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Sequences

This appendix gives a short but intense introduction to cohomology and spectral

sequences, two powerful but sometimes intimidating topics. It is included mainly

for the convenience of the reader who is a non-specialist, so contains basic definitions and theorems (sometimes without proof) as well as illustrative examples.

In particular, after reading the chapter, we hope the reader will feel competent to

compute

Higher derived functors (cohomology from a new viewpoint).

Spectral sequences.

Comprehensive treatments of the material here (and proofs) may be found in Eisenbud [11], Hartshorne [19], and Weibel [?] Throughout this section, the ring R is a

commutative, finitely generated Calgebra, and the sheaf OX is the sheaf of regular

functions on a complex variety X.

A sequence of Rmodules and homomorphisms

C :

j+2

/ Mj+1

j+1

/ Mj

/ Mj1

j1

imj+1 ker j .

The sequence is exact at Mj if imj+1 = ker j ; a complex which is exact everywhere is called an exact sequence. The j th homology module of C is defined

381

382

as:

Hj (C ) = ker j /imj+1 .

The following complex is ubiquitous:

Example 0.1. [Koszul complex] Let S = C[x1 , .P

. . , xn ], with f1 , . . . , fm S.

Set V = S m with basis {e1 , . . . , em }, and let f = m

i=1 fi ei . The sequence:

0

/S

dn

/ 1 (V )

dn1

/ 2 (V )

d1

/ n (V )

=S

/0.

complex on {f1 , . . . , fm }.

Example 0.2. sheaf theoretic version of something not exact as sequence of modules, but exact at sheaf level, in particular Toric with supp in B.

Definition 0.3. If A and B are complexes, then a morphism of complexes is a

i

A:

B:

/ Ai+1

i+1

i+1

i+1

Bi+1

/ Ai

/ Ai1

/ Bi

i1

i1

i1

Bi1

map on homology.

Proof. To show that i induces a map Hi (A) Hi (B), take ai Ai with

i (ai ) = 0. Since the diagram commutes,

0 = i1 i (ai ) = i i (ai )

Hence, i (ai ) is in the kernel of i , so we obtain a map ker i Hi (B). If

ai = i+1 (ai+1 ), then

i (ai ) = i i+1 (ai+1 ) = i+1 i+1 (ai+1 ),

so takes the image of to the image of , yielding a map Hi (A) Hi (B).

Definition 0.5. If A and B are complexes, and , are morphisms of complexes,

i

then and are homotopic if there exists a family of homomorphisms Ai Bi+1

such that for all i, i i = i+1 i + i1 i . Notice that need not commute

with and .

Theorem 0.6. Homotopic maps induce the same map on homology.

383

Proof. It suffices to show that if i = i+1 i + i1 i then induces the zero map

on homology. But if ai Hi (A), then since i (ai ) = 0,

i (ai ) = i+1 i (ai ) + i1 i (ai ) = i+1 i (ai ) im(),

so i (ai ) = 0 in Hi (B).

Lemma 0.7 (The Snake Lemma). For a commutative diagram of Rmodules with

exact rows

a1

A1

f1

/ B1

f3

b1

/0

/ A3

f2

a2

/ A2

b2

/ B2

/ B3

ker f1

/ ker f2

/ ker f3

/ cokerf1

/ cokerf2

/ cokerf3 .

0

A :

B :

C :

/ A2

/ A1

/ A0

/0

/ B2

/ B1

/ B0

/0

/ C2

/ C1

/ C0

/0

where the columns are exact and the rows are complexes.

In Exercise 0.1 youll prove the snake lemma, and in Exercise 0.2 youll combine it with induction to show:

Theorem 0.9 (Long Exact Sequence in Homology). A short exact sequence of

complexes yields a long exact sequence in homology:

/ Hn+1 (C)

/ Hn (A)

/ Hn (B)

/ Hn (C)

/ Hn1 (A)

384

Definition 0.10. A module P is projective if it possesses a universal lifting prop

erty: For any Rmodules G and H, given a homomorphism P H and sur

commute:

P

~

~~

~

~

~~

~~ ~

/H

G

/0

the (left) Rmodule R. Free modules are projective.

commute:

> IO

~~

~~

~

~

~~

~~

Ho

Go

Projective and Injective modules will come to the forefront in the next section,

which describes derived functors.

