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464.5 Aggregate binder_2 :464.

5 Aggregate binder_2

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Uniclass L32232: P2

Aggregate Blocks

CI/SfB
February 2007

aggregate blocks
technical manual

Customer Services:
T 08450 762100 F 01235 437391
E blocks@hanson.biz
www.hanson.biz/uk
Hanson Building Products
Head Office
Stewartby
Bedford
MK43 9LZ

aggregate blocks
technical manual

Ff2

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Contents
Introduction

2-3

1. Product data
Product summaries

6-9

Facing blocks

10-15

Background blocks

16-29

2. Performance
Structural

32-39

Thermal insulation

40-47

Sound insulation

48-53

Fire resistance

54

Movement control

55-57

Moisture penetration

58-59

Durability

60

3. Sitework
Health and safety

63

CDM Regulations

63

Block laying

64-65

Mortar

66-67

Internal finishes

68-69

External finishes

70-71

4. Other information
Sales and technical advice

74-75

Quality

76

Customer product advice

77

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Thermalite aircrete blocks

Thermalite introduced the autoclaved


aerated concrete block over 50 years
ago, and now produces the best selling
range of building blocks in the United
Kingdom.?????
Introduction
Hanson is a market leader in the
manufacture and supply of aggregate
blocks, annually producing 7.5 million m2.
Using naturally occurring dense and
lightweight aggregates, Hansons
aggregate blocks are a robust product,
offering high compressive strength and
excellent sound insulation to help meet
the requirements of Building Regulations.
Hanson provides a unique wealth of knowledge, choice and resources, offering customers a wide range of
products for the Housing, Commercial and DIY sectors, all backed by the sales support and technical service
that is the strength of this division.
All products are manufactured to the requirements of BS EN 771-3 and are available in a variety of
densities, strengths, sizes, configurations and finishes to suit most applications.

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Standards and regulations


The British/European Standards and Building
Regulations that apply to the manufacture and use of
aggregate blocks are always subject to revision and
improvement. Certain documents that are either in the
process of change, or whose publication is imminent,
cannot be fully accommodated at the time of
publication, although, wherever possible, reference has
been made in the text.
The Hanson website at www.hanson.biz/uk will be
updated as important changes occur, but if the
reader has specific queries relating to the manufacture
or application of the product please contact Product
Services on 08706 097091.
Sustainability and the environment
Managing environmental issues is an integral part of
Hansons business strategy and the company is
committed to minimising the impact of its operations on
local communities and the natural environment.

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Hansons aggregate blocks are manufactured by the


most efficient methods available and where possible,
using specially selected recycled aggregates and
secondary aggregate materials. A strict waste
minimisation scheme is also operated to ensure that
waste materials from the production process are either
reused or recycled.
Quality
Hansons aggregate blocks are manufactured to
the requirements of BS EN 771-3, ensuring
compliance with all relevant standards and codes
of practice.
Services
Hanson continually researches the needs of customers
in order to develop the range of products available.
Additionally, a comprehensive range of literature is
available with technical advice on all aspects of the
application and use of aggregate block products in
construction.

0640

See Sales and Technical Advice, page 74-75.

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Product data

1 Product data
Product summaries

6-9

Facing blocks
Evalast Facing

10-11

Evalast Paint Grade

10-11

Evalite Facing

12-13

Evalite Paint Grade

12-13

Superlite Facing

14-15

Superlite Paint Grade

14-15

Background blocks
Evalast Background

16-17

Fenlite and Fenlite 1500 Background

18-21

Evalite Standard Background

22-23

Superlite Background

24-25

Ultralite Background

26-27

Party Wall

28-29

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Product data - product summaries

Facing and Paint Grade blocks


product summary
Hansons Facing and Paint Grade blocks have been designed specifically
for aesthetically important block work. These superior quality products are
manufactured with a consistent close face texture and are available in a
wide range of shapes and sizes to suit a variety of applications.
All products are produced to the requirements of BS EN 771-3.
Other strengths and sizes may be available on request.
Evalast Facing and Evalast Paint Grade pages 10-11
Superior quality dense blocks, manufactured using a mix formulated to produce a consistent
close face texture. Evalast Facing is designed specifically for aesthetic applications and can be
left fair faced, allowing the natural colour of the aggregate to dominate*. Evalast Paint Grade has
a smooth, consistent texture,** ideal for receiving a painted finish.

Mean compressive strength:


Thermal conductivity ():
Dry density:

3.6, 7.3, 10.4, 17.5 & 22.5 N/mm2


1.22 W/m.K
1900 kg/m3

Evalite Facing and Evalite Paint Grade pages 12-13


Medium density products, intended for internal applications where weight is critical. Evalite
Facing is ideal for aesthetic applications and can be left fair faced*. Evalite Paint Grade has a
consistent and smooth texture** perfect for receiving a painted finish.

Mean compressive strength:


Thermal conductivity ():
Dry density:

3.6, 7.3 & 10.4 N/mm2


0.47 W/m.K
1450 kg/m3

Superlite Facing and Superlite Paint Grade pages 14-15


These lightweight, low-to-medium density products are designed specifically for internal
applications where low weight is critical, particularly in the larger sizes. Superlite Facing is
intended for aesthetic applications and can be left fair faced, allowing the natural colour of the
aggregate to dominate*. Superlite Paint Grade has a consistent and smooth texture** ideal for
receiving a painted finish.

Mean compressive strength:


Thermal conductivity ():
Dry density:

3.6 & 7.3 N/mm2


0.36 W/m.K
1000 kg/m3

*The colour of facing products can vary from works to works, so sample viewing is highly recommended. It is essential that agreement
between all parties is confirmed if the products are to be left untreated.
**Whilst Paint Grade products have a consistency of texture, colour consistency cannot be guaranteed.

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Product data - product summaries

Background blocks product summary


The products contained within the Background block range
are available in a wide range of shapes, sizes and strengths.
They are not intended to be left fair-faced, but used with a secondary
finish. All products are manufactured to the requirements of BS EN 771-3.
Other strengths and sizes may be available on request.

Evalast Background pages 16-17


Dense concrete blocks that can be used in virtually any part of a project, above or below ground,
in normal conditions. Their performance makes them especially applicable to partition and
separating walls where good sound insulating qualities and high strengths are required. They can
also be used as infill blocks in beam and block flooring systems.

Mean compressive strength:


Thermal conductivity ():
Dry density:

3.6, 7.3, 10.4, 17.5, 22.5 & 30 N/mm2


1.32 W/m.K
1990 kg/m3

Fenlite and Fenlite 1500 Background pages 18-21


Medium density blocks suitable for use in the majority of standard applications i.e. the inner leaf
of cavity walls when used with secondary insulation, separating or partition walls, infill blocks in
beam and block flooring systems and externally where a finish is applied.

