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S.Y. 2011-2012

A Thesis Presented to the

Faculty of the College of International Tourism
And Hospitality Management

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Bachelor of Science in Tourism

Ang, Dianne Marie M.
Bayot, Donalynne B.

October 2011


In our generation today, homosexuals have been widely accepted by the
majority may it be a gay or a lesbian. People have come to recognize the existence
of the "third sex" and through time they have also accepted same-sex
relationships" in our society. But controversies and arguments arise when
homosexuals started proposing the idea of legalizing "same-sex marriage".
The issue on legalizing same-sex marriage has been going on for decades.
It has received a lot of objection and opposition since it contradicts the
accustomed meaning of marriage as a "union between a man and a woman".
Though there have been few countries which have approved or have begun to
legally formalizing marriage between same sex marriage like Canada, Italy and
etc. Still the majority of countries do not recognize this kind of marriage.
The researchers pond this issue because it has always been an informal
situation in the society. It is a fact that homosexuals are common subject of
discussion among genders and up until now, they are not well accepted in their
own living environment and are discriminated. It is very interesting and
controversial that led the researchers to study the said issue.


Marriage has usually been a commitment between the male and female.
But nowadays, various countries around the world recognize the union between
same sexes. In many cultures the issue of same sex marriage has ignited a
firestorm of controversy in the press and living rooms.
Same-sex love, as Plato's symposium shows, is as ancient as human love,
and the question of how it is recognized and understood has overwhelmed every
human civilization. And today in a number of foreign countries, laws extending
civil marriage to gay and lesbian couples have been enacted. In 2001 the
Netherlands opened civil marriage to gay couples and allowed them to adopt
children as well. Belgium followed suit in 2003, although it did not go as far as
the Netherlands: gay couples have no adoption rights in Belgium. Most other
European countries only allow for some kind of registered partnership with some
degree of protection. By now most legal systems in Europe provide some kind of
status, even in Catholic countries like Spain. Some states of the United States
have followed and provided registries for same-sex partnerships and grant them
certain rights.
The Philippines is one of the most Catholic or church influenced country
in the world. It has always been advocated in keeping the laws of God. The critics
of same sex unions have also gone beyond debates and discourse for the past.
Many Filipino homosexuals has been protesting for their freedom rights to
consider the union between same sex relationships. Until now, the government

has no grant given for this plea. According to the family code of the Philippines or
executive order 209, Marriage is a special contract of permanent union between
a man and a woman entered into in accordance with law for the establishment of
conjugal and family life." Not meeting this requirement will make the marriage
The expectations for the study are to lead to more open-minded students
and for them to be ore knowledgeable to the situation. Moreover, be able to
tabulate answers without unbiased conclusions, and to know the status of the
legalization of same sex marriage in our country.


This study aims to determine the assessment of CITHM students of Lyceum
of the Philippines University on the legalization of Same-Sex Marriage in the

What is the demographic profile of the students?

1.1 Age
1.2 Gender
1.3 Religion
1.4 Course

2. How do respondents assessed the legalization of Same-Sex Marriage

in the Philippines?
2.1 Morality
2.2 Acceptability
2.3 Expectations

What measures can the government undertake on the legalization

of same sex marriage?


This study aims to assess the percipience of CITHM students of Lyceum
of the Philippines University regards to the legalization of Same-sex Marriage in
the Philippines.

To know the demographic profile of the respondents.


To identify the perception of the students towards same sex marriage.


To determine policies and the measures that the government will

undertake on the issue regarding same sex marriage.


This study will benefit the following groups of people:
Students. To be informed about the current status of same sex marriage in
the Philippines .
Future Researchers. As a raw material or background for future
Society. To have better understanding on the situation of homosexuals.
Government. The recommendations of the researchers would help them
recognize what measures to be undertake to the issue on the legalization of samesex marriage.


This study will focus on how students of Lyceum of the Philippines
University perceive the legalization of same sex-marriage in the Philippines. It
will be limited to the output of the respondents from the selected CITHM
students, which will be coming from the registrar that will provide such as data,
and information that will come out from the distributed survey questionnaires, as
well as the information from literatures that will be cited and reviewed.
The researcher will use the random sampling method in selecting the
interview-questionnaire method to serve as the instrument for this study.

Conjugal. Of or relating to the married state or to married persons and their
Gay. It refers to a male homosexual.
Homosexual. In connection with human beings, homosexuality includes sexual
thoughts, feelings, fantasies and overt sexual acts involving a member of one's
own sex. The term "homosexual" is more specifically applied to a person who
regularly practices overt sexual acts with members of the same sex past
adolescence into adulthood.
Legalization. To make legal or lawful; authorize or sanction by law.
Lesbian. Pertaining to or characteristic of female homosexuality.
Marriage. Legally, it is a binding contract between the two parties that joins
together their possessions, income, and lives.
Protest. A formal declaration whereby a person expresses a personal objection or
disapproval of an act.
Relationship. Is an emotional or other connection between people.
Same Sex Marriage. A similar institution involving partners of the same gender.
Self-Flagellation. Beating as a source of erotic or religious stimulation whacking,
beating, drubbing, licking, thrashing, trouncing, lacing - the act of inflicting
corporal punishment with repeated blows.

