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CHAPTER 11: Power System Stability

11.1

Assume that three machines whose ratings and inertia constants are respectively

given by G1 , H 1 , G2 , H 2 , and G3 , H 3 are operating in synchronism, that is


G1 H 1 d 2 1
G
= (Pi1 Pu1 ) 1
2
G s f dt
Gs
G 2 H 2 d 2 2
G
= (Pi 2 Pu 2 ) 2
2
G s f dt
Gs
G3 H 3 d 2 3
G
= (Pi 3 Pu 3 ) 3
2
G s f dt
Gs

Since the machines are swinging coherently, 1 = 2 = 3 = . Thus ,


G1 H 1 G2 H 2 G3 H 3 1 d 2
G

+
+
= (Pi1 + Pi 2 + Pi 3 ) (Pu1 + Pu1 + Pu1 ) 1
2
Gs
G s f dt
Gs
Gs
H eq d 2
= Pieq ( pu ) Pueq ( pu )
f dt 2
G H
G H
G H
where H eq = 1 1 + 2 2 + 3 3
Gs
Gs
Gs
G H
G H
G H
H eq = 1 1 + 2 2 + 3 3
Gs
Gs
Gs

200*4/1000+500*3/1000+750*5/1000 = 6.05 MVJ/MVA


M=

11.2

GH
= 1000*6.05/(180*50) = 0.6722 MJ-sec/elect-deg
180 f

Synchronous speed = 2

2 50
rads/sec = 314.16 rads/sec
2

KE = 1/2*75000*(314.1593)^2*10^(-6) = 3.7011e+003 MJ
H = (3.7011e+03)/250 = 14.8044 MJ/MVA
M = 250*14.8044/(180*50) = 0.4112 MJ-sec/elec. deg
11.3

M=175/(180*50) = 0.0194 MJ-sec/rad


At the time of fault, power input is given by
Pi=50*0.8 = 40 MW
Power output during fault
Pu=0.4*40 = 16 MW
Accelerating power is as follows
Acclpower=Pi-Pu = 24 MW
Acceleration is given by
Accl=Acclpower/M = 1.2343e+003 elec deg/sec2
11.4

Pre-fault current
Ig=Pi*10^6/(sqrt(3)*11*10^3*0.8) = 874.7731 A
Ig=Ig*(0.8-i*0.6) = 6.9982e+002 -5.2486e+002i A
Generator voltage per phase
Vgpp=(11*10^3/sqrt(3)+i*Ig*2)/(10^3) = 7.4006 + 1.3996i = 7.5318 kV
Line to line generator voltage
Vgll=abs(Vgpp)*sqrt(3) = 13.0454 kV
Pre-fault rotor angle
delta=asin(Pi/(Vgll*11))*180/pi = 16.18540
Accl=Accl*pi/180 = 21.5423 elec. rads/sec2
t=5/50 = 0.1000 sec
Rotor velocity at the time of occurrence of fault
ddeltadt=sqrt(2*Accl*(delta*pi/180)) = 3.4887 elec. rads/sec = 66.6290 rpm
Rotor velocity at the end of acceleration period =

120 50
+ 66.6290
2

= 1566.6290 rpm
Rotor angle at the end of the acceleration period
deltan=Accl*t^2+delta*pi/180 = 0. 0.4979 rads = 28.52830
11.5 The swing equations of the two machines are
H 1 d 2 1
= P1i P1u
f dt 2
H 2 d 2 2
= P2i P2u
f dt 2

d 2 1
dt 2

d 2 2
dt 2

1 H1H 2
f H 1 + H 2

P P1u
P P2u
f 2i

= f 1i
H
H
1
2

H P H 1 P2i H 2 P1u H 1 P2u


= f 2 1i

H1H 2
H1H 2

d 2 ( 1 2 ) H 2 P1i H 1 P2i H 2 P1u H 1 P2u

H
H
H1 + H 2
+
dt
1
2

d 2 12
1
= Peqi Pequ
H eq
f
dt 2
H P H 1 P2i
H P H 1 P2u
H1H 2
where H eq =
, 12 = ( 1 2 ), Peqi = 2 1i
, andPequ = 2 1u
H1 + H 2
H1 + H 2
H1 + H 2
H1H 2
4.5 6.0
H eq =
=
= 2.5714 MJ / MVA
H1 + H 2
10.5
Peqi =

