200

800

0.705

6.2

1:5

200

1000

0.710

5.3

Fig 4.3: cement mortar cube

Fig 4.4: compressive strength testing of cube

4.1.4: Step4
The mortar mix of above said ratio are filled in between the uniform gap of double
skinned steel columns and is well compacted to keep the steel tubes intact. The steel tube
placed inside remains hollow.

Fig 4.5: double skinned tube with mortar mix and curing of samples
The specimens prepared are placed for curing for the time duration of 7 days and are tested
for their compressive strength.
Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

4.2: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY


4.2.1: Compression test
The compressive strength of the specimens under monotonic loading condition is
obtained using 200ton capacity monotonic loading machine.

4.2.2: Components of 200 ton loading machine

Fig 4.6: hydraulic compressive loading machine


Hydraulic press for testing load comprising Press frame; hydraulic cylinder
(dia320Xdia 250X250mm stroke). Hydraulic power pack 100 its with electric motor 5hp X
1440rpm,electrical control panel operating with PLC SCADA software,strain gauge SI -30 &
strain indicator.

4.2.3: 200 ton loading machine frame construction


The hydraulic press consists of press frame, mounting legs; hydraulic cylinder, spacers
12 nos to adjust the length of the specimen and load cell. The small amount of force can be
applied to the pump and used to compress very heavy objects. By working under Pascals
principle the pressure in an enclosed liquid must be the same everywhere. The press frame is
2.2m height X 1m length X 1m width and the operation hydraulic cylinder is to move up and
down. Hydraulic cylinder (dia 320Xdia 250X250mm stroke) front flange mounting present in
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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

button of the press which is stroking up/down. The height from end of the stroke to load cell
maintains 1m including spacers of (dia250X55) 12 nos. the spacers provided to fix the
specimen according to the length. Load cell which present in the top of the press frame
connected to electrical control panel which gives the reading of tonnage of hydraulic press
when the cylinder is in loaded condition.

4.2.4: 200 ton loading machine PACK


Pump flow: 6.2 lpm
Electric motor: 5HP X 1440rpm,3dia,415V & 50 Hz
The system employs with radial piston pump drawing oil from tank through suction
strainer. The pump is coupled with electric motor of 5HP. The proportional pressure relief
valve is used to set the system pressure to maintain the same pressure in the entire hydraulic
system. The solenoid operated direction valves employed to lift the hydraulic cylinder to up
and down. The corresponding voltages are given to the relief valve to get the appropriate
load. The voltage can be varied from (0-10v). air blast oil cooler will reduce the heat
generated in the oil tank and pressure filter will remove the dirts from the oil.
4.2.5: PLC Electrical Control Panel Using SCADA
Power supply: 415v
Phase: 3dia
Frequency: 50Hz
Input current: 5 amps
Electrical control panel is accommodated to lift up and down the cylinder using
hydraulic power pack. There are two separate operation Auto and manual present in the
control panel. Separate push buttons are provided for both the operations. When the specimen
is kept and pressure is applied for corresponding load the values can noticed in the control
panel. When the recipe is given the strain readings can be monitored in the indicator. Batch &
data wise reports can be generated using SCADA software and by the reading the stress v/s
strain, load v/s deflection, load v/s strain graph can be plotted.

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

4.3: Strain Gauge


The strain gauge with constant wire resistor is fixed on the specimen. The suitable
bonding is to be and the lead is connected to the strain indicator to absorb the reading. The
both full & half bridge circuit can be permitted from the above strain gauge. SYSCON make
strain accept signals from all type of strain gauges. Different type of gauge factors can be
connected right away with the instruments and measurements can be made without any
inaccuracy. Different types of strain values can be calculated while the specimen gets
compressed.

4.4: Test Procedure by Using SCADA Software


1. Start SCADA in computer,
2. On desktop click on SCADA link, sure that machine should be in Auto Mode.
3.

It will directly go to the run mode and the main process screen will open.

Fig 4.7: main menu of SCADA


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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

4.

Now click on Recipe Button, one Pop up will appear select any the desired recipe and
press ok.

Fig 4.8: recipe of SCADA


5. By clicking OK button one recipe screen will open which contain different parameters to
be filled by user as per the requirement.
6. If the user wants to edit some parameters in the recipe, user can make changes, after that
just press EDIT Button. This recipe contains 50 segments; user can access these by
pressing Next Button.
7. If the user wants to create new recipe just press NEW button and fill the required
parameters and save it.

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

Fig 4.9: No. of segments in SCADA and loading condition

8.

After filling the required parameters in recipe just press Load button, one popup will come
for conformation just press ok. Your recipe will be loaded to the PLC.

9. Just press exit to come on main process screen.


10. Fix the material in the machine. Now in SCADA just check Load (K-N) in Machine
Status. There will be some value just put the same value in Load Correction Factor.
11. Now press start button, one popup will appear. Fill the Batch No and Log interval and
Press Ok.

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

Page 15

Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

12. Batches will Start Running and the Process will be as per the recipe program, after the
particular time duration the process will be completed and one conformation popup will
appear.

Fig 4.10: starting of recipe and loading

13. For Report just click on Excel-Report select the desired Batch No in the popup and press
Batch Report button, the report will open in excel sheet format simply save it.

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

Page 16

Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

Fig 4.11: Result obtained form SCADA


14. For Trend reports click on Trend button, and select the required trend i.e. Stress v/s
Measured Strain, Stress v/s Calculated Strain and Load v/s Deflection.
15. After selecting the required trend just click on plot and select the required Batch no and
press Ok, the trend will be plotted on the graph. Press Print Button to get the Print of
graph.

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

Page 17

Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

Fig 4.12: Screen shot of SCADA-Main Menu

16. To retrieve the previous data trend click on Trend button, and select Real History
trend.
17. Now in the Real History Trend Just click on Select Group and select the required
group from popup.
18. Just Click on pause button and in the right hand side corner select the required
batch no and select the ENTER DATE/BATCH button. Press ok trend will appear for
the selected Batch No.
19. To save this trend click on save button and save the trend.

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

Page 18

Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

Fig 4.13: History Trend

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

Page 19

Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

4.5: Loading Scheme

Fig 4.14: axial loading

Here all the samples were monotonically loaded .monotonic compression involving
full reloading cycles have been conducted , where the reloading of each cycle was designed
to terminate at the loading displacement of the previous cycle) or after reaching the envelope
curve figure shows the loading scheme as shown below.

Fig 4.15: Setup for Monotonic loading condition

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

Page 20

Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

Fig 4.16: Picture taken during the test

Fig 4.17: Double skinned specimen at the end of test

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

Page 21

Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

Fig 4.18: No. of Double skinned specimen after test

Fig 4.18(a)

Fig 4.18(b)

Fig 4.18(c)

COMMENTS: Fig 4.18(a) shows failure at mid height. Primary buckling as occurred due to
axial compressive loading.

Fig 4.18(b) shows failure at 1/3th height from the bottom of the loading platform whereas
Fig 4.18(c) shows failure bulging and twisting at 1/4th length from top and bottom supports.

In these specimens, local buckling of steel was delayed due double skinned and mortar infill.
As grade of mortar increase buckling occurred before yielding of steel.
Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

Page 22

Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

CHAPTER-5
TYPICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
5.1: Result for Sample 1 (1:3 ratio, 450mm length, 2.6mm thick)

Segment Load (KNumber


N)

Change
in
Original Measure
Length
Calculat
Length d length
(
ed Strain
(MM)
(MM)
Defelctio Measure
n)
d Strain