Mean compressive strength:


Thermal conductivity ():
Dry density:

3.6, 7.3, 10.4 & 15 N/mm2


0.45, 0.48 W/m.K
1350, 1500 kg/m3

Evalite Background pages 22-23


Medium density blocks suitable for use in the majority of standard applications i.e. the inner leaf
of cavity walls when used with secondary insulation, separating or partition walls, infill blocks in
beam and block flooring systems and externally where a finish is applied.

Mean compressive strength:


Thermal conductivity ():
Dry density:

3.6, 7.3 & 10.4 N/mm2


0.47 W/m.K
1450 kg/m3

Superlite Background pages 24-25


Low-to-medium density blocks with good insulating properties ideal for use in external and
internal block walls. The product can achieve high thermal values using limited amounts of
secondary insulation.

Mean compressive strength:


Thermal conductivity ():
Dry density:

3.6 & 7.3 N/mm2


0.40 W/m.K
1100 kg/m3

Ultralite Background pages 26-27


Low density blocks with good insulating properties ideal for use in external and internal block
walls. The product can achieve high thermal values using limited amounts of secondary insulation.

Mean compressive strength:


Thermal conductivity ():
Dry density:

3.6 N/mm2
0.295 W/m.K
850 kg/m3

Party wall pages 28-29


A high density 65mm high concrete block which, when laid on 190mm bed, achieves the
requirements for a solid sound separating wall as detailed in the Building Regulations.

Mean compressive strength:


Dry density:

24 N/mm2
2100 kg/m3

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Product data - facing blocks

Evalast Facing and Evalast Paint Grade


Mean compressive strength: 3.6 - 22.5N/mm2
Thermal conductivity: 1.22W/m.K internal, 1.31W/m.K external
Dry density: 1900 kg/m3

Evalast Facing
Evalast Facing blocks are produced from selected
aggregates complying with BS EN 12620, and Portland
cement. They are manufactured to BS EN 771-3 and
are subject to rigorous quality control. These superior
quality dense blocks are produced with a mix design
formulated to produce a close face texture, with a
consistent shade of colour*, which is ideal for
aesthetically important block work. Evalast Facing
products can be left fair faced, allowing the natural
colour of the aggregate to dominate.
Evalast Paint Grade
Evalast Paint Grade blocks are also produced from
selected aggregates, complying with the same
standards as Evalast Facing, but with a consistent
smooth texture, which is ideal for receiving a painted
finish.**
*The colour may vary from works to works so sample viewing is highly
recommended. It is also important to order sufficient quantities for the whole
project to limit any colour variation between production runs.
**The finish on Evalast Facing and Evalast Paint Grade products is guaranteed
on one header and one stretcher only.

10

Applications
Evalast Facing and Paint Grade blocks can be used in
all situations where durable, robust, natural coloured, or
in the case of Evalast Paint Grade, painted, blockwork is
required. They are an economic solution for applications
such as:
factory units
workshops
sports centres
offices
The strength and type of aggregate used allows these
blocks to be built in external or internal applications with
sustained long term durability.
The close texture of the Evalast Facing and Paint Grade
products, coupled with their high strengths, provides an
excellent base for a variety of standard fixing systems.

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Material properties
Thermal conductivity W/m.K

internal
external

1.22
1.31

Dry density kg/m3

1900

Total moisture movement mm m-1

< 0.50

Vapour resistivity MN.s/g.m

100

Mean compressive strength


N/mm2

solid
7.3, 10.4, 17.5, 22.5
cellular/hollow 3.6, 7.3, 10.4

Water absorption by capillary g/m2.s0.5

< 375

Shear bond strength N/mm2

Evalast Facing

0.15

Fire classification

A1

Flatness mm

< 0.5

Water vapour permeability

5/15

Dimension tolerance classification

D1

Configuration

Group 1
Group 2
Evalast Paint Grade

Dimensions, weights and properties


Work
size mm

440 x 215

Width
mm

Dry
block
weight kg

Weight
laid
kg/m2

Sound
reduction
dB

Fire resistance (hours)


Single leaf - no applied finish
non loadbearing loadbearing
Class 1 Class 2 Class 1 Class 2
agg
agg
agg
agg

75*

Solid

0.061

0.057

13.5

146

41

90*

Solid

0.074

0.069

16.2

175

43

11/2

100

290 x 215**

Configuration Thermal resistance


m2 K/W
internal external

Solid

0.082

0.076

140

Solid

0.115

0.107

18.0

195

43

25.2

273

45

150

Solid

0.123

0.115

27.0

291

46

190

Solid

0.156

0.145

34.2

370

47

100

Cellular
Solo

0.121

0.114

14.3

156

42

1/
2

140

Cellular

0.186

0.179

18.4

204

43

140

Hollow

0.175

0.167

18.9

206

44

150

Hollow

0.186

0.178

18.0

196

43

190

Hollow

0.208

0.199

22.0

241

45

215

Hollow

0.220

0.210

23.4

257

45

140*

Solid
Easilift

0.115

0.107

16.6

272

45

*Available from selected works only ** Evalast Easilift available in Paint Grade only

Specification and performance


Being manufactured from natural aggregates, Hansons
aggregate blocks provide a high standard of sound
insulation. They also provide the highest possible levels
of fire resistance and are often used where fire
resistance is an important characteristic of the structure.

Fire resistance will however, depend on the type of


aggregate used. It is therefore important that the class
is specified in order to obtain the correct block for the
required application.

11

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Product data - facing blocks

Evalite Facing and Evalite Paint Grade


Mean compressive strength: 3.6, 7.3, 10.4N/mm2
Thermal conductivity: 0.47W/m.K internal
Dry density: 1450kg/m3

Evalite Facing
Evalite Facing blocks are a medium density product,
intended for internal applications where weight is
critical. Manufactured to the requirements of
BS EN 771-3, from selected aggregates and Portland
cement, Evalite products are subject to rigorous quality
control. The blocks are manufactured with a mix design
formulated to produce a close face texture, with a
consistent shade of colour*, which is ideal for
aesthetically important block work. Evalite Facing
products can be left fair faced, making a feature of the
natural colour of the aggregate.
Evalite Paint Grade
Evalite Paint Grade blocks are also produced from
selected aggregates, complying with the same
standards as Evalite Facing, but with a consistent
smooth texture, which is ideal for receiving a
painted finish.**
*The colour may vary from works to works so sample viewing is highly
recommended. It is also important to order sufficient quantities for the whole
project to limit any colour variation between production runs.
**The finish on Evalite Facing and Evalite Paint Grade products is guaranteed
on one header and one stretcher only.