H 2 P1i H 1 P2i 6.0 1.25 4.5 1.1


=
= 0.2429 pu
H1 + H 2
10.5

Max power =
11.6

1.2 1.15
= 1.9714 pu
(0.15 + 0.4 + 0.15)

Input data:
Pl=0.8;E=1.0;pf=0.85;H=4.0;
phi=-acos(pf) = -0.5548 rads. = -31.78830
Load current:

I=Pl/(E*pf) = 0.9412 pu = 0.8000 - 0.4958i pu


Pre-fault transfer reactance between the internal generator bus and infinite bus
Xl=0.25+0.15 = 0.4000 pu
Generator voltage behind transient reactance
Edash=E+i*I*Xl = 1.1983 + 0.3200i pu = 1.2403 pu
Power angle
delta=angle(Edash) = 0.2610 rads. = 14.95140
During fault transfer reactance between generator internal bus and infinite bus
Xlf=1.15;
Power output during fault
Poutf=(abs(Edash)*E/Xlf)*sin(delta) = 0.2783 pu
Accelerating power at the time of fault
Paccl=0.8-Poutf = 0.5217 pu
Inertia constant
M=H/(pi*50) = 0.0255 MJ-sec/elec. rad.
Acceleration at the time of fault
Accl=Paccl/M = 20.4886 elec. rads./sec2
d 2
1
1.2403 *1.0

=
0
.
8

sin = 31.3725 42.2941sin

2
0.0255
1.15
dt

11.7 From the previous problem E ' =1.2403 pu, M = 0.0255 MJ-sec/elec. rad.,

0 = 0.2610 rads. = 14.95140. Power input Pi 0 = 0.8 pu


Fault duration t = 10 cycles = 0.2 secs.
Rotor angle at the time of fault clearance is given by

Pi 0 2
t + 0 = 0.8885 rads.
2M

Accelerating area A1 = Pi0 ( 0) = 0.5020


Decelerating area A2 =

1.2403 1.0
[cos( ) cos m ] 0.8( m )
0.4

= 3.1007[cos( ) cos m ] 0.8( m )


For stability, A1 = A2 , that is,
3.1007[cos( ) cos m ] 0.8( m ) = 0.5020
f (m) = 3.1007 cos m + 0.8 m 2.1641
df ( m )
= 3.1007 sin m
d m

tolr=0.0001;
[deltam] = P1207(tolr);
initial estimate of deltam60*pi/180
deltam = 66.52200
Maximum swing of the rotor angle is m = 66.52200.
Since m is less than ( 0) the system will remain stable.
(ii) Assume that the critical clearing angle is c.
Accelerating area A1 = Pi0 (c 0) = 0.8 (c 0.2610 ) = 0.8 c 0.2088
m

Decelerating area A2 = 3.1007 sin d Pi 0 ( m c )


c

A2 = 3.1007[cos c + cos 0 ] 0.8( 0 c )


= 3.1007 cos c + 0.8 c +0.6912
For stability A1 = A2, that is,
0.8 c 0.2088 = 3.1007 cos c + 0.8 c +0.6912

c = cos 1

tc =

11.8

(0.2088 + 0.6912) = 1.8653 rads. = 106.87330


3.1007

2 M ( c 0 )
=
Pi 0

2 0.0255(1.8653 0.2610 )
= 0.3198 secs. = 16 cycles
0 .8

Input data:
Pi0=0.8;Einfint=1.0;Xlprefault=0.4;Xlfault=1.05;Xlpfault=0.55;pf=1.0;
Load current
I=0.8/(Einfint*pf) = 0.8000 pu
Voltage behind generator transient reactance
Edash=Einfint+i*Xlprefault*I = 1.0000 + 0.3200i pu = 1.05 pu
Initial power angle
delta0=angle(Edash) = 0.3097 rads. = 17.74470
Pre fault maximum power
PmA=Edash*Einfint/Xlprefault = 2.6249 pu
Post fault maximum power
PmB=Edash*Einfint/Xlpfault = 1.9090 pu
During fault maximum power
PmC=Edash*Einfint/Xlfault = 1.0000 pu
Maximum power angle
deltam=(180-(asin(Pi0/PmB)*180/pi)) = 155.22430 = 2.7092 rads