0.3. Resolutions. Given an Rmodule M , there exists a projective module surjecting onto M ; for example, take a free module with a generator for each element

of M . This yields an exact sequence:

d

0

P0

M 0.

The map d0 has a kernel, so the process can be iterated, producing an exact sequence (possibly infinite) of free modules, terminating in M .

Definition 0.12. A projective resolution for an Rmodule M is an exact sequence

of projective modules

d

2

1

P2

P1

P0 , with coker(d1 ) = M.

and P3 = P3 R, and define a map P4 P3 which is the identity on the R

summands, and the original map on the Pi summands. In the category of R

modules the construction above shows that projective resolutions always exist.

Surprisingly this is not the case for sheaves of OX -modules. In fact ([19], Exercise

III.6.2), for X = P1 there is no projective object surjecting onto OX .

385

of injective modules

d

0

1

I0

I1

I2 , with ker(d0 ) = M.

While it is not obvious that injective resolutions exist, it can be shown (see,

e.g. [?]) that in both the category of Rmodules and the category of sheaves of

OX modules, every object does have an injective resolution.

Exercises for 0.

0.1. Prove the snake lemma.

0.2. Prove the existance of the long exact sequence in homology.

0.3. Prove the existance of an injective resolution for Rmodules, when R = Z (see

Hungerford, divisibility section).

In this section we describe the construction of derived functors, focusing on Exti

(in the category of R-modules) and H i (in the category of sheaves of OX modules).

For brevity we call these two categories our categories. Working in our categories keeps things concrete and lets us avoid introducing too much terminology,

while highlighting the most salient features of the constructions, most of which apply in much more general contexts. For proofs and a detailed discussion, see [11]

or [?].

1.1. Categories and Functors. Recall that a category is a class of objects, along

with morphisms between the objects, satisfying certain properties: composition of

morphisms is associative, and identity morphisms exist.

Definition 1.1. Suppose B and C are categories. A functor F is a function from

B to C , taking objects to objects and morphisms to morphisms, preserving identity

morphisms and compositions. If

b

1

2

B1

B2

B3

F is covariant if applying F yields a sequence of objects and morphisms

in C of the form:

F (b1 )

F (b2 )

F is contravariant if applying F yields a sequence of objects and morphisms in C of the form:

F (b2 )

F (b1 )

386

will be necessary in the construction of derived functors.

Example 1.2. The global sections functor is covariant: given a sequence of OX

modules

f

g

M1

M2

M3 ,

taking global sections yields a sequence

(M1 ) (M2 ) (M3 ).

modules over a ring. Let

b1

/ B1

b2

/ B2

/0

/ B3

F is covariant, and the sequence

F (b1 )

/ F (B1 )

/ F (B2 )

F (b2 )

/ F (B3 ) is exact, or

/ F (B3 )

F (b2 )

/ F (B2 )

F (b1 )

/ F (B1 ) is exact.

if it is both left and right exact, which is synonymous with saying that F preserves

exact sequences.

1.2. Derived Functors. The construction of derived functors is motivated by the

following question: if F is a left exact, contravariant functor and

/ B1

b1

/ B2

b2

/0

/ B3

is a short exact sequence, then what is the cokernel of F (b1 )? For example, if N is

a fixed Rmodule, then the functor HomR (, N ) is a functor of exactly this type.

Definition 1.4. Let B be the category of modules over a ring, and let F be a left

exact, contravariant, additive functor from B to itself. If M B, then there exists

a projective resolution P for M .

/ P2

d2

/ P1

d1

/ P0

0

/ F (P0 )

F (d1 )

/ F (P1 )

F (d2 )

/ F (P2 )

/ .

387

Ri F (M ) = H i (F (P )).

Theorem 1.5. Ri F (M ) is independent of the choice of projective resolution, and

has the following properties:

R0 F (M ) = F (M ).

If M is projective then Ri F (M ) = 0 if i > 0.