12

Applications
Evalite Facing and Evalite Paint Grade blocks are ideal
for use where appearance and weight are of prime
consideration. They are intended for internal applications
where a lightweight, economic, natural coloured or
paintable block is required for aesthetically important
projects such as:
shopping precincts
offices
sports centres
factory units
workshops
The close texture of Evalite Facing and Paint Grade
products, coupled with high strengths, provides an
excellent base for a variety of standard fixing systems.

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Material properties
Thermal conductivity W/m.K

internal only

0.47

Dry density kg/m3

1450

Total moisture movement mm m-1

< 0.80

Vapour resistivity MN.s/g.m

50

Mean compressive strength


N/mm2

solid
cellular/hollow

Water absorption by capillary g/m2.s0.5

7.3, 10.4
3.6, 7.3,
< 350

Shear bond strength N/mm2

0.15

Fire classification

Evalite Facing

A1

Flatness mm

< 0.5

Water vapour permeability

5/15

Dimension tolerance classification

D1

Configuration

Group 1
Group 2
Evalite Paint Grade

Dimensions, weights and properties


Work
size mm

440 x 215

Width
mm

Configuration Thermal resistance Dry


block
m2 K/W
internal
weight kg

Weight
laid
kg/m2

Sound
reduction
dB

Fire resistance (hours)


Single leaf - no applied finish
non loadbearing
loadbearing
Class 1 agg
Class 1 agg

75*

Solid

0.160

10.3

114

40

90*

Solid

0.191

12.3

136

41

100

Solid

140

Solid

150*
190

0.213

13.7

0.298

19.2

Solid

0.319

20.6

Solid

0.404

26.1

200*

Solid

0.426

27.4

215

Solid

0.457

100

Cellular
solo

151
212

42

44

226

44

288

46

302

46

29.5

326

46

0.247

11.8

132

41

140

Hollow

0.344

13.9

155

42

140*

Cellular

0.329

15.0

169

42

190

Hollow

0.381

16.2

182

43

215

Hollow

0.395

18.2

204

44

*Available from selected works only. Other sizes may be available on request, please contact our sales office for details.

Specification and performance


Evalite Facing and Evalite Paint Grade blocks are
manufactured using Class 1 aggregates and often used
where the highest possible levels of fire resistance are
required together with good sound insulation properties.

13

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Product data - facing blocks

Superlite Facing and


Superlite Paint Grade
Mean compressive strength: 3.6, 7.3N/mm2
Thermal conductivity: 0.36W/m.K internal
Dry density: 1000kg/m3

Superlite Facing
Superlite Facing blocks are a lightweight product,
manufactured to the requirements of BS EN 771-3,
from pyro-processed lightweight aggregates, complying
with BS EN 13055-1, and Portland cement. Superlite
Facing blocks are manufactured with a mix design
formulated to produce a close face texture, with a
consistent shade of colour*, which is ideal for
aesthetically important block work. Superlite Facing
products can be left fair faced, making a feature of the
natural colour of the aggregate.

Superlite Paint Grade


Superlite Paint Grade blocks are also produced from
selected aggregates, complying with the same
standards as Superlite Facing, but with a consistent
smooth texture, which is ideal for receiving a painted
finish**.

With a dry material density of approximately


1000kg/m3, block weights of 20kg or less can be
achieved for solid blocks, up to and including
200mm width.

offices
warehouses
sports centres
factory units

*The colour may vary from works to works so sample viewing is highly
recommended. It is also important to order sufficient quantities for the whole
project to limit any colour variation between production runs.

14

Applications
The light weight of Superlite Facing and Superlite Paint
Grade, makes them ideal for internal applications where
low weight is critical, particularly in the larger block
sizes. Typical applications include:

**The finish on Superlite Facing and Superlite Paint Grade products is


guaranteed on one header and one stretcher only.

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Material properties
Thermal conductivity W/m.K

internal only

Dry density kg/m3

0.36
1000

Total moisture movement mm m-1

< 0.70

Vapour resistivity MN.s/g.m

40

Mean compressive strength N/mm2

solid only

Water absorption by capillary g/m2.s0.5

3.6, 7.3
< 1050

Shear bond strength N/mm2

0.15

Fire classification

Superlite Facing

A1

Flatness mm

< 0.5

Water vapour permeability

5/15

Dimension tolerance classification

D1

Configuration

Group 1

N.B. Block weights not greater than 20kg can be achieved for solid
blocks up to and including 200mm thickness.
Superlite Paint Grade

Dimensions, weights and properties


Work
size mm

440 x 215

Width Configuration Thermal resistance


Dry
block
mm
m2 K/W
internal
weight kg

Weight
laid
kg/m2

Sound
reduction
dB

Fire resistance (hours)


Single leaf - no applied finish
non loadbearing
loadbearing
Class 1 agg
Class 1 agg

75*

Solid

0.208

7.1

81

38

90*

Solid

0.250

8.5

98

39

100

Solid

0.278

9.5

108

39

2
3

140

Solid

0.389

13.2

151

42

150*

Solid

0.417

14.2

161

42

190

Solid

0.528

18.0

205

44

200*

Solid

0.556

18.9

215

44

215

Solid

0.597

20.3

232

44

*Available from selected works only. Other sizes may be available on request, please contact our sales office for details.

Specification and performance


Being manufactured from Class 1 aggregates, Superlite
Facing and Superlite Paint Grade blocks provide the
highest possible levels of fire resistance together with
good sound insulation properties.

15

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Product data - background blocks

Evalast Background
Mean compressive strength: 3.6 - 30.0N/mm2
Thermal conductivity: 1.32W/m.K internal, 1.42W/m.K external
Dry density: 1990 kg/m3

Strength

Having high density, with associated strengths, Evalast


Background blocks easily achieve the durability
requirements for use above and below ground. They can
be used in normal and sulphate soil conditions
equivalent to classification DS-3.
Thermal

Evalast Background blocks, in conjunction with suitable


thicknesses of insulation, are able to provide high levels
of thermal insulation. Sample constructions achieving
U-Values of 0.27, 0.30 and 0.35W/m2.K are shown on
on pages 42-47.
Fire

Concrete is an excellent fire resistant material.


Evalast Background products are manufactured from
either Class 1 (limestone) or Class 2 (gravel and
crushed stone) aggregates. Where fire resistance is
important it is essential that the class of aggregate is
specified. Full details are given in the tables opposite.
Evalast Background
Manufactured to BS EN 771-3 from crushed rock or
gravel aggregates to BS EN 12620 and Portland
cement.
Evalast Background blocks are dense aggregate blocks
which can be used in virtually any part of a project
above or below ground, in normal conditions.
Their performance makes them especially applicable to
partition and separating walls where good sound
insulating qualities and high strengths are required.
They can also be used as infill blocks in beam and block
flooring systems.
Applications
Acoustics

The high density of Evalast Background blocks gives


them excellent sound insulation properties. When laid to
form a sound separating wall, they achieve the required
mass as given in the Building Regulations and Robust
Details.
Typical examples of how Evalast Background blocks
may be used to form sound separating walls, are given
on pages 50-53.
Flooring

Evalast Background blocks are suitable as infill blocks


for beam and block flooring systems. They should be
specified as for flooring, in order that the correct
manufacturing base is sourced.

