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Construction Materials and Testing

2016FINAL EXPERIMENT
TITLE: Evaluation of Compressive Strength of Polyester Polymer Concrete with MicroMix as Filler
Objective:

To find best mix of polyester resin and micro-mix filler that will result to polymer
concrete with high strength
To produce fire and water resistant concrete.
To know the best percentage of filler that will improve compressive strength of the
polyester polymer concrete

Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):

To understand the advantages of using polymer resin in creating concrete.


To know the qualities polymer concrete, have that is better than plain cement concrete
To differentiate the advantages and disadvantages the polymer concrete have over

Discussion :
Introduction
The usage of concrete is very wide. It is one of the most important construction
materials. We cannot deny the fact that concrete has become part of our everyday life. It
is comparatively economical, easy to make, offers continuity and solidity and indeed, it
plays the role of developing and improving our modern society.
Concrete is a composite material which is made of filler and a binder. Typical
concrete is a mixture of fine aggregates (sand), coarse aggregates (rock), cement, and
water. Because of its convenience, it is not only used in building construction but also in
other areas such as road construction, harbors, bridges and many more.
Due to its wide range of application and effectiveness, new technology arises in
order to develop and enhance the quality and properties of the concrete. There are lots of
researches done in order to enhance the concretes workability. One of the technological
advances done is by using polymer resin mixed with hardener as a binder for sand in
creating polymer concrete.
Here in Philippines, there are also lots of researchers who are continuously
studying and researching in order to develop the technology of concrete. There are many
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commercially available polymer products here in the Philippines. Many types of polymer
resin blends are available for specific purposes whether for aesthetic, sculpture, or
figurine and other purposes. There are various types of polymer resin that are ideally good
as a replacement for cement and water in making a concrete with high compressive
strength.
Since Philippines are one of the countries who widely used concrete in construction,
some studies have been made just to use these technological advancements in improving
overall strength and other properties relevant to concrete. Concrete is somewhat permeable,
it is high in compression strength, poor against voids, and takes at least a month to attain full
strength. The use of polymer resin helps to strongly bind particles of sand together, make it
less of voids, impermeable against water penetration, and helps to attain maximum strength
of concrete at a much faster time of at least 7 days of just air drying.
Several different types of polymer resin, fillers and hardeners have been
incorporated into the polymer concrete mixture. The choice of polymer resin varies from
epoxy, polyester, vinyl ester, and many other types. The choice fillers also affect the
properties of the polymer concrete. Fillers helps to attain improvement in compressive
strength of concrete, there also filler that helps make the polymer be fire resistant
therefore making the polymer concrete fire resistant in regards. The selection of the type
of resin and filler as a whole affect the workability of the concrete, the time of attaining
maximum strength, the permeability of concrete, corrosion resistance, fire resistance, and
abrasion resistance.
Preparation of Polymer Concrete
Polymer concrete is similar to ordinary cement concrete because it contains fine
and coarse aggregates, but the hydraulic binder is totally substituted with a polymer
material. The aggregates are bounded together by the polymer matrix. Polymer concrete
contains no cement or water. The main technique in producing PC is to minimize the
volume of voids in aggregate so as to reduce the quantity of polymer required for binding
the aggregates. This is achieved by properly grading the aggregates so as to attain
maximum density and less voids. The aggregate must be of good quality, free of dust and
other debris, and dry. Failure to fulfill these criteria can reduce the bond strength between
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the polymer binder and the aggregate. A hardener is used to start the hardening process
of the polymer concrete mix. Early studies on polyester resin concrete while taking resin
content as a variable reported that compressive strength of polymer concrete is
dependent upon the resin content.
Properties of Polymer Concrete

The properties of polymer concrete are largely dependent on the amount and
properties of polymer in the concrete. Each type of polymer can impart specific properties
to polymer concrete when incorporated with the aggregates. So depending on the
properties of the Polymer Concrete to be achieved, the nature and quantity of the polymer
composition should be chosen. The adhesive properties of polymer concrete allow
patching of both polymer and conventional cement based concretes. These composites
have some advantages compared to ordinary cement concrete such as: rapid hardening,
high mechanical strengths, chemical resistance, etc.
Advantages of Polymer Concrete

Rapid curing
High tensile, flexural, and compressive strengths when fiber reinforcement is used
Good adhesion to most surfaces
Low permeability to water and aggressive solutions
Good resistance against corrosion
May be vibrated to fill voids in forms
Polymer Concrete Composition