A short exact sequence

b

1

2

B : 0 B1

B2

B3 0

Rj1 F (B3 )

Rj1 (F (b2 ))

/ Rj1 F (B2 )

Rj1 (F (b1 ))

/ Rj1 F (B1 )

i

i

i

i

iiii

iiii

i

i

i

iiii

iiii j1

i

i

i

i

iij i(Fi (b ))

tiiR

Rj (F (b1 ))

2

j

/ Rj F (B1 )

/ Rj F (B2 )

R F (B3 )

i

i

i

iiii

iiii

i

i

i

iiii

iiii j

i

i

i

ii

iiii

tiij+1

Rj+1 (F (b1 ))

R

(F (b2 ))

/ Rj+1 F (B1 )

/ Rj+1 F (B2 )

Rj+1 F (B3 )

of derived functors, where the connecting maps are natural: given another

short exact sequence C and map from B to C , the obvious diagram

involving the Ri F commutes.

The proof is really not bad but long to write out, and we refer to Proposition

A3.17 of [11] for details. There are four possible combinations of variance and

exactness; the type of resolution used to compute the derived functors of F is

given below:

F

covariant contravariant

lef t exact injective

projective

right exact projective

injective

In the next sections, we study some common derived functors.

1.3. Ext. Let R be a ring, and suppose

b

1

2

B : 0 B1

B2

B3 0

HomR (, N ) to B yields an exact sequence:

c

1

2

0 HomR (B3 , N )

HomR (B2 , N )

HomR (B1 , N ),

388

Definition 1.6. ExtiR (, N ) is the ith right derived functor of HomR (, N )

Given Rmodules M and N , to compute ExtiR (M, N ), we must find a projective resolution for M

d2

d1

P2

P1

P0 ,

and compute the homology of the complex

0 Hom(P0 , N ) Hom(P1 , N ) Hom(P2 , N )

Example 1.7. Let R = C[x, y, z], M = R/hxy, xz, yzi, and suppose N R1 .

Applying HomR (, R1 ) to the projective (indeed, free) resolution of M

z z

7

y

0 7

5

h

i

xy xz yz

0

x

3

2

R(2) R

0 R(3)

3

2

6

6

4

simply means dualizing the module and transposing the differentials, so Exti (R/I, R)

is:

3

2

xy

3

2

7

6

6 xz 7

z

y

0

5

4

5

4

#

"

z 0 x

yz

Hi 0 R R(2)3 R(3)2 0

Thus, Ext2 (R/I, R) is the cokernel of the last map, and it is easy to check that

Ext0 (R/I, R) = Ext1 (R/I, R) = 0.

0

/ HomR (M, B1 )

c1

/ HomR (M, B2 )

c2

/ HomR (M, B3 ) ,

Thus, to compute the derived functors of HomR (, M ), on a module N , we must

find an injective resolution of N :

I0

then compute

"

Hi 0

/ Hom(I 0 , M )

/ I1

/ I2

/ Hom(I 1 , M )

/ Hom(I 2 , M )

Using spectral sequences (see next section), it is possible to show that that Exti (M, N )

can be regarded as the ith derived functor of either HomR (, N ) or HomR (M, ).

389

1.4. The global sections functor. Let X be a variety, and suppose B is a coherent

OX module. As we saw in Chapter 7, the global sections functor is left exact

and covariant. Hence, to compute Li (B), we take an injective resolution of B:

/ I1

I0

/ I2

then compute

"

Hi 0

/ (I 0 )

/ (I 1 )

/ (I 2 )

In Example 1.7 we wrote down an explicit free resolution and computed the Ext

modules. Unfortunately, the general construction for injective resolutions produces

very complicated objects. For example, if R is a polynomial ring, then the smallest

injective module in which the residue field can be included is infinitely generated.

cohomology which

appeared in Chapter 7 and the derived functors of defined above. At the end of

this chapter, well see that there is a map

i (U , F ) H i (X, F ),

H

and use spectral sequences to show that with certain conditions on U this is an

isomorphism. The upshot is that many key facts about Cech cohomology (for example, the fact that a short exact sequence of sheaves gives rise to a long exact

sequence in cohomology) follow automatically from the derived functor machinery!

1.5. Acyclic objects. The last concept we need in order to work with derived functors is the notion of an acyclic object.

Definition 1.8. Let F be a leftexact, covariant functor. An object A is acyclic for

F if Ri F (A) = 0 for all i > 0. An acyclic resolution of M is an exact sequence

A0

d0

/ A1

d1

/ A2

d2

The reason acyclic objects are important is that a resolution of acyclic objects

is good enough to compute higher derived functors; in other words we have an

alternative to using resolutions by projective or injective objects.

