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Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure "AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES OF IRRIGATION IN INDONESIA:

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

"AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES OF IRRIGATION IN INDONESIA:

Drawbacks and Future Perspectives" 1

By A. Hafid A. Gany, 2 gany@hafied.org; http://twitter.com/hafiedgany

espitethat irrigationinIndonesia has longbeenplayedavery significant rolein the history of thecountry's development, the technical irrigation infrastructure has only been introduced by civil engineering undertaking between the end of the 19th century and turn of the 20th century. This was more significant when the Dutch Colonial Government applying the so called"Ethical Policy", by fosteringIrrigation, educationandtransmigrationprogramtoenhancethedevelopment of its colonies. Initially, the water infrastructure was developed to foster water use for sugar cane plantation and hazard protection, which was the domain of civil engineers, then geared toward effective water use for supporting rice production as the staple diet of the population. Due to lack of technical expertise, at the initial stage, the main irrigation structures such as barrage and weirs were constructed by means of trial-and-error approach. Then it was not surprising that many of the major irrigation structures were in fact collapsed by the large flood incident before even the construction completed. Other structures were found over designed to accommodate huge safety factors, and hence the structures were highly inefficient from both civil engineering as well as economic justification. The term of stainable development was merely considered by development engineer from the lasting quality of the water infrastructure as artificial resources, and less attention on sustaining the functionality by means of effective and efficient operation and maintenance O&M. This condition become exceptionally worsened due to the fact that the structural O&M were somewhat neglected and even become non existence, particularly the case during and after the World War II. As the matter of fact, from a series of experiences in irrigation implementation, it gives strong supports that management of irrigation, drainage, and flood control system is much more important than construction of facilities per se. This matter have been apparent through the ancient traditional irrigation system under rice pattern in Indonesia that has been highly sustainable with active participation of local population for hundreds of years without major problems. In contrast, modern system of major engineering works has not fully achieved the expected performance in fact, some modern irrigation systems had been failure to achieve the targets that had been previously envisaged due to a number of socio-technical constraints, including the lack of community participation as well as inappropriate O&M. Under such circumstances, despite the full support fromthe government, the structural existence of most irrigation facilities were not only hardly possible to accomplish its practical function but also hardly available to perform social amenity for the people living around it, although they may not be aware of the value of the amenity especially of the one constructed long years ago. It is undeniable, however, that under the intensive irrigation development, we can still find many well-designed water infrastructures that have been functioning for long years and still remaining in good shape in terms of physical condition, but this kind of infrastructures especiallyafter thewar werealsosuffer fromdegradationduetotheabsenceof appropriateO&M. Inaddition tothefact that most communitymembersweresufferedfromdependencyattitude, waitingassistancefromthegovernment, and almost having no sense of participation and sense of belonging against the public facilities as well as infrastructures. Inattempt torecover theimpact of thepost war ontopof thesubstantial impacts of economic crisis, this paper is presentingan outlook of infrastructural heritages of irrigation in Indonesia, giving special discussion on the drawbacks, as well as their immediate causes and future perspectives. It is expected that by learning more from the water infrastructural heritages in Indonesia and advanced experiences in other nations. It will enhance a good opportunity to deepen the sense of natural and cultural friendly engineering of water infrastructures and eventually contribute the raising of awareness and hence public participation O&M of water infrastructures, under the best cooperation between administration organization and local community.

Key Words: Infrastructural Heritages; Irrigation; Water Resources Infrastructures

Heritages; Irrigation; Water Resources Infrastructures 1 This Paper has been prepared for the Seminar on
Heritages; Irrigation; Water Resources Infrastructures 1 This Paper has been prepared for the Seminar on

1 This Paper has been prepared for the Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure , as one of World Water Day s Programs, conducted by JICA in collaboration with the Secretariat of National Water Resources Council (Sekretariat Dewan Sumber Daya Air Nasional), and Directorate General of Water Resources, Ministry of Public Works, in Jakarta, 21 st April 2010.

2 Mr. A. Hafied A. Gany, Ph D., P.Eng, is the incumbent Vice President of International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID) and the Chairman of Permanent Committee of Strategic Planning and Organizational Affairs (PCSPOA) of ICID.

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"Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES OF IRRIGATION IN INDONESIA: Drawbacks and Future Perspectives 2010"

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure I. INTRODUCTION Historical Background: From the historical perspective,

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

I. INTRODUCTION

Historical Background: From the historical perspective, Irrigation has been practiced on Java Island for rice crop since the ancient time with the simple and least sophisticated structures. These have been recognized through the ancient infrastructural heritages which are still in operation today. However, the technical irrigation infrastructures by means of civil engineering undertaking had only been introduced between the end of the 19 th century and the turn of the 20 th century AD. This was more significant when the Dutch Colonial Government applying the so called "Ethical Policy", by fostering Irrigation, education and transmigration program to enhance the development of its colonies. Initially, the water infrastructure was developed to foster water use for sugar cane plantation and hazard protection, which was the domain of civil engineers, then geared toward effective water use for supporting rice production as the staple diet of most of the countrys population.

Since after independence, irrigation development Irrigation in Indonesia has been developed through five year development plan with implementation of several major projects including Jatiluhur, Citarum River in West Java, the Brantas River Valley Development, regional plan in East Java, Sempor Dam and irrigation Project, and Bali Irrigation Project. The water sources come from has several river streams with the total internal water resources of the country stood at 2,530 BCM(1987) of which a quantity of 16.6 BCMwas being withdrawn with an allocation of 76% to agriculture, whereas the irrigated area in 1995 was 4.58 M ha. These achievements have been possible through the supports of large number of irrigation infrastructures, weirs, from small, medium to large structure category.

Along with this irrigation development, drainage for agriculture had also been developed in several islands of Indonesia particularly in Kalimantan and Sumatra Islands. As the matter of fact, the implementation of drainage and reclamation of lowlands for agriculture had also been conducted in Indonesia since the Dutch Colonial Period. Large rice fields on lowland areas were connected by excavating channels and connecting them to tidal rivers which inundate the fields during the high tide and drain off during low-tides.

General Drawback of Irrigation Infrastructural Sustainability: Through a long term development implementation the infrastructural heritages, especially the ones that have been constructed during before the countrys independence, have been suffered fromdamages due to inadequate O&M undertakings. And after independence, in fact were also suffered from the same problems because the country was concentrating its effort to provide new infrastructural facilities to meet the post independence accelerating demand. With the down fall of the countrys economy that have been experience by the country, it has been evident that the capacity to perform operation and maintenance (O&M) of the developed infrastructures continuously lacking behind.

Learning from a series of experiences in irrigation implementation, it gives strong supports that management of irrigation, drainage, and flood control systemis much more important than construction of facilities per se. This matter has been apparent through the ancient traditional irrigation system that has been highly sustainable with active participation of local community for hundreds of years without major problems. In contrast, modern system of major engineering works has not fully achieved the expected performance some modern irrigation systems, in fact, had been failure to achieve the targets that had beenpreviously envisaged duetoanumber of socio-technical constraints, includingthelack of community participation as well as inappropriate O&M.

Under such circumstances, despite the full support fromthe government, the structural existence of most irrigation facilities were not only hardly possible to accomplish its practical function but also hardly available to perform social amenity for the people living around it. Although the past development efforts were mostly based on the poor methodology, lacking of data and technical expertise, it is undeniable, however, that

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"Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES OF IRRIGATION IN INDONESIA: Drawbacks and Future Perspectives 2010"

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure under the intensive irrigation development, we can still find

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

under the intensive irrigation development, we can still find many well-designed water infrastructures that have been functioning well, and still remaining in good shape in terms of physical condition, but this kind of infrastructures were also suffered from degradation due to the absence of appropriate O&M. In addition, most community members were suffered from dependency attitude, waiting assistance from the government, and almost having no sense of participation and sense of belonging against the public infrastructures.

II. OVERVIEW OF IRRIGATION DEVELOPMENT IMPLEMENTATION

2.1. The Ancient Irrigation Techniques

According to the existing folklore as well as some ancient inscriptions, there are adequate reasons to believe that irrigation development in Indonesia must had been practiced longer before the Hindu Era. Much of the traditional communities believed that the first Hindu migrant had found the local irrigated paddy had been widely cultivated by the local people in the lowland plains of Java. Thus, during the Hindu Era, the Hindu Emperors had strongly believed to have been fulfilling adequate food supplies of the peoples through the widely practiced irrigation technique for paddies.

For illustration, the stone inscription from Dharmawangsa Emperor dated 958 Caka-Year or 1037 AD stated that a series of dyke construction works were undertaken by the emperor at the Waringin Sapta, next to the Brantas river banks for protecting human settlement as well as agricultural areas in the vicinity of the middle reach of the Brantas River Basin (belongs to the East Java Province, today).

During the period Islamic Kingdoms, a number of adjustments as well as improvements were made against the previous irrigated agricultural practices. As a matter of facts, there are some evidences to believe that the Islamic Kingdom of Demak in the eastern Java was known to be the major rice-exporting source to supply the entire part of the Nusantara (ancient term of Indonesian) archipelago (Wirosoemarto, S., 1997, p.3). Thismatter withsomeother evidencesindicatethat irrigatedagriculturefor paddieshasalreadybeen implemented with appropriate water management on almost the entire lowland plains of the northern parts of Java Island. Whatever water management technique, and however simple it was, irrigation intervention must have been practiced.