Polymer Concrete Composition of a sample with 25% resin and 0.75% filler
Polymer Concrete Mix Components
Total Mass %
Polyester Resin (R10-103)
25a
MEKP (Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide) Hardener
3b
Oven-Dried Sand
74.06a
Micro Mix Filler
0.75c
a Percentage in relation to the mass (resin + hardener + sand + filler)
b Percentage in relation to the mass of resin
c Percentage in relation to the mass (resin + hardener)

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Computation of mass percentage of oven-dried sand:

mwhole mix = mresin + mhardener + msand

mfiller

msand = mwhole mresin mhardener mfiller


msand =

mresin
.25

msand =

4 mresin - mresin - 0.03 mresin 0.007725 mresin

msand =

2.962275 mresin

mresin - 0.03 mresin 0.0075(0.03 mresin+ mresin )

(Formula for Computing Sand for a Polymer


Concrete Sample Containing 25% Resin Based on
Weight of the Whole Mix, and 0.75% Filler Based on
Weight of Hardener and Resin)

msand =

2.962275 mresin
4 mresin

x 100= 74.06%

Polymer Concrete Composition of a sample with 25% resin and 1.5% filler
Polymer Concrete Mix Components
Total Mass %
Polyester Resin (R10-103)
25a
MEKP (Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide) Hardener
3b
Oven-Dried Sand
73.86a
Micro Mix Filler
1.5c
a Percentage in relation to the mass (resin + hardener + sand + filler)
b Percentage in relation to the mass of resin
c Percentage in relation to the mass (resin + hardener)
Computation of mass percentage of oven-dried sand:

mwhole mix = mresin + mhardener + msand

mfiller

msand = mwhole mresin mhardener mfiller


msand =

mresin
.25

msand =

4 mresin - mresin - 0.03 mresin 0.01545 mresin

msand =

2.95455 mresin (Formula for Computing Sand for a Polymer Concrete

mresin - 0.03 mresin 0.015(0.03 mresin+ mresin )

Sample Containing 25% Resin Based on Weight of the


Whole Mix, and 1.5% Filler Based on Weight of
Hardener and Resin)
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msand =

2.95455 m resin
4 mresin

x 100= 73.86%

Polymer Concrete Composition of a sample with 25% resin and 2.25% filler
Polymer Concrete Mix Components
Total Mass %
Polyester Resin (R10-103)
25a
MEKP (Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide) Hardener
3b
Oven-Dried Sand
73.67a
Micro Mix Filler
2.25c
a Percentage in relation to the mass (resin + hardener + sand + filler)
b Percentage in relation to the mass of resin
c Percentage in relation to the mass (resin + hardener)
Computation of mass percentage of oven-dried sand:

mwhole mix = mresin + mhardener + msand

mfiller

msand = mwhole mresin mhardener mfiller


msand =

mresin
.25

msand =

4 mresin - mresin - 0.03 mresin 0.023175 mresin

msand =

2.946825 mresin

mresin - 0.03 mresin 0.0225(0.03 mresin+ mresin )

(Formula for Computing Sand for a Polymer


Concrete Sample Containing 25% Resin Based on
Weight of the Whole Mix, and 2.25% Filler Based on
Weight of Hardener and Resin)

msand =

2.946825 mresin
4 mresin

x 100= 73.67%

Polymer Concrete Composition of a sample with 30% resin and 0.75% filler
Polymer Concrete Mix Components
Total Mass %
Polyester Resin (R10-103)
30a
MEKP (Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide) Hardener
3b
Oven-Dried Sand
68.87a
Micro Mix Filler
0.75c
a Percentage in relation to the mass (resin + hardener + sand + filler)
b Percentage in relation to the mass of resin
c Percentage in relation to the mass (resin + hardener)
Computation of mass percentage of oven-dried sand:
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mwhole mix = mresin + mhardener + msand

mfiller

msand = mwhole mresin mhardener mfiller


msand =

mresin
.30

msand =

10 mresin
3

msand =

2.29561 mresin

mresin - 0.03 mresin 0.0075(0.03 mresin+ mresin )

mresin - 0.03 mresin 0.007725 mresin


(Formula for Computing Sand for a Polymer Concrete
Sample Containing 30% Resin Based on Weight of the
Whole Mix, and 0.75% Filler Based on Weight of
Hardener and Resin)