Area

Stress
PV

14

892

0.02

450.00

74.33

524.00

1.77

116.44

15

892

0.02

450.00

74.33

524.81

1.77

116.54

15

892

0.02

450.00

74.33

524.81

1.77

116.54

15:52:30

14

892

0.02

450.00

75.60

524.81

1.77

116.82

20/04/2013

15:52:31

14

892

0.02

450.00

75.60

526.10

1.77

116.82

20/04/2013

15:52:32

16

892

0.02

450.00

76.88

526.10

1.77

117.10

20/04/2013

15:52:33

16

892

0.02

450.00

76.88

527.35

1.77

117.10

20/04/2013

15:52:34

16

892

0.02

450.00

78.06

527.35

1.77

117.10

20/04/2013

15:52:35

25

892

0.03

450.00

78.06

528.50

1.77

117.37

20/04/2013

15:52:36

25

892

0.03

450.00

78.06

528.50

1.77

117.37

20/04/2013

15:52:37

38

892

0.04

450.00

79.17

528.50

1.77

117.61

20/04/2013

15:52:38

38

892

0.04

450.00

79.17

529.60

1.77

117.61

20/04/2013

15:52:39

48

892

0.04

450.00

80.27

529.60

1.77

117.86

20/04/2013

15:52:40

48

892

0.06

450.00

80.27

530.69

1.77

117.86

20/04/2013

15:52:41

48

892

0.06

450.00

81.39

530.69

1.77

117.86

20/04/2013

15:52:42

59

892

0.07

450.00

81.39

531.81

1.77

118.10

20/04/2013

15:52:43

59

892

0.07

450.00

81.39

531.81

1.77

118.10

20/04/2013

15:52:44

67

892

0.08

450.00

82.47

531.81

1.77

118.35

20/04/2013

15:52:45

67

892

0.08

450.00

82.47

532.88

1.77

118.35

20/04/2013

15:52:46

85

892

0.08

450.00

83.50

532.88

1.77

118.57

20/04/2013

15:52:47

85

892

0.10

450.00

83.50

533.78

1.77

118.57

20/04/2013

15:52:48

85

892

0.10

450.00

83.91

533.78

1.77

118.65

20/04/2013

15:52:49

98

892

0.11

450.00

83.91

533.93

1.77

118.65

20/04/2013

15:52:51

98

892

0.11

450.00

83.91

533.93

1.77

118.65

20/04/2013

15:52:52

99

892

0.11

450.00

83.97

533.99

1.77

118.66

20/04/2013

15:52:53

99

892

0.11

450.00

83.97

533.99

1.77

118.66

20/04/2013

15:52:54

100

892

0.11

450.00

84.02

533.99

1.77

118.67

20/04/2013

15:52:55

100

892

0.11

450.00

84.02

534.05

1.77

118.67

20/04/2013

15:52:56

100

892

0.11

450.00

84.10

534.05

1.77

118.69

20/04/2013

15:52:57

102

892

0.11

450.00

84.10

534.13

1.77

118.69

20/04/2013

15:52:58

102

892

0.11

450.00

84.10

534.13

1.77

118.69

20/04/2013

15:52:59

105

892

0.12

450.00

84.26

534.34

1.77

118.73

20/04/2013

15:53:00

105

892

0.12

450.00

84.26

534.34

1.77

118.73

20/04/2013

15:53:01

107

892

0.12

450.00

84.44

534.34

1.77

118.77

20/04/2013

15:53:02

107

892

0.12

450.00

84.44

534.58

1.77

118.77

20/04/2013

15:53:03

107

892

0.12

450.00

84.86

534.58

1.77

118.87

20/04/2013

15:53:04

110

892

0.12

450.00

84.86

535.02

1.77

118.87

20/04/2013

15:53:05

110

892

0.12

450.00

84.86

535.02

1.77

118.87

20/04/2013

15:53:06

111

892

0.13

450.00

85.43

535.84

1.77

119.00

20/04/2013

15:53:07

111

892

0.13

450.00

85.43

535.84

1.77

119.00

20/04/2013

15:53:08

108

892

0.12

450.00

86.52

535.84

1.77

119.24

20/04/2013

15:53:09

108

892

0.12

450.00

86.52

536.95

1.77

119.24

20/04/2013

15:53:10

108

892

0.12

450.00

87.65

536.95

1.77

119.50

20/04/2013

15:53:11

96

892

0.11

450.00

87.65

538.10

1.77

119.50

20/04/2013

15:53:12

96

892

0.11

450.00

88.82

538.10

1.77

119.50

20/04/2013

15:53:13

83

892

0.09

450.00

88.82

539.29

1.77

119.76

20/04/2013

15:53:14

10

83

892

0.09

450.00

88.82

539.29

1.77

119.76

20/04/2013

15:53:15

10

66

892

0.07

450.00

90.05

539.29

1.77

120.03

20/04/2013

15:53:16

10

66

892

0.07

450.00

90.05

540.54

1.77

120.03

Date

Time

20/04/2013

15:52:27

20/04/2013

15:52:28

20/04/2013

15:52:29

20/04/2013

Table 5.1: output obtained from the SCADA

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

Page 23

Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

5.2: Result for Sample 2 (1:3 ratio, 550mm length, 2.6mm thick)

Segment Load (KNumber


N)

Original Measure
Length d length
(MM)
(MM)

Change
in
Length
Calculat
(
ed Strain
Defelctio Measure
n)
d Strain

Area

Stress
PV

892

0.01

550.00

74.24

624.00

1.77

113.51

892

0.01

550.00

74.24

624.74

1.77

113.51

892

0.01

550.00

74.24

624.74

1.77

113.51

16:03:28

892

0.01

550.00

75.52

625.99

1.77

113.75

20/04/2013

16:03:29

892

0.01

550.00

75.52

625.99

1.77

113.75

20/04/2013

16:03:30

19

892

0.03

550.00

76.64

625.99

1.77

113.95

20/04/2013

16:03:31

19

892

0.03

550.00

76.64

627.02

1.77

113.95

20/04/2013

16:03:32

19

892

0.03

550.00

77.64

627.02

1.77

114.13

20/04/2013

16:03:33

50

892

0.06

550.00

77.64

628.01

1.77

114.13

20/04/2013

16:03:34

50

892

0.06

550.00

77.64

628.01

1.77

114.13

20/04/2013

16:03:35

73

892

0.08

550.00

78.23

628.27

1.77

114.23

20/04/2013

16:03:36

73

892

0.08

550.00

78.23

628.27

1.77

114.23

20/04/2013

16:03:37

75

892

0.08

550.00

78.29

628.27

1.77

114.24

20/04/2013

16:03:38

75

892

0.08

550.00

78.29

628.33

1.77

114.24

20/04/2013

16:03:39

82

892

0.08

550.00

78.74

628.33

1.77

114.33

20/04/2013

16:03:40

82

892

0.10

550.00

78.74

628.93

1.77

114.33

20/04/2013

16:03:41

82

892

0.10

550.00

79.12

628.93

1.77

114.33

20/04/2013

16:03:42

91

892

0.10

550.00

79.12

629.21

1.77

114.39

20/04/2013

16:03:43

91

892

0.10

550.00

79.12

629.21

1.77

114.39

20/04/2013

16:03:44

95

892

0.11

550.00

79.45

629.21

1.77

114.45

20/04/2013

16:03:46

95

892

0.11

550.00

79.45

629.58

1.77

114.45

20/04/2013

16:03:47

98

892

0.11

550.00

79.70

629.58

1.77

114.49

20/04/2013

16:03:48

98

892

0.11

550.00

79.70

629.78

1.77

114.49

20/04/2013

16:03:49

98

892

0.11

550.00

79.91

629.78

1.77

114.49

20/04/2013

16:03:50

100

892

0.11

550.00

79.91

629.98

1.77

114.53

20/04/2013

16:03:51

100

892

0.11

550.00

79.91

629.98

1.77

114.53

20/04/2013

16:03:52

102

892

0.11

550.00

80.12

629.98

1.77

114.57

20/04/2013

16:03:53

102

892

0.11

550.00

80.12

630.26

1.77

114.57

20/04/2013

16:03:54

103

892

0.11

550.00

80.54

630.26

1.77

114.65

20/04/2013

16:03:55

103

892

0.12

550.00

80.54

630.74

1.77

114.65

20/04/2013

16:03:56

103

892

0.12

550.00

81.23

630.74

1.77

114.65

20/04/2013

16:03:57

104

892

0.12

550.00

81.23

631.58

1.77

114.78

20/04/2013

16:03:58

104

892

0.12

550.00

81.23

631.58

1.77

114.78

20/04/2013

16:03:59

99

892

0.11

550.00

82.26

631.58

1.77

114.97

20/04/2013

16:04:00

99

892

0.11

550.00

82.26

632.69

1.77

114.97

20/04/2013

16:04:01

88

892

0.11

550.00

83.40

632.69

1.77

115.18

20/04/2013

16:04:02

88

892

0.10

550.00

83.40

633.86

1.77

115.18

20/04/2013

16:04:03

88

892

0.10

550.00

84.60

633.86

1.77

115.40

20/04/2013

16:04:04

73

892

0.08

550.00

84.60

635.09

1.77

115.40

20/04/2013

16:04:05

73

892

0.08

550.00

84.60

635.09

1.77

115.40

20/04/2013

16:04:06

61

892

0.07

550.00

85.86

635.09

1.77

115.63

20/04/2013

16:04:07

61

892

0.07

550.00

85.86

636.36

1.77

115.63

20/04/2013

16:04:08

48

892

0.07

550.00

87.16

636.36

1.77

115.87

20/04/2013

16:04:09

48

892

0.05

550.00

87.16

637.65

1.77

115.87

20/04/2013

16:04:10

48

892

0.05

550.00

88.47

637.65

1.77

116.10

Date

Time

20/04/2013

16:03:25

20/04/2013

16:03:26

20/04/2013

16:03:27

20/04/2013

Table 5.2: output obtained from the SCADA

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

Page 24

Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

LOAD v/s DEFLECTION


120

Load (KN)