2.2. Traditional Agricultural Heritages

Following the ancient irrigation techniques, there some evidence of the traditional agricultural heritages that are still currently practiced today. The traditional irrigated agricultural practices had been descended from generation to generation by the ancient Indonesian civilizations. These among others are the Subak System in Bali Province, Dawur Pranatamangsa in Central and East Java Provinces, Tuo Banda or Siak Bandar in West Sumatra Province, Tudang Sipulung in South Sulawesi, Panriahan Pamokkahanan and Siauga Parjolo in North Sumatra, Panitia Siring in South Sumatra and Bengkulu Provinces, including some institutional based traditional agriculture such as Ulu-ulu Desa , and Ulu-ulu Vak in Central Java, Raksa Bumi in West Java, Ili-ili in East Java, Malar or Ponggawa in Sumbawa Island, and Kejrueng Blang in Aceh Province, despite of the modern irrigation practice today.

These in themselves are the concrete explanation of the past existence of irrigation based agricultural practices, though they do not give indication of the exact date of the initial inventions. Whoever might be the inventors of the ancient irrigation agricultural techniques, they must have been based on systematical observations and long-term trials-and-errors to meet and adjust with the existing demands and constrains from generation to generations.

demands and constrains from generation to generations. 3 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES
demands and constrains from generation to generations. 3 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES
demands and constrains from generation to generations. 3 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES
demands and constrains from generation to generations. 3 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES
demands and constrains from generation to generations. 3 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES
demands and constrains from generation to generations. 3 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES
demands and constrains from generation to generations. 3 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES
demands and constrains from generation to generations. 3 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES
demands and constrains from generation to generations. 3 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES
demands and constrains from generation to generations. 3 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES
demands and constrains from generation to generations. 3 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES
demands and constrains from generation to generations. 3 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES
demands and constrains from generation to generations. 3 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES
demands and constrains from generation to generations. 3 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES
demands and constrains from generation to generations. 3 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES
demands and constrains from generation to generations. 3 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES

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"Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES OF IRRIGATION IN INDONESIA: Drawbacks and Future Perspectives 2010"

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure 2.3. New Irrigation Technique Early at the beginning of

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

2.3. New Irrigation Technique

Early at the beginning of the Dutch Colonial Era in Indonesia (referred to by the Dutch Colonial Government as the Netherland Indie ) not much effort were addressed to irrigation development due to their special attention on spice trade. This was the case because the Dutch still give concentration of spice products rather thanirrigatedagriculture, whichbynature, consideredaspublicservicesorientedundertaking. Apart from that, irrigation infrastructures were still available to provide adequate food supplies for the people. There were a number of irrigation works and expansion of paddy cultivations in Bali Island and in Java as well as on the Outer Islands through mutual aid (gotong royong) system. Irrigation for private lands was also constructed in the Tangerang Plain, Bekasi and Cikarang, as well as in the vicinity of Batavia (Jakarta, today) and Bogor for land-lords. Among others are the Ciliwung Katulampa, Cisedane Empang and Cibalok, which are still in operation after more that 250 years, though their physical conditions are increasingly deteriorated.

Early 20 th Century: In an attempt to resolve the long financial crises, immediately after the end of Diponegoro War in 1830, the Dutch Colonial Government assigned the Governor General Van Den Bosh to enforce compulsory agricultural policy, so called as Cultuur Stelsel or Verplichte Cultuur or mandatory agricultural policy. This policy imposed the farmers to cultivate 20% of agricultural lands they have with commercial plantation and cash crops such as rubber, coffee, tea, and pepper for upland areas and for lowland areas with nila (genus corchorus) and sugar cane, as the highly market potential agricultural products in Europe those days.

Pioneering Period: Due to the lack of technical experience in the early development stage of irrigation for agriculture, irrigation planning and construction implementation were undertaken almost without any basic technical and agro-climatological data. At that time, practically no data on hydrology, hydrometry, geology, topographical maps as well as laboratories to back up the planning and technical design available. Most Dutch engineers who we relied to implement the irrigation development had no experience to work for irrigation, especially in tropical regions. And hence, the technical designs were merely conducted based trial-and-error approach. Not surprisingly, that many irrigation schemes were failure to meet the objective previously intendedinthedesign. For example, theSampeanWeir inSitubondo, whichwas constructedin 1832, had been totally collapsed before it could be fully utilized. It was only in 1887 the weir was reconstructed with permanent structure that made it strong enough to perform water diversion till present.

Establishment of the Colonial Ministry of Public Works: To meet the engineering demands for developing irrigation infrastructures, it was only in 1885 the Colonial Government established the Ministry of Public Works for dealing with the provision of public infrastructures, including water resources and irrigation, through the Special Department for Water Resources and Irrigation Development. At the same year, a Special Irrigation Division was established under the Department of Water Resources to deal with the construction of special irrigation projects.

In 1889 the Irrigation Division was transformed into a formal structural institution termed as Water Resources Services or Algemene Waterstaatdienst in Dutch term. With the establishment of the Water Resources Services, the systematic and comprehensive implementation of water resources as well as irrigation development and management had gradually become more effective. This institution has been developedandmanagedconsistently, andlater after thecountrysindependence, it becametheDirectorate General of Water Resources, which responsible for water resources and irrigation development and management under the Ministry of Public Works till present.

management under the Ministry of Public Works till present. 4 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL
management under the Ministry of Public Works till present. 4 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL
management under the Ministry of Public Works till present. 4 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL
management under the Ministry of Public Works till present. 4 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL

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"Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES OF IRRIGATION IN INDONESIA: Drawbacks and Future Perspectives 2010"

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure 2.4. Irrigation Development for Supporting Transmigration Program As the

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

2.4. Irrigation Development for Supporting Transmigration Program

As the follow up of the Ethical Policy goodwill strategy referred to as the Ethische Politiek with the slogan of three major endeavors: Irrigation; Emigration; and Education; the Dutch Colonial Government commissioned a study in 1902, to examine the possibility of resolving the problemof over population and land fragmentation on Java as a potential source of political tension and unrest, by moving people from Java to the sparsely populated areas in other parts of Indonesia, supported by Irrigation development program. Accordingly, the first resettlement experiment was carried out three years later by moving 155 families fromJavatoLampung, SouthernSumatraby virtueof IrrigationBased Approach. Theobjectiveof the resettlement programwas not only to reduce the population pressure on Java but also to contribute to the development of sparsely populated "Outer Islands" (Geertz, 1963) by providing more manpower for agricultural development (Gany, A. H.A.; 1993.)

At the follow up stage, irrigation development priorities were set up for the eastern coast of Sumatra, then, set up for South Sulawesi. Subsequently, the irrigation development priorities were directed toward other Outer Islands, with special focus on the transmigrant destination areas. Unfortunately, the development waspracticallyterminatedin1930sduetosevereeconomiccrisis. Inthemeantime, thefollowupeffort to recommence the development effort in the middle of the following decade was again hampered by the break up of the Second World War.

For the Inner Islands, intensification program was directed toward construction of reservoirs at the upper part of theriver basins onthehighland areas, whichintendedtoimprovetheretentioncapacity of theriver basin during the dry seasons. During the period before the War, several reservoirs ranging fromsmall to large size were constructed in West Java, Central Java and East Java Provinces. For instance, the constructed reservoirs with the storage capacity of more than 30 MCMamong others were the Malahayu Damin Central Java, and the Pacal Reservoir in East Java Province. While the mediumsized reservoirs withthestoragecapacitybetween10and30MCMamongotherswerethePrijetanReservoir inEast Java, the Gembong reservoir in Central Java, and Situpatok Reservoir in West Java Province.

During the pre-independence period, till the time before the Second World War, several large irrigation schemes in the northern coast of Java Island as well as in the other parts of the country were also completed. These were the Ciujung, Cisadane, Citarum-Walahar irrigation schemes in North Coast of Java, the Setail Scheme in Banyuwangi, the South Jember plain, the Bagelen, and Southern Banyumas Areas. In addition, the constructedIrrigationschemes ontheOuter Islands amongothers wereSimalungunScheme in North Sumatra, Klingi and Blitang in South Sumatra, Way Sekampung in Lampung, Saddang and Jeneberang schemes in South Sulawesi. For the latter case, the irrigation schemes had not been fully completed, because the construction terminated as the 2 nd World War break up. The schemes were only completed later on through the immediate post independence development program of Indonesian Government.

2.5. Immediate Post Independence Period

Initial Develoment Initiative: At the earlier stage after Independence, the Government made a series of irrigation development planning both for short term, medium term as well as long term, with a special priority on the short termobjective, which was the three-year development plan from1951 up until 1953. However, under the limited potentential of financial as well as human resources, the short- termdevelopment plan had never been materialized, till the new plan (Five-year Development Plan of 1956-1960) launched. As time passed by, the new five-year development plan came up with the same positionas theprevious development plan.