16

Coursing blocks
To complement the range, 22.5N/mm2 coursing
units (brick size) are available for use in conjunction
with 7.3N/mm2 100mm Evalast Background blocks,
and 10.4N/mm2 units are available for 140mm
thick products.
Finishes
The nature of Evalast Background blocks classes them,
for the purpose of rendering and plastering, as a
relatively low suction background. They can be either
smooth or rough in texture, depending upon
manufacturing location. As such, the correct
specification for the applied finishes should be provided.
In the case of dense sand cement plasters applied to
smooth blocks, it is recommended that, in addition to
raking out of the joints, an adhesive slurry, spatterdash
or stipple coat is applied to the block surface prior to
the application of the first undercoat. The high strengths
and close internal texture of Evalast Background blocks
mean that excellent fixing can be achieved using a
variety of patent fixings.
Specification and performance
Being manufactured from Class 1 and Class 2
aggregates, the blocks provide the highest possible
levels of fire resistance together with good sound
insulation properties.
Note: Evalast blocks are not intended to be left fair faced or painted and should
have a finish (plaster, render plasterboard, cladding, etc.) applied where the wall
is to have visual importance.

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Page 17

Material properties
Thermal conductivity W/m.K

internal
external

1.32
1.42

Dry density kg/m3

1990

Total moisture movement mm m-1

< 0.55

Vapour resistivity MN.s/g.m


Mean compressive
strength N/mm2

100

solid
7.3, 10.4, 17.5, 22.5, 30
cellular/hollow
3.6, 7.3, 10.4
103mm coursing unit
22.5
140mm coursing unit
10.4

Shear bond strength N/mm2

Evalast Background

0.15

Fire classification

A1

Flatness mm

< 1.0

Water vapour permeability

5/15

Dimension tolerance classification


Configuration

D1
Group 1

Group 2

Dimensions, weights and properties


Work
size mm

440 x 215

Width Configuration
mm

Thermal Resistance
Dry
block
m2 K/W
internal external
weight kg

Weight
laid
kg/m2

Sound
reduction
dB

Fire resistance (hours)


Single leaf - no applied finish
non loadbearing
loadbearing
Class 1 Class 2 Class 1 Class 2
agg
agg
agg
agg

75

Solid

0.057

0.053

14.1

153

42

90

Solid

0.068

0.063

16.9

183

43

11/2

1
2

100

Solid

0.076

0.070

18.8

203

43

140

Solid

0.106

0.099

26.4

285

46

150

Solid

0.114

0.106

28.2

304

46

190

Solid

0.144

0.134

35.8

386

48

140

Hollow

0.166

0.157

19.8

215

44

140

Cellular Solo

0.159

0.151

19.2

212

44

150

Hollow

0.177

0.169

18.8

205

44

190

Hollow

0.198

0.188

23.0

251

45

215

Hollow

0.209

0.200

24.5

268

45

100

Cellular Solo

0.113

0.107

15.0

163

42

1/
2

215 x 215

190

Easilift Solid

0.144

0.134

17.5

386

48

290 x 215

140

Easilift Solid

0.106

0.099

17.4

285

46

290 x 140

215

Easilift Solid

0.163

0.151

17.4

436

48

215 x 65

103

Coursing unit

0.078

0.073

2.9

207

43

440 x 65

140

Coursing unit

0.106

0099

8.0

283

46

440 x 100

215 100mm laid flat

0.163

0.151

18.8

435

48

440 x 140

215 140mm laid flat

0.163

0.151

26.4

436

48

17

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Product data - background blocks

Fenlite Background
Mean compressive strength: 3.6 - 15.0N/mm2
Thermal conductivity: 0.45 - 0.48W/m.K
Dry density: Fenlite - 1350, Fenlite 1500 - 1500kg/m3

Fenlite blocks
Fenlite and Fenlite 1500 blocks are manufactured to
BS EN 771-3 from natural aggregates to BS EN
12620, pyro processed lightweight aggregates to
BS EN 13055-1, and Portland cement.
These medium density blocks are suitable for use in the
majority of standard applications i.e. the inner leaf of
cavity walls when used with secondary insulation,
separating or partition walls, infill blocks in beam and
block flooring systems and externally where a finish is
applied.
Fenlite blocks can be used in all parts of the project
above and below ground (7.3N/mm2 strength if used on
the outer leaf below dpc and unprotected)*.
Their performance makes them eminently suitable for
general load bearing conditions, sound insulation,
internal partitions and where ease of handling and
weight are of importance.
Applications
Acoustic

The density of Fenlite and Fenlite 1500 blocks gives


them excellent sound insulation properties. When laid to
form a cavity sound separating wall they will achieve the
required mass as given in the Building Regulations and
Robust Details. Typical examples of how Fenlite and
Fenlite 1500 blocks may be used to form sound
separating walls are shown on pages 50-53.
Flooring

Fenlite and Fenlite 1500 blocks are suitable as in-fill


blocks for beam and block flooring systems.
They should be specified as for flooring, in order that
the correct manufacturing base is sourced.
Note: Fenlite and Fenlite 1500 blocks are not intended to be left fair or painted
and should have a finish (plaster, render plasterboard, cladding, etc.) applied
where the wall is to have visual importance.
* The use of 7.3N/mm2 Fenlite and Fenlite 1500 blocks is possible in
aggressive soil conditions. Please consult Product Services for further details.

18

Page 18

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Page 19

Strength

The strength of all Fenlite blocks dictates their


application in exposed conditions. Block strengths of
7.3N/mm2 and greater should be specified if they are to
be used on the outer leaf of a cavity wall below dpc
level and left unprotected. In all other normal situations
3.6N/mm2 blocks would be suitable.
Fenlite and Fenlite 1500 blocks, in conjunction with
suitable thicknesses of insulation, are able to reach high
levels of thermal insulation. Sample constructions
achieving U-Values of 0.27, 0.30 and 0.35W/m2.K are
illustrated on pages 42-47.
Concrete is an excellent fire resistant material.
Fenlite and Fenlite 1500 blocks are manufactured using
Class 1 aggregates which provides the highest level of
fire resistance for a given size.

Fenlite and Fenlite 1500 blocks offer a medium suction


background which is ideal for the direct application of
sand cement renders and plasters, together with
proprietary lightweight plasters.
Material properties
Material properties for Fenlite and Fenlite 1500 are
shown overleaf (pages 20-21).
Dimensions, weights and properties
Dimensions, weights and properties for Fenlite and
Fenlite 1500 are shown overleaf (pages 20-21).
Specification and performance
Being manufactured from Class 1 aggregates, all
Fenlite Background blocks provide the highest possible
levels of fire resistance together with good sound
insulation properties.