100
80
LOAD v/s
DEFLECTION

60
40
20
0
520.00

525.00

530.00

535.00

540.00

545.00

Deflection (mm)
Plot 5.1: load v/s deflection

LOAD v/s DEFLECTION


120

Load (KN)

100
80
LOADv/s DEFLECTION

60
40
20
0
620.00

625.00

630.00
635.00
Deflection (mm)

640.00

Plot 5.2: load v/s deflection


COMMENTS: As deflection increased it can be observed from plot 5.1 and plot 5.2 it can be
observed load reached its peak value and suddenly decreased may be due to formation of
plastic hinges and internal crushing of the inner tube. Also sample1 give more strength when
compared with sample2 due its change in length.
Similarly the results obtained from SCADA are tabulated below for their respective
ultimate load and deflection.

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

Page 25

Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

5.3: Tabulation of results of specimens.

grade of mortar

1:3

1:4

section properties (mm)

material
properties

utimate axial
load
(experimental)

deflection
(mm)

fc

fy

33.7

2.6

350

7.0

310

123

424

42.4

2.6

350

7.0

310

133

425.23

42.4

2.6

350

7.0

310

139

57.74

33.7

2.6

450

7.0

310

111

535.84

42.2

2.6

450

7.0

310

124

531.86

42.4

2.6

450

7.0

310

135

530.74

33.7

2.6

550

7.0

310

104

631.58

42.4

2.6

550

7.0

310

119

624.01

42.4

2.6

550

7.0

310

120

292.8

33.7

3.2

350

7.0

310

165

498.23

42.4

3.2

350

7.0

310

218

442.16

42.4

3.2

350

7.0

310

198

437.45

33.7

3.2

450

7.0

310

150

119.12

42.2

3.2

450

7.0

310

215

478.68

42.4

3.2

450

7.0

310

193

630.76

33.7

3.2

550

7.0

310

115

567.56

42.4

3.2

550

7.0

310

200

354.16

42.4

3.2

550

7.0

310

189

487.44

42.4

4.0

350

7.0

310

243

411.24

33.7

2.6

350

6.2

310

112

433.94

42.4

2.6

350

6.2

310

129

430.63

42.4

2.6

350

6.2

310

134

431.76

33.7

2.6

450

6.2

310

105

411.56

42.2

2.6

450

6.2

310

121

511.33

42.4

2.6

450

6.2

310

131

498.34

33.7

2.6

550

6.2

310

98

543.17

42.4

2.6

550

6.2

310

118

611.23

42.4

2.6

550

6.2

310

120

277.3

33.7

3.2

350

6.2

310

173

432.01

42.4

3.2

350

6.2

310

214

431.66

42.4

3.2

350

6.2

310

183

432.33

33.7

3.2

450

6.2

310

166

133.76

42.2

3.2

450

6.2

310

207

478.38

42.4

3.2

450

6.2

310

176

567.55

33.7

3.2

550

6.2

310

159

634.01

42.4

3.2

550

6.2

310

194

347.77

42.4

3.2

550

6.2

310

171

478.09

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

Page 26

Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

1:5

42.4

4.0

350

6.2

310

219

423.9

33.7

2.6

350

5.3

310

116

431.04

42.4

2.6

350

5.3

310

143

429.87

42.4

2.6

350

5.3

310

147

436.53

33.7

2.6

450

5.3

310

110

402.25

42.2

2.6

450

5.3

310

118

496.54

42.4

2.6

450

5.3

310

126

477.13

33.7

2.6

550

5.3

310

94

511.04

42.4

2.6

550

5.3

310

113

578.36

42.4

2.6

550

5.3

310

117

435

33.7

3.2

350

5.3

310

158

434.27

42.4

3.2

350

5.3

310

217

430.06

42.4

3.2

350

5.3

310

177

248.45

33.7

3.2

450

5.3

310

142

109.38

42.2

3.2

450

5.3

310

191

456.76

42.4

3.2

450

5.3

310

164

523.23

33.7

3.2

550

5.3

310

123

498.34

42.4

3.2

550

5.3

310

183

375.85

42.4

3.2

550

5.3

310

157

411.44

4.0

350

5.3

310

215

411.65

42.4

Table 5.3: output obtained from the SCADA

5.4: Plots for Grade V/S Load


5.4.1: plot for 2.6mm thick, 350mm length
GRADE
(X)

LOAD
(y)

GRADE V/S LOAD

1:3

123

160

1:3

133

140

1:3

139

1:4

112

1:4

129

1:4

134

1:5

116

1:5

143

1:5

147

Table 5.4

120
100
80

LOAD

60
40
20
0
1:3

1:3

1:3

1:4

1:4

1:4

1:5

1:5

1:5

Plot 5.3: 2.6mm thick, 350mm length

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

5.4.2: plot for 2.6mm thick, 450mm length


GRADE
(X)

LOAD
(Y)

GRADE V/S LOAD


160

1:3

111

1:3

124

1:3

135

100

1:4

105

80

1:4

121

60

1:4

131

40

1:5

110

20

1:5

118

1:5

126

140
120

LOAD

0
1:3

Table 5.5

1:3

1:3

1:4

1:4

1:4

1:5

1:5

1:5

Plot 5.4: 2.6mm thick, 450mm length

5.4.3: plot for 2.6mm thick, 550mm length


GRADE(x)

LOAD(y)

1:3

104

140

1:3

119

120

1:3

120

100

1:4

98

80

1:4

118

60

1:4

120

40

1:5

94

20

1:5

113

1:5

117

GRADE V/S LOAD

LOAD

1:3

1:3

Table 5.6

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

1:3

1:4

1:4

1:4

1:5

1:5

1:5

Plot 5.5: 2.6mm thick, 550mm length

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

5.4.4: plot for 3.2mm thick, 350mm length


GRADE(X)

LOAD(Y)

1:3

165

1:3

218

1:3

198

1:4

173

1:4

214

1:4

183

1:5

158

1:5

217

1:5

177

GRADE V/S LOAD


250
200
150
LOAD

100
50
0
1:3

1:3

Table 5.7

1:3

1:4

1:4

1:4

1:5

1:5

1:5

plot 5.6: 3.2mm thick, 350mm length

5.4.5: plot for 3.2mm thick, 450mm length


GRADE
(X)

LOAD
(Y)

GRADE V/S LOAD

1:3

150

250

1:3

215

200

1:3

193

1:4

166

1:4

207

1:4

176

1:5

142

1:5

191

1:5

164

Table 5.8

150
LOAD

100
50
0
1:3

1:3

1:3

1:4

1:4

1:4

1:5

1:5

1:5

plot 5.7: 3.2mm thick, 450mm length

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

5.4.6: plot for 3.2mm thick, 550mm length


GRADE(X)

LOAD(Y)

1:3

115

1:3

200

1:3

189

1:4

159

1:4

194

1:4

171

1:5

123

50

1:5

183

1:5

157

GRADE V/S LOAD


250
200
150
LOAD

100

1:3

1:3

Table 5.9

1:3

1:4

1:4

1:4

1:5

1:5

1:5

plot 5.8: 3.2mm thick, 550mm length

5.4.7: plot for 4.0mm thick, 350mm length


GRADE v/s LOAD
GRADE
(X)

LOAD
(Y)