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"Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES OF IRRIGATION IN INDONESIA: Drawbacks and Future Perspectives 2010"

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure The subsequent developmen plan of 1961-1968 also faced the

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

The subsequent developmen plan of 1961-1968 also faced the same problems and constraints, which unable it to be fully implemented. Political and economic uncertainties of Indonesia was then became more crucial with the emerging issues. During this period, practically no irrigation development was undertakentill thepolitical situationunder theNewOrder Government hadbeenstabilized.

Five-Year Development Plan: Under the New Order Government, the socio-political condition gradually became stablized, and the confrontation policy was replaced with the closer economic and political relationship with the neighbouring countries. During which, the stabilized political condition brought about newopportunity for thecountry toconduct neweconomic development policy.

At the First Five-year Development Plan, water resources development had been prioritized by the Government of Indonesia. Despite that the development had been given special priority, the budgetary allocation had only been possible for large projects, and hence, the distribution of irrigation development has not not been possible to reach the entire parts of the country. The large projects that had been undertaken during the first five year development implementation including: The Cacaban Reservoir in Central Java Province. The Darma Reservoir in West Java Province, Selorejo and Karangkates Reservoirs in East Java Province, the continuation of the notable Jatiluhur Reservoir with a total irrigation service area of about 240,000 ha, and the Lakbok Irrigation Scheme in West Java Province. At the same period the flood control project of the south Tulung Agung (Phase-I) in East JavaProvince.

Beside the multipurposes functions of the latter water resources and irrigation project, which cover almost the overall aspects of water resources development, the Jatiluhur Project also considered as the pioneer project on integrated water resources development in Indonesia. This particularly the case for integrating the water resources in the north coast of West Java, which are the Ciliwung River in the western part and CilalanangRiver intheEast. Most encouragingaboveall, that theJatiluhur MultipurposeProject hadbeen conducted under the full capacity of Indonesian engineer from the planning stage, design up to the constuction implementation as well as construction supervision.

Under the five year development program, the scope of activities had been included to cover other multifunctionalities of water resources infrastructures including flood control, water transportation, environment conservation and water based recreations. These programs have been initiated in two major river basins, namely the Jatiluhur in West Java Province and the Brantas River Basin in East Java Province. The two river basin projects have extended their activities, not only for irrigation, hydropower and flood control, but also for raw water supplies, city flushing, aquaculture development, as well as water based recreation and sports.

2.6. Multiple Purposes Water Resources and River Basin Development:

In an attempt to make the optimum advantage of water resources development andmanagement, the project implementations in general has been based upon integrated river basin approach as far as possible. This approach is especially implemented for river basins that are interdependent or having the same impacts, or belongs to the shared water ecosystem or environmental impacts from each other for being served the same areas.

During the first 25 years long term development program (1969-1984) there were seven multiple purposes and river-basin development projects namely: the Brantas River Basin Project; the Jratunseluna (Jragung, Tuntang, Serang, Lusi, Juana); Bengawan Solo; Serayu; Citanduy; Citarum; and Jenebrang River Basin Projects. Following the river basin development projects, the management of Brantas and Citarum River Basins have been transformed into state owned companies, the Jasa Tirta-I for Brantas River Basin Project, and Jasa Tirata-II for the Citarum River Basin Project. Both

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"Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES OF IRRIGATION IN INDONESIA: Drawbacks and Future Perspectives 2010"

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure state owned companies have been intended for undertaking the

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

state owned companies have been intended for undertaking the sustainable basin water resources management as the Operating Institutions.

2.7. Irrigation Works:

Approaching the first long-termdevelopment program, the physical condition of irrigation in Indonesia had been under highly deteoriorating condition. Irrigation infrastructures including canals and structures were practically suffered fromsevere damages due to the lack of maintenance within the last fewyears. It was

estimatedthat theremainingservicefunctionof irrigationsystemwasbetween40%and60%of theoverall capacity. During which, Indonesia had been suffered from severe deficit of rice production as the staple diet

of the people.

Under such condition, the effort was concentrated on the implementation of Operation and Maintenance (O&M) of the existing facilities while pursuing the immediately affordable repairs to increase the serviceability of the irrigation infrastuctures. In the mean time, the development of new scheme had been concentrated on quick yielding projects, while extending irrigation areas through improvement, rehabilitation and upgrading of the already existing schemes.

Lowlands (swamps) Development: Parallel with conventional irrigation schemes, Indonesia posess

a huge lowlands potentials scattered over the country, in particular on Sumatra Island, Kalimantan,

and Irian Jaya (Papua). According to the physical as well as water management, the swamplands divided into three major categories namely: inland swamps, tidal swamps and barakish water or saline

water swamps.

The development of inland swamps had long been practiced in Indonesia with mostly paddy cultivation, and occasionally with inland fisheries. So far as the water availability is still accessible, the water control for agriculture conducted by means of regulating the water level and tidal movements at the drainage channels.

The tidal swamps also posess a huge potential for agricultural development in Indonesia. Out of the overall of about 30 million ha of lowland potential Indonesia has, about 15%suitable for agricultural development. Out of about five million hectares, part which has already been developed for

agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries, including the majority of tidal lowlands development in the vicinity

of the coastal areas.

2.8. River Improvement and Flood Control:

River improvement as well as flood control in Indonesia poses variety of categories ranging from regular repairs to the very urgent works that must be undertaken as soon as possible, such as river improvement works due to natural disasters, and prevention works for protecting certain objects from severe river degradations. Particularly for the young geological river formation, degradation occurs quite frequently along the river channels due to unstable river-bed materials.

Other category of river improvement works associated with the routine maintenance and river protections, as well as prevention from periodical flood strikes also conducted. Early in 1930s a number of river maintenance and improvement works were conducted at Citanduy River at the boundary between West Java and Central Java Provinces, such as stabilization of river flows at the meandering parts of the river.

On the other hand, flood control works usually directed toward specific localities, either for human settlement in the rural or urban areas or for protecting agricultural areas that are frequently suffered from

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"Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES OF IRRIGATION IN INDONESIA: Drawbacks and Future Perspectives 2010"

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure flood disasters. Under the special case for protecting irrigation

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

flood disasters. Under the special case for protecting irrigation area, the flood control works usually included as an integral part of the irrigation area referred to.

Reservoir and Weir: Initially, people suspected that the provision of irrigation infrastructures would resolve all problems concerning water allocation and distribution for agricultural purposes. With the availability of irrigation networks, provision of irrigation water would no longer become problematic to meet the farming demands at appropriate time and quantity. In fact, this presumption would never fully meet their expectations, owing to the nature of irrigation facilities that also dictated by the dependable river runoff, that had been determined on the basis of stocastic probability concept.

Early at the beginning of the 1920s development of reservoirs became more and more demanding, particularly for supporting sugarcane plantation on Java Island. Among the reservoirs that previously intended to support water supplies for sugar crop plantation the Gunung Rowo, Gembong, Penjalin, Malahayu, and Situ Patok were the most popular ones during that period. Later, the provision of reservoirs for stabilizing irrigation water supplies in non sugarcane areas were becoming increasingly demanding. At theinitial stage, priority was giventoirrigationareas at thewater scarcity areas suchas Pacal and Prijetan reservoirs in South Bojonegoro District, as well as Tempuran Reservoir in Blora District. A while before the break up of the Pacific War, a comprehensive plan had been prepared for construction of major reservoirs such as the Cacaban, Darma, and Cipanas. The Cacaban and Darma Reservoirs in Central Java were only completed few years after Indonesian independence in 1950s. Following this pioneering period, many scattered reservoirs, ranging from small, medium to large categories have been constructed in Indonesia, not only for irrigation water supplies, but also for other multifunctionalities of sustainablewater resources development andmanagement.

Groundwater Development: Despite the comparative advantage of the utilization of groundwater relative to the surface water i.e. easily accessible, without too complicated infrastructures, and less conveyance required however, the development alternative was not feasible. During the time before the longterm development program, the groundwater exploitation considered to be highly demanding for sophis-ticatedandcostly technologies.

The development of groundwater resources began to conduct at the followup stage of the first five year development program by initiating experimental pilot projects at the water scarce areas such as at Gunung Kidul in Yogyakarta Special Province and on Madura Island. During which, the groundwater development wasnot onlylimitedtoagricultural purposes, but alsoextendedtoanumber of utilizationsfor thelivelihood of the people for domestic, livestock, and house-yard gardening.

III. HIGHLIGHTS OF IRRIGATION STRUCTURES DEVELOPMENT

3.1. Evidences of the Earliest Infrastructural Heritages

Historical Evidence of Ancient Irrigation Civilization: Based on the historical evidence, the water resources and irrigation development in Indonesia, one of the earliest irrigation and water resources structure in Indonesia is Harinjing Structure was developed in the Kepung Village at Brantas River Basin Area in the year of 808AD, thenfollowedby reconstructionintheyear 921ADandrehbilitationwas conductedin927 AD. Unfortunately, no more artifact left except a big stone which is believed to be the ruin of structural foundation of the weir (Angoedi, 1984., p.25). See Figure 1.

