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ASPHALT
Q- What is the temperature of water in getting specific gravity of
asphalt?
A- 25*C 1'C
Q- How will you get the specific gravity of molded specimen if
voids are present in the sample?
A- Coat the specimen with paraffin by chilling the specimen in a
refrigerating unit to a temperature of approximately 4.5 'C for
30 minutes and then dipping the specimen in warm paraffin
(5.5'C above melting point).
Q- What is the rate of application of MC-1 & RC-2?
A- 0.50 lit./sq.m to 1.75 lit./ sq.m. for MC-1
0.10 lit./sq.m to 0.30 lit./sq.m. for RC-2.
Q- What is the method normally used for preparing asphalt mix
design? Describe the essential steps and procedures.
A- Marshall method; The essential steps are;
1. Selection of quality of aggregates.
Important properties to be considered are shape, surface
texture & wetting characteristics of aggregate particles.
Important properties are workability of mix, surface
texture of pavement & over-all economy.
3. Selection of type & grade of bituminous binders.
Important properties are workability, climatic conditions,
aging considerations & gradation of aggregate.
4. Determination of correct amount of bituminous binders.
Procedures:
1. Preliminary calculation
a) Calculate surface area of aggregates.
b) Calculate percent emulsion.
2. Determine optimum asphalt content by immersion
compression stability test.
a) Prepare trial mix specimen at different emulsified
asphalt content at 1% increments using the specified
compaction method.
b) Calculate theoretical maximum density (D) of each
specimen from equation,

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D, g/cc =

100
% agg.
% asp.

c) Determine actual density (d) of each compacted

specimen and determine dry stability by
unconfined compression test.
d) Calculate percent air voids in total mix from
equation,
%V=

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D d
x 100
D

e) Determine wet stability to evaluate resistance to

water action on duplicate specimens after immersion
in water for 4 days. Losing strength is considered
measure of water action.
How would you adjust the mix if air void and stability is low ?
Either by increase little asphalt content or by increasing the
amount of aggregate particles.
*Air void is kept above 4 to allow film thickness of asphalt to
the aggregate particle which gives durable and stable asphalt
mix.
How would you classify cutback asphalt and their respective
spraying temperature?
a) Slow curing cutback (S.C) - - - - - - 10'C 130'C
b) Medium curing
(M.C) - - - - - - 50'C 80'C
c) Rapid curing

(R.C) - - - - - - 65'C 95'C

What are the tests you should run on a compacted asphalt
pavement?
a) Density & Thickness test
b) Riding quality.
What is rutting and its causes?
It is the channel-like grooves that occur in the wheel track of a
pavement. The main causes are;
a) Poor compaction
c) Excessive asphalt content, Low air voids.
d) High temperature
e) Excessive wheel and traffic loads

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f) Natural aggregates
g) Dune sand more than 7.5% of fine aggregates
h) Low softening point.
On the mixing plant, How can you say the hot mix is okey or
not okey?
a) Required temp. should be uniform
b) Mix should be free from excessive fines
c) Mix should be free from free asphalt
d) Larger aggregates should not be uncoated
e) Appearance should be uniform
f) Should not be burned
g) Should not be too brown or gray
h) Should not be too fat
i) Should not steam in truck.
When do you put the flow meter to determine the flow of an
asphalt mix?
Before marshall testing start.
How many blows will you apply on each face of asphalt
specimen?
*75 blows for heavy loads (Use by M.O.C. in all type of
traffic.
What are the requirements for bituminous courses in respect of
the following;
a) Voids in mineral aggregates
b) Percent air voids
c) Marshall stability
d) Hveem stability
e) Marshall flow
Limits
Wearing course Base course
a) V.M.A.
15
13
b) Percent air voids
47
58
c) Marshall stability (min.)
1000
1000
d) Hveem stability (min.)
40
40
e) Marshall flow (mm)
2 3.5
2 3.5