Theorem 1.9. Let M be a coherent OX module, and

A0

/ A1

"

Ri (M ) = H i 0

/ (A 0 )

/ A2

/ (A 1 )

/ (A 2 )

390

0 DD

DD

"

/ A0

CCC

C!

/M

<0

zz

z

z

M C

CCC

{=

!

{{{

/ A2

/ A1

CCC

{=

C!

{{{

< M DD

DD

zz

zz

"

/ A3

=

{

{

{{

< M DD

DD

zz

zz

"

M

{=

{{{

=0

{{

{

{

/

Since the A i are acyclic for , applying to the short exact sequence

0 M A 0 M0 0

yields an exact sequence

0 (M ) (A 0 ) (M 0 ) R1 (M ) 0

Now apply the snake lemma to the middle two columns of the (exact, commutative)

diagram below.

0

/ (M )

/ (A 0 )

/ (M 0 )

/ R1 (M )

/0

/ (M )

/ (A 0 )

/ (A 1 )

/ (A 1 )/(A 0 )

/0

/ (M 1 )

/ (M 1 )

0 R1 (M ) (A 1 )/(A 0 ) (M 1 ) (A 1 )/ ker(d1 ),

d1

where (A 1 ) (A 2 ). Hence,

"

1

R (M ) = H

/ (A 0 )

/ (A 1 )

/ (A 2 )

In Exercise 1.2 youll show that iterating this process yields the theorem.

#

2. Spectral Sequences

391

Exercises for 1.

1.1. Prove that the derived functors do not depend on choice of resolution. The key to this

is to construct a homotopy between resolutions, and appeal to Theorem 1.6.

1.2. Complete the proof of Theorem 1.9 by replacing the sequence

0 M A 0 M0 0

with

0 M i1 A i M i 0

2. Spectral Sequences

Spectral sequences are a fundamental tool in algebra and topology; at first glance,

they can seem quite confusing. In this brief overview, we describe a specific type

of spectral sequence, state the main theorem, and illustrate the use of spectral sequences by several examples.

2.1. Total complex of double complex.

Definition 2.1. A first quadrant double complex is a commuting diagram, where

each row and each column is a complex:

d03

d13

P02 o

12

P12 o

d02

22

P22 o

11

P11 o

d01

21

P21 o

d11

P10 o

31

d21

10

32

d22

P00 o

d12

P01 o

d23

20

P20 o

30

M

Pm =

Pij .

i+j=m

m

Pm

Pm1

via

Dm (cij ) = dij (cij ) + (1)m ij (cij ).

Thus, Dm1 Dm (a) = dd(a) + (a) (d(a) d(a)). The fact that each row

and each column are complexes implies that (a) = 0 and dd(a) = 0. The

commutativity of the diagram implies that d(a) = d(a), and so D 2 = 0.

392

Definition 2.2. The total complex Tot(P ) associated to a double complex Pij is

the complex (P , D ) defined above.

Definition 2.3. A filtration of a module M is a chain of submodules

0 Mn Mn1 M1 M0 = M

A filtration has an associated graded object gr(M ) = Mi /Mi+1 . The main

theorem concerning the spectral sequence of a double complex describes two different filtrations of the homology of the associated single complex. To describe

these filtrations, we need to follow two different paths through the double complex.

2.2. The vertical filtration. For a double complex as above, we first compute

homology with respect to the vertical differentials, yielding the following diagram:

ker(d02 )/im(d03 ) o

ker(d01 )/im(d02 ) o

P00 /im(d01 ) o

ker(d12 )/im(d13 ) o

12

ker(d11 )/im(d12 ) o

11

P10 /im(d11 ) o

10

22

21

20

ker(d22 )/im(d23 ) o

ker(d21 )/im(d22 ) o

P20 /im(d21 ) o

1

vertE02

1

vertE01

1

vertE00

12

1

vertE12

11

1

vertE11

10

1

vertE10

22

1

vertE22

32

21

1

vertE21

31

20

1

vertE20

30

The vertical arrows disappeared after computing homology with respect to d, and

the horizontal arrows reflect the induced maps on homology from the original diagram. Now, compute the homology of the diagram above, with respect to the