The structure is believed to be constructed as a weir in combination with river dyke (harinjing dyke) to facicilitate irrigated agriculture and flood protection in the vicinity of one of Brantas River tributary area, by

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"Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES OF IRRIGATION IN INDONESIA: Drawbacks and Future Perspectives 2010"

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure means of gotong royong or mutual aid system by

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

means of gotong royong or mutual aid system by the people concerned. See Figure 2 (Statuette at Harinjing Monument illustrating the construction of the Harinjing weir by means of gotong-royong or mutual aid system.

weir by means of gotong-royong or mutual aid system. 1 2 Figure 1. The copy of
weir by means of gotong-royong or mutual aid system. 1 2 Figure 1. The copy of
1
1
2
2

Figure 1. The copy of the Harinjing stone inscription at Jombang (Pare) District at Siman Krajan Village. The original inscription is now kept at the National Museum, registered under No. N. D.173; and Figure 2. The stauette at Harinjing Monument, illustrating the construction of the Harinjing Weir by means of gotong-royong or mutual aid system.

3
3

Figure 3. The Tugu Stone inscription, The original artifact is currently kept at the National Musium, registered under No. D.124. (Angoedi, 1984, p.28).

The earlist evidence of ancient hydraulic structure in Indonesia: As far as the historical records that have been unveiled till up to now, it is clearly apparent from the Tugu Stone inscription that the earliest ancient hydraulic structure in Indonesia is the Chandra Baga diversion channel near Cilincing River in the

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"Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES OF IRRIGATION IN INDONESIA: Drawbacks and Future Perspectives 2010"

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure Vicinity of Jakarta Metrupolitant City now. The channel was

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

Vicinity of Jakarta Metrupolitant City now. The channel was believed to be constructed at the year 500 AD by King Purnawarman for facilitating the flood control of Jakarta land plain. See Figure 3 above.

3.2. Some Stone Relief Concerning the Water Utilization at the Ancient Temples

Inspite of thehistorical evidence of newly developed technology of irrigation and water resources hiritages in Indonesia, compared with other countries like Egypt, Iran and China, it is apparent that the Indonesian ancestors has long been experienced to developed and managed water resources and irrigation technology as well as environmental water water ecosystem. The ancient ancestors had apparently been intended to communicate their experiences and expertices in water resources and environmental technology, by means of engraving the information in the form of picturescues diorama at the wall of ancient temples scattered in many locations.

From several reliefs found at the Prambanan Temples, it is clearly seen that the civilization of water technology had already been developed to provide water as well as conservation for sustainable environmental ecosystem,-- which is clearly illustrate that the water technique is not only intended to provide water for human livelihood, but also for the sustainability of flora and fauna (See Figure 4 and Figure 5.).

4 5
4
5

Figure 4. The stone relief illustrate the water utilization by implementing the integrated approach between the provision of water resources infrastructures for livelihood and environment. Figure 5. Indicates the water utilization not only for human life but also for flora and fauna as well as for supporting the sustainability of environmental ecosystem.

The ancestral messages concerning culture and irrigation technology for paddy cultivation, for instance, clearly depicted by the stone reliefs kept at trowulan museum in East Java, in which shown how to transplant paddy seedlings at thelowlandboundedpaddy field. This evidenceclearly shownuplandpaddy cultivation which must apply seed broadcasting technique. Therefore the paddy cultivation shown at the stone relief must have been representing the utilization of water for softening the land cultivation. And hence, however simple the technology which were utilized by the ancestor, it indicated that they have already applied special effort for irrigation water.

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6

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

7
7

Figure 6. A stone relief of the temple at Trowulan Museum, shown the paddy cultivation by means of low land bounded paddy field.

Figure 7. A stone relief from the temple at Trowulan museum depicting the bird eye view of low-land bounded paddy field at the rural area.

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9
10
10

Figure 9. The relief of Borobudur Temple showing the technology of land preparation by cattle power.

Figure 10. The relief of Borobudur temple showing the farming activities for pest control, including bird and rats at the ripening stage of the paddy cultivation.

If the reliefs, which were perfectly crafted at the massive stone during the era of Borobudur Temple, Perambanan and others, at the 7-8 th century AD, it is obvious that the irrigation or water technology must had been older than the erection of the ancient temples.

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"Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES OF IRRIGATION IN INDONESIA: Drawbacks and Future Perspectives 2010"

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure 3.3. Ancient Technique and Simple Irrigation System: Design and

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

3.3. Ancient Technique and Simple Irrigation System:

Design and Construction: During the Hindu Era, construction of medium and large irrigation schemes were based on the executive order of the King ( dawuhan ); The ancient technique was so simple, making use of local materials. The local materials are mostly recommended, in such a way that the construction would not costly, and the rehabilitation as well as repairs would be easily undertaken without necessary to import construction materials. For instance, many structure of the water weir in the medium and large rivers were made of loose stone and boulder, in combination with soil and bamboo leaves, branches, or organic filament, anchored to the bamboo pegs to fill the voids between the stone and bamboo layers. Till present, the construction technique is still practiced in many remote rural areas, today. And most of them are implemented in the form of technical heritages from ancient time, and physically identified as simple irrigation system.

Simple Irrigation System: In realtion with agricultural implementation by means of simple irrigation, The Indonesian Archipelago posesses quite a large number of ancestral heritages, both in terms software as well ashardware, includingsystemandinstitutional aspectsof irrigatedagricultural heritageswhicharestill applied in this modern era. For instance, heritage of rice terrace in the Island of Bali, Lombok, Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, and other agricultural

11
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systemscattered over the country. However, the traditional irrigated agricultural heritages had been handed over from generation to generation through oral messages without any evidence about the time since the technology had been applied (see Figure 11).

In many places in Indonesia, the simple irrigation structures (Figure 12 and 13) are still operated and maintained by the rural community, because most of them would easily conduct the repair of the damages due to annual floods, using locally available material, and participatory approach in terms of mutual aid or gotong royong in terms of local community. Participation of local community to work together for theirown benefit without payment.

to work together for theirown benefit without payment. 12 13 1 2 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK
12
12
13
13

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"Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES OF IRRIGATION IN INDONESIA: Drawbacks and Future Perspectives 2010"

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure Figure 12 and 13. Example of loose boulder weir

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

Figure 12 and 13. Example of loose boulder weir in South Sulawesi which have been applied by the local community since the ancient time, and yet still applied by many traditional community, today.

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14

For illustration, one of the key successess of sustainble irrigated agriculrural implementation in Subak Syatem in Bali Island is the simplicity principle, in such a way that the message can be adapted by the local farmers, however simple their educational background. As the matter of fact, such simple technology could be descended down from generation to generation for hundreds, even thousands years till the modern era, tiday. See Figure 14, simple water measurement device (tektek) invented by Subak in Bali.

measurement device (tektek) invented by Subak in Bali. Figure 14. Simple water measurement devive (tektek)

Figure 14. Simple water measurement devive (tektek) invented by Subak in Bali.

From the perspective of modern irrigation technology, the accuracy is not least presize in comparirison with the modren measurement device the people known today. Most significant is that, if for one reason the

simple irrigation device or infrastructure is ruined by flood or other during the rainy season, the farmer would be easily fix the damaged without any complicated efforts. More significanly is that the farmers would

rather

than conducting continuous operation and maintenance of permanent infrastructures all the year round. This is perhaps one of the rationale why the artifact of infrastructural heritages had never been uncovered.

Simplicity Principles: Under the traditional management system, irrigation heritages are mostly sustainable and adaptable by people fromgeneration to generation. The main rationale of the sustainable practice has been incorporated with the simplicity principles. Most techniques can be adopted without involvingsophisticatedlearningprocess. Theancient agricultural calendarswill remainappreciatedtoday, because the application principles accommodate the harmonious relationship between human, cosmic, nature and reality (DJ; 1979: 69). This heritage, for example, applied to the adjustment of local community with traditional agricultural calendar, which are still practiced by many rural communities today.

be highly enthusiastic to undertake the repair efforts through mutual aid systemor gotong-royong

IV. HIGHLIGHT OF TECHNICAL IRRIGATION INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES

At the beginning, the technical Irrigation during the Dutch Colonial Era, it has been stated that technical irrigation has only been widely implemented in Indonesia since earlier at the turn of the 20 th century. Since then the technical infrastructures have been operated and maintained following the development capacity of the government, and the operation and maintenance capacity of the farmers. Following the economic condition of the country and the development process of water resources and irrigation infrastructures, the infrastructural heritage have been suffered from severely lack of O&M undertakings, so do the physical condition. Based upon the structural inventory in 2002, the overall structure of irrigation infrastructural condition have been represented by a total irrigation area of 7,769,733 ha having servrd with dams, weirs, and facilities at the main,secondary systems, consisted of large, medium and small structures, scattered over the provinces in the archypelago. (See the list of irrigation areas that served by infrastructural heritages in Table 1. below.