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Q- What is the Marshall mixing and compacting temp. of hot

mix?
A- Mixing temp. 160'C 5'C
Compacting temp. 145'C 5'C.
Q- Where will you get asphalt sample during production and
paving operation?
A- During production, samples should be taken from that him,
One sample consisting of four soil samples taken in small
sample units to form a composite sample.
During paving, samples should be taken behind the paver,
sample units taken from different locations constituting of
minimum of four sub-samples to make one composite asphalt
samples for grading, Marshall and extraction.
* M.O.C. circular 513, section 1.4.3.
Q- What is MC-1 and RC-2?
A- MC-1 or Medium curing cutback is a liquid bituminous
material having kerosene as a solvent. Its purpose is to
stabilized and waterproof the absorbent surface and to promote
adhesion to the bituminous course to follow.
RC-2 or Rapid curing cutback is a liquid bituminous material
having gasoline or naphtha as a solvent. Its purpose is to
provide bond with a super imposed course.
Q- What is raveling and its causes?
A- It is a progressive loosening or separation of aggregate
particles in a pavement surface coarse from the surface
downward or from the edge inward.
The causes are;
a) Lack of compaction
b) Construction in thin lift during cold weather
c) Dirty or disintegrated aggregates
d) Too little asphalt in the mix
e) Overheating of asphalt mix
f) Mix is very close to coarse
g) Action of water
h) Sensitive aggregate refuse coating due to special charge
(anti-stripping materials must be used)

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Q- What is softening point and its use?

A- It is an indicative measurement of temperature at which the
harden asphalt reach an arbitrary degree of softening.
This is useful in the classification of certain asphalts
(bitumens) and tars.
Q- What is stripping test and its purpose?
A- It is a test to estimate the coated area as above 95% or below
95% by static-immersion in water.
Its purpose is to determine the retention of a bituminous
film on an aggregate surface in the presence of water.
Q- What is the reason for some spots appear after every 20 meter
behind the paver?
A- a) Dirty lumps of old asphalt from the paver
b) Temperature of the mix is low
c) Auger is not distributing the mix properly
d) Paver operator is folding the hopper sides after each load
e) Screed is tilted or uneven
f) Screed is not vibrating properly
g) Screed is not heated properly
h) Stopping of continuity.
Q- What is the maximum aggregate size for B.B.C. & B.W.C. ?
A- 1 inch, inch.
Q- What is the range of temperature for bituminous mixture
delivered to the paver at site?
A- 140'C 150'C.
Q- What is the pressure at the nozzles of the bitumen distributor
is equal to ?
A- 2.00 3.50 kg/sq.m.
Q- What is the maximum variation allowed for asphalt content?
A- 0.30%.
Q- What is the minimum capacity of power unit and pump
distribution system of a bitumen distributor?
A- 950 liters/minute.
Q- What is the minimum capacity of asphalt distributor?
A- 4,000 liters.

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Q- What is the max. loss of Marshall stability allowed for

asphalt?
A- 25%
Q- What is the min. temp. required for applying prime coat ?
A- 15'C
Q- What is the max. plasticity index for combined mineral
aggregated of B.B.C. and B.W.C. ?
A- B.B.C. = 6 & B.W.C. = 4
Q- How do mineral filler improve properties of mix?
A- When voids are high but stability is satisfactory in the mix, it
leads to higher permeability resulting in premature hardening
of the asphalt. To reduced voids, filler is increased which
improves the properties of the mix.
Q- What will happen if we over-used the filler?
A- Over-used of filler may bring the voids low in the mix,
consequently instability or flushing after the pavement is
exposed to traffic.
Q- During paving operation if there is much fine particles, what
will happen?
A- Excessive fines can cause a mix to have a lean, brown, dull
appearance like a mix too little asphalt.
Q- If soundness is higher, stability is equal to 1000 kg. Exactly,
would you let the contractor to proceed?
A- A higher soundness not allowed but it does not help in the
longer stability and durability of the pavement in general. So,
it is better to adjust the mix to achieved higher stability than
just to trust on soundness of aggregate alone. The contractor
should be instructed accordingly.
Q- What factors affecting the compaction of asphalt mix?
A- a) Mix properties:
1. Aggregate, If maximum aggregate size or percentage of
coarse agg. in the mix increases, the
workability decreases and greater compactive
effort is required to achieve the target density.
Natural sand often turns the mixes tender
which are easily over-stressed by heavy
rollers and too much rolling. Combination of
filler and asphalt produces necessary cohesion
when the mix cools. But too many fines will
make the mix gummy and very difficult to
compact.