2 represents

horizontal maps. For example, the object vertE11

11

21

1

1

1

1

ker(vertE11

2. Spectral Sequences

393

2

vertE02

2

vertE12

2

vertE22

2

vertE01

2

vertE11

2

vertE21

2

vertE00

2

vertE10

2

vertE20

Although it appears at first that there are no maps between these objects, the crucial

2 to E 2

observation is that there is a map d2i,j from Eij

i2,j+1 . This knights move

is constructed just like the connecting map appearing in the snake lemma. The

diagram above (with differentials added) is thus:

2

vertE02

2

vertE01

2

vertE00

2

vertE22

2

vertE21

vertE12

iTTT

TTTT

TTT

TTTT

TTT

d221

TTT

T

vertE11

iTTT

TTTT

TTT

TTT

TTTT

d220

TTT

T

2

vertE10

2

vertE20

3 ; it is now the case (but far

position (i, j) is labeled, as one might expect, vert Eij

3 to

3

from intuitive) that there is a differential d3i,j taking vert Eij

vert Ei3,j+2 :

3

vertE02

3

vertE01

3

vertE00

E3

E3

E3

vert 32

vert 22

vert 12

gPPP

PPP

PPP

PPP

PPP

PPP

PPP

3

3

E3

vertE31

vertE11

PPvert

PPP 21

d330

PPP

PPP

PPP

PP

3

vertE10

3

vertE20

3

vertE30

r to

r

The process continues, with drij mapping vert Eij

vert Eir,j+r1 . One thing that

is obvious is that since the double complex lies in the first quadrant, eventually

the differentials in and out at position (i, j) must be zero, so that the module at

. For example, it is easy to see that

position (i, j) stabilizes; it is written vert Eij

2

vert E10 = vert E10 , while vert E20 6= vert E20 but vert E20 = vert E20 .

394

2.3. Main theorem. The main theorem is that the E terms of a spectral sequence from a first quadrant double complex are related to the homology of the

total complex.

L

, then we say that a spectral sequence of

Definition 2.4. If gr(M )m

Eij

i+j=m

Er M

Theorem 2.5. For the filtration of Hm (Tot) obtained by truncating columns of the

double complex,

M

i+j=m

As with the long exact sequence of of derived functors, the proof is not bad,

but lengthy, so we refer to [?] or [11] for details. In the previous section, we first

computed homology with respect to the vertical differential d. If instead we first

compute homology with respect to the horizontal differential , then the higher

differentials are:

05

05

d01505

0055d

00525

00 55d3

0 55

55

55

55

As before, for r 0, the source and target are zero, so the homology at position

, and we have:

(i, j) stabilizes. The resulting value is denoted hor Eij

Theorem 2.6. For the filtration of Hm (Tot) obtained by truncating rows of the

double complex,

M

i+j=m

For a first quadrant double complex (the only kind that will be of interest to

us), the above two theorems tell us that

M

M

hor Eij Hm (Tot) and

i+j=m

i+j=m

Because the filtrations for the horizontal and vertical spectral sequence are different, it is often the case that for one of the spectral sequences the E terms stabilize

very early (perhaps even vanishing). So the main idea is to play off the two different filtrations against each other. This is illustrated in the next example.

2. Spectral Sequences

395

C1 C0 0 be a short exact sequence of complexes:

0

C2 : 0 o

C02 o

C1 : 0 o

C01 o

C0 : 0 o

C00 o

C12 o

C22 o

C11 o

C21 o

C10 o

C20 o

Since the columns are exact, it is immediate that for all (i, j)

1

vert Eij

= vert Eij

=0

By Theorem 2.5, we conclude Hm (Tot) = 0 for all m. For the horizontal filtration

1

2

hor Eij = Hi (Cj ) if j {1, 2, 3}, and 0 otherwise. For E

j=1

ker(Hi (C1 ) Hi (C2 ))

2

ker(Hi (C2 ) Hi (C3 ))/im(Hi (C1 ) Hi (C2 )) j = 2

hor Eij =

j = 3.