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Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure Table 1. Irrigated paddy field areas served by infrastructural

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

Table 1. Irrigated paddy field areas served by infrastructural heritages (1994 and 2002), by Province

 

Area (ha)

Cropping Area (ha)

Total Yield (ton) *)

Average Yield

Province

 

(ton/ha)

 

1994

2002

1994

2002

1994

2002

1994

2002

Aceh

315,210

288,574

322,759

322,385

1,315,662

1,347,988

4.08

4.18

North Sumatra

537,264

524,649

715,380

711,589

2,904,484

2,962,457

4.06

4.16

West Sumatra

227,347

229,641

366,604

417,939

1,709,705

1,857,691

4.66

4.44

Riau

220,368

111,935

115,077

108,199

378,994

354,017

3.29

3.27

Jambi

222,068

131,245

139,830

138,323

478,245

499,491

3.42

3.61

South Sumatra

516,210

440,647

320,777

489,730

1,136,041

1,711,514

3.54

3.49

Bengkulu

 

81,829

83,113

77,213

88,658

281,830

337,421

3.65

3.81

Lampung

 

281,401

278,135

304,447

397,766

1,321,784

1,755,524

4.34

4.41

Sumatra

2,401,697

2,087,939

2,362,087

2,674,589

9,526,745

10,826,103

4.03

4.05

Jakarta

3,963

2,866

4,803

2,322

22,965

11,303

4.78

4.87

West Java

 

1,174,861

1,126,917

1,814,794

1,983,649

9,502,006

10,283,358

5.24

5.18

Central Java

 

1,004,413

991,251

1,433,182

1,581,392

7,552,623

8,283,824

5.27

5.24

Yogyakarta

 

61,150

58,542

97,643

98,049

542,070

537,955

5.55

5.49

East Java

 

1,151,912

1,159,592

1,480,221

1,597,767

8,039,187

8,499,460

5.43

5.32

Java

3,396,299

3,339,168

4,830,643

5,263,179

25,658,851

27,615,900

5.31

5.25

Bali

90,310

85,525

150,510

148,025

796,821

809,656

5.29

5.47

West Nusa

                 

Tenggara

191,397

214,576

253,176

274,754

1,148,982

1,283,981

4.54

4.67

East Nusa

                 

Tenggara

88,485

113,276

84,752

105,186

266,717

342,329

3.15

3.25

Bali & Nusa Tenggara

 

370,192

413,377

488,438

527,965

2,212,520

2,435,966

4.53

4.61

West Kalimantan

471,537

287,013

209,125

247,787

571,143

784,839

2.73

3.17

Central

               

Kalimantan

 

278,353

182,556

100,740

86,796

233.326

239,855

2.32

2.76

South Kalimantan

488,464

415,828

350,515

365,036

1,039,455

1,211,594

2.97

3.32

East Kalimantan

128,166

106,768

62,623

82,232

173,114

282,723

2.76

3.44

Kalimantan

 

1,366,520

992,165

723,003

781,851

2,017,038

2,519,011

2.79

3.22

North Sulawesi

87,487

83,713

86,330

104,131

369.823

462,872

4.28

4.45

Central Sulawesi

148,247

128,023

126,683

202,907

429,227

780,390

3.39

3.85

South Sulawesi

604,546

661,273

780,525

822,586

3,434,997

3,801,872

4.40

4.62

South-east

                 

Sulawesi

64,317

64,075

62,929

72,252

217,024

281,975

3.45

3.90

Sulawesi

 

904,597

937,084

1,056,467

1,201,876

4,451,071

5,327,109

4.21

4.43

Maluku

-

-

4,904

3,469

14,426

10,055

2.94

2.90

Irian

Jaya

   

13,376

19,160

37,069

60,092

2.77

3.14

(Papua)

-

-

Maluku

&

Irian

               

Jaya

-

-

18,280

22,629

51,495

70,147

2.82

3.10

INDONESIA

8,439,305

7,769,733

9,478,918

10,472,089

43,917,720

48,794,236

4.63

4.66

Source: Statistical Year Book of Indonesia 1995 and 2003 *) dry un-husked rice

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Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure 4.1. Example of Some Technical Irrigation Infrastructural Heritages Batang

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

4.1. Example of Some Technical Irrigation Infrastructural Heritages

Batang Mimpi Irrigation Scheme in Western Sumatra: The development of this irrigation scheme with intake structure was completed 1826 (Figure 15) by the Dutch Colonial Government. To support

(Figure 15) by the Dutch Colonial Government. To support B a t a n g M

Batang Mimpi Weir (2004)

a n g M i m p i W e i r ( 2 0 0

Figure 15. Inscription at Batang Mimpi weir stated of its construction completion in 1826

(Compulsory Agriculture Policy), the Dutch Government constructed a weir in Mimpi River, Darmasraya Regency, about 200 km from Padang, the capital town of West Sumatra Province. At the beginning, this weir was constructed as a very simple structure. The purpose was to irrigate 350 hectares of tobacco belonged to the Dutch Land Lord. With subsequent improvement and rehabilitation, this weir is still currently being well maintained until now. When independence war was over in 1950, Batang Mimpi weir didnt receive enough attention from the government, which caused the weir severely damaged (as pioneering technique).

Rehabilitation of weir and irrigation networks were conducted firstly in PELITA-I (1969) and completed in 1992. Following the rehabilitation work, the irrigation area of Batang Mimpi was gradually expanded. In 1992, it coveredsome739hectaresof paddyfield. At thesametimein1992, thegovernment alsoincluded theschemeintorehabilitation, up-grading, andextensionprogramtoexpandthecommandareainto1,034 hectares of paddy fields. The weir has been recorded as the first technical structure to be constructed in Indonesia, but so far, no evidence has been found on the technical document of the structure, and yet it has been suffered from luck of O&M efforts.

Pioneering Irrigation Technique: Following the implementation of Compulsory Agricultural Policy, which was initiated by Johnnes Van den Bosch (1830-1833), the Dutch Colonial Government since then, directly involved in agricultural management, production and marketing of agricultural products, including the efforts to improve irrigation infra-structures for supporting the Compulsory Agricultural Policy.

In an attempt to provide for constant availability of irrigation water, the Dutch Colonial Government paid special attention on the future potential development of fertile agricultural land of the delta Sampean River inEast Java. For thispurpose, theDutchGovernment dispatchedIr. VanThiel toSitubondotoerect aweir in Kali Sampean River in 1832. The construction of this weir made of teakwood framework structure, filled withstoneandboulder. TheTotal widthof theweir was45mandtheheight at eight m. For improvement, it was replaced by masonry structure in 1847. Up until 1876 many temporary weir had been constructed by means of Trial-and-Error .

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Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure Figure 16. The Old Lengkong Weir preserved as a

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure Figure 16. The Old Lengkong Weir preserved as a monument

Figure 16. The Old Lengkong Weir preserved as a monument near the new Lengkong Weir

In 1850 the Sampean weir could no longer utilized, as the teakwood material for routine maintenance had no longer available. For improvement purpose, the strengthening work undertaken by means of masonry structure early in 1847, but the weir did not last long (Figure 16.).

Up until 1876 temporary weir structures had been constructed, and at the same year the masonry weir completed, but the weir did not last long as well.

Through a long development program, the weirs have been improved from time to time, following the demandfor structural improvement aswell as irrigationtargetsaswell as adjustment withobjectives of the structural improvement toward sustainable development by means of environmentally friendly operation and maintenance of the developed infrastructures. The implementation, have been conducted through routine maintenance, special maintenance and rehabilitation as well as reconstruction as if necessary. This matter is reflected by the new Lengkong weir, which is at present, come to a stable condition after a total reconstruction. See the picture below (Figure 17.), the present condition of the Lengkong Weir after a total reconstruction.

condition of the Lengkong Weir after a total reconstruction. Figure 17. The present condition of the

Figure 17. The present condition of the Lengkong Weir after reconstruction.

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Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure Irrigation infrastructure pioneer under the transmigration program: In 1902

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

Irrigation infrastructure pioneer under the transmigration program: In 1902 the Dutch Colonial Government commissioned a study to examine the possibility of resolving the problem of over population and land fragmentation on Java where the large local population surplus was regarded by the Dutch as a potential source of political tension and unrest. This study recommended moving people fromJava to the sparsely populated areas in other parts of Indonesia. In response to this recommendation, the first resettlement experiment was carried out three years later by moving 155 families fromJava to Lampung, Southern Sumatra. This was the start of an unprecedented human resettlement program in Indonesia.

Anumber of stages canbedistinguishedinthehistory of theresettlement program. Thefirst stagestarted in 1905 when, under the certificate of approval #46, dated October 19th, 1905, migration was initiated by H. G. Heytingswho, withthehelpof twoassistants andtwoirrigationwater masters,moved155familiesfrom Java to Gedong Tataan in the South Lampung District of Southern Sumatra.

The third phase occurred between 1929 and 1941, coinciding with the Great World Depression and the beginning of the Second World War. In this phase the rate of settlement increased. According to Heeren, (1967:8), a total of 189,983 people were resettled to the Outer Islands in the period from 1905 to 1941.

In order to catch up the rapid escalation of population , the irrigation development priorities were directed toward the Outer Islands areas, with special focus on the transmigration program, during which, many irrigationinfrastructureswithdifferent kindsof typesandmodelshavebeenconstructed, whichwasmeant, to some extend, more like experimental diversification to accommodate the local requirement, physically as well as operationally. This is for example can be represented in Way Semah I Lampung Province at the following picture (Figure 18.).