This chapter presents the literature and studies which are found
relevant to the study. These where made by foreign and local researchers which
were reviewed and presented in this chapter. These convey different point of
views on the legalization of same sex marriage.

Baha'i faith is the youngest of the world's independent religions stated
their belief on homosexuality. Sexual activity between persons of the same sex is
known from many places far and near throughout history. A classic comparative
study of sexual behavior patterns in 1951 found that homosexual activity was
considered socially acceptable and normative for certain people in 64 percent of
the seventy-six societies studied. Moreover, institutionalized homosexuality is
known among peoples from parts of Africa and Asia, among North and South
American Indian tribes, among peoples on the islands of the Pacific, including
New Guinea, and among the Australian aborigines; it also occurs as a religious
theme among the ancient Greeks, the Celts, and the Romans, in ancient Arabia
and Sufism, in feudal Japan, and in various Indo-European traditions.
In contrast to the ritual significance given homosexuality in some
indigenous cultures and religions, the Semitic religions have all condemned

homosexuality. A homosexual act between two consenting adult males is an

abomination (Lev. 18:22), punishable by death (Lev. 20:13). Talmudic law
extends the prohibition, but not the penalty, which is limited to flagellation, also
to lesbianism. Rabbinic sources advance various reasons for the strict ban on
homosexuality - regarded as a universal law among "the Seven Commandments
of the Sons of Noah". It is an unnatural perversion debasing the dignity of man.
Such acts frustrate the procreative purpose of sex, and also damage family life, by
the homosexual abandoning his wife. Jewish law holds that no hedonistic ethic,
even if called "love", can justify the morality of homosexuality any more than it
can legitimize adultery or incest, however genuinely such acts may be performed
out of love and by mutual consent.

In Christianity, homosexuality is condemned in the strongest terms as a sin

alongside other sexual vices (Rom. 1:27, 1 Cor. 6:9, 1 Tim. 1:10), although
Christian attitudes have varied over time. The Qur'an describes homosexuality as
an "impious act" (7:79) and there are Hadith that allege that Muhammad said both
the passive and active agent should be killed. On the Day of Resurrection, the
man who sodomises another will suffer eternal damnation, unless he obtains
pardon through repentance.

On the article "Obama Administration Drops Defense of Anti-Gay

Marriage Law" of foxnews.com, The Obama administration announced that it will
no longer defend the federal law that defines marriage as a union between a man

and a woman. The reason behind this is that Holder said members of Congress
may step up to defend the statute, but the Justice Department "will cease defense."
He noted that the congressional debate during passage of the Defense of Marriage
Act "contains numerous expressions reflecting moral disapproval of gays and
lesbians and their intimate and family relationships. The Human Rights Campaign
called the decision a "monumental" move against a law that "unfairly
discriminates against Americans."

Barbara Goldberg (2011) shared about New York's same-sex marriage law
that sets off waves of engagements. In her article it was stated that "In the minutes
and hours after the law was passed and signed by Democratic Governor Andrew
Cuomo late on Friday, sparkling rings were offered and accepted and champagne
corks flew to kick off wedding plans likely to add an estimated $284 million to
the state's economy, according to a report by the Independent Democratic
Conference." She added, The most populous state to approve marriage equality
legislation, New York is the sixth state to legalize gay nuptials, joining
Connecticut, Iowa, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Vermont and the District of
Columbia. Civil unions were approved in Delaware, Hawaii, Illinois and New
Jersey. Same sex marriage is banned in 39 states."

Does the Constitution protect the right to same-sex marriage? Taking a

careful look at the issue, Evan Gerstmann looks at the legal debate, and asks
whether, in a democratic society, the courts, rather than voters, should resolve the
question. Gerstmann also asks whether such a court-created law could be effective

in the face of public opposition. Evan Gerstmann argues that this problem is one
of the most significant constitutional issues facing society because it challenges
society's commitment to true legal equality. After graduating with honors from the
University of Michigan Law School in 1986, Evan Gerstmann practiced law in
New York City for five years. Subsequently, he completed his Masters and Ph.D.
in Political Science at the University of Wisconsin. He studies the interaction
between law and politics. He has published a book on constitutional law, The
Constitutional Class: Gays, Lesbians and the Failure of Class-Based Equal
Protection (University of Chicago, 1999), as well as articles on subjects ranging
from freedom of speech to how criminal law affects victims of domestic violence.

Many same-sex couples want the right to legally marry because they are in
love many, in fact, have spent the last 10, 20 or 50 years with that person
and they want to honor their relationship in the greatest way our society has to
offer, by making a public commitment to stand together in good times and bad,
through all the joys and challenges family life brings. Many parents want the right
to marry because they know it offers children a vital safety net and guarantees
protections that unmarried parents cannot provide. And still other people both
gay and straight are fighting for the right of same-sex couples to marry because
they recognize that it is simply not fair to deny some families the protections all
other families are eligible to enjoy. Currently in the United States, same-sex
couples in long-term, committed relationships pay higher taxes and are denied
basic protections and rights granted to married straight couples. Among them:

Hospital visitation. Married couples have the automatic right to visit each
other in the hospital and make medical decisions. Same-sex couples can be denied
the right to visit a sick or injured loved one in the hospital.
Social Security benefits. Married people receive Social Security
payments upon the death of a spouse. Despite paying payroll taxes, gay and
lesbian partners receive no Social Security survivor benefits resulting in an
average annual income loss of $5,528 upon the death of a partner.
Immigration. Americans in bi-national relationships are not permitted to
petition for their same-sex partners to immigrate. As a result, they are often forced
to separate or move to another country.
Health insurance. Many public and private employers provide medical
coverage to the spouses of their employees, but most employers do not provide
coverage to the life partners of gay and lesbian employees. Gay and lesbian
employees who do receive health coverage for their partners must pay federal
income taxes on the value of the insurance.
Estate taxes. A married person automatically inherits all the property of
his or her deceased spouse without paying estate taxes. A gay or lesbian taxpayer
is forced to pay estate taxes on property inherited from a deceased partner.
Family leave. Married workers are legally entitled to unpaid leave from
their jobs to care for an ill spouse. Gay and lesbian workers are not entitled to
family leave to care for their partners.

Nursing homes. Married couples have a legal right to live together in

nursing homes. The rights of elderly gay or lesbian couples are an uneven
patchwork of state laws. Home protection. Laws protect married seniors from
being forced to sell their homes to pay high nursing home bills; gay and lesbian
seniors have no such protection.
Home protection. Laws protect married seniors from being forced to sell
their homes to pay high nursing home bills; gay and lesbian seniors have no such
Pensions. After the death of a worker, most pension plans pay survivor
benefits only to a legal spouse of the participant. Gay and lesbian partners are
excluded from such pension benefits.

Why arent civil unions enough? Comparing marriage to civil unions is a

bit like comparing diamonds to rhinestones. One is, quite simply, the real deal; the
other is not. Consider: Opposite-sex couples who are eligible to marry may have
their marriage performed in any state and have it recognized in every other state
in the nation and every country in the world. Couples who are joined in a civil
union, for example in Vermont, New Jersey or New Hampshire, have no
guarantee that its protections will travel with them to other states. Moreover, even
couples who have a civil union and remain in Vermont, New Jersey or New
Hampshire receive only second-class protections in comparison to their married
friends and neighbors. While they receive state-level protections, they do not

receive any of the more than 1,100 federal benefits and protections of marriage. In
short, civil unions are not separate but equal they are separate and unequal.
And our society has tried separate before. It just doesnt work. Marriage State
grants marriage licenses to couples. Religious institutions are not required to
perform marriage ceremonies. Civil Unions State would grant civil union licenses
to couples. Couples receive legal protections and rights under state law only. Civil
unions are not necessarily recognized by other states or the federal government.
Religious institutions are not required to perform civil union ceremonies.
I believe God meant marriage for men and women. How can I support
marriage for same-sex couples? Many people who believe in God as well as
fairness and justice for all ask this question. They feel a tension between
religious beliefs and democratic values that has been experienced in many
different ways throughout our nations history. That is why the framers of our
Constitution established the principle of separation of church and state. That
principle applies no less to the marriage issue than it does to any other. Indeed, the
answer to the apparent dilemma between religious beliefs and support for equal
protections for all families lies in recognizing that marriage has a significant
religious meaning for many people, but that it is also a legal contract. And it is
strictly the legal not the religious dimension of marriage that is being
debated now.

Granting marriage rights to same-sex couples would not require leaders of

Christian, Jewish, Islamic or any other religious leaders to perform these

marriages. It would not require religious institutions to permit these ceremonies to

be held on their grounds. It would not even require that religious communities
discuss the issue. People of faith would remain free to make their own judgments
about what makes a marriage in the eyes of God just as they are today.
Consider, for example, the difference in how the Roman Catholic Church and the
U.S. government view couples who have divorced and remarried. Because church
tenets do not sanction divorce, the second marriage is not valid in the churchs
The government, however, recognizes the marriage by extending to the
remarried couple the same rights and protections as those granted to every other
married couple in America. In this situation as would be the case in marriage
for same-sex couples the church remains free to establish its own teachings on
the religious dimension of marriage while the government upholds equality under
law. A growing number of religious communities bless same-sex unions,
including Reform Judaism, the Unitarian Universalist Association and the
Metropolitan Community Church. The Presbyterian Church (USA) allows
ceremonies to be performed but theyre not considered the same as marriage. The
Episcopal Church, United Church of Christ and the United Synagogue of
Conservative Judaism allow individual congregations to set their own policies on
same-sex unions.