msand =

2.29561 m resin
10 mresin
3

x 100= 68.87%

Polymer Concrete Composition of a sample with 30% resin and 1.5% filler
Polymer Concrete Mix Components
Total Mass %
Polyester Resin (R10-103)
30a
MEKP (Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide) Hardener
3b
Oven-Dried Sand
68.64a
Micro Mix Filler
1.5c
a Percentage in relation to the mass (resin + hardener + sand + filler)
b Percentage in relation to the mass of resin
c Percentage in relation to the mass (resin + hardener)
Computation of mass percentage of oven-dried sand:

mwhole mix = mresin + mhardener + msand

mfiller

msand = mwhole mresin mhardener mfiller


msand =

mresin
.30

msand =

10 mresin
- m resin - 0.03 mresin 0.01545 mresin
3

msand =

2.28788 mresin (Formula for Computing Sand for a Polymer Concrete

mresin - 0.03 mresin 0.015(0.03 mresin+ mresin )

Sample Containing 30% Resin Based on Weight of the


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Whole Mix, and 1.5% Filler Based on Weight of
Hardener and Resin)

msand =

2.28788 m resin
10 mresin
3

x 100= 68.64%

Polymer Concrete Composition of a sample with 30% resin and 2.25% filler
Polymer Concrete Mix Components
Total Mass %
Polyester Resin (R10-103)
30a
MEKP (Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide) Hardener
3b
Oven-Dried Sand
68.40a
Micro Mix Filler
2.25c
a Percentage in relation to the mass (resin + hardener + sand + filler)
b Percentage in relation to the mass of resin
c Percentage in relation to the mass (resin + hardener)
Computation of mass percentage of oven-dried sand:

mwhole mix = mresin + mhardener + msand

mfiller

msand = mwhole mresin mhardener mfiller


msand =

mresin
.30

msand =

10 mresin
- m resin - 0.03 mresin 0.023175 mresin
3

msand =

2.28016 mresin (Formula for Computing Sand for a Polymer Concrete

mresin - 0.03 mresin 0.0225(0.03 mresin+ mresin )

Sample Containing 30% Resin Based on Weight of the


Whole Mix, and 2.25% Filler Based on Weight of
Hardener and Resin)

msand =

2.28016 m resin
10 mresin
3

x 100= 68.40%

Pans/Basins serves as a mixing


receptacle for the polymer concrete mix.

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Basins

Polyester Resin (R10-103)

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2016
Polyester resin (R10-103) R10-103 is a resin manufactured and distributed by Polymer
Products Inc. It is a resin blend for producing polymer with high strength

Micro-mix filler a micro filler additive to


polymer to increase its fire resistance.

MEKP (Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide)


Hardener a liquid solution that must be
mixed with the resin to start a chemical
reaction causing it to harden. Weight of
Filler Ethyl Ketone Peroxide) Hardener
MEKP hardener mixed to the resin should Micro-mix
MEKP (Methyl
not exceed 3% of the weight of the resin itself.

4 diameter x 8 height cylindrical mold molder for the desired polymer concrete
sample.

Mixing rod/Scoop/Trowel used to mix the components for the polymer concrete.

Digital Balance (For weighing sand) mainly used to weight oven-dried sand.

High Precision Digital Balance (For weighing resin, hardener, filler)- mainly
used to measure accurate amount of resin, hardener, and filler to be used for
the polymer concrete mix.

Small plastic cups (Container for resin, hardener, filler) used as temporary
container when weighing the resin, hardener, and filler.

Sieves using sieve #4 to removed particles of sand that will be retained in it. High Precision
Digital Balance
Balance
Using sieve #100 to removed particles of sand that will pass through it.

Cylindrical
TrowelMold

Procedure:
1. Oven-dry at least 8 kg of sand for about 24 hours. For at
least 4 hours interval within the 24 hours of oven dring,
the sand should be removed from the oven and mixed
from top to bottom to ensure moisture will not be trapped
in the sand. After letting the moisture to evaporate,
placed the sand again in the oven. This amount of sand
is enough for 3 polymer concrete samples.
2. After 24 hours of oven-drying, the sand should be
removed from the oven.