I Lampung Province at the following picture (Figure 18.). Figure 18. Way Semah-1 Weir, in Gedong

Figure 18. Way Semah-1 Weir, in Gedong Tataan is amongst the oldest irrigation infrastructures (1905) for the pioneer transmigrant settlers in Lampung Region

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Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure 4.2. Multi-Purposes Water Resources Development: Under the 5-Year Development,

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

4.2. Multi-Purposes Water Resources Development:

Under the 5-Year Development, the role of water resources was expanded to cover not only irrigation but also flood control, drinking water, sanitation, urban flushing, transportation, environmental conservation and water based sport & recreation, hydropower etc. During this stage of development many water resources and irrigation infrastructures were developed. This includes the headwork and reservoirs scattered over the country. Among the many infrastructures, the Curug Weir in which Sediyatmo Pump is used, at the Jatiluhur scheme has been considered to be a unique heritage of water resources structures, which planned and developed with the supervision of Indonesian engineer.

The Curug hydraulic pump system is popularly known as Sediyatmo Pump. The pump was designed by Prof. Dr. Ir. Sediyatmoin1956. TheCurugHydraulicPumpSystemconsistsof 17pumps(derivedfromthe dateof Indonesianindependence) withacapacityof fivem 3 /secondeach. Total dischargetobepumpedto West TarumCanal is 85 m 3 /second including the water demand for rawwater and flushing of the western part of Jakarta Metropolitan.

Manufacturing of those pumps was initially offered to a Japanese company, however, due to some reasons, the offer was finally taken by a German Manufacturing Company.

Before Prof. Sediyatmo made the design of Curug Hydraulic Pumps in 1956, Ir. W.J. van Blommenstein, in the year 1935, had previously proposed hydraulic pump to be proposed for Gambarsari irrigation area in Central Java. Prior to his proposal, Ir. Blommenstein conducted a trial model in Semarang Hydraulic in 1935, where he worked. Furthering this initiative, Prof. Sediyatmo made a design for such hydraulic pump and managed to make it happened in the curug weir stated above (see Figure 19).

happened in the curug weir stated above (see Figure 19) . Figure 19. The bird s

Figure 19. The bird s air view of Curug Hydraulic Pumps

. Figure 19. The bird s air view of Curug Hydraulic Pumps For further information, see

For further information, see the cross section of Sediyatmo pump as shown in the following Figure 20.

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"Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES OF IRRIGATION IN INDONESIA: Drawbacks and Future Perspectives 2010"

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure Figure 20. Cross section of Sediyatmo Pump 4.3. Integrated

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure Figure 20. Cross section of Sediyatmo Pump 4.3. Integrated River

Figure 20. Cross section of Sediyatmo Pump

4.3. Integrated River Basin and Water Resources Management

Eighty-five cubic meters per second of water required to supply to West Tarum Canal for the irrigation of the commanded areas of the canal, and raw water supplies as well as flushing of Jakarta. Part of the 85 m 3 /second is pumped from Curug Hydraulic Pumps, and other part is diverted from four rivers flowing in the commandareaof thecanal: Cibeet River; CikarangRiver; Bekasi River; andCiliwungRiver. Intheeastern part of the area, the integration of basin and water resources management conducted by incorporating Cilamaya River, Ciasem River, and Cipunegara River. This was apparently one of the earlier integrated basin water resources management in Indonesia. See the Figure 21 below. In addition, under this system all of irrigationthesinglecommandareaof thethreemaincanals, boththeexistingandthenewdeveloped schemes are also integrated in one management system (see Figure 22. The Walahar Barrage).

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"Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES OF IRRIGATION IN INDONESIA: Drawbacks and Future Perspectives 2010"

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure North Tarum Canal Walahar Barrage East Tarum Canal Curug

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

North Tarum Canal Walahar Barrage East Tarum Canal Curug West Tarum Canal Hydraulic Pump Jatiluhur
North Tarum Canal
Walahar Barrage
East Tarum Canal
Curug
West Tarum Canal
Hydraulic Pump
Jatiluhur
Reservoir
Legend:
Weir
Figure 21 . Schematic Diagram of Integrated Basin and Water Resources Management
Commanded area
Ciliwung
Bekasi
Cikarang
Cibeet R.
Citarum R.

Siphon

Ciliwung Bekasi Cikarang Cibeet R. Citarum R. Siphon Figure 22. The Walahar Barrage 2 0 "Gany,

Figure 22.

The Walahar Barrage

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"Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES OF IRRIGATION IN INDONESIA: Drawbacks and Future Perspectives 2010"

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure 4.4. Dam, Reservoir and Headwork: With the spread of

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

4.4. Dam, Reservoir and Headwork:

With the spread of irrigation infrastructural development in Indonesia, the water demands increasingly important during the first decade of the 20th Century. In an attempt to meet this escalating demand, a series of dams and reservoirs were constructed. Till 2004, there are 117 large dams and 3,666 small dams (pond and embung) have been constructed in Indonesia. The total storage capacity is estimated at about 6 km 3 . The first large dam was built in Central Java in 1914 by the Dutch Colonial Government. Before independence (1945), a total of 16 large dams were built in Central and East Java for Irrigation purpose. See Figure 23. below, Location Map of High Dam (higher or equal to 30m high) in Indonesia.

Map of High Dam (higher or equal to 30m high) in Indonesia. Figure 23. Location Map

Figure 23. Location Map of High Dam (higher or equal to 30m high) in Indonesia.

Type of the Dam: Thedominant typeof thedamis fill typeof damconsistingof 63earthfill dams (53.3%) and 38 rockfill dams (32.5%) due to their cost effectiveness, material availability and suitable geological condition. There are 11 concrete dams (9.4%) has been built mostly for hydraulic power generation. (See Table 2. below for the types of dam in Indonesia).

(See Table 2. below for the types of dam in Indonesia). Table 2. List of types

Table 2. List of types of dam in Indonesia.

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"Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES OF IRRIGATION IN INDONESIA: Drawbacks and Future Perspectives 2010"

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure Jatiluhur Reservoir: Among the many dams and reservoirs the

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

Jatiluhur Reservoir: Among the many dams and reservoirs the largest is Jatiluhur Reservoir was the first multi purpose reservoir constructed in Citarum River. The construction started in 1958 and completed in 1967. The other two reservoirs which, were constructed after the Jatiluhur were single purpose reservoirs, i.e. mainly for hydro power generator. For that reason, the two reservoirs were not discussed in this section. The two reservoirs are: i) Cirata, located just upstream of Jatiluhur Reservoir, having a total capacity of 800 MCMandhydropower generatingof about 1,000MW; andii) Saguling, withatotal capacity 980MCMand hydropower generating capacity at about 700 MW.

Construction of Jatiluhur Reservoir gave special experience for Indonesia in terms of large project implementation. This partly because the project was planned, designed, and constructed during the most difficult economic condition of the country. In 1950s which was termed as the nations consolidation period being under the worse and unstable economic as well as political condition. This condition was further aggravated by the fact all of the Dutch officials have to leave Indonesia in 1957, at the time Indonesian experts were still far for adequate to conduct large project such as Jatiluhur Multi Purpose Reservoir.

Themainprincipleattachedtothedevelopment of Jatiluhur Project was that thewater fromJatiluhur River for various purposes has to be released through three main canals i.e.:

i) West Tarum Main Canal which provides irrigation water for the western part of the project command area at a total of 80,000 hectares, as well as supply of raw water and flushing for Jakarta municipality;

ii) East Tarum Main Canal which provides irrigation water for the eastern part of the project command area at a total of 80,000 hectares; and

iii) North Tarum Main Canal for irrigating the northern part of the project area known as Walahar Irrigation area with a total of 80,000 ha command area.

Irrigation area with a total of 80,000 ha command area. Figure 24. Scenic view of Jatiluhur
Irrigation area with a total of 80,000 ha command area. Figure 24. Scenic view of Jatiluhur

Figure 24. Scenic view of Jatiluhur Dam

Water from Jatiluhur Reservoir (Figure 24) divertedtoWest TarumMainCanal andEast Tarum Main Canal through Curug Weir, while water allocation for North TarumMain Canal diverted by Walahar Barrage.

Duringthedevelopment period, alargenumber of damshavebeenconstructedinIndonesia; theseamong others are Tango Dams in 1983, Saguling in 1986, and Cirata Dam in 1988 for hydroelectric power, and Bata Bolin Dam in 2002 mainly for irrigation. (See some pictures at Figure 25). Most of which are located on Java Island, but since 1980 s dam construction has been spread to Outer islands.

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"Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES OF IRRIGATION IN INDONESIA: Drawbacks and Future Perspectives 2010"

Tangga Arch Dam, 1983 Saguling Dam, 1986
Tangga Arch Dam, 1983
Saguling Dam, 1986

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

Cirata Dam,1988
Cirata Dam,1988
Batu Bulan Dam, 2002
Batu Bulan Dam, 2002

Figure 25. Tangga Dams in 1983, Saguling in 1986, and Cirata Dam in 1988 for hydroelectric power, and Batu Bulan Dam in 2002 for irrigation.