"I strongly believe children need a mother and a father." Many of us grew
up believing that everyone needs a mother and father, regardless of whether we

ourselves happened to have two parents, or two good parents. But as families
have grown more diverse in recent decades, and researchers have studied how
these different family relationships affect children, it has become clear that the
quality of a familys relationship is more important than the particular structure of
families that exist today. In other words, the qualities that help children grow into
good and responsible adults learning how to learn, to have compassion for
others, to contribute to society and be respectful of others and their differences
do not depend on the sexual orientation of their parents but on their parents
ability to provide a loving, stable and happy home, something no class of
Americans has an exclusive hold on. That is why research studies have
consistently shown that children raised by gay and lesbian parents do just as well
as children raised by straight parents in all conventional measures of child
development, such as academic achievement, psychological well-being and social
abilities. That is also why the nations leading child welfare organizations,
including the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Family
Physicians and others, have issued statements that dismiss assertions that only
straight couples can be good parents and declare that the focus should now be
on providing greater protections for the 1 million to 9 million children being
raised by gay and lesbian parents in the United States today.
Granting same-sex couples the right to marry, therefore, would enable the
millions of same-sex parents raising children today to give their children what
every child deserves the safest, most secure environment possible, with all the
legal protections that our country has put in place. This is different from

interracial marriage. Sexual orientation is a choice.". "We cannot keep turning our
backs on gay and lesbian Americans. I have fought too hard and too long against
discrimination based on race and color not to stand up against discrimination
based on sexual orientation. I've heard the reasons for opposing civil marriage for
same-sex couples. Cut through the distractions, and they stink of the same fear,
hatred, and intolerance I have known in racism and in bigotry."

According to Rep. John Lewis, D-Ga., a leader of the black civil rights
movement, was writing in the Boston Globe, Nov. 25, 2003. Decades of research
all point to the fact that sexual orientation is not a choice, and that a persons
sexual orientation cannot be changed. To whom one is drawn is a fundamental
aspect of who we are. In this way, the struggle for marriage equality for same-sex
couples is just as basic as the successful fight for interracial marriage. It
recognizes that Americans should not be coerced into false and unhappy
marriages but should be free to marry the person they love thereby building
marriage on a true and stable foundation. "Wont this create a free-for-all and
make the whole idea of marriage meaningless?"
Many people share this concern because opponents of LGBT equality
have used this argument as a scare tactic but it is not true. Granting same-sex
couples the right to marry would in no way change the number of people who
could enter into a marriage (or eliminate restrictions on the age or familial
relationships of those who may marry). Marriage would continue to recognize the
highest possible commitment that can be made between two adults, plain and

simple. "How could marriage for same-sex couples possibly be good for the
American family or our country?. We shouldnt just allow gay marriage. We
should insist on gay marriage. We should regard it as scandalous that two people
could claim to love each other and not want to sanctify their love with marriage
and fidelity."

Does Thailand recognize same sex marriage? The short answer: No. It
should be noted that Thailand is one of the most tolerant cultures in the world,
particularly regarding gay rights. That being said, there is no process under Thai
law for legalizing a relationship of two people who are of the same sex. In many
countries, a legal partnership known as a civil union is used to legitimize a
relationship between two people of the same sex. In Thailand, there is no civil
union mechanism for providing legal protection for a same sex couple. That
being said, Thailand marriage registration is often not a method employed by a
couple who wishes to have an ongoing relationship. It is quite common in
Thailand for a couple to have a marriage ceremony (customary or religious), but
never actually register a marriage in Thailand with the local Amphur office
(District Office). Therefore, as a practical matter Thai same sex couples can
maintain a domestic relationship in a manner similar to different sex couples who
choose not to legalize their union.
At the present time there does not appear to be any political movement to
legalize same sex marriage in Thailand. For those who wish to protect their same
sex loved one, legal mechanisms such as a Thai will can assist in providing legal
benefits usually accorded to those in a different sex relationship.

According to Victoria Dizon Urieta on her thesis entitled
"Perceptions of homosexuals and other people" at the De LaSalle University,
1998, Homosexuality has been considered a deviant behavior because of the fact
that it is immoral and its lifestyle does not conform to society's standards.
Majority of the people in the Philippines are not used to the mindset of the
homosexuals who are pursuing the law towards the legalization of same-sex
marriage because it is against the mores. In addition to that Philippines is a
Catholic country with strong beliefs on unity of man and woman as stated in the

On the article seen at the Philippine Star newspaper entitled "Same sex
marriage issue paves way for anti-discrimination bill" by Artemio Dumlao, In
Baguio City ,Philippines Christian groups led by the Catholic Charismatic
Christian Movement believes that the same sex marriage controversy is a grand
design by some sectors to push House Bill 1483 (Anti-Discrimination bill) filed
by Bayan Muna party-list Rep. Teodoro Casino. According to the group, the same
sex unions officiated by the Metropolitan Community Church (MCC) here on
June 29 have been pitting family members against each other, the opposing
Catholic Church and other Christian groups versus the proponents and even
government officials caught in the controversy.
The critics of same sex unions have also gone beyond debates and
discourse as the city council here is poised to declare MCCs Myke Sotero and

two others who officiated the wedding as persona non grata and is contemplating
a case against them.