Oven-dried sand

3. Sieve the oven dried sand. Use sieve No. 4 to remove big partcles of sand retained in
it. Use sieve No. 100 to remove very fine particles of sand passing through it.
4. Prepare 3 same 4 x 8 cylindrical mold with tightly
secured based. The bottom edges of the cylindrical mold
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4 by 8 cylindrical mold

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2016
should be leak proof. The base should be smooth to be able to produced a concrete
sample with smooth surface.
5. Measure the mass of the 4 x 8 cylindrical mold using digital balance.
6. Using the three 4 x 8 cylindrical mold, fill it upto its height with the sieved oven-dried
sand.
7. Measure the mass of the three 4 x 8 cylindrical mold filled with sieved oven-dried
sand.
8. Subtracting the mass of the cylindrical mold with the mass of the cylindrical mold filled
with sieved oven-dried sand, the mass of oven dried sand per concrete sample is
obtained. Then use this mass of oven-dried sand to compute for the mass of resin
needed for polymer concrete sample.
9. Use the formulas below to compute for the needed amount of resin, hardener, and
filler for polymer concrete sample containing 25% resin and 0.75%
Polymer Concrete
Sample with 25% resin
and 0.75% filler
Mass of
Polyest
er Resin
Mass of
MEKP
Harden
er
Mass of
Filler

mresin=

msand
2.962275

mhardener=0.03 x

mfiller=0.0075{(0.03 x

Mass of
Filler

mresin=

msand
2.29561

mhardener=0.03 x

mresin=

msand
2.95455

Polymer Concrete
Sample with 25% resin
and 2.25% filler

mresin=

msand
2.946825

m sand
msand
msand
mhardener=0.03 x
mhardener=0.03 x
2.962275
2.95455
2.946825

Polymer Concrete
Sample with 30% resin
and 0.75% filler
Mass of
Polyeste
r Resin
Mass of
MEKP
Hardene
r

Polymer Concrete
Sample with 25% resin
and 1.5% filler

msand
msand
m
msand
msand
msand
mfiller =0.015{(0.03
)+
}x msand
)+
} x
)+
filler =0.0225{(0.03
2.962275 2.962275 2.95455 2.95455
2.946825 2.946825
Polymer Concrete
Sample with 30% resin
and 1.5% filler

mresin=

msand
2.28788

Polymer Concrete
Sample with 30% resin
and 2.25% filler

mresin=

msand
2.28016

msand
msand
msand
mhardener=0.03 x
mhardener=0.03 x
2.29561
2.28788
2.28016

mfiller=0.0075{(0.03 x

msand
msand
m sand
m sand
msand
msand
mfiller=0.015{(0.03
)+
} x
mfiller=0.0225{(0.03
)+
} x
)+
}
2.29561 2.29561
2.28788 2.28788
2.28016 2.28016

10. Weigh resin, hardener, and filler equal or approximately near the previously computed
values.

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Weighing of the Sand

Weighing of the resin

Weighing of the Hardener

Weighing of the Micro mix filler

11. Put the weighed resin first in the big


basin, then add the weighed hardener.
Mix it thoroughly until a change in color
will be seen.
12. Add the filler to the previous mix. Mix it
thoroughly.
13. Then add the weighed oven dried sand.
Mix it thoroughly for about 5 to 15
minutes.
14. Pour the mix to the three 4x 8
cylindrical mold. Apply some force or
vibration to the cylindrical mold filled with
polymer concrete mix. This helps to
eliminate voids to each sample. Flatten
the top part to ensure smooth top
surface.
15. These three sample should be placed side-by-side for air drying. Air-drying should be
done for about 7 days. No
curing is reuired.
16. Put label on these three
samples.
Ex.
Trial
1
25%;0.75%,
Trial
2
25%;0.75%, and Trial 3
25%;0.75%
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Pouring oven-dried sandMixing the Polymer Concrete Mixture
Pouring Polymer Concrete Mix to the Cylindrical Mold

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2016
17. Repeat above procedure for three polymer concrete sample (containing 25% resin &
1.5% filler).
18. Repeat above procedure for three polymer concrete sample (containing 25% resin &
2.25% filler).
19. Repeat above procedure for three polymer concrete sample (containing 30% resin &
0.75% filler).
20. Repeat above procedure for three polymer concrete sample (containing 30% resin &
1.5% filler).
21. Repeat above procedure for three polymer concrete sample (containing 25% resin &
2.25% filler).
22. After 7 days of air-drying, go to the chosen testing center to test the maximum
compressive load that can be appled to each polymer concrete sample.
23.
Compute for
the

Compressive Strength Test


compressive strength of each polymer concrete sample using the formula:

Compressive Strength, fc =

P
A

P
D 2
4

Where:
P - ultimate compressive load of concrete (KN)
A - surface area in contact with the plates (mm2)

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