For just giving illustration on the issues of dam heritage, however, one unique dam construction to mention is the Way Rarem Dam in Lampung Province, which was planned since 1930s for supporting irrigation based transmigration program. In fact, the transmigrants have long been waiting for the construction of an upstream reservoir since 1930s as previously designed for immediately constructed as soon as the human settlement had been undertaken. However the reservoir (The Batu Tegi Dam, shown in the photograph) was only completed and fully operated on March 2004 or after 74 years since the transmigrants had been resettled (see Figure 26).

Initial application of irrigation technique Irrigation Water Conveyance:
Initial application of irrigation technique
Irrigation Water Conveyance:

Figure 26 . Batu Tegi Dam, in South Lampung, had just completed on March 2004, despite that the irrigation based human settlement in the Central Lampung had been undertaken since

1930s.

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"Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES OF IRRIGATION IN INDONESIA: Drawbacks and Future Perspectives 2010"

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure V. PROBLEMS, CONSTRAINTS AND DRAWBACKS OF IRRIGATION INFRASTRUCTURAL

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

V. PROBLEMS, CONSTRAINTS AND DRAWBACKS OF IRRIGATION INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT

5.1. General Drawback of Irrigation Infrastructural Sustainability:

Planning, Design and Construction: Due to the lack of technical experience in the development of irrigation for agriculture, irrigation planning and construction implementation were undertaken almost without any basic technical and agro-climatological data. At that time, practically no data on hydrology, hydrometry, geology, topographical maps as well as laboratories to back up the planning and technical design available. Most Dutch engineers who we relied to implement the irrigation development had no experience to work for irrigation, especially in tropical regions. And hence, the technical designs were merely conducted based on subjective assumptions and by means of trial-and-error.

During after independence, infrastructural planning and technical design, had also been facing critical situation, where not much data available, partly because during the war, the data collection and management were also distracted, and hence data availability, especially on hydrology and hygrometry had almost been non-existence. At the same time, the development acceleration had been urgently pushed by the government and hence, infrastructural development had been based upon planning by relying data simulation only. This matter later on become problematic, especially for operation and maintenance of the infrastructures, because most of the data were no longer met the actual condition, and hence the structures must be adjusted with the underlying situation. However this situation is not always possible to undertake.

Operation and Maintenance: During the peak acceleration of infrastructural development, most development engineers were concentrated their effort on construction aspect of the development, and less attention on sustaining the function as well the structural support to the community. It is not surprising that the development within 1980s has brought the country into a successful effort to attain self sufficiency in rice production in 1984. However, with least attention of sustaining the structural function, the successful achievement had only been lasted for a short time.

It has been experienced that through a long term development implementation the infrastructural heritages, especially the ones that have been constructed during before the countrys independence, have been suffered fromdamages due to inadequate O&Mundertakings. And after the independence, the structures were also suffered from the same problems because the country was concentrating its effort to provide new infrastructural facilities to meet the post independence accelerating demand. With the down fall of the country s economy, it had been evident that the capacity to perform operation and maintenance (O&M) of the developed infrastructures was continuously lacking behind.

Learning from a series of experiences in irrigation implementation, it gives strong supports that management of irrigation, drainage, and flood control systemis much more important than construction of facilities per se. This matter has been apparent through the ancient traditional irrigation system that has been highly sustainable with active participation of local population for hundreds of years without major problems. In contrast, modern system of major engineering works has not fully achieved the expected performance some modern irrigation systems, in fact, had been failure to achieve the targets that had beenpreviously envisaged duetoanumber of socio-technical constraints, includingthelack of community participation as well as inappropriate O&M.

Under such circumstances, despite the full support fromthe government, the structural existence of most irrigation facilities were not only hardly possible to accomplish its practical function but also hardly available to perform social amenity for the people living around it, although they may not be aware of the value of the amenity especially of the one constructed long years ago.

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Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure Although the past development efforts we mostly based on

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

Although the past development efforts we mostly based on the poor methodology, lacking of data and technical expertise, it is undeniable, however, that under the intensive irrigation development, we can still find many well-designed water infrastructures that have been functioning for long years and still remaining in good shape in terms of physical condition, but this kind of infrastructures especially after the war werealsosuffer fromdegradationduetotheabsenceof appropriateO&M. Inadditiontothefact that most community members were suffered from dependency attitude, waiting for assistance from the government, and almost having no sense of participation and sense of belonging against the public facilities as well as infrastructures.

Socio-Economic and Institutional aspects: The subsequent problems of irrigation operation and management are that the farmers, who are expected to participate actively, had yet having adequate incentive to continuously cultivating food crops. Despite that the institutional and organizational arrangements of traditional agriculture, has long been set up and managed through regular meeting amongst the members, due to lack of capacity to maintain sustainable crop production, the farming circumstances continuously been constrained by a number of non technical aspect, including the poor market potential, as well as poor agricultural production. At the same time, cultivation of cash crops are involving sophisticated post-harvest, storage and market processes.

5.2. Sustaining the Infrastructural Condition:

Principle of Sustainability: Learningfromtraditional irrigationmanagement heritageit hasbeenidentified that the sustainability of irrigated farming practices were based on their capacity to maintain "harmonious- togetherness among their farming community in addition to their ability to maintain a proper balance , of relationship between human and nature on reciprocal basis. The basic principles that make their activities sustainable are due to application of techniques by means of simplicity principles , so that every member could apply them without sophisticated learning process.

Institutional Arrangement: In order to be able to implement appropriate interrelation ship amongst the parties involvedininfrastructural operationandmanagement, all theorganizational concerns, includingthe Government, and Non Government Organization must perform effective working relationship and participatory measures in all aspects of development and management. This has been obvious since the old days, where management could only implemented successfully when all the partied concerned are performing their duties and responsibilities through proper institutional arrangement.

For illustration, the Dutch Colonial Government established the Ministry of Public Works In 1854 (MPW). Then it took many years before the institution had full capacity for construction of irrigation infrastructures. In 1889, or 35 years later, the Irrigation Division of the MPW was established. This effort has been continued by the Indonesian government through Policy Reform on O&M of Irrigation in 1987, and eventually on March 18, 2004, the GOI, enacted the Water Resources Law (UUSDA No.7/2004; then PP.20/2006), which covers the establishment of Coordination Board on Water Resources Management at all levels. This law and their subsequent regulations as well as technical and non technical regulatory instruments must be implemented by institutional arrangement and implementation involving all the related concerns of water resources and irrigation Infrastructural development and management.

and irrigation Infrastructural development and management. 2 5 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL
and irrigation Infrastructural development and management. 2 5 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL
and irrigation Infrastructural development and management. 2 5 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL

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"Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES OF IRRIGATION IN INDONESIA: Drawbacks and Future Perspectives 2010"

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure Enhance Socio-Cultural and Economic Adaptations: It has been identified

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

Enhance Socio-Cultural and Economic Adaptations: It has been identified through a long term implementationthat theindigenouscapacityof thetraditional farmersisstill conducivetosocio-cultural and economic adaptation. However, the socio-cultural dimensions are continuously impeded by the shift of values, due to inconsistent socio-cultural adaptation such as the mutual aids culture (gotong-royong), which no longer exist after the community had a sort of cultural disorientation. This has been particularly the case due to excessive external supports without adequate consideration on socio-cultural dimensions and eventually the community suffered from dependency attitude, socially as well economically.

Participatory Approach through Water User Association (WUA) and WUA Federation: Historically, the ancient farmers organized themselves to manage irrigation canals and infrastructures. Today, in spite of the absence of mutual aids and sense of belonging as well as sense of participation to the public related activities, the farmers must organize their activities through Water User s Associations (WUAs) in small irrigation scheme areas. While in the larger irrigation scheme a number of WUAs formed coordination mechanism amongst them in terms of Water Users Association Federation (WUA s Federation).

Maintaining Sustainable Environment: With the existence of the substantial impacts of climate change, many aspects of irrigation operation and maintenance of irrigation infrastructure should be taken into consideration, including water saving, and sharing the water for environment or E-Flow, that has become the issues of maintaining sustainable environment. For example, the implementation of plot-to-plot irrigation system that have been adopted by many traditional farming community, used to be blamed as wasting water, but today, from sustainable environmental practice, it has been considered as sustainable and environmentally friendly water utilization. The ancient works on simple irrigation scheme are still found in many parts of the archipelago, and found that the techniques are supportive to environmentally friendly practices.

Structural and Non Structural Approach for Flood Control: Particularly for flood protection works, the traditional community are often associated the activity with rehabilitation and regular improvement. This aspect is currently identified as structural flood control works associated with the scattered river damages that have immediate impacts to human settlement, agricultural or industrial areas. For example provision andmaintenanceof floodembankment; River improvement works; Collector drains; Floodways; andFlood diversion weirs. Today, Indonesia has even been pursuing structural measures to prevent the primary and secondary strikes of volcanic eruptions, as well as sediment flow, by constructing a number of sabo dams.