In Vincent Cabrezas column in Inquirer Northern Luzon, The fifth Baguio

Gay Pride celebration, which was led by homosexuals dressed as fairies and
Goddesses of Equality, proceeded on Sunday despite heavy and continuous
rains.The parade honored the solemnization of the unions of eight gay couples,
who were wed by pastors of the Metropolitan Community Church at a local bar
on Saturday. Cyrene Reyes, one of the Baguio Pride Network organizers, said the
parade also celebrated the legalization of same-sex unions in New York, where the
1969 Stonewall riots were ignited by a standoff between a gay community in
Greenwich Village there and the New York police. The Stonewall incident
inspired the international gay rights movement, which fought for laws
criminalizing gay discrimination and which pushed co-habitation rights of samesex couples. But a measure that would legalize same-sex unions in the
Philippines, as well as a law that would allow them to adopt children, is farthest
from our minds at the moment, said Bayan Muna Rep. Teodoro Casio.
Casio was here to draw support for House Bill No. 1483 (AntiDiscrimination Act of 2010), a measure penalizing people who discriminate
against homosexuals.
Casio said HB 1483, if passed, would also make the state recognize other
sexual orientations. This bill is the third measure that proposes to update
Philippine standards on sexuality and domestic relationships, next to the more
controversial Responsible Parenthood, Reproductive Health and Population and

Development Act of 2011 (HB 4244) and the Divorce Bill (HB 1799), according
to Casio. He said the Catholic Church has described the confluence of these civil
rights bills as an assault on morality.But there was no deliberate design to
advocate all these bills at the same time in Congress, he said. We only have
three years [to promote civil rights legislation of this nature], and we are glad
when Congress finally discusses them on plenary, like the RH bill. Casio said
activist lawmakers have been competing with their colleagues, and just seeing
our bills selected for hearing by congressional committees is already a thrill.

There have been failed attempts to legislate laws on discrimination,

reproductive health and divorce, but these ideas have generated a healthy public
support this year, which have prompted Congress to address these concerns,
Casio said.These are relatively easier measures to pass, compared to proposals
for legitimizing same-sex unions, and laws allowing same-sex couples to adopt
children which are too far beyond our [societys] understanding. He said the
most important consequence of pursuing these measures would be to widen the
public constituency that believe in gay rights, reproductive health and divorce for
battered women as legitimate concerns.
Casio said he would seek a congressional inquiry into hate crimes against
gays uncovered by the Philippine LGBT Crime Watch, an online organization
linked by social networking site, Facebook. He said the group claimed that 97
homosexuals have been murdered in the country since 1996. These reports are

culled from news reports so we need to determine whether the murders are
directed against gay individuals, he said.

In Philippine Daily Inquirer, Jocelyn R. Uy wrote that Catholic bishops

wants government to stop same sex marriage rites. A wedding is a holy union of
a male and a female. It must be solemnized and registered with the civil
registrar those who got married and who led the ceremony have mental
problems, said Cenzon. He urged the national government to take the necessary
steps against same-sex marriages as they violated the Civil Code of the
Philippines. Even the Baguio local government is condemning this kind of act,
added the bishop. According to Archbishop Emeritus Oscar Cruz, homosexuals
remain as integral members of the society who must be respected, but they must
also remember about the inherent and intrinsic finalities of marriage. In the
sphere of faith and morals, homosexuals must be loved such as by pointing out
and reminding them of the pertinent and existent realities and truths, said Cruz in
a statement.
Cruz, judicial vicar of the National Appellate Matrimonial Tribunal, has
emphasized that nature itself has stipulated that marriage is between a man and a
woman and the institution of marriage provides them the standard possibility of
procreation and upbringing of children. The conclusion from these observations
is obvious: there can be no marriage between two individuals of the same sex,
there can be no sexual union between parties of the same sex and there can be no
possibility of the birth of children between two persons of the same sex, he said.

Cruz also warned that the sacredness of marriage, the values system and
the family life of Filipinos would crumble if the country emulated other nations
permitting same-sex marriage and even divorce.

The bishops were reacting to the ceremony held to supposedly celebrate

the unions of seven lesbian partners at a local bar in Baguio City on Saturday. The
ceremony, which also stirred the citys evangelical community, was led by pastors
of the Metropolitan Community Church, a Christian church ministering to

According to Ige Ramos of Philippine Daily Inquirer, in the Philippines,

same-sex unions will never be legalized as long as the political sector continues to
allow itself to be influenced, not just by the Church of Rome, but also by all
Christian faiths. This was never more evident than during a recent debate among
presidential candidates, when all revealed their true colors by stating that they did
not fully approve of the long-delayed Reproductive Health bill. This I view not as
a reflection of their principles, but rather what they felt their fundamental
Christian voters wanted to hear. And therein lies the hypocrisy!
Consider also the moralistic stand taken by the Comelec when it initially
refused to accept Ang Ladlad as a legitimate political party, on the grounds that
they spread? Immorality? One has to wonder what those righteous people in the
Comelec are so concerned about. Whether you consider it immoral or not,
homosexuality is not a chosen lifestyle. It cannot be passed on or inflicted upon

others, nor is it like some disease that can be contracted. To put it simply, you
either are or you arent It is genetic and nothing in this wide world will ever
change that.
Acceptance, of course, is something else. It is an ironic fact that despite








homosexuality and indeed same sex partnerships are generally accepted in our
country. What is needed, however, is for the populace to stand up and be counted
by demanding that civil rights be granted to all, regardless of sexuality or faith.
And hares a thought; its just possible you may be fighting for the future rights of
your own children.