2

2

The d2 differential is zero for the middle row, and maps horEi,2

horEi+1,0 :

2

horEi,2

horE

i+1,2

88

88

88

88 d

2

88 2horE 2

horEi,1

i+1,1

88

88

88

2

horEi,0

2

horEi+1,0

2 =

So horEi,1

horEi,1 , while

3

horEi,2

2

2

= horEi,2

= ker(horEi,2

horEi+1,0

)

and

3

horEi,0

2

2

= horEi,0

= coker(horEi,2

horEi+1,0

)

By Theorem 2.6,

Hm (Tot) =

i+j=m

hor Eij

396

vanish. Working backwards, we see this means

hor Eij

must

2

0 = horEi,1

= ker(Hi (C2 ) Hi (C3 ))/im(Hi (C1 ) Hi (C2 )),

ker(Hi (C1 ) Hi (C2 )) coker(Hi+1 (C2 ) Hi+1 (C3 ))

Exercises for 2.

2.1. Tensor product is right exact and covariant. Prove that the ith left derived functor of

R N is isomorphic to the ith left derived functor of N R as follows: Let

p2

p1

q2

q1

P2 P1 P0

be a projective resolution for M and

Q2 Q1 Q0

be a projective resolution for N . Form the double complex

d13

d03

P0 Q2 o

12

d02

P1 Q2 o

d23

22

d12

P0 Q1 o

11

d01

P1 Q1 o

10

P1 Q0 o

32

d22

21

d11

P0 Q0 o

P2 Q2 o

P2 Q1 o

31

d21

20

P2 Q0 o

30

ij

dij

Pi Qj1 defined by a b 7 a qj (b).

(a) Show that for the vertical filtration, the E 1 terms are

(

Pi N j = 0

1

vert Eij =

0

j 6= 0.

Now explain why vert E 2 = vert E , and these terms are:

(

Hi (P N ) = T ori (M, N ) j = 0

2

vert Eij =

0

j=

6 0.

(b) Show that for the horizontal filtration

(

Hj (M Q ) = T orj (N, M ) i = 0

2

hor Eij =

0

i=

6 0.

397

T orm (M, N ) =

vert Eij

gr(Hm (Tot))

hor Eij

T orm (N, M )

i+j=m

i+j=m

2.2. Prove that Exti (M, N ) can be regarded as the ith derived functor of either HomR (, N )

or HomR (M, ). The method is quite similar to the proof above, except for this one, youll

need both projective and injective resolutions.

In this last section, well see how useful the machinery of spectral sequences in

yielding theorems about derived functors. To do this, we first define resolutions of

complexes. Note that sometimes our differentials on the double complex go up

and right instead of down and left, so the higher differentials change accordingly.

/ A0

A:0

/ A1

/ A2

resolution of A is a double complex:

O

I O 02

/ I 12

O

/ I 22

O

/

I O 01

/ I 11

O

/ I 21

O

/

I 00

/ I 10

/ I 20

/

satisfying the following properties (djk denotes the horizontal differential at (j, k)).

The complex is exact.

Each column I i is an injective resolution of A i .

ker(djk ) is an injective summand of I jk .

398

The last condition implies that im(dj,k ) is also injective. This yields a Hodge

decomposition:

/ im(dj1,k )

/ ker(dj,k )

/ H j,k

d

/0

im(dj1,k )

It follows that we may decompose the sequence

I j1,k

dj1,k

/ I j,k

dj,k

/ I j+1,k

as:

/ im(dj2,k )

/ H j1,k

/ im(dj1,k )

/ im(dj,k )

/ H j,k

/ im(dj1,k )

/ im(dj,k )

/ H j+1,k

/ im(dj+1,k )

An inductive argument (Exercise 3.1) shows that in a category with enough injective objects, injective resolutions of complexes always exist.

3.2. Grothendieck spectral sequence. One of the most important spectral sequences is due to Grothendieck, and relates the higher derived functors of a pair of

functors F ,G, and their composition F G.

Theorem 3.1. Suppose that F is a left exact, covariant functor from C1 C2

and G is a left exact, covariant functor from C2 C3 , where the Ci are one of

our categories. If A C1 has an F acyclic resolution A such that F (A i ) is

Gacyclic then

Ri G(Rj F (A)) Ri+j GF (A)

Proof. Take an injective resolution I , for the complex

0

/ F (A 0 )

/ F (A 1 )

/ F (A 2 )

399

Apply G to I , . It follows from the construction above that a row of the double

complex G(I , ) has the form:

G(0)

/ G(im(dj2,k ))

G(0)

/ G(H j1,k )

/ G(im(dj,k ))

/ G(H j,k )