Conservation and Protection of Coastal and River Estuaries: With the absence of appropriate river basin management, the river mouths currently suffer from sediment blockages, including the quick accumulation of sediment at the reservoirs. During the dry season, river outlet also frequently blocked with sanddunes. Duetolackingof budgetary sources, duringthedevelopment period(1969-1994), only limited improvement had been undertaken for water resources conservation.

had been undertaken for water resources conservation. VI. CONCLUSION AND THE WAY FORWARD Learning fromthe long
had been undertaken for water resources conservation. VI. CONCLUSION AND THE WAY FORWARD Learning fromthe long
had been undertaken for water resources conservation. VI. CONCLUSION AND THE WAY FORWARD Learning fromthe long
had been undertaken for water resources conservation. VI. CONCLUSION AND THE WAY FORWARD Learning fromthe long

VI. CONCLUSION AND THE WAY FORWARD

Learning fromthe long journey of irrigation civilization of Indonesias history, the role of irrigation remains and will continue to be important. As the matter of fact, Irrigation is not only a matter of technical, but also the matter of social, cultural, economic, religion, beliefs, tradition, ethics, and political concerns. So the development technology approach that have been implemented for many years, must be shifted to comprehensive development and management approach, involving all the stakeholders in term of participatory approach. For present and future approach the indigenous technologies should not be overlooked in planning, development and management of water resources and irrigation infrastructures.

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"Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES OF IRRIGATION IN INDONESIA: Drawbacks and Future Perspectives 2010"

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure Toward the future sustainability of water resources and irrigation

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

Toward the future sustainability of water resources and irrigation heritages, the following ideas are advocated:

Allocation of O&M Budget: Despite the costly budgetary investment, the need for consistent improvement of irrigation techniques without jeopardizing human and nature must be pursued with support of the government and the beneficiaries concerns. This is a must, that O&Mof Infrastructural Heritages must be fully disbursed in line with the magnitude that had been contributed for making the acceptability feasibility study, in terms of technical, social, economic, as well as environmental justifications.

Advanced Irrigation Alternatives: The future development must consider irrigation alternatives, (e.g. Micro irrigation) followed by post production, agro-industries. Also irrigated paddy field, has potentials for development of other functionalities, such as leisure agriculture, and agro-tourism, therefore the efforts must be in line with ecological as well as living functions of irrigation.

Key to Sustainable Infrastructural Heritages: Further to the technical efforts, the following aspects will have to be considered important in the future: (1) Planning must not overlook social, cultural, economic, religion; (2) Application of participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) approach is essential, including consideration on maximization of externality function of irrigation; (3) The success or failures of irrigation also lies on effective institutional arrangement; (4) Participatory of WUAs or WUAFs must be consistent throughout the entire development and management process; (5) The structural as well as the non- structural approaches are two sides of a coin which is absolutely inseparable; (6) Flood and drought management, and water related disasters must be considered in the future Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM); (6) The future prospects of lowland for agricultural development, are highly potential, however, it needs special scrutiny and gradual process.

however, it needs special scrutiny and gradual process. VII. RECOMMENDATION In an attempt to sustain the

VII. RECOMMENDATION

In an attempt to sustain the water resources and irrigation heritages that have been provided with huge investment, Operationandmaintenanceaspectsmust beput asthemost urgent priority. If necessary, new construction must be postponed until the available infrastructures become effective. For putting the operation and maintenance into actual materialization, at least five components should be secured for sustaining the function of infrastructural heritages: (1) We have to provide adequacy of numbers and competency of personnel s, by appropriate recruitment, management as well as training and education effort; (2) We have to make sure the existence of effective participatory institutions, of all parties concerns, including the government, non government, stakeholders, and farmer through their association as well as other water users; (3) Consistent effort to secure adequate operation and maintenance technology including Environmental aspects, supported by the capacity to manage data base system for supporting planning and management decision; (4) All activities must be supported with adequate financial support; and (5) We have to pursue the effective Legal and Regulatory Instruments implementation, and secure the effective and efficient enforcements.

Despite that the magnitude of operation and maintenance cost have used as one of the determinant factors (based on economics, technical, and social justification) of construction of infrastructures, in most cases. It has been found that the O&M budgets have never been fully provided after the construction completed. Therefore, toward the future sustainability of infrastructural heritages, the magnitude of O & M budget that contributes the feasibility of Economic, Social, and Environmental Justifications should be disbursed as such, consistently after the completion of the project till the end of economic time horizon.

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"Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF INFRASTRUCTURAL HERITAGES OF IRRIGATION IN INDONESIA: Drawbacks and Future Perspectives 2010"

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure BIBLIOGRAPHY Aartsen, J. P. Van, 1953. "Ekonomi Pertanian di

Seminar on Heritage of Water Infrastructure

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Aartsen, J. P. Van, 1953. "Ekonomi Pertanian di Indonesia", Pembangunan, Jakarta 1953. Daldjoeni, Drs. N., 1978. "Antologi Geografi Sosial", Alumni, Bandung, 1978. Daur Pranatamangsa ", Alumni, Bandung. Daldjoeni, Drs. N., 1979. "Pedesaan, Lingkungan Hidup dan Pembangunan", Alumni, Bandung. Fruin, Mess. W., 1922. "Geschieldenis Van Java" d1.2, Volkslectoordienst, Batavia. Gany, A. H. A., 1979. "Comparison of Estate and Small Holder Irrigation Projects in their Impacts on Rural Development", with special reference to Indonesia, M. Sc. Thesis, Southampton University, England. Gany, A. H. A. , 1979. "Nilai Ekonomi Air terhadap Petani Pemakai Air", PRISMA No. 3, March 1979. Gany, et.al., 1979. "Irigasi di Lampung dan Permasalahannya", Lampung Propincial Public Works Service, Teluk Betung, Indonesia. Gany, 1980. Pola Pemukiman Petani Berpemilikan Kecil dalamUsaha Pengembangan Irigasi, PRISMA, No. 7, July 1980. Jakarta Indonesia. Gany, A. H. A., 1989. Field Water Management Impact on the New Irrigated Area,: In Rydzewski J. R. (ed), 1989. Irrigation, Theory and Practice, John Wiley and Son Ltd. & Pentech Press. London. Gany, A. Hafied A., 1993. The irrigation Based Transmigration Program in Indonesia: An Interdisciplinary Study of Population Settlementand Related Strategies. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. Gany, and Halli, S.S., 1993. Land Development and Transmigrant Farmers in Southern Sumatra, Indonesia. In International Migration. Quarterly Review Vol. XXXI No. 4, 1993. International Organization for Migration (IOM), PO Box 71, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland. Gany, A.H.A., (et al), 2004. Irrigation History of Indonesia (First Edition), Directorate General of Water Resources, Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructures, R.I., in collaboration with: The Indonesian National Committee of International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (INACID). ISBN-979-96442-3-2. Jakarta August 17, 2004. Gany, A.H.A., 2007. Water Resources, Mystery, History, and Technology Behind (in Bahasa Indonesia). Research and Development Center for Water Resources, Ministry of Public Works, 2006. Hardjono, Joan, 1988. The Indonesian Transmigration Program in Historical Perspective. International Migration, Vol. 26:4, pp.

Perspective . International Migration, Vol. 26:4, pp. 427-439. ---------, 1986. Transmigration: Looking to the

427-439.

---------, 1986. Transmigration: Looking to the Future. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 22:2, pp. 28-53. Heeren, H.J.,1967. Transmigratie in Indonesie , Translated into Indonesian by Hans Daeng & Willie Koen, Transmigrasi di Indonesia, Yayasan Obor Indonesia, Jakarta, 1967. Geertz, Clifford, 1963. Agricultural involution, the Processes of Ecological Change in Indonesia. Berkley. Handanamangkara, 1964. "PrimbonJawa: Sabda Guru" Penerbit Keluarga Subarno, Sala . Hien, H. A. Van. , 1933. "De Javaanche Geestenwereld dl. 3, Kolf, Batavia. IPB, Biro Pengabdian Masyarakat., 1969. "Modernisasi Pedesaan Vol. 1-5, Perkembangan Penduduk dan Kebijaksanaan Pangan, IPB, Bogor, 20th May 1969. Koentjaraningrat, Prof. Dr., 1979. "Manusia dan Kebudayaan Indonesia" Jembatan, Jakarta. Mears, L. A. , 1981. The New Rice Economy of Indonesia. Gajah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. 1980. Sayogyo, Prof. Dr., 1977. Golongan Miskin dan Partisipasi dalam Pembangunan Desa PRISMA, LP3ES, No. 4., March 1977. Tanojo, R. 1964. Primbon Jawa Sabda Pandita Ratu , T. B. Pelajar, Sala 1964. Surjani, Drs. A., 1979. "Pembangunan Masyarakat Desa", Penerbit Alumni, Bandung, Kotak Pos 272, Bandung, Indonesia. Wehlburg, Ir., 1933(?)., "Nota Irigatie Way-Sekampung", unpublished report (in Dutch), translated by Soenaryo Soekadis B. I. E. into Indonesian for Lampung Provincial Public Works Service.

into Indonesian for Lampung Provincial Public Works Service. ------- 2 8 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF
into Indonesian for Lampung Provincial Public Works Service. ------- 2 8 "Gany, A.H.A.: AN OUTLOOK OF

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