The present study talks about Catholic bishops who want government to
stop same sex marriage rites.
In Philippine Daily Inquirer, Jocelyn R. Uy wrote that Catholic bishops
want government to stop same sex marriage rites. A wedding is a holy union of
a male and a female. It must be solemnized and registered with the civil
registrar those who got married and who led the ceremony have mental
problems, said Cenzon. He urged the national government to take the necessary
steps against same-sex marriages as they violated the Civil Code of the
Philippines. Even the Baguio local government is condemning this kind of act,

added the bishop. According to Archbishop Emeritus Oscar Cruz, homosexuals

remain as integral members of the society who must be respected, but they must
also remember about the inherent and intrinsic finalities of marriage. In the
sphere of faith and morals, homosexuals must be loved such as by pointing out
and reminding them of the pertinent and existent realities and truths, said Cruz
in a statement.

Philippines is a religion-oriented country, it is a common situation when

the church make public orders for the sake of Catholicism.
Same sex marriage is socially recognized marriage between two people of
same sex. On the issue of same sex marriage, of course, Catholic Church is not
favor in it. They stand on the marriage or union between man and woman.
The church understands that homosexuals are also human and have
feelings and need to be respected but on their side, these homosexuals should also
remember that they are Catholic and have the responsibility to obey Gods will.
There are several debates on senate, news, and online. Same sex marriage
shouldnt be legalized here in the Philippines not only for the fact that we are the
dominant Catholic country in Asia but because Filipinos valued marriage a lot and
respect its meaning and its purpose in the cycle of life. Furthermore Filipinos are
applying in their culture the Christian virtues and that includes marriage. Marriage
is not something that relies on someones happiness or wishes. It is sacred and not
immoral. In our living society today, people respect others sexual preference but
tying the knot to a same sex, we are not ready for it.


The demo profile of



student respondents.

The governments

The Perception to
the Legalization of


Same Sex Marriage

of the CITHM

recognition on




Students of Lyceum
of the Philippines

Figure 1 Research Model

The first box shows that the subject title of the study which is The
Percipience to the Legalization of Same Sex Marriage of the CITHM Students of
Lyceum of the Philippines University .
On the second box you will see that the researcher will conduct an
interview, survey and analysis in gathering data.
The third box shows the future output of the conducted research.

Methods of the Study
This chapter presents the research methodology, research design, research
instrument, population and sample frame, data gathering, and synthesis and
statistical treatment used in the study.

The study investigates how CITHM students assess the legalization of
same sex marriage, based on their age, course, religion, sexual preferences and
gender. For the study, the researchers employ the descriptive method analysis. To
define the descriptive type of research, Creswell (1994) stated that the descriptive
method of research is to gather information about the present existing condition.
The emphasis is on describing rather than on judging or interpreting. The aim of
descriptive research is to verify formulated hypotheses that refer to the present
situation in order to elucidate it. Through this method, the researchers will be able
to gather information about the perception of CITHM students regarding the
legalization of this pond.


The total population of CITHM is 8,016 students, according to the

registrars data. Our sample formula is the Slovenes Formula. A total of 100
respondents were asked to participate which was advised by the thesis adviser due
to lack of time. To achieve pertinent information, certain inclusion criteria were
imposed. The participants qualified for sample selection must be senior students
of the Lyceum of the Philippines University under the college of CITHM. This
qualification ensured that the participants have better understanding on the current
issue of the legalization of same sex marriage, making the survey items easy for
them to accomplish. The study also aimed to determine whether they agree or
disagree with the issue of same sex marriage's legalization.

Simple random sampling was done for the sample selection. This
sampling method is conducted where each member of a population has an equal
opportunity to become part of the sample. As all members of the population have
an equal chance of becoming a research participant, this is said to be the most
efficient sampling procedure. In order to conduct this sampling strategy, the
researcher defined the population first, listed down all the members of the
population and then selected members to make the sample.



To conduct the study, the researcher first made the draft of the
questionnaire contain the questions that would probably give vital information for
this research. Questionnaires composed of personal information and questions that
would define the answers. The type of questionnaire used by the researchers is the
close or fixed alternative; on the other hand limit the respondents to choose
among specific alternatives. It was first validated by our thesis adviser to ensure
the validity of each item contained. Item analysis was done by the researchers.
Initial testing was done on August 27, 2011, Saturday. The result of initial testing
found to be not enough for the final questionnaire that is why another testing were
conducted with the results of initial and second testing. Finally, the items for each
questionnaire were found to be enough items for final set of questionnaires.

For the researchers to be able to test the validity of the instrument
or evaluation tool used in this study, they chose 5 respondents to answer the
questionnaire. These respondents are not part of the actual study process. After the
questions have been answered, the researcher asked the respondents for any
suggestions or any necessary corrections to improve the instrument further. Based
on the assessment and suggestions of the sample respondents, the researchers then
modified the content of the questionnaire. The researchers excluded irrelevant
questions and changed vague or difficult terminologies into simpler ones so as to
make the survey more comprehensive for the selected respondents.