Having good strengths, excellent fixing can be achieved


using a variety of patent fixings.
To complement the range, 10.4N/mm2 coursing units
(brick size) are available for use in conjunction with
3.6N/mm2 100mm blocks and full length units are
available for 140mm width products.

19

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Page 20

Product data - background blocks

Fenlite Background, continued

Fenlite material properties


Thermal conductivity W/m.K

internal
external

0.45
0.48

Dry density kg/m3

1350

Total moisture movement mm m-1

< 0.95

Vapour resistivity MN.s/g.m


Mean compressive
strength N/mm2

50

solid
cellular/hollow
103mm coursing unit
140mm coursing unit

3.6, 7.3, 10.4


3.6, 7.3
10.4
10.4

Shear bond strength N/mm2

Fenlite Background

0.15

Fire classification

A1

Flatness mm

< 1.0

Water vapour permeability

5/15

Dimension tolerance classification

D1

Configuration

Group 1
Group 2

Fenlite dimensions, weights and properties


Work
size mm

440 x 215

Width
mm

Weight
laid
kg/m2

Sound
reduction
dB

Fire resistance (hours)


Single leaf - no applied finish
non loadbearing
loadbearing
Class 1
Class 1
agg
agg

75

Solid

0.167

0.156

9.6

106

39

90

Solid

0.200

0.188

11.5

128

41

100

Solid

0.222

0.208

12.8

142

41

140

Solid

0.311

0.292

17.9

199

43

150

Solid

0.333

0.313

19.2

212

44

190

Solid

0.422

0.396

24.3

269

45

200

Solid

0.444

0.417

25.5

282

46

Solid

215

20

Configuration Thermal resistance Dry


block
m2 K/W
internal external weight kg

0.478

0.448

27.5

305

46

140

Cellular 0.339

0.324

14.0

153

42

140

Hollow 0.354

0.338

13.4

150

42

150

Hollow 0.351

0.336

12.7

142

41

190

Hollow 0.392

0.376

15.6

176

43

215

Hollow 0.406

0.389

16.6

188

43

100

Cellular
Solo

0.255

0.243

11.0

122

40

215 x 65

103

Coursing 0.229
unit

0.215

1.9

150

42

440 x 65

140

Coursing 0.311
unit

0.292

5.4

209

44

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Page 21

Fenlite 1500 material properties


Thermal conductivity W/m.K

internal
external

0.48
0.52

Dry density kg/m3

1500

Total moisture movement mm m-1

< 0.95

Vapour resistivity MN.s/g.m


Mean compressive
strength N/mm2

50

solid
cellular/hollow
103mm coursing unit
140mm coursing unit

3.6, 7.3, 10.4, 15


3.6, 7.3
10.4
10.4

Shear bond strength N/mm2

Fenlite 1500 Background

0.15

Fire classification

A1

Flatness mm

< 1.0

Water vapour permeability

5/15

Dimension tolerance classification

D1

Configuration

Group 1
Group 2

Fenlite 1500 dimensions, weights and properties


Work
size mm

440 x 215

Width
mm

Configuration Thermal resistance Dry


block
m2 K/W
internal external weight kg

Weight
laid
kg/m2

Sound
reduction
dB

Fire resistance (hours)


Single leaf - no applied finish
non loadbearing
loadbearing
Class 1
Class 1
agg
agg

75

Solid

0.156

0.144

10.6

117

40

90

Solid

0.188

0.173

12.8

141

41

100

Solid

0.208

0.192

14.2

156

42

140

Solid

0.292

0.269

19.9

219

44

150

Solid

0.313

0.288

21.3

233

44

190

Solid

0.396

0.365

27.0

297

46

200

Solid

0.417

0.385

28.4

311

46

2
3
6
6
6

215

Solid

0.448

0.413

30.5

336

47

140

Cellular

0.324

0.307

15.5

168

42

140

Hollow

0.338

0.320

14.9

165

42

150

Hollow

0.336

0.319

14.1

157

42

190

Hollow

0.376

0.357

17.3

193

43

215

Hollow

0.389

0.370

18.4

206

44

100

Cellular
Solo

0.243

0.230

12.2

134

41

215 x 65

103

Coursing
unit

0.215

0.198

2.2

164

42

440 x 65

140

Coursing
unit

0.292

0.269

6.0

223

44

21

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Page 22

Product data - background blocks

Evalite Background
Mean compressive strength: 3.6 - 10.4N/mm2
Thermal conductivity: 0.47 W/m.K internal, 0.505W/m.K external
Dry density: 1450kg/m3

Evalite Background
Evalite Background blocks are a medium density
product offering good sound insulation, ideal for use in
all parts of the project, above and below ground.
Produced to the requirements of BS EN 7713, their
performance makes them eminently suitable for general
load bearing conditions and where ease of handling and
weight are important.
Applications
Acoustic

Evalite Background blocks offer excellent sound


insulation properties. When laid to form a cavity sound
separating wall, they will achieve the required mass as
given in the Building Regulations and Robust Details.
Typical examples of how Evalite Background blocks may
be used to form sound separating walls are shown on
pages 50-53.
Exposed conditions

Evalite Background blocks are a robust product which


can be used in exposed conditions*. 7.3N/mm2 products
are also suitable for use in aggressive soil conditions.
Please contact our Product Services department for
further details.
*7.3N/mm2 strengths and above should be specified if blocks are to be used
unprotected on the outer leaf, below dpc. In all other normal situations,
3.6N/mm2 blocks would be suitable.

22

Flooring

Evalite Background blocks are suitable as in-fill blocks


for beam and block flooring systems. They should be
specified as for flooring in order that the correct
manufacturing base is sourced.
Thermal

Evalite Standard blocks in conjunction with suitable


thicknesses of insulation are able to reach high levels
of thermal insulation. Sample constructions achieving
U-Values of 0.27, 0.30 and 0.35W/m2.K are illustrated
on pages 42-47.
Fire

Concrete is an excellent fire resistant material. Evalite


Background blocks are manufactured using Class 1
aggregates which provide the highest level of fire
resistance for a given size.
Fixing
The high strength of Evalite Background products
provides an excellent base for a variety of patent fixings.
Coursing blocks
To complement the range, 10.4N/mm2 coursing units
(brick size) are available for use in conjunction with
3.6N/mm2 100mm Evalite Background blocks and full
length units are available for 140mm products.
Note: Evalite Background blocks are not intended to be left fair faced or
painted, and should have a finish (plaster, render, plasterboard, cladding etc.)
applied where the wall is to have visual importance.