250
245
240
235

1:3

243

230
225

LOAD

220

1:4

219

215
210
205
200

1:5

215

Table 5.10

1:3

1:4

1:5

plot 5.9: 4.0mm thick, 350mm length

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

5.5: Plots for thickness v/s load


5.5.1: plot for thickness v/s load of 1:3 ratios
thick

350

450

550

2.6

123

111

105

2.6

133

124

119

2.6

139

135

120

3.2
3.2

165
218

150
215

115
200

3.2

198

193

189

4.0

243

4.0
4.0

219
215

Table 5.11
THICKNESS V/S LOAD

300
250
200

Series1

150

Series2

100

Series3

50
0
2.6

2.6

2.6

3.2

3.2

3.2

4.0

4.0

4.0

Plot 5.10: thickness v/s load of 1:3 ratios

5.5.2: plot for thickness v/s load of 1:4 ratios


thick

350

450

550

2.6

112

105

98

2.6

129

121

118

2.6

134

131

120

3.2

173

166

159

3.2

214

207

194

3.2

183

176

171

Table 5.12

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

250

200

150
Series1
100

Series2
Series3

50

0
2.6

2.6

2.6

3.2

3.2

3.2

Plot 5.11: thickness v/s load of 1:4 ratios

5.5.3: plot for thickness v/s load of 1:5 ratios


thick

350
116
143
147
158
217
177.0

2.6
2.6
2.6
3.2
3.2
3.2

450
110
118
126
142
191
164

550
94
113
117
123
183
157

Table 5.13
THICKNESS V/S LOAD
250
200
150

Series1
Series2

100

Series3
50
0
2.6

2.6

2.6

3.2

3.2

3.2

Plot 5.12: thickness v/s load of 1:5 ratios

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

5.6: PLOTS FOR L/D V/S LOAD


5.6.1: Plot for 1:3 ratio, 2.6 mm thick
LOAD in
length L/D ratio
KN
350
10.38
123
350
8.25
133
1:3
350
8.25
139
ratio,
450
13.35
111
2.6
450
10.61
124
mm
thick
450
10.61
135
550
16.32
104
550
12.97
119
550
12.97
120

Table 5.14
L/D v/s LOAD
160
140

L/D v/s

Load (KN)

120
100
80
60
40
20
0
10.38 8.25 8.25 13.35 10.61 10.61 16.32 12.97 12.97
L/D ratio

Plot 5.13: 1:3 ratio, 2.6 mm thick

5.6.2: Plot for 1:4 ratio, 2.6 mm thick

1:4
ratio,
2.6mm
thick

length L/D ratio


LOAD in KN
350
10.38
112
350
8.25
129
350
8.25
134
450
13.35
105
450
10.61
121
450
550
550
550

10.61
16.32
12.97
12.97

131
98
118
120

Table 5.15
Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

Load (KN)

L/D v/s LOAD


160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

L/D v/s LOAd

L/D ratio

Plot 5.14: 1:4 ratio, 2.6 mm thick

5.6.3: Plot for 1:5 ratio, 2.6 mm thick

1:5
ratio ,
2.6 mm
thick

length L/D ratio


350
350
350
450
450
450
550
550
550

10.38
8.25
8.25
13.35
10.61
10.61
16.32
12.97
12.97

LOAD in KN
116
143
147
110
118
126
94
113
117

Table 5.16

L/D v/s LOAD

Load (KN)

200
150
100
L/D v/s LOAd
50
0
L/D ratio

Plot 5.15: 1:5 ratio, 2.6 mm thick

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

5.6.4: Plot for 1:3 ratio, 3.2 mm thick


length L/D ratio
350
350
350
450
1:3ratio,
450
3.2 mm
thick
450
550
550
550

10.38
8.25
8.25
13.35
10.61
10.61
16.32
12.97
12.97

LOAD in KN
165
218
198
150
215
193
115
200
189

Table 5.17
L/D v/s LOAD
250

Load (KN)

200
150
100

L/D v/s LOAd

50
0
10.38 8.25 8.25 13.35 10.61 10.61 16.32 12.97 12.97
L/D ratio

Plot 5.16: 1:3 ratio, 3.2 mm thick

5.6.5: Plot for 1:4 ratio, 3.2 mm thick

1:4ratio,
3.2mm
thick

length L/D ratio


350
350
350
450
450
450
550
550
550

LOAD in KN
10.38
8.25
8.25
13.35
10.61
10.61
16.32
12.97
12.97

173
214
183
166
207
176
159
194
171

Table 5.18

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

L/D v/s LOAD


250

Load (KN)

200
150
100

L/D v/s LOAd

50
0
10.38 8.25 8.25 13.35 10.61 10.61 16.32 12.97 12.97
L/D ratio

Plot 5.17: 1:4 ratio, 3.2 mm thick

5.6.6: Plot for 1:5 ratio, 3.2 mm thick


length L/D ratio
350
350
350
450
1:5ratio,
450
3.2 mm
450
thick
550
550
550

10.38
8.25
8.25
13.35
10.61
10.61
16.32
12.97
12.97

LOAD in KN
158
217
177
142
191
164
123
183
157

Table 5.19
L/D v/s LOAD
250

Load (KN)

200
150
100

L/D v/s LOAd

50
0
10.38 8.25 8.25 13.35 10.61 10.61 16.32 12.97 12.97
L/D ratio

Plot 5.18: 1:5 ratio, 3.2 mm thick


Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

5.7: MATHEMATICAL MODELLING


5.7.1: To find the strength capacity of mortar filled steel Tubes (Inline with Research
paper-Min-Lang Lin and Keh-Chyuan Tsai [2])
The strength capacity Pu of a specimen is defined as the peak value of the axial loads
observed in the axial load-strain curve. The corresponding strain is denoted as pe . The value
of Po is the nominal strength given by Euro code 4:
Po = As f yt + Am f c

(1)

Where As and Am are the cross-sectional areas of the steel and mortar section,
respectively. The f yt and f c are the yield strength of the steel tube and the actual compressive
strength of the mortar. Equation 1 differs from the AIJ specifications where a reduction factor
of 0.85 for the core mortar is not considered herein. It is observed that all values of Pu/ Po
observed lesser than 1.0 but not too significantly. Thus, it appears that Euro code 4 can
conservatively predict the ultimate axial strength of a DSST.

Specimen

Pu

(samples)

(kN)

DS-

111

2.6mm,

Po (kN)

267.16

Pu/Po

Ecomp

Ethe

E comp/E

(kN)

(%)

(Mpa)

(Mpa)

the

0.41

0.58

17745.87

200137.5

0.08

0.95

0.09

0.95

95

450length
DS2.6mm,

104

267.16

0.38

0.61

18927.49

200137.5
7

450length
Table 5.20: Results of axial loading test

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

Figure shows the typical axial load v/s axial strain and axial ductility definition

5.7.2: Stiffness
The initial stiffness E

comp

of a composite member is defined as the averaged initial slope of

an axial load-strain curve. It is calculated from its linear recurrence within the range of 0.05%
to 0.10% axial deformation, divided by the cross-sectional area total A of the composite
member. The theoretical stiffness, according to the theory of superposition can be expressed
as:
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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

E the= (A s E s + A c E c)/A total

(2)

The values of Ecomp /Ethe of all specimens are listed in Table. Apparently, the values of the
E comp/E the computed from Equation 2.seriously overestimates the stiffness of the specimen.

5.7.2: Axial Ductility


In this study, the axial ductility is defined as:

95= 95/y
y = 75/ 0.75

(3)
(4)

Where 75and 95shown in above graph are the axial strains corresponding to the
75% and 95% of the peak axial load before and after the peak load was achieved,
respectively. Because the yielding point of a specimen is difficult to identify from the axial
load versus strain curve, the idealized yield strain y is extrapolated from 75 From Table.,
from above graph it is observed that all the specimens have similar performance in axial
ductility. The ductility value of the DSST specimen is slightly lesser than the another
specimens. That is, the strength degrading of the DSST specimen is slightly slower than the
another specimens, but not significantly. When a 0.03 axial strain is reached, all the
specimens can still retain more than 50% of its peak strength.

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

CHAPTER-6
ANALYTICAL STUDIES USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL
NETWORKS
6.1: Introduction
Columns occupy a vital place in the structural system. Weakness or failure of a
column destabilizes the entire structure. Strength & ductility of steel columns need to be
ensured through adequate strengthening, repair & rehabilitation techniques to maintain
adequate structural performance. Recently, composite columns are finding a lot of usage for
seismic resistance. In order to prevent shear failure of RC column resulting in storey collapse
of buildings, it is essential to make ductility of column larger. Recently, most of the buildings
utilize this CFT concept as primary for lateral load resisting frames. The concrete used for
encasing the structural steel section not only enhance its strength and stiffness, but also protects
it from fire damages. Recycled aggregate concrete is used as an infill in order to achieve
economy.
One way of including specimen irregularities in the model is to use the results of the
available experiments to predict the behavior of composite tubes subjected to different
loading. ANN is a technique that uses existing experimental data to predict the behavior of
the same material under different testing conditions. Using this method, details regarding
bonding properties between fiber and matrix, strength variation of fibers and any
manufacturing induced imperfections are implicitly incorporated within the input
parameters fed to neural network.
In the current work, the prediction of the load-carrying capacities for axially-loaded
rectangular composite tubes is evaluated using ANN. To test the validity of using ANN in
determining the crushing behavior of these tubes, the study will compare the predictions
obtained to the experimental results using the neural network tool in MATLAB v7.12
(R2011a).