After gathering all the completed questionnaires from the respondents,
total responses for each item were obtained and tabulated. In order to use the
likerts-scale for interpretation, weighted mean to represent each question was
computed. Weighted mean is the average wherein every quantity to be averages
has a corresponding weight. These weights represent the significance of each
quantity to the average. To compute for the weighted mean, each value must be
multiplied by its weight. Products should then be added to obtain the total value.
The total weight should also be computed by adding all the weights. The total
value is then divided by the total weight.
As this study required the participation of human respondents, specifically
human resource professionals, certain ethical issues were addressed. The
consideration of these ethical issues was necessary for the purpose of ensuring the
privacy as well as the safety of the participants. Among the significant ethical
issues that were considered in the research process include consent and
confidentiality. In order to secure the consent of the selected participants, the
researcher relayed all important details of the study, including its aim and
purpose. By explaining these important details, the respondents were able to
understand the importance of their role in the completion of the research. The
respondents were also advised that they could withdraw from the study even
during the process. With this, the participants were not forced to participate in the
research. The confidentiality of the participants was also ensured by not

disclosing their names or personal information in the research. Only relevant

details that helped in answering the research questions were included.

Statistical Treatment Of Data

After the questionnaires will be answered, the profile of the respondents
will be taken, according to age, gender, course, religion, and sexual preference.
To be able to get a description of the profile of the respondents, the data coming
from each item mentioned above will be placed in tabular form with the indicated
percentage as well as the frequency. This will show assessment of CITHM
students on the legalization of same-sex marriage.
The formulae that will be used in this study are:
1. Percentage
This was used as a descriptive manner to show the relationship
between two magnitudes. The formula for this is;
% = f x 100
% = the percentage
f = frequency
N = Total number of respondents
2. Weighted Mean

This is a statistical tool that refers to the over all average responses
or perceptions of the respondents.

WM = fx /N
WM = Weighted Mean
F= frequency
fx = Sum of the product of the frequency and the unit.
N = Total number of respondents

Interpretation was based on the Likerts Scale Method

Mean Value
4.50 5.00
3.50 - 4.49
2.50 3.49
1.50 2.49
1.0 1.49


Verbal Interpretation

3. Composite Weighted Mean

This is the average of the weighted means. The formula for
composite weighted mean is:
CWM = Composite Weighted Mean

= Summation sign

WM = Weighted Mean
N = Total number of category in each factor

This part of the research presents the data gathered through the use of the
research instrument, the survey questionnaire. The presentation, analysis, and
interpretation of the data follow the logical order of the questionnaire. Presentation
of the results from the respondents is done using appropriate presentation
Table presentation of the results is use in this chapter in order to add clarity
on presenting the result. Numerical value, in percentage format is also used to
support the interpretation. Data analysis is also presented in this part of the study.
Quantitative analysis is used to analyse the data through the use of numerical

1. Demographic Profile of the Respondents

The following table shows how the respondents are distributed
according to their age, gender and nationality.

Distribution of the Respondents According to Age

Figure 1.1 presents the frequency and percentage distribution of the

respondents as to their age among 100 respondents, 72 or 72% are ranges from
17-20 years old, 28 or 28% are ranges from 21-24 years old and 0 or 0% range
from 25-28 years old.
Based on the figure above, majority of the respondents are ranging from
17-20 years old while the 21-24 years old bracket has the least number of

Distribution of Respondents According to Gender

Figure1. 2 presents the profile of respondents in terms of gender.. As revealed

by the figure, 29 out of 100 respondents are male and 71 of the respondents are
female. This implies that majority of our respondents are female.

Figure 1.3
Distribution of Respondents According to Religion

Figure 1.3 shows that 83% or majority of the respondents religion is

Roman Catholic. 9% or 9 respondents were Christians. 3 respondents are from
Iglesia ni Kristo which represent the 3% of the graph. 5% of the respondents came
from other religion such as Pentecostal and Back to Christ.

Figure 1.4
Distribution of Respondents According to Course

Figure 1.4 presents that 52 or 52% of the respondents are taking Bachelor
of Science in Tourism, 25% or 25 of the respondents are taking Bachelor of
Science in Cruise Line Management students and 23 or 23 % of the respondents
are from Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management.

2. Factors that influence the Assessment of CITHM students towards the

Legalization of Same Sex Marriage in the Philippines
The following table shows the factors that influence the youths
preference for Legalization of Same Sex Marriage in the Philippines.

Table 2.1
Weighted Mean According to Morality





b. It is against the law of




c. It is against the mores.







a. It is against
religious beliefs.


d. It is alongside other
sexual vices.

Table 2.1 presents how morality affects the respondents perception

towards the Legalization of Same Sex Marriage in the Philippines. With a mean
value 4.21 the respondents agreed that same sex marriage is against their religious
beliefs and also having a mean value of 4.43 that it is against the law of God
indicates that majority of the respondents are religious and their beliefs in the
teaching of the church is strong.
They also agreed that legalizing of same sex marriage is against the mores
and is alongside other sexual vices, with a mean value of 4.11 and 3.91 for the
latter. This means that the respondents think it is wrong and not normal.
Table 2.2

Weighted Mean According to Acceptability

acceptable for me.














b. Having a same sex





completely immoral.
c. I support homosexual
lifestyle and same sex
d. Same sex marriage
should be legalized in the

Table 2.2 presents that acceptability of the respondents on the Legalization

of same sex Marriage. The respondents agreed that homosexuals are acceptable
for them with a mean value of 3.61. In our generation today, homosexuals are
welcomed and accepted by our society already. The discrimination among gay
and lesbian people had lessened now days.
With a mean value of 3.45 the respondents answered neutral on the
thought of same sex relationship being immoral. They still could not decide
whether being on a same sex relationship is right or wrong.