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2. Asphalt,

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Proper compaction can be achieved only when

asphalt is still fluid enough. Consequently,
compaction of the mix is extremely difficult
once the mix has cooled to 85'C. Grade of
asphalt is also important. Higher viscosity
asphalt in the mix requires higher compaction,
temperature and/or greater compactive effort.
If quantity of asphalt in mix increases, film
thickness of asphalt on aggregate also
increases, which make the mix workable and
easy in compaction and vice versa?
3. Mix temp. Up to a certain point, the hotter the mix, the
more fluid the asphalt and less resistant to
compaction and vice versa if it cools.
b) Environmental conditions:
Ambient temperature, humidity, wind and the temp. of the
surface under the mix also affects the compaction.
c) Layer (lift) thickness:
Generally, it is easier to achieved target density in thicker
layers of asphalt concrete than in thinner ones, because of the
difference in rate of cooling.
What produces a workable mix and non-workable mix? Do
you have to adjust bitumen content or agg. ?
Basic causes of workability are;
1. Larger maximum sizes of particle
2. Excessive coarse aggregate
3. Too low a mix temperature
4. Too much medium-sized sand
5. Low mineral filler content
6. High mineral filler content
What do you check, when you go to the mixing plant?
a) Inspection of truck beds
b) Mixing of aggregate is enough-mixing time
c) Weighing of ingredients i.e., aggregate, filler & bitumen
d) Temperature of the mixture is uniform
e) Appearance of mix
f) Rate of mixing should coordinate with paving requirements.

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Q- During production of aggregate what do you look for the

stockpiled materials?
A- a) Do aggregate meet quality specifications
b) Are proper sizes being produced
c) Satisfactory storage
d) Separation of stockpiles
e) No segregation allowed
f) Mineral filler kept dry
g) No deleterious materials to acceptable limits
Q- As asphalt inspector, what important properties you are
looking for and what is your target on site?
A- a) Asphalt content should check job-mix formula
b) Aggregate gradation should check job-mix formula
c) Required temperature should be uniform
d) Mix should be free from excessive fines
e) "
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" free asphalt
f) "
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not be burned
g) "
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not be too brown or gray
h) "
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not be too fat
i) "
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not steam in truck
j) "
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smoke on discharge from hopper
k) Larger agg should not be uncoated, etc.
Q- What do you watch during pavement?
A- a) Temperature of the paving mixtures
b) Appearance of the paving mixtures
c) Alignment and thickness of the pavement
d) Rolling at correct time and temperature
e) Sufficient rolling
f) Surface irregularities and its repairs
g) Quantity paved during the day
h) Stations/Locations paved in each shift
i) Coordination with the mixing plant to maintain the rate of
mixing and rate of paving
j) Weather conditions of the day, etc.

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Q- What are Marshall stability tests?

A- It is the method that covers the measurement of the resistance
to plastic flow of cylindrical specimens of bituminous paving
mixtures loaded on the lateral surface by means of Marshall
apparatus. The method outlines are as follows;
a) Bulk specific gravity determination
b) Stability and flow test
c) Density and voids analysis
d) Loss of stability
Q- What is the rate of loading of test machine in the Marshall
stability test?
A- 2 inches (51 mm) per minute
Q- What are the test involved for liquid asphalt?
A- a) Penetration
b) Viscosity
c) Flashpoint
d) Thin-film oven test
e) Rolling thin-film oven test
f) Ductility
g) Solubility
h) Specific gravity, etc.
Q- If asphalt sample in laboratory is cooled then reheated for 2 or
3 times (for a breakdown in equipment), what will heating do
to the sample?
A- Re-heating of asphalt sample in laboratory is not permissible
because by this process the asphalt looses its viscous
properties which will not yield the stability, voids in the mix,
and flow etc., and aside re-heated samples will no longer be a
representative of the in-situ pavement.
Q- Why not to use high penetration asphalt say 100 120, Do air
voids affected?
A- Harder asphalt cements are recommended for heavy duty
pavements and for hot weather construction. Generally asphalt
of penetration grade 60 70 is used in medium to heavy types
of pavements. Higher penetration grade like 100 120 will not
produce a thick film of coating around the particles. This will
turn the mix instable, indurable and low in voids. This will
filled the air voids more comparatively, making the mix more
brittle and easily disintegrated when exposed to traffic.