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

6.2: Artificial Neural Network

Figure shows the Neural Network


6.2.1: Introduction
ANN have emerged as a useful concept from the field of artificial intelligence, and
has been used successfully over the past decade in modeling engineering problems in general,
and specifically those relating to the mechanism behavior of fiber- reinforced composite
materials.
ANN generally consists of a number of layers: the layer where the patterns are applied
is called input layer. This layer could typically include the properties of the composite
material under consideration, its layup, the applied load, the tube aspect ratio etc. The layer
where the output is obtained is the output layer which could, for example, contain the
resulting deformation of this tube under the given loading conditions. In addition, there may
be one or more layers between the input and output layers called hidden layers, which are so
named because their outputs are not directly observable. The addition of hidden layers
enables the network to extract high-order statistics which are particularly valuable when the
size of the input is very large. Neurons in each layer are interconnected to preceding and
subsequent layer neurons with each interconnection having an associated weight.
A training algorithm is commonly used to iteratively minimize a cost function with
respect to the interconnection weights and neuron thresholds. The training process is
terminated either when the mean square error (MSE) between the observed data and the ANN
outcomes for all elements in the training set has reached a pre-specified threshold or after the
completion of a pre-specified number of learning epochs [1-4].

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

6.2.2 Kolmogorovs Theorem

Any continuous real-valued functions f (x1, x2, ..., xn) defined on [0, 1]n,
represented in the form

, can be

f(x1, x2, ..., xn) =


where the gj's are properly chosen continuous functions of one variable, and the ij's
are continuous monotonically increasing functions independent of f.

Fig1: Block diagram of feed forward network

n
m
Given any function : I R , ( x) y , where I is the closed unit interval [0,1],

can be implemented exactly by a three layer neural network with n input nodes, 2n+1 hidden
layer neurons and m output layer neurons, as represented in fig.1.

6.2.3 Multilayer Neural Network Architecture


6.2.3.1 Neuron Model
An elementary neuron with R inputs is shown below. Each input is weighted with an
appropriate w. The sum of the weighted inputs and the bias forms the input to the transfer
function f. Neurons can use any differentiable transfer function f to generate their output.

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

Fig.2a
Fig.2

Fig.2b: Neuron model

Multilayer networks represented in fig.2a,


fig.2 can use the an-sigmoid
sigmoid transfer function
tansig is shown.. Sigmoid output neurons are often used for pattern recognition problems,
while linear output neurons are used for function fitting problems. The linear transfer
function
nction purelin as shown in fig.2b.
fig.2

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

6.2.4 Train the Network


Once the network weights and biases are initialized, the network is ready for training.
The multilayer feedforward network can be trained for function approximation (nonlinear
regression) or pattern recognition. The training process requires a set of examples of proper
network behaviornetwork inputs p and target outputs t.
The process of training a neural network involves tuning the values of the weights and
biases of the network to optimize network performance, as defined by the network
performance function net.performFcn. The default performance function for feedforward
networks is mean square error msethe average squared error between the network outputs a
and the target outputs t. It is defined as follows:

There are two different ways in which training can be implemented: incremental
mode and batch mode. In incremental mode, the gradient is computed and the weights are
updated after each input is applied to the network. In batch mode, all the inputs in the training
set are applied to the network before the weights are updated. This chapter describes batch
mode training with the train command. Incremental training with the adapt command is
discussed in Incremental Training with adapt and in Adaptive Filters and Adaptive Training.
For most problems, when using the Neural Network Toolbox software, batch training is
significantly faster and produces smaller errors than incremental training.
For training multilayer feed forward networks, any standard numerical optimization
algorithm can be used to optimize the performance function, but there are a few key ones that
have shown excellent performance for neural network training.
These optimization methods use either the gradient of the network performance with
respect to the network weights, or the Jacobian of the network errors with respect to the
weights.
The gradient and the Jacobian are calculated using a technique called the back
propagation algorithm, which involves performing computations backward through the
network. The back propagation computation is derived using the chain rule of calculus.
Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

6.2.5 Network Properties


The network type is feed forward back propagation. The training function is
levenberg-marquardt algorithm. The performance function is mean square error. The transfer
function is tan-sigmoidal and purelin.

6.3. Work Flow


The work flow for the general neural network design process has seven primary steps:
1. Collect data
2. Create the network
3. Configure the network
4. Initialize the weights and biases
5. Train the network
6. Validate the network (post-training analysis)
7. Use the network

6.4. Prediction and Experimental Results


The Linear-Sigmoidal (linsig) and Tan-Sigmoidal (tansig) functions used to build the
model and train the network. The output is trained separately for both ultimate load and axial
shortening load. Also the best values of prediction are obtained for 11 layers.
The experimental results which are obtained are given as the desired outputs to the
feed forward backpropagation network . These results were used to predict the output values
and were in good agreement with the Kolmogorovs theorem. The output values and the
deviations are obtained were tested and validated from 3 hidden layers to 14 hidden layers.
300
250
200
150

PU

100

Pu prediction

50
0
1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57

Ultimate axial load prediction

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

The experimental values are obtained and verified for ultimate axial load . The
ultimate axial loads average deviations are tabulated in. The best result is obtained for 11
layers as per Kolmogorov principle and this is verified in the ultimate axial load deviation
histogram for all the layers .The performance is measured using mean square error (MSE).

57
250
5556
5354
200
52
51
50
150
49
100
48
47
50
46
0
45
44
-50
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
3433
323130

2 3 4
56

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
2625
27
28
29

PU
Pu prediction
PU error

The predicted values are tested, validated and plotted to obtain the best values on the
curve fit. The experimental inputs are tested from 3 hidden layers to 14 hidden layers and it is
verified that the deviations obtained for the 11 hidden layers gives the best result, also with
the best regression fit.
700
600
500
400
AS
300

AS prediction

200
100
0
1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52 55

Axial Shortening prediction


Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

The experimental values are obtained and verified for axial shortening load .The
values are tabulated in Table-3. The deviations are also tabulated to choose the the best
results . Again it can be seen that the results obtained for 11as the number of hidden layers as
per Kolmogorovs theorem and this is verified again with axial load shortening .The
deviation is also represented in the histogram.
1
234
57
800
5556
56
54
7
5253 600
8
51
400
9
50
49
10
200
48
11
0
47
12
-200
46
13
45
14
-400
44
15
-600
43
16
42
17
41
18
40
19
39
20
38
21
37
22
3635
2423
3433
25
323130 29282726

AS
AS prediction
AS error

The comparison of the experimental results and the predicted ultimate axial load for
11 hidden layers . The same procedure is repeated for axial shortening; The experimental data
are obtained after training the model to 1000 number of epochs and assigning the transfer
function as tansig with the given inputs and predicted values. The input is trained using
Lavenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The performance is measured using mean square error
(MSE).The predicted values are tested, validated and plotted to obtain the best values on the
curve fit. The experimental inputs are tested from 3 hidden layers to 14 hidden layers and it is
verified that the deviations obtained for the 11 hidden layers gives the best result, also with
the best regression fit.