Cosine of critical clearing power angle


cosdeltac=(Pi0*(deltam-delta0)+PmB*cos(deltam)-PmC*cos(delta0))/(PmBPmC) = -0.8427
Critical clearing power angle
deltac=acos(cosdeltac)*180/pi = 147.43070
Critical clearing time computation:
tc=sqrt(2*M*(147.4307-17.7447)/0.8) = 0.3796 secs. = 18.9800 cycles.
Plotting the power output versus power angle
delta=linspace(0,pi,500);
P1=2.6249*sin(delta);
P2=1.0*sin(delta);
P3=1.9090*sin(delta);
plot(delta*180/pi,P1,'k-')
grid
hold on
plot(delta*180/pi,P2,'k-.')
plot(delta*180/pi,P3,'k--')
x=linspace(0,180,500);
y=0.8;
plot(x,y,'k-')
xlabel('Power angle in degrees')
ylabel('Power output in pu')

legend('Pre-fault power output','During fault power output','Post fault power


output')

3
Pre-fault power output
During fault power output
Post fault power output

Power output in pu

2.5

1.5

0.5

11.9

20

40

60
80
100
120
Power angle in degrees

140

160

180

Input data:
Pi0=1.0;Edash=1.20;Einfinit=1.0;Xlprefault=0.6;Xlfault=1.0267;
tf=15/50;H=3.5;
(i) Rotor angle prior to the fault
delta0=asin(Pi0*Xlprefault/(Edash*Einfinit)) = 0.5236 rads. = 30.00000
(ii) Computation of generator output, accelerating power, and rotor acceleration
Poutgen=(Edash*Einfinit/Xlfault)*sin(delta0) = 0.5844 pu
Paccl=Pi0-Poutgen = 0.4156 pu
M=H/(pi*50) = 0.0223 MJ-sec./elec. rad.
Accl=Paccl/M = 18.6522 rads./sec2

Computation of rotor angle and decelerating power at the instance of fault clearance:

delta=delta0+(Paccl/(2*M))*tf^2 = 1.3629 rads. = 78.09120


Generator output at the instance of fault clearance
Poutgenf=(Edash*Einfinit/Xlfault)*sin(delta) = 1.1436 pu
Genrator accelerating power at the instance of fault clearance
Paccl=Pi0-Poutgenf = -0.1436 pu

11.10
function ydot = p1210(t,y);
ydot=t^3-y^2;

Input to the command window


tspan=[0 1];
y0=0.5;
[t,y]=ode23('p1210',tspan,y0)
Output
t=

y=

0.5000

0.1000

0.4762

0.2000

0.4549

0.3000

0.4367

0.4000

0.4226

0.5000

0.4144

0.6000

0.4141

0.7000

0.4242

0.8000

0.4477

0.9000

0.4875

1.0000

0.5469

Plot of y vs i
plot(t,y,'k--');
hold on
grid
xlabel('t')
ylabel('y')
title('Solution of differential eq. of problem 12.10')
hold off

Solution of differential eq. of problem 12.10


0.56
0.54
0.52

0.5
0.48
0.46
0.44
0.42
0.4

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5
t

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

11.11 The second order differential swing equation is written as two first order

differential equations, that is,


.

Z1 = and Z 2 =
Z1
Z = = . ,
Z 2

.
.
Z1 Z 2 Z 2
Z= . = . =

Z 2 Z 2 Pa


.

Function p1211computes the state variables


function Zdot = p1211(t,Z);
% Input is time t and Z = [Z(1);Z(2)]
% Output is Zdot
if t >= 0.25;
Pa=0.75-1.5*sin(Z(1));
else
Pa=0.75-0.30*sin(Z(1));
end
Zdot=[Z(2);Pa];

The following script file executes ode23

tspan=[0 2.0];

% Sets the time span

Z0=[30*pi/180;0]; % Assigns the initial rotor angle in radians


[t,Z]=ode23('P1211',tspan,Z0)

% Executes ode23

Output:
.

t vs and t vs is obtained and plotted

x=Z(:,1);y=Z(:,2); % Sets first and second columns of Z equal to x and y


respectively
subplot(2,1,1)
plot(t,x*180/pi,'k--')
grid
xlabel('Time t in sec.')
ylabel('Rotor angle in radians')
title('Rotor Angle Versus Time')
subplot(2,1,2)
plot(t,y,'k--')
grid
xlabel('Time t in sec.')
ylabel('Rotor velocity in radians/sec.')
title('Rotor Velocity Versus Time')

Rotor Angle Versus Time

Rotor velocity in radians/sec.