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Q- If stability is low say 400 which is less than the specification,

what is the problem?
A- Stability of asphalt pavement is its ability to resist shoving and
rutting under loads (traffic). Stability depends on internal
friction and cohesion. Inter-practical friction is related to shape
and surface texture of the aggregate.
Following are the possible causes and their effects for the
instability of pavement:
Causes
Effects
1. Excessive asphalt in mix.
Wash hoarding, rutting and
flushing or bleeding.
2. Excessive medium size Tenderness during rolling and
sand in mixture.
for period after construction,
difficult in compaction.
3. Rounded aggregate, little or Rutting and channeling.
no crushed surfaces.
Q- What is the maximum variation in specific gravity of marshall
mold?
A- 0.02.
Q- What are the type of asphalt mix?
to fine, and contains an appreciable
amount of material passing #200
sieve.
b) Open graded type : Have a poor grading or it may differ
from the dense graded only in the
amount of material passing #200
sieve.
Q- How to improve filler?
A- By adding certain amount of :
a) Portland Cement
b) Crusher powder
c) Caolina clay
d) Earth fillers
e) Asbestos powder
f) Limestone powder.

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Q- How to determine the mixing time of asphalt?

A- Mixing time in second = Pugmill dead capacity in kilos

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Q- How to determine the maximum theoretical specific gravity

without using rice method?
A- By equation:
Gmm =

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W
Vsb Vb Vab

Where:
W- Weight of compacted mix (grans)
Vsb Vol. Of agg. (by bulk sp. gr., g/cc)
Vb Volume of bitumen, cc.
Vab Volume of absorbed bitumen, cc.
Q- What is the formula in determining Percent Index of Retained
Strength ?
A- % (IRS) = Wet stability x 100 (loss of stability)
Dry stability

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% IRS - - - - - - 70% minimum.

What is the Job-mix formula?
b) Definite percentage of asphalt
c) Delivery temperature
What do you mean by effective asphalt content?
It is the asphalt content that serve as a binder.
What do you mean by Voids of Mineral Aggregate (VNA) ?
It is an intergranular space between the mineral aggregate
particles.
Did asphalt affect by acids, alkalis, and salts?
No
Why was that material called a thermoplastic material?
Because it softens as it is heated and hardens as it is cooled.
Tell us about the difference of the following materials;
a) Cutting back asphalt
b) Cutback asphalt

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c) Emulsified asphalt
d) Emulsion breaks or sets
e) Liquid asphalt
a) Dissolving the asphalt in selected petroleum solvents.
b) The diluted asphalt.
c) By emulsifying the asphalt with water.
d) When the asphalt and water separate.
e) Combination of cutback asphalt and emulsified asphalt.
What is the percentage of aggregate in asphalt mix?
Normally from 90% to 95%.
How to classify crude oil?
1. Asphaltic base crude
2. Paraffin base crude
3. Mixed base crude
What is the desired properties of asphalt cement?
1. Consistency: Is the term used to describe the degree of
plasticity of asphalt at any particular
temperature specified and measured by
penetration test or a viscosity test.
2. Purity:
Refined asphalts are almost pure bitumen
and are usually more than 99.5% soluble in
carbon disulfide (Solubility test).
3. Safety:
Asphalt not foam at temperature up to 175'C
and flash point of asphalt should be known.
Why you added filler to mix?
a) To improve resistance to weathering.
b) To improve strength.
c) To increase stability.
d) To close the space between coarse and fine aggregate, etc.
What are the test for asphalt and its definition?
1) Penetration - Measures the distance that a standard
needle will penetrate a sample at a specified
temperature and at a given time.
Standard Needle - - - 100 grams
Specified temp. - - - 25'C
Time - - - - - - - - - - - 5 seconds

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2) Viscosity:
a) Saybolt Furol -

Number of seconds required for 60 cc

of liquid asphalt to flow thru an
orifice of standard size (0.124 cm) at a
specified temperature.