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Page 23

Material properties
Thermal conductivity W/m.K

internal
external

0.47
0.505

Dry density kg/m3

1450

Total moisture movement mm m-1

< 0.85

Vapour resistivity MN.s/g.m


Mean compressive
strength N/mm2

50

solid
103mm coursing unit
140mm coursing unit

3.6, 7.3, 10.4


10.4
10.4

Shear bond strength N/mm2

Evalite Background

0.15

Fire classification

A1

Flatness mm

<1.0

Water vapour permeability

5/15

Dimension tolerance classification

D1

Configuration

Group 1

Dimensions, weights and properties


Work
size mm

440 x 215

Width Configuration Thermal resistance


mm
m2 K/W
internal external

Dry
block
weight kg

Weight
laid
kg/m2

Sound
reduction
dB

Fire resistance (hours)


Single leaf - no applied finish
non loadbearing
loadbearing
Class 1
Class 1
agg
agg

75

Solid

0.160

0.149

10.3

114

40

90

Solid

0.191

0.178

12.3

136

41

100

Solid

0.213

0.198

13.7

151

42

140

Solid

0.298

0.277

19.2

212

44

3
6

150

Solid

0.319

0.297

20.6

226

44

190

Solid

0.404

0.376

26.1

288

46

200

Solid

0.426

0.396

27.4

302

46

215

Solid

0.457

0.426

29.5

326

46

215 x 65

103

Coursing
unit

0.219

0.204

2.1

161

43

440 x 65

140

Coursing
unit

0.298

0.277

5.8

217

44

23

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Page 24

Product data - background blocks

Superlite Background
Mean compressive strength: 3.6, 7.3N/mm2
Thermal conductivity: 0.40 W/m.K internal, 0.43W/m.K external
Dry density: 1100kg/m3

Superlite Background
Superlite Background blocks are a lightweight product,
manufactured to the requirements of BS EN 771-3,
from pyro-processed lightweight aggregates, complying
with BS EN 13055-1, and Portland cement. Superlite
products offer good sound insulation and are ideal for
use in most parts of the project, above and below
ground. Their performance makes them suitable for
general load bearing conditions, particularly where ease
of handling and weight are important.
Applications
Exposed conditions

Superlite Background blocks are a robust product,


which can be used in exposed conditions. 7.3N/mm2
products are also suitable for use in aggressive soil
conditions. Please contact our Product Services
department for further details.
Note: Superlite Background blocks are not intended to be left fair faced or
painted, and should have a finish (plaster, render, plasterboard, cladding etc.)
applied where the wall is to have visual importance.

24

Strength

The strength of Superlite blocks dictates their


application in exposed conditions. Block strengths of
7.3N/mm2 and greater should be specified if these
blocks are to be used on the outer leaf of a cavity wall
below dpc level and left unprotected. In all other normal
situations 3.6N/mm2 blocks would be suitable.
Thermal

Superlite blocks in conjunction with suitable thicknesses


of insulation are able to reach high levels of thermal
insulation. Sample constructions achieving U-Values of
0.27, 0.30 and 0.35W/m2.K are shown on pages 42-47.
Fire

Concrete is an excellent fire resistant material. Superlite


blocks are manufactured using Class 1 aggregates
which provides the highest level of fire resistance for a
given size.
Fixings and finishes
Superlite Background blocks provide an excellent base
for a variety of patent fixings and offer a medium
suction background which is ideal for the direct
application of sand cement renders and plasters,
together with proprietary lightweight plasters.

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Page 25

Material properties
Thermal conductivity W/m.K

internal
external

0.40
0.43

Dry density kg/m3

1100

Total moisture movement mm m-1

< 0.95

Vapour resistivity MN.s/g.m

40

Mean compressive
strength N/mm2

solid

3.6, 7.3

Shear bond strength N/mm2

0.15

Configuration

Superlite Background

Group 1

Fire classification

A1

Water vapour permeability

5/15

Flatness mm

< 1.0

Dimension tolerance classification

D1

Dimensions, weights and properties


Work
size mm

440 x 215

Width Configuration Thermal resistance


Dry
block
mm
m2 K/W
internal external
weight kg

Weight
laid
kg/m2

Sound
reduction
dB

Fire resistance (hours)


Single leaf - no applied finish
non loadbearing
loadbearing
Class 1
Class 1
agg
agg

75

Solid

0.188

0.174

7.8

88

38

90

Solid

0.225

0.209

9.4

106

39

100

Solid

0.250

0.233

10.4

118

40

140

Solid

0.350

0.326

14.6

165

42

150

Solid

0.375

0.349

15.6

175

43

190

Solid

0.475

0.442

19.8

224

44

200

Solid

0.500

0.465

20.8

234

44

215

Solid

0.538

0.500

22.4

253

45

25

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Page 26

Product data - background blocks

Ultralite Background
Mean compressive strength: 3.6N/mm2
Thermal conductivity: 0.295W/m.K internal, 0.32 W/m.K external
Dry density: 850kg/m3

Ultralite Background
Ultralite Background blocks are a lightweight product,
manufactured to BS EN 771-3, from pyro-processed
lightweight aggregates, complying with BS EN
13055-1, and Portland cement. These blocks can be
used in most parts of the project above ground and on
the inner leaf below ground. Their performance makes
them suitable for general load bearing conditions,
particularly where low weight for handling is important.
Applications
Thermal

Ultralite Background blocks have an excellent thermal


performance and are therefore able to achieve the high
levels of thermal insulation required with the addition of
minimal secondary insulation. Sample constructions
achieving U-Values of 0.27, 0.30 and 0.35W/m2.K are
illustrated on pages 42-47.
Fire

Concrete is an excellent fire resistant material. Ultralite


Background blocks are manufactured using Class 1
aggregates which provide the highest level of fire
resistance for a given size.

26

Fixings and finishes


Having good strengths, excellent fixing can be achieved
using a variety of patent fixings.
Ultralite blocks offer a medium suction background
which is ideal for the direct application of sand cement
renders and plasters, together with proprietary
lightweight plasters.
Note: Ultralite Background blocks are not intended to be left fair faced or
painted, and should have a finish (plaster, render, plasterboard, cladding etc.)
applied where the wall is to have visual importance.