G(1)

/ G(im(dj1,k ))

L

L

/ G(im(dj1,k ))

G(1)

G(0)

G(0)

/ G(im(dj,k ))

/ G(H j+1,k )

/ G(im(dj+1,k ))

Hence,

1

hor Eij

= G(H i,j )

By construction, H i,j is the j th object in an injective resolution for the ith cohomology of F (A ). Since A was an F acyclic resolution for A, the ith cohomology

is exactly Ri F (A), so that

"

#

2

hor Eij

= Rj G(Ri F (A))

O

G(I 02 )

/ G(I 12 )

O

/ G(I 22 )

O

/

G(I 01 )

O

/ G(I 11 )

O

/ G(I 21 )

O

/

G(I 00 )

/ G(I 10 )

/ G(I 20 )

"

Now, the assumption that the F (A i ) are Gacyclic forces Rj G(F (A i )) to vanish,

for all j > 0! Hence, the cohomology of a column of the double complex above

vanishes, except at position zero. In short

(

GF (A i ) j = 0

1

vert Eij =

0

j 6= 0.

400

Thus,

vert Eij

2

vert Eij

(

Ri+j GF (A)

=

0

j=0

j 6= 0.

cohomology. For any

f

f F (V ) = F (f 1 (V ))

If Ip denotes a p + 1-tuple {i0 < i1 < < ip } and UIp = Ui0 Uip , then

i

applying this to the inclusion UIp X gives a sheaf theoretic version of the Cech

complex.

Y

i (F |UIp ).

C p (U , F ) =

Ip

gives a resolution of F , and if F is injective,

so are the C . Taking this as given, we then have:

Lemma 3.2. For an open cover U , there is a map

i (U , F ) H i (X, F )

H

Proof. Take an injective resolution I for F . By injectivity, we get

0

/F

/ C0

/ C1

}

I0

yields a map on cohomology.

Theorem 3.3. Let U be an open cover such that for any Ip ,

H i (UIp , F ) = 0, for all i 1.

Then

i (U , F ) = H i (X, F ).

H

Proof. Take an injective resolution I for F . The hypothesis that H i (UIp , F ) =

0, i > 0 implies that the sequence

0

/ F (UIp )

/ I 0 (UI )

p

/ I 1 (UI )

p

complex, we obtain

a Cech

complex built out of the direct product of these, which is by construction

401

complex for F . The bottom row is

included for clarity, it is not part of the complex.

O

C 0 (U , I 2 )

/ C 1 (U , I 2 )

O

/ C 2 (U , I 2 )

O

/

C 0 (U , I 1 )

/ C 1 (U , I 1 )

O

/ C 2 (U , I 1 )

O

/

C 0 (U , I 0 )

O

/ C 1 (U , I 0 )

O

/ C 2 (U , I 0 )

O

/

C 0 (U , F )

/ C 1 (U , F )

/ C 2 (U , F )

(

(C i (U , F ))

1

E

=

vert ij

0

j=0

j 6= 0.

(

i (U , F ) j = 0

H

2

E

=

vert ij

0

j 6= 0.

For the horizontal filtration, since the C i (U , I j ) are injective,

(

(I j ) i = 0

1

E

=

hor ij

0

i 6= 0.

and thus

(

H j ((I )) i = 0

2

hor Eij =

0

i=

6 0.

But this is the usual derived functor cohomology. The result follows from Theorem 2.5 and Theorem 2.6.

Exercises for 3.

3.1. Prove that in a category with enough injective objects, injective resolutions of complexes always exist.

3.2. Show that C is a resolution of F , as follows. By working at the level of stalks, show

that there is a morphism of complexes

k

C i (U , F )p C i1 (U , F )p

such that (di1 k + kdi ) is the identity. Conclude by applying Theorem 0.6. Finally, show

that if F is injective, then so are the sheaves C i (U , F ). If you get stuck, see [19], III.4.

402

abelian groups on Y .

(a) Show that pushforward f is left exact and covariant, so associated to A are objects

Rj f (A)).

(b) Use Theorem 3.1 to obtain the Leray spectral sequence:

H i (Rj f (A)) H i+j (A)

i (U, F ) = 0 for all open sets U U . Show that then

3.4. Suppose U is a Leray cover: H

i

i

H (U , F ) = H (X, F ).

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