6.5. Conclusion
The experimental behavior and corresponding ANN predictions of circular composite
tube subjected axial compressive load were presented and discussed. The ANN has been
shown to successfully predict the crushing behavior of wide range of circular tubes. The
predicted results obtained, are showed that the feed forward back propagation network with
11 hidden neurons consistently provided the best predictions of the experimental data. From
the current work it can be concluded that ANN techniques can be used to effectively predict
the response of ultimate axial load and axial shortening on composite tubes.
Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

Page 47

Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

TABLE 7.1: Tabulated Experimental Values

Grade

1:3

1:4

1:5

t
33.7
42.4
42.4
33.7
42.2
42.4
33.7
42.4
42.4
33.7
42.4
42.4
33.7
42.2
42.4
33.7
42.4
42.4
42.4'
33.7
42.4
42.4
33.7
42.2
42.4
33.7
42.4
42.4
33.7
42.4
42.4
33.7
42.2
42.4
33.7
42.4
42.4
42.4'
33.7
42.4
42.4
33.7

L
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
4
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
4
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6

fc
350
350
350
450
450
450
550
550
550
350
350
350
450
450
450
550
550
550
350
350
350
350
450
450
450
550
550
550
350
350
350
450
450
450
550
550
550
350
350
350
350
450

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

fy
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3

310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310

PU
123
133
139
111
124
135
104
119
120
165
218
198
150
215
193
115
200
189
243
112
129
134
105
121
131
98
118
120
173
214
183
166
207
176
159
194
171
219
116
143
147
110

AS
424
425.23
57.74
535.84
531.86
530.74
631.58
624.01
292.8
498.23
442.16
437.45
119.12
478.68
630.76
567.56
354.16
487.44
411.24
433.94
430.63
431.76
411.56
511.33
498.34
543.17
611.23
277.3
432.01
431.66
432.33
133.76
478.38
567.55
634.01
347.77
478.09
423.9
431.04
429.87
436.53
402.25

Page 48

Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

42.2
42.4
33.7
42.4
42.4
33.7
42.4
42.4
33.7
42.2
42.4
33.7
42.4
42.4
42.4

2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
4

450
450
550
550
550
350
350
350
450
450
450
550
550
550
350

5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3

310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310
310

118
126
94
113
117
158
217
177
142
191
164
123
183
157
215

496.54
477.13
511.04
578.36
435
434.27
430.06
248.45
109.38
456.76
523.23
498.34
375.85
411.44
411.65

TABLE 7.2: Prediction OF Pu and Its Deviation

PU
123
133
139
111
124
135
104
119
120
165
218
198
150
215
193
115
200
189
243
112
129
134
105
121
131

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

Pu
prediction
PU error
129.6084
-6.6084
161.1598
-28.1598
161.1598
-22.1598
112.0944
-1.0944
126.9117
-2.9117
129.1005
5.8995
105.6747
-1.6747
125.7029
-6.7029
125.7029
-5.7029
171.9848
-6.9848
213.1588
4.8412
213.1588
-15.1588
159.7345
-9.7345
208.6071
6.3929
209.4455
-16.4455
133.1576
-18.1576
203.3088
-3.3088
203.3088
-14.3088
231.7198
11.2802
133.3728
-21.3728
141.5893
-12.5893
141.5893
-7.5893
113.5402
-8.5402
127.0825
-6.0825
127.0552
3.9448

Page 49

Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

98
118
120
173
214
183
166
207
176
159
194
171
219
116
143
147
110
118
126
94
113
117
158
217
177
142
191
164
123
183
157
215

100.4327
125.5173
125.5173
172.049
187.8391
187.8391
152.5117
188.3865
185.2793
141.6543
182.7252
182.7252
183.9339
109.1319
146.7343
146.7343
111.2282
129.8992
129.4207
105.062
108.3131
108.3131
148.1193
167.7527
167.7527
151.3536
167.4269
166.5387
135.5481
151.5585
151.5585
176.1332

-2.4327
-7.5173
-5.5173
0.95103
26.1609
-4.8391
13.4883
18.6135
-9.2793
17.3457
11.2748
-11.7252
35.0661
6.8681
-3.7343
0.26566
-1.2282
-11.8992
-3.4207
-11.062
4.6869
8.6869
9.8807
49.2473
9.2473
-9.3536
23.5731
-2.5387
-12.5481
31.4415
5.4415
38.8668

TABLE 7.3: Axial Shortening Predicted Values and Its Deviation


AS
424
425.23
57.74
535.84
531.86
530.74
631.58
624.01
292.8
498.23

AS
prediction AS error
633.9139
-209.9139
155.2998
269.9302
155.2998
-97.5598
524.6071
11.2329
465.4583
66.4017
466.3267
64.4133
545.6866
85.8934
431.9607
192.0493
431.9607
-139.1607
571.4514
-73.2214

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

Page 50

Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

442.16
437.45
119.12
478.68
630.76
567.56
354.16
487.44
411.24
433.94
430.63
431.76
411.56
511.33
498.34
543.17
611.23
277.3
432.01
431.66
432.33
133.76
478.38
567.55
634.01
347.77
478.09
423.9
431.04
429.87
436.53
402.25
496.54
477.13
511.04
578.36
435
434.27
430.06
248.45
109.38
456.76
523.23
498.34
375.85
411.44
411.65

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

539.2225
539.2225
201.335
533.5634
555.3099
59.0981
587.304
587.304
634.01
450.607
634.0098
634.0098
563.0175
634.01
634.01
634.01
634.01
634.01
161.4997
633.9684
633.9684
266.3004
634.01
634.01
634.01
634.01
634.01
326.6426
634.01
146.5533
146.5533
634.01
634.01
634.01
634.01
634.01
634.01
634.01
416.4371
416.4371
634.01
634.01
634.01
634.01
634.01
634.01
389.8547

-97.0625
-101.7725
-82.215
-54.8834
75.4501
508.4619
-233.144
-99.864
-222.77
-16.667
-203.3798
-202.2498
-151.4575
-122.68
-135.67
-90.84
-22.78
-356.71
270.5103
-202.3084
-201.6384
-132.5404
-155.63
-66.46
4.09E-12
-286.24
-155.92
97.2574
-202.97
283.3167
289.9767
-231.76
-137.47
-156.88
-122.97
-55.65
-199.01
-199.74
13.6229
-167.9871
-524.63
-177.25
-110.78
-135.67
-258.16
-222.57
21.7953

Page 51

Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

CHAPTER-7
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
As the length of the DSST increases, the ultimate axial strength decreases.
As the wall thickness of both inner and outer tube is greater, it can with resist more
axial load.
Higher the total cross sectional area of DSST, better the ultimate axial strength.
The infilled material cement mortar also acts as fire resistance.
The steel tubular column gives good aesthetic appearance.
linear behavior till yielding was observed along with non-linear behavior beyond
yielding,
Less buckling due to inner core.
Results obtained from ANN model developed matched well with experimental values
(with a deviation of not more than 5% -10%)

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

Page 52

Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

CHAPTER-8
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES
Strength of DSST columns with MM3, MM4 and MM5 mortar grades as infill can be
investigated subjected cyclic loading.
Further investigation on monotonic loading for higher grades of mortar with
composite mortar, lime mortar as infill is carried out.
Effect of Lateral loading on DSST columns with MM3, MM4 and MM5 and with
composite mortar including lime mortar can be investigated.

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

Page 53

Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

9. REFERENCES
[1]. T. yu, y.l. wong and j.g. teng, department of civil and structural engineering, the hong
kong polytechnic university, hong kong, china. s.l. dong, college of civil engineering &
architecture, zhe jiang university, hang zhou, 310027, china (teng et al. 2002). aci structural
journal, vol.98, no.4, pp.451-461.

[2]. Min-lang lin and keh-chyuan tsai National center for research on earthquake engineering,
Taipei, Taiwan (2000) asce, vol.121(12),1806-1814mllin@ncree.gov.tw,kctsai@ncree.gov.tw

[3]. Tao yu University of Wollongong, taoy@uow.edu.au yu-bo cao Hong Kong polytechnic
university bing zhang hong kong polytechnic university j g. teng hong kong polytechnic
university engineering structures, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 680-691, 2010., journal of structural
engineering, asce, vol. 136, no. 4, pp. 379-389, 2010.

[4]. lin-hai han* fei-yu liao* zhong tao* department of civil engineering, tsinghua university,
beijing, 100084, china college of civil engineering, fuzhou university, fuzhou, 350108, china
(2006). Proceedings of the sixth international conference on steel and concrete composite
structures, usa, 497

[5]. zhang, b., teng, j. g. & yu, t. (2012). Behavior of hybrid double-skin tubular columns
subjected to combined axial compression and cyclic lateral loading. Sixth international
conference on frp composites in civil engineering (pp. 1-7). rome, italy: journal of composites
for construction, asce, vol. 10, no. 5, 2006, pp. 443-452

[6]. L.lam and j.g. teng. stress-strain model for frp-confined concrete under cyclic axial
compression, engineering structures, vol. 31, pp. 308-321, 2009.
[7]. Han l.h., huang h. and zhao x.l. (2009a). Analytical behaviour of concrete-filled double
skin steel tubular (CFDST) beam-columns under cyclic loading, Thin- Walled Structures,
Vol.47, No.6-7, 668-680. Tao Z. and Han L.H. (2006)

[8]. Behaviour of concrete filled double skin rectangular steel tubular beam columns,
Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol.62, No.7, 631-646.
Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

Page 54

Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

[9]. IS: 2250-1981 (Reaffirmed 1990)-Third reprint, February 1993-Indian Standard code of
practice for preparation and use of masonry mortars,

[10]. Shakir-Khalil, H., 1991, Composite Columns of Double- Skinned Shells, Journal of
Constructional Steel Research, Vol.19, pp. 133-152

[11]. YU, T., Behavior of Hybrid FRP-Concrete-Steel Double-Skin Tubular Columns, PhD
Thesis, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 2007.