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Page 27

Material properties
Thermal conductivity W/m.K

internal
external

0.295
0.32

Dry density kg/m3

850

Total moisture movement mm m-1

< 0.85

Vapour resistivity MN.s/g.m

30

Mean compressive
strength N/mm2

solid
cellular

3.6
3.6

Shear bond strength N/mm2

Ultralite Background

0.15

Fire classification

A1

Water vapour permeability

5/15

Flatness mm

< 1.5

Dimension tolerance classification

D1

Configuration

Group 1

Dimensions, weights and properties


Work
size mm

440 x 215

Width Configuration Thermal resistance


Dry
block
mm
m2 K/W
internal external
weight kg

Weight
laid
kg/m2

Sound
reduction
dB

Fire resistance (hours)


Single leaf - no applied finish
non loadbearing
loadbearing
Class 1
Class 1
agg
agg

75

Solid

0.254

0.234

6.0

70

37

90*

Solid

0.305

0.281

7.2

85

38

1
2

100

Solid

0.339

0.313

8.0

94

39

140

Solid

0.475

0.438

11.3

131

41

150*

Solid

0.508

0.469

12.1

139

41

6
6

190

Solid

0.644

0.594

15.3

178

43

200*

Solid

0.678

0.625

16.1

186

43

215

Solid

0.729

0.672

17.3

201

43

100*

Cellular
Solo

0.345

0.325

6.4

77

37

*Available from selected works only. Other sizes available on request. Please contact our sales office.

27

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Page 28

Product data - background blocks

Party Wall
Mean compressive strength: 24N/mm2
Thermal conductivity: 1.46W/m.K internal, 1.56 W/m.K external
Dry density: 2100kg/m3

Party Wall blocks


Produced to BS EN 771-3, using natural aggregate and
Portland cement, for fast and economical construction
of strong and sturdy party walls. The blocks are laid on
190mm bed and due to their high density eliminate the
need for thicker blocks or cavity construction - one
block replacing two cavity wall blocks - thus saving time
and costs.
Applications
Acoustic

The high density of Party Wall blocks gives them


excellent sound insulation properties. When laid to form
a solid sound separating wall, which is subsequently
plastered on both room faces, they achieve a mass in
excess of 415kg/m2, thereby complying with the
requirements of Approved Document E of the Building
Regulations. In addition, it is also necessary to consider
the flanking wall construction.
Having high density, with associated strengths, the
durability requirements for use above and below
ground are easily achieved. Party Wall blocks can be
used in normal and sulphate soil conditions equivalent
to soil classification DS-3.

28

Fire

Concrete is an excellent fire resistant material.


Party Wall blocks are manufactured using a Class 2
aggregate. Where fire resistance is important it is
essential that the fire resistance associated with class
of aggregate is checked.
Finishes
The nature of Party Wall blocks classes them, for the
purposes of plastering, as a relatively smooth, low
suction background. As such, the correct specification
for applied finishes should be provided. For dense sand
cement plasters it will be sufficient to rake the joints in
order to provide adequate keying.
Fixings
The high strength of Party Wall blocks means that fixing
can be achieved using a variety of patent fixings.
Note: Party Wall blocks are not intended to be left fair faced or painted, and
should have a finish (plaster, render, plasterboard, cladding etc.) applied where
the wall is to have visual importance.

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Page 29

Material properties
Thermal conductivity W/m.K

internal
external

Dry density kg/m3

1.46
1.56
2100

Total moisture movement mm m-1

< 0.55

Vapour resistivity MN.s/g.m


Mean compressive
strength N/mm2

100
solid

Shear bond strength N/mm2

24
0.15

Configuration

Party Wall

Group 1

Fire classification

A1

Water vapour permeability

5/15

Dimension tolerance classification

D1

Dimensions, weights and properties


Work
size mm

440 x 65

Width Configration
mm

190

Solid

Thermal resistance
Dry
block
m2 K/W
internal external weight kg
0.130 0.122

11.4

Weight
laid
kg/m2

Sound
reduction
dB

400

48

Fire resistance (hours)


Single leaf - no applied finish
non loadbearing
loadbearing
Class 2 agg
Class 2 agg
4

29

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Product data

30

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Page 30

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Page 31

Structural

32-39

Thermal insulation

40-47

Sound insulation

48-53

Fire resistance

54

Movement control

55-57

Moisture penetration

58-59

Durability

Performance

2 Performance

60

31

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Page 32

Performance

Structural

General
It is the purpose of design to ensure that the building
be constructed so that the combined dead, imposed
and wind loads are sustained and transmitted by it to
the ground:
a) Safely
b) Without causing such deflection or deformation of
any part of the building, or such movement of the
ground, as will impair the stability of any part of
another building.
In order to achieve the above requirements, the
recommendations for the structural design of masonry
are given in BS 5628: Parts 1 and 2. Additional
guidance is given in BS 5628: Part 3 for walls subject
to imposed lateral load only and internal walls or
partitions not designed for imposed loading.
Where the building type is limited to:
a) Residential buildings of not more than three
storeys.
b) Small single storey non-residential buildings.
c) Small buildings forming annexes to residential
buildings (including garages and out buildings).
Guidance is given in Approved Document A of the
Building Regulations 2000 (2004 edition) (England and
Wales) or Technical Standard C of the Building
Standards (Scotland) Regulations.

32

Table 1: Partial safety factors for material strength

Compression, ()m
Flexure, ()m

Category of
masonry units

Category of
construction control
Special
Normal

Category I
Category 2

2.5
2.8

3.1
3.5

Category I and 2

2.5

3.0

All aggregate concrete masonry units produced by


Hanson are manufactured to Category 2 manufacturing
controls. Fig. 1 gives guidance on the compressive
strength of brick and block units for walls of one, two
and three storey buildings in England and Wales, where
the roof construction is of timber. Other factors, e.g.
durability, may dictate the need for greater unit strength
or thickness depending on location. If the building is
greater than the sizing or loading limits given in the
approved document, the design should be based on
BS 5628: Parts 1 or 2 to ensure an adequate margin of
safety against the ultimate limit state being reached.
When carrying out the design for vertical loads, it is
necessary to consider the characteristics and partial
safety factors for loading, together with the
characteristic strength of the masonry and partial safety
factors for the material strength Table 1. Information on
the characteristic compressive strength of masonry is
given in Table 2 (page 34) for the common sizes of
concrete bricks and blocks laid in designation (iii)
mortar, (M4).

464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b:464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b

Compressive strength of masonry units

10:19

Page 33

Notes
Figure 1
1 If Hs is not greater than 2.7m, the compressive strength of bricks or blocks

Aggregate concrete masonry unit strength to


BS EN 771-3

should be used in walls as indicated by the key.

Blocks

Bricks

2 If Hs is greater than 2.7m, the compressive strength of bricks or blocks used

Condition A

2.90N/mm2

6.00N/mm2

Condition B

7.30N/mm2

9.00N/mm2

in the wall should be at least Condition B, or as indicated by the key, whichever


is the greater.

Condition C

7.30N/mm2

18.00N/mm2

Where
Hf Less than or equal to 1m, Condition A
Where
Hf Greater than 1m, Condition B

Hs

8/3/07

Underside of
structural roof

Cavity wall

3 If the external wall is solid construction, the masonry units should have a
compressive strength of at least that shown for the internal leaf of a cavity wall,
in the same position.
4 The guidance given in the diagram, for walls of two and three storey
buildings, should only be used to determine the compressive strength of the
masonry units where the roof construction is of timber.