However having a mean value of 2.31 the respondents disagreed that they
support homosexual lifestyle and same sex marriage and lastly they also disagree
on legalizing same sex marriage. This proves that majority of the respondents
cannot accept the legalization of same sex marriage.

Table 2.3
Weighted Mean According to Expectations

a. Same sex marriage
shows fairness and equality
among people, especially
the third sexes.
b. Same sex marriage be
given the same benefit that













normal marriage do.

c. Same sex marriage
improves peoples lives.
d. Same sex marriage
creates better harmony in
the family than normal

Table 2.3 presents the expectations of the respondents towards the

legalization of same sex marriage. The respondents answered neutral on same
sex marriage shows fairness and equality among people, especially the third sex
with a mean value of 2.65. Based on the results the respondents are not
particularly clear on what base should equality be measured if were talking about
However, the respondents disagreed on same sex marriage be given the
same benefits that normal marriage have with a mean value of 2.43 and on Same

sex marriage improves peoples lives with a mean value of 2.37. The shows that
the respondents still are not open on legalizing same sex marriage in the
Lastly, the respondents also disagreed that same sex marriage creates
better harmony in the family than normal marriage with a mean value of 2.23.
They still believe normal marriage offers better family life than that of same sex
marriage gives.

Table 3.1
Rank of Measures
a. Legalization of Same
Sex Marriage after 2 years



of living together..
b. Same sex marriage to
be allowed only for ages
21 and above


c. Marriage requirements
should include
authorization or consent
from both family sides..


d. The government should

require 500,000 Php
marriage fee for the same
sex couple to get an
authorized marriage


Table 3.1 presents the ranking of the policies that the respondents thinks the most
important if ever same sex marriage be legalized in the Philippines. The top choice was
marriage requirement should include authorization or consent from both family sides to
be able to show that everyone in their family agrees to their marriage decision. Second
policy thaw was chosen is that same sex marriage should only be allowed for
homosexuals who are twenty one years of age to ensure that they are not minors. Third
most important policy that was ranked by the respondents is that the government should
require 500,000 pesos marriage fee for the same sex couple to get an authorized marriage
contract. And the weakest policy for the respondents was; marriage between same sexes
will only be genuine after two years of living together.


This chapter presents the general statement of the research about the
findings of the study and it is in these findings that determine whether the
objectives of the study have been answered.

The researchers come up with the following conclusions:
1. The demographic profile of the respondents
Majority of the respondents in this study are female with an age of 17-20
years old. It is safe to say that the assessment on the legalization on same sex
marriage are mostly dominated in the point of view of females but still, this will
not overlook the data gathered regarding the perception of the male respondents in
the study. And also nearly everyone of the respondents religion is Roman
Catholic. The largest parts of the respondents are students of Bachelor of Science
in Tourism.

2. The perceptions of students towards the Legalization of Same Sex Marriage

in the Philippines

2.1 Morality

Most of the respondents of this study believe that same sex marriage is
against their religious beliefs and it is against the law of God. It is very much
understandable since Philippines is a very religious country with 80% of its
population belonging to the Roman Catholic Church thus religion holding a
central place in the life of most Filipinos. The respondents also consider that
same sex marriage is against the mores and it is alongside other sexual vices.

2.2 Acceptability
Majority of the respondents agrees that homosexuals are acceptable for
them. But most of the student respondents cannot decide whether same sex
relationship is immoral or not, and are neutral in supporting the homosexuals
lifestyle and same sex marriage. Most of the respondents strongly disagreed in
legalizing the same sex marriage in the Philippines.

2.3 Expectations
The large number of respondents cannot decide or cannot weigh their
answer if same sex marriage shows fairness and equality among people,
especially the third sexes.

They also cannot decide whether same sex

marriage should be given the same benefits as normal marriage have. In

addition, they cannot decide whether same sex marriage improves peoples
lives. But in the later part, most of them strongly agreed that same sex
marriage creates better harmony in the family than normal marriage.

3. The policies and programs that the government can undertake on the
Legalization of Same Sex Marriage

We have concluded that the if ever the Legalization of same sex

marriage be approved in the Philippines, their first priority for the
requirements to those who are in a same sex relationship that wants to get
married is that they should have consent or authorization on both family sides.
Secondly is that both gay people should b of the age 21 years old and above so
that the government is rest assured that the people involved are mature enough
and are of their proper mind to make the decision. The government should
also require 500,000 Php marriage fee for the same sex couple to get an
authorized marriage contract. And lastly Legalization of Same Sex Marriage
should only be given after 2 years of living together, by doing so they will be
sure if their marriage can last long or if they are really compatible with each

Based on the findings and conclusions of the study, the following
recommendations are proposed by the researchers:
If the legalization of same sex marriage were to be approved by the
government, the following recommendations were to be presented:
1. Information Drive

Based on the study, majority of the respondents disagreed with the

legalization of same sex marriage. In order for the people to not rally or be against
this anymore, information drive is the solution. Through this, they will be
educated and made understood on the advantages of legalizing same sex marriage
in the Philippines like this shows equality to people.