NC 30 - - - - - 25'C
70 - - - - - 50'C
250 - - - - - 60'C
E.A - - - - - - 25'C
Viscosity - - - 60 seconds
b) Kinematic
Time measured for a fixed volume of the
liquid to flow through a calibrated
capillary
glass
viscometer
under
controlled temperature (60'C).
Kinematic =
Approx. time (Sec.) x Viscometer
Calibration.
3) Ductility Ability of the asphalt to stretch before
breaking. Distance (cm.) that a standard
briquette of asphalt cement will stretch
before breaking.
4) Flash point Indicates the temperature at which the
asphalt can be heated without the danger
of spontaneous flask in the presence of an
open flame.
5) Loss on Heating Determine the loss of volatile oils and
change in penetration cause by
excessive heating.
6) Distillation
Determine the amount of diluents that
(E.A & Cutback) distills off at specified temperature
denoting its evaporation characteristics.
It also determines the proportion of
asphalt present in the mixture.
7) Specific Gravity - See definition of terms.
8) Spot test Dissolving the sample to xyleneheptane,
If result is;
Negative ( - ), asphalt is okey
Positive ( + ), asphalt is not okey (burned)
9) solubility Determine the bitumen content of the
asphalt.
Bitumen Content - - - - 99%
Solvent used - - - - Trichlorothylene

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10) Cement Mixing (E.A) -

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By mixing 100 cc of E.A. with

50 gram Portland cement.
(passing #14) sieve.
11) Sieve Test (E.A) - Determine the amount of asphalt that
is present in emulsion in relatively
large globule.
*Passing #20 sieve the amount
retained is the large globule which is
0.1%
12) Storage Stability - To detect the tendency of asphalt
globule to settle during storage.
13) Softening Point Indicates the temperature at which
the harden asphalt reach an arbitrary
degree of softening.
What are the grades of asphalt cement?
b) 60 70
"
"
c) 85 - 100
"
"
d) 120 - 150 "
"
e) 200 300 "
"
How to determine the grade of asphalt ?
a) By Penetration Test : Old Method
b) By Viscosity Test : Modern Method 0 temp. of 60'C to
135'C.
What are the uses of blown asphalt?
1. Application for roofing
2. Pipe coating
3. Fill cavities of concrete pavement
4. Use as water proofing membrane, etc.
* Very rare to use in asphalt aggregate mixtures.
What do you understand about artificial aggregate?
Blast-furnace slag is the most commonly used artificial
aggregate, have unusual resistance to wear and use in bridge
deck & roof deck.
What is the suitability of aggregate for use in asphalt
construction ?
c) One size

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2. Cleanliness
3. Toughness
4. Soundness
5. Particle shape Affect workability & strength.
6. Surface texture
7. Absorption - A certain degree of porosity is desirable as it
permits aggregate to absorb asphalt which
then forms a mechanical linkage between the
asphalt film and the stone particle.

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8. Affinity for asphalt:

Stripping - Separation of the asphalt film from the aggregate
through the action of water, such material is
referred to as (Water Loving) such as siliceous
aggregates (quartzite & some granites).
Aggregates that exhibit a high degree of
- resistance to film stripping in the presence of
water are usually most suitable in asphalt paving
mixes, such material is referred to as (water
hating) such as limestone, and dolomite usually
high resistance to asphalt film stripping.
Q- What is the desired properties of asphalt mix?
A- a) Stability -

Resistance to displacement and shearing stress

caused by stationary and moving loads.

b) Durability - Resistance to disintegration due to the effects

of traffic, water, and temperature change.
c) Flexibility - Ability of the pavement to adjust to the
settlement of the base without cracking.
d) Skid Resistance - The frictional resistance between the
surface of the pavement and the vehicle
tire to resist motion.
e) Workability Is the ease by which the material can be
placed to its desired form and compacted
to required density?
f) Fatigue Resistance - Resistance to wear and aging.
g) Impermeability - Resistance to the penetration of water.

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