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Speed and velocity

Combining velocities and forces


To measure the speed of an object, you only need to measure how
fast
To combine
its going2vectors,
i.e. 30mph
you add them end to end.
Velocity
1) With
is a or
more
against
useful
current
measure of motion as it describes both
speed and direction 30mph due north.
Its easy when the plane (or whatever) is flying directly into the
wind
- (or
A quantity
whatever),
likeor
speed,
with the
thatwind
has behind
only a number,
it. On vector
is called a
diagrams,
scalar
you
quantity.
just need
Scalar
arrows
quantities:
going back
speed,
andmass,
forwards.
Velocity
temperature,
of plane & time,
windlength
.
- A quantity like velocity, that has a direction is well, is a
A lightvector
plane quantity.
is flying east, its airspeed indicator shows 120km/h.
it is flying
into
wind of 20km/h.
What
is its
resultant velocity?
Vector quantities:
velocity,
force,
displacement,
acceleration, momentum.
Plane velocity = 120km/h
When you look out of a car window, a car thats overtaking you
Wind velocity = 20km/h
doesnt look like its moving fast, but a car going in the opposite
direction
to =
whizz
past.
Its all to do with relative speed
Resultantseems
velocity
120-20
= 100km/h
how fast something is going, relative to its speed. A car going the

2) Across the current


A boat is going west at 14m/s, in a river with a current running
north at 8m/s. What is the resultant velocity?

From the ground, it


looks like the plane
travels at 100km/h.
To work out velocity,
you need
speed and
direction,
its a and
right
Current
velocity
= 8m/s
If the plane
angled triangle so:
wind were in the
Boat velocity = 14m/s same direction, you
Pythagoras: speed =
=
add the velocities.
16.1m/s
Resultant velocity = 16.1m/s &

29.7

Trigonometry: direction = tan -1 (8/14) = 29.7

Its the same with forces and any vectors at right angles.
Two dogs are pulling a boat along a canal, with forces at right
angles to each
other. Find the resultant force.

Resultant force.

Force +
1=
(8x8)
400N
(14x14)

Draw vectors end to and then do Pythagoras again:


size of force
direction= angle to force 1.

= 500N

Equations of Motions
S = displacement (or distance)
U= initial velocity (or speed)
V= final velocity (or speed)
Force 2 =
300N
A= acceleration

S = (u + t
v)
2

T= time

S = ut + 0.5(at x
at)

(300x300) +
V=u+
(400x400)
Tan-1
Car going at 10m/s
due east accelerates
east =
at(300/400)
2m/s2 for=836.9
at
x v)accelerating?
= (u x u)
seconds. How far does the car go (v
while
+ 2as
U = (10m/s) A= (2m/s2) and T= (8 seconds)
We need to find the displacement (S). The equation to be used is S =
UT + 0.5(AT x AT) s = (10x10) + 0.5 (2x[8x8]) = 80 + 64 =
144m due east

Projectile motion
The path of a projectile is always a parabola.
-

A projectile is something that is projected, or dropped, and


from then on, only has earths gravitational field (gravity)
acting on it (ignoring air resistance).

So things like missiles, golf balls and footballs are all


projectiles.. the path a projectile takes through the air
(called its trajectory) is always parabolic.

How far a ball (or other projectile) travels depends on the


angle its launched at. It will travel furthest if its launched at
45.

If the angle is less than 45, then the projectile wont travel
as far.
An angle greater than 45 means the projectile will take

Deal with horizontal and vertical motion separately


Projectile calculations use equations of motions
Gravity (which only acts downwards) doesnt affect horizontal
Example:
motion
at all.
A football
is kicked horizontally
horizontally accelerates
from a 20m vertically
high wall.due
Howto
An
object projected
long is,itbut
before
it lands?
Take g horizontally
= 10m/s 2 and
ignore air
gravity
has no
acceleration
( velocity
stays the
resistance.
same).
It lands
its travelled
20m at
vertically
(height
of the
An
objectwhen
can also
be projected
an angle,
and the
motion can
wall).
Using
the
formula
:
s
=
ut
+
0.5
(at
x
at)
be split into horizontal and vertical parts. You can apply this to
real life situations (e.g. how far the ball travels, depends on the
U = 0 and A=10m/s2 and s = 20m
angle its struck at).

20- =Something
(0 x t) + that
0.5 starts
(at x of
at)
= (10t x 10t)/ 2 [i.e.
horizontally as a constant
2 s when
it lands]
horizontal
velocity (ignoring friction/air resistance), since
there are no horizontal forces and its unaffected by

If its horizontal velocity is 5m/s, how far does it travel


gravity.
before it lands?
-

Its initial vertical velocity is 0. Its vertical velocity

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