Rotor angle in radians

38
36
34
32
30
28

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8
1
1.2
1.4
Time t in sec.
Rotor Angle Versus Time

1.6

1.8

1.6

1.8

0.15
0.1
0.05
0
-0.05
-0.1

0.8
1
1.2
Time t in sec.

1.4

11.12 For derivation please see 7.3.1 Power flow equations in [Y bus] frame of reference.

The power flow equation is given by

P = E12Y11 cos 11 + E1 E 2Y12 cos(12 12 ) where 12 = 1 2

(I)

Eq. (I) modifies as follows for the problem case

P = E12Y12 cos 12 + E1 E 2Y12 cos(12 12 )


For maximum power transfer; (12 12 ) = 0. Hence, 12 = 12. 12 of a transmission line
having resistance is < 900.
If Y12 =

R
1
and cos 12 = . Assuming Z = R + j X.
Z
Z

The maximum steady limit is written as


P=

E12 R
Z

E1 E 2
Z

(II)

[Note: In deriving (I) in Sec.7.3.1, 12 was substituted by (180 12)]


When resistance is neglected, 11 = 900. Therefore power transferred is given by
P=

E1 E 2
sin 12
X

Pmax =

E1 E 2
when 12 = 900
X

(III)

Comparison of (II) and (III) shows that the steady limit is more when resistance of the
line is neglected.
11.14 Computation of reactance between generator terminal and infinite bus

X12=0.4/2+0.4 = 0.6000 pu
Pf angle:
phi=-acos(0.85) = -0.5548 rads. = -31.78830
Load current
I=0.75/(1.0*0.85) = 0.8824 pu = 0.7500 - 0.4648i pu
Voltage behind generator reactance
E2=1.0+i*X12*I = 1.2789 + 0.4500i pu
Magnitude of voltage behind generator reactance
Emag2=abs(E2) = 1.3557 pu
Power angle 0 prior to the disturbance
delta0 = angle(E2) = 0.3383 rads. = 19.38540
Synchronizing coefficient
Ps=(Emag2*1.0/X12)*cos(delta0) = 2.1315 pu
Coefficient of damping power
Pd=0.15;

M=8/(pi*50) = 0.0509 MJ-sec/elec. rad


Damping factor
Pd/M = 2.9452
Ps/M = 41.8514
Natural frequency of oscillations

Ps
= 41.8514 = 6.4693 rads/sec.
M

The equation representing the motion of the rotor following a disturbance is, thus,
written as
..

+ 2.9452 + 41.8514 = 0

The second order differential equation is written as two first order differential
equations for employing MATLAB to plot variation of rotor angle and rotor
velocity against time.
x
x= 1= .
x 2

The two first order differential equations become


.

x1 = x 2
.

x 2 = 2.9452 x 2 41.8514 x1
The MATLAB function p1214 computes the state variables
function xdot = p1214(t,x);
xdot=[x(2);-2.9452*x(2)-41.8514*x(1)];

The following script file executes ode23


tspan=[0 5.0];
x0=[12.5*pi/180;0];
[t,x]=ode23('P1214',tspan,x0)

x1=x(:,1);y1=x(:,2);
plot(t,x1*180/pi,'k-')
grid
hold on
plot(t,y1,'k-.')
xlabel('Time t in secs.')
ylabel('Rotor angle in degrees')
ylabel('Rotor velocity in rads./sec')
ylabel('Rotor angle in degrees & velocity in rads./sec')
legend('Rotor angle delta','Rotor velocity')
title('Plot of rotor angle and velocity versus time')

Plot of rotor angle and velocity versus time

Rotor angle in degrees & velocity in rads./sec

14
Rotor angle delta
Rotor velocity

12
10
8
6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6

0.5

1.5

2
2.5
3
Time t in secs.

3.5

4.5