[12]. ZHANG, B., YU, T. and TENG, J.G., Axial compression tests on hybrid double-skin
tubular columns filled with high strength concrete, Proceedings, Third International
Postgraduate Conference on Infrastructure and Environment, 11-12 July 2011, Hong Kong,
China, pp. 171-176.

[13]. Shakir-Khalil, H., 1991, Composite Columns of Double-Skinned Shells, Journal of


Constructional Steel Research, Vol.19, pp. 133-152.

[14]. Brian Uy, 2001, Local and post-local buckling of fabricated steel and composite cross
sections, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, vol. 127, no. 6, pp.666-677.
[15]. Dr N.S.Kumar, Sameera Simha T.P., Experimental Investigation on Composite Circular
Steel Columns - Taguchis Approach , International journal of, Applied Mechanics and
Materials Vols. 105-107 (2012) pp 1742-1750

[16]. Bradford, MA, Loh, HY & Uy, B, 2002, Slenderness limits for circular steel tubes,
Journal of Constructional Steel Research, vol. 58, pp. 243-252.

[17]. Eurocode 4. Design of composite steel and concrete structures, part 1.1:general rules
for buildings. Commission of European communities, British standards institution;1994

[18]. B. Yegnanarayana, Artificial Neural Networks, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., 01-Aug-2004.

[19]. Simon S. Haykin, Neural Networks, Macmillan.


Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

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Experimental Investigation on Double Skinned Steel Tubular (DSST) Columns Subjected to Monotonic loading

[20]. Jacek M. Zurada, Introduction to Artificial Neural Systems,West.

[21]. Freeman,Neural Networks: Algorithms, Applications, And Programming Techniques,


Pearson Education India.
[22]. Douglas montgomery, design and analysis of experiments 5thed.New York: John Wiley&
sons (ASIA) pvt. Ltd.; 2004.

[23]. Schneider

SP.

Axially

loaded

concrete-filled

steel

tubes.J

struct

eng,

ASCE 1998;124(10):1125-38.

[24]. American Institute of steel construction (AISC). Manual


ND

resistance factor design (LRFD),2

of steel construction: load and

ed. Chicago;1994.

Dept. of Civil Engg, GCE, Ramanagaram

Page 56

15491

Darshan.M.K et al./ Elixir Cement & Con. Com. 59 (2013) 15491-15493


Available online at www.elixirpublishers.com (Elixir International Journal)

Cement and Concrete Composites


Elixir Cement & Con. Com. 59 (2013) 15491-15493

Experimental investigation on double skinned steel columns subjected to


monotonic loading-a critical review
Darshan.M.K, Narayana B.R and N.S.Kumar
Department of Civil Engineering, Ghousia College of Engineering, Ramanagaram.
ARTICLE INFO

A B ST R A C T

Ar t i cl e h i st o ry :
Received: 29 April 2013;
Received in revised form:
5 June 2013;
Accepted: 5 June 2013;

The State of the art of Double Skinned concrete filled steel tubular columns is presented in
this paper. Experimental data has been collected and compiled in a comprehensive format
listing Parameters involved in the study. Areas of further research are presented . Also,
results of ongoing experimental and numerical investigations by various authors including us
are presented in this paper.
2013 Elixir All rights reserved.

K e y w or d s
Composite double skinned columns,
Mortar filled,
Mortar encased.
Introduction
Double skinned steel tubular (DSST) columns possess
excellent earthquake-resistant properties such as high strength,
high ductility, and large energy absorption capacity. In the last
decades, they have gained increasing popularity in buildings,
bridges and other structural applications such as scaffoldings
etc.., the advantages of DSST columns can be attributed to the
composite action between the steel tube and the infill material.
The steel tube works not only as longitudinal reinforcing bars to
resist the loads but also as ties or spirals to confine the infill
material example concrete, mortar, FRP etc..,. Therefore, both
strength and ductility of the infill material are enhanced. On the
other hand, the risk of local buckling of the steel tube is
significantly reduced because the rigid infill material prevents it
from buckling inward. From the construction viewpoint, much
economy can be achieved due to the absence of formwork, since
the steel tube can serve as formwork for the in filled during
construction. More mechanical and economical benefits can be
achieved if DSST columns are constructed from high-strength
materials. High-strength columns require a smaller cross-section
to withstand the load, which is appreciated by architects and
building engineers. In spite of the advantages, the application of
high-strength DSST columns in the construction industry is still
limited due to the lack of understanding of their structural
behavior and insufficient recommendations in current design
codes. In order to fully utilize the advantages of high-strength
DSST columns, research needs exist to extensively investigate
their behavior and to develop design specifications.
Circular Concrete-Filled Steel Tubes
Circular tubular columns have an advantage over all other
sections when used in compression members, for a given cross
sectional area, they have a large uniform flexural stiffness in all
directions. Filling the tube with concrete will increase the
ultimate strength of the member without significant increases in
cost. The main effect of concrete is that it delays the local
buckling of the tube wall and the concrete itself, in the restrained

Tele:
E-mail addresses: mk.darshan550@gmail.com,
drkumarns@gmail.com
2013 Elixir All rights reserved

state, is able to sustain higher stresses and strains that when is


unrestrained.
The use of CFTs provides large saving in cost by increasing
the let table floor area by a reduction in the required cross
section size. This is very important in the design of tall buildings
in cities where the cost of letting spaces are extremely high.
These are particularly significant in the lower storey of tall
buildings where stubby columns usually exist. CFTs can provide
an excellent monotonic and seismic resistance in two orthogonal
directions. Using multiple bays of composite CFT framing in
each primary direction of a low- to medium-rise building
provides seismic redundancy while taking full advantage of the
two-way framing capabilities of CFTs
Research On Double Skinned Steel Tubular Columns [1]
Six DSTC specimens with three different configurations
were prepared and tested under concentric compression. The
results are summarized below. The columns all had an outer
diameter of 152.5mm, a height of 305mm, and the same steel
tube inside. They were provided with GFRP tubes of different
thicknesses outside, which had fibers only in the hoop direction.
Tensile tests on steel coupons were conducted. It was found that
the steel tube had a yield stress of 352.7MPa, an ultimate tensile
strength of 380.4MPa and a Youngs modulus of 207.28GPa.
The FRP tubes were prepared by the wet lay-up process; the
FRP used had a nominal thickness of 0.17mm per ply, a tensile
strength of 2300MPa and a Youngs modulus of 76GPa based
on this nominal thickness according to the manufacturers data.
The elastic modulus, compressive strength and strain at peak
stress of the concrete averaged from three concrete cylinder tests
(152.5mm x 305 mm) are 30.2 MPa, 39.6 MPa and 0.002628
respectively.
During the test, all specimens exhibited a smooth loaddisplacement curve until failure took place, when the outer
GFRP ruptured and the load began to drop. The test results
shows that, Pco is equal to the unconfined concrete strength
times the area of the annular concrete section (=543.5 kN), while
Ps is equal to the average ultimate load from three axial

15492

Darshan.M.K et al./ Elixir Cement & Con. Com. 59 (2013) 15491-15493

compression tests on hollow steel tubes (=273.8 kN). Therefore,


the ultimate load of the hybrid column is 817.3 kN if the
constituent parts do not interact and the confinement effect of
the GFRP tube is negligible.
Based on the results of this study, the following conclusions
were drawn within the scope of these tests:
1) This new hybrid structural member possesses good ductility
and good energy dissipation capacity. When subjected to
concentric compression, the concrete sandwiched between the
two tubes may achieve significant enhancement in both strength
and ductility over unconfined concrete. According to Teng et al.
(2004), the concrete in a typical hybrid DSTC may be confined
as effectively as that in an FRP-confined solid concrete cylinder.
2) The new hybrid member shows good ductility under fourpoint bending, although significant cracks will occur early in the
loading process. Longitudinal fibers may be required in the outer
GFRP tube if the new hybrid member is to be used to resist
bending only. In addition, there may be a need to improve the
bond between the concrete and the steel tube, such as through
the use of mechanical shear connectors to prevent possible
premature slips as observed in one of the beam tests presented in
the paper.
3) Further tests, including eccentric compression tests, combined
axial and cyclic lateral loading tests and shaking table tests,
should be carried out in the future to develop a more complete
understanding of the seismic performance of the new hybrid
member and structural systems based on this new member form.
Research on mechanical behavior of double-skinned
composite steel tubular columns[2]
The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the
behavior of the double-skinned concrete filled steel tubular
(DSCFT) columns on the strength, stiffness and ductility
performance. The diameter-thickness (D/t) ratio and the
hollowness ratio were chosen as main parameters in designing
the specimens. A total of 18 specimens were tested under varied
combinations of axial and flexural loads, and two specimens
were tested under a combination of constant axial load and
cyclically increasing bending for comparison. Test results
concluded that the DSCFT columns can effectively provide
strength and deformation capacity even with a large D/t ratio.
Following conclusions were drawn from the above experiment,
1. Superposing the concrete and steel strength can predict the
ultimate axial strength of DSCFT Conservatively. It is illustrated
that steel tube can improve the confinement of the concrete, and
the in-filled concrete can delay the occurrence of local buckling
of the steel tube with a large D/T ratio.
2. The DSCFT columns can have an optimal strength
performance if the applied axial load is less than 40% axial
capacity.
3. Experimental results indicate that the behavior of DSCFT
columns under cyclic loading is as good as that under the
monotonic loading.
Research on hybrid FRP-concrete-steel double-skin tubular
columns: cyclic axial compression tests [3]
In total, eight identical hybrid DSTCs were tested, covering
four loading schemes; two specimens were prepared for each
loading scheme. The specimens had an outer diameter (i.e. the
outer diameter of the annular concrete section) of 205.3 mm, an
inner diameter (i.e. the inner diameter of the annular concrete
section and the outer diameter of the inner steel tube) of 140.3
mm, and a height of 400 mm. The outer glass FRP (GFRP) tube
had fibers in the hoop direction only and was formed by a wet-

layup process on hardened concrete. The nominal thickness of


the two-ply FRP tube was 0.34 mm (i.e. the nominal thickness
was taken to 0.17 mm per ply) while the thickness of the steel
tube was 5.3 mm.
Conclusions
This paper has presented a series of cyclic axial
compression tests on hybrid DSTCs. Hybrid DSTCs have been
shown to be very ductile under cyclic loading and their envelope
axial load-strain curves are almost the same as the corresponding
monotonic axial stress-strain curve. It has also been shown that
repeated unloading/reloading cycles have a cumulative effect on
the permanent strain and the stress deterioration of the confined
concrete in hybrid DSTCs. Interfacial slips between the steel
tube and the concrete may lead to noticeable differences in the
axial strain between them when the column is fully unloaded
from an axial strain level that significantly exceeds the yield
strain of the steel tube.
Research on Behaviour and Calculations of Concrete-Filled
Double Skin Steel Tubular (Cfdst) Members [4]
The authors performed a series of tests on the CFDST
columns subjected to static loading, including 37 specimens
under axial compression, 13 specimens under bending and 42
specimens under eccentric compression, respectively (Han et al.,
2004; Tao et al., 2004; Tao and Han, 2006; Tao and Yu, 2006).
It was found that the behaviour of the CFDST columns is
generally similar to that of the conventional CFST columns.
This is owing to the fact that, generally, the section slenderness
ratio of an inner steel tube is relatively small and it can provide
sufficient support to the sandwiched concrete. Otherwise, the
premature local buckling of inner steel tubes will have adverse
effects on the load-carrying and deformation capacities of
CFDST columns.
Concluding remarks
This paper briefly summarises some recent research
outcomes of CFDST members presented by the authors and their
collaborators. From the experimental and numerical results, it
can be concluded that, when the hollow ratio () of a CFDST is
within the normal range of 0-0.5, the CFDST generally
demonstrates a similar behaviour as that of a CFST, whilst the
fire resistance of the CFDST is superior to that of the latter.
Apart from the research results reported in this paper, ongoing
numerical study is being carried out to analyse the post-fire
behaviour of CFDST columns. Repair approach will be further
recommended. The authors also believe that there is immediate
research need to put forward suitable beam-to-column
connections for CFDST columns, in which the load can be
transferred and shared by the three components simultaneously.
Durability is also a key issue need to be studied further for this
type of composite construction
Research on Behaviour of Hybrid Double-Skin Tubular
Columns Subjected To Combined Axial Compression And
Cyclic Lateral Loading [5]
The experimental program consisted of 6 hybrid DSTCs.
All these specimens had a circular section with a characteristic
diameter D (the outer diameter of the annular concrete section)
of 300 mm and a void ratio of 0.73 (the ratio between the inner
diameter and the outer diameter of the annular concrete section).
The inner steel tube had thickness ts of 6 mm and an outer
diameter Ds of 219 mm, leading to a Ds/ts ratio of 36.5. The
outer GFRP tube had an inner diameter of 300 mm and a
thickness tfrp of 6 mm or 10 mm. The height was 1350 mm

15493

Darshan.M.K et al./ Elixir Cement & Con. Com. 59 (2013) 15491-15493

from the point of lateral loading to the top of the stiff RC


column footing (4.5 times of the column diameter).
Conclusions
This paper has presented the results of 6 large-scale hybrid
DSTCs with HSC tested under axial compression in
combination with cyclic lateral loading. These test results
suggest that hybrid DSTCs can still show excellent ductility and
seismic resistance even when high strength concrete with a
cylinder compressive strength of around 120 MPa is used.
Research on FRP-concrete-steel double-skin tubular
columns: cyclic axial compression tests [6]
In total, eight identical hybrid DSTCs were tested, covering
four loading schemes; two specimens were prepared for each
loading scheme. The specimens had an outer diameter (i.e. the
outer diameter of the annular concrete section) of 205.3 mm, an
inner diameter (i.e. the inner diameter of the annular concrete
section and the outer diameter of the inner steel tube) of 140.3
mm, and a height of 400 mm. The outer glass FRP (GFRP) tube
had fibers in the hoop direction only and was formed by a wetlayup process on hardened concrete [2]. The nominal thickness
of the two-ply FRP tube was 0.34 mm (i.e. the nominal
thickness was taken to 0.17 mm per ply) while the thickness of
the steel tube was 5.3 mm.
Conclusions
This paper has presented a series of cyclic axial
compression tests on hybrid DSTCs. Hybrid DSTCs have been
shown to be very ductile under cyclic loading and their envelope
axial load-strain curves are almost the same as the corresponding
monotonic axial stress-strain curve. It has also been shown that
repeated unloading/reloading cycles have a cumulative effect on
the permanent strain and the stress deterioration of the confined
concrete in hybrid DSTCs. Interfacial slips between the steel
tube and the concrete may lead to noticeable differences in the
axial strain between them when the column is fully unloaded
from an axial strain level that significantly exceeds the yield
strain of the steel tube.
Work under progress by the Authors
In order to reveal the performance of double skinned
composite steel columns. 45 specimens have been designed for
cyclic loading experiment. Here the material used is cement
mortor for infilling steel tubes.
The experimental investigation focuses on modes of failure
and the most significant factors using the experiment with the
help of software. The equation can be generated to find ultimate
load carrying capacity. Axial shortening and ultimate stress
carrying capacity of the specimen and the modeling can be
analyzed.
In this experiment 3different thickness of double skinned
steel tubes with 3different lengths (350mm, 450mm and
550mm) with and without 3different proportions of mortor infill
are used. The 3 different mortar proportion used in the
experiment are 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5. The results of the cyclic load
test with and without mortar infill are compared.
Conclusions:
1. Superposing the steel strength can predict the ultimate axial
strength of DSCFT Conservatively. It is illustrated that steel
tube can improve the confinement of the cement, and the infilled cement can delay the occurrence of local buckling of the
steel tube with a large D/T ratio.

2. Ongoing numerical study is being carried out to analyze the


post-fire behavior of DSST columns. Repair approach will be
further recommended.
3. Durability is also a key issue need to be studied further for
this type of composite construction
4. DSSTCs can still show excellent ductility and seismic
resistance even when high strength ingredient is used.
5. Circular hollow section have many advantage as structural
members due to the fact that the properties are same for all
direction,
6. Circular DSST how a greater increases in strength and a
greater enhancement of ductility than rectangular DSST,
7. It is noted that the short column shows a linear behavior up to
yield load and after showed a non-linear behavior, A sudden
drop in the load carrying capacity is found with Large
deformation
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