Internal wall

Topside of
structural floor
One storey

Hs

Underside of
structural roof

Hs

Underside of
structural roof

Topside of
structural floor

Cavity wall

Internal wall

Hs

Underside of
structural roof

Hs

Underside of
structural roof

Hs

Hf

Two storey

This wall to be at
least 140mm thick
in blockwork or
215mm thick in
brickwork below ground
floor level if height
Hf exceeds 1m.

Cavity wall

Internal wall

This wall to be at
least 140mm
thick blockwork
or 215mm thick
brickwork

Underside of
structural roof

Topside of
structural floor

Three storey

Fig. 1 Compressive strengths of masonry units


33

464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b:464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b

8/3/07

10:19

Page 34

Performance

Structural

Characteristic compressive strength of masonry, fk


For normally bonded masonry, defined in terms of the shape and compressive strength of the masonry units and the
classification of the mortar, the values given in Table 2 may be taken to be the characteristic compressive strength,
fk, of walls constructed under laboratory conditions, tested at an age of 28 days.
Table 2: Characteristic compressive strength of masonry, fk, in N/mm2
Block
size

Unit strength N/mm2

Aspect
ratio
3.60

7.30

10.40

15.00

17.50

22.50

24.00 30.00

Group 1 Units (void content < 25%) in designation (iii) Mortar (M4)
440 x 215 x 75

2.87

3.50

6.40

8.20

9.43

10.10

12.00

14.50

440 x 215 x 90

2.39

3.50

6.40

8.20

9.43

10.10

12.00

14.50

440 x 215 x 100

2.15

3.50

6.40

8.20

9.43

10.10

12.00

14.50

440 x 215 x 140

1.54

2.91

5.35

6.85

7.89

8.46

10.03

12.10

440 x 215 x 150

1.43

2.77

5.10

6.53

7.52

8.06

9.56

11.53

440 x 215 x 190

1.13

2.38

4.41

5.65

6.52

6.99

8.27

9.96

440 x 215 x 200

1.08

2.32

4.30

5.51

6.35

6.81

8.06

9.70

440 x 215 x 215

1.00

2.21

4.11

5.27

6.09

6.53

7.71

9.29

215 x 215 x190

1.13

4.41

5.65

6.52

6.99

8.27

9.96

290 x 215 x 140

1.54

5.35

6.85

7.89

8.46

10.03

12.10

290 x 140 x 215

0.65

3.31

4.25

4.92

5.28

6.21

7.46

440 x 65 x 190

0.34

5.08

215 x 65 x 103

0.63

4.19

6.13

440 x 65 x 140

0.46

3.69

Group 2 units (void content > 25% but < 60%) in designation (iii) mortar (M4)
440 x 215 x 140

1.54

2.91

5.15

6.11

440 x 215 x 150

1.43

2.77

4.92

5.88

440 x 215 x 190

1.13

2.38

4.30

5.24

440 x 215 x 215

1.00

2.21

4.03

4.96

7.00

8.10

9.60

Group 1 units laid flat in designation (iii) mortar (M4), strength tested upright
440 x 215 x 100

0.47

2.50

4.10

5.20

6.37

Units (void content <25%) laid to form a collar jointed wall in designation (iii) mortar (M4)
Wall
width

34

Unit strength N/mm2

Aspect
ratio
3.60

7.30

10.40

15.00

17.50

22.50

30.00

190mm (2 x 90)

1.13

2.40

4.00

5.10

6.30

7.00

8.30

10.30

215mm (2 x 100)

1.00

2.40

4.00

5.10

6.30

7.00

8.30

10.30

464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b:464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b

Reinforced masonry
When considering reinforced masonry design, guidance
is given in BS 5628: Part 2. A particular application of
this form of construction is the formation of lintels over
openings, where the block pattern is to be maintained.
In order to achieve this, trough lintel or bond team units
(half length trough lintels used where a fair faced soffit
is required) are laid on temporary formwork with an
extra unit at each end to form the bearing. The void
achieved is then filled with the necessary reinforcement
and infill concrete to withstand the applied load.
The whole assembly is allowed to cure before the
formwork is struck.

8/3/07

10:19

Bond beams can also be used:


a) As horizontal beams to distribute loads to columns
b) As heads of walls to distribute vertical loads
c) Below large panel openings to assist with movement
control.
The reinforcement quantities in the table are
for guidance only, exact detail and specification
should be approved by a structural engineer.
Table 3: Maximum spans for single layer reinforced masonry
above openings
Trough lintel (face size)
Full length

Half length

Width
mm

440 x 215

215 x 215

100

2.4

1 x 12mm

440 x 215

215 x 215

140

2.2

1 x 12mm

440 x 215

215 x 215

190

2.2

1 x 12mm

440 x 215

215 x 215

215

2.1

1 x 12mm

A typical example is shown in Fig. 2.


Table 3 gives guidance on the maximum spans for
single layer reinforced masonry trough lintels used in
internal applications. Where it is necessary to have
greater spans, the use of double layer reinforced
sections should be considered (as illustrated).

Page 35

Maximum
span (m)

Reinforcement
(high yield)

The maximum spans indicated above have been based on:


1. Loads assessed in accordance with BS 5977: Part 1
(no additional loads or openings in load triangle or interaction
zone other than masonry above).
2. Mortar designation (ii) (M6)
3. Block strength 7.3N/mm2

Local bed-joint reinforcement

4. Concrete infill
(a) 1:0-1/4:3:2 cement:lime:sand:10mm max. size aggregate.
(b) Concrete grade C30 215mm
5. Minimum bearings 215mm

Bond beam units with


webs knocked out

Top reinforcement with


links if required

Formwork

Trough
lintel
units

Fig. 2 Reinforced masonry above openings - typical example

35

464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b:464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b

8/3/07

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Page 36

Performance

Structural

Internal walls or partitions not designated for


imposed loading
When an internal wall or partition is not intended to
carry an imposed load, it should be laterally restrained
by horizontal or vertical, continuous or intermittent
supports. The length or height of the wall in relation to
its thickness should be within the limits given in
Figs. 3, 4 and 5, page 37.

Table 5: Internal and external dimensions of moulded blocks


(all dimensions nominal)
b
a
b

Consideration should also be given to the following,


which may affect stability:

Block dimensions: hollow/cellulars

a) Openings
b) Accommodation of movement
c) Chasing
d) Exceptional lateral loading
e) Wind load

c
a

t
Work size

Width
mm (t)

140c

140

150

190

440 x 215mm

30

45

40

45

45

30

45

40

45

45

50

40

40

50

50

Voids vary in size depending on manufactured base. In cellular


blocks, the void does not pass through the whole unit, leaving on
average a 25mm bottom thickness.

Where walls are to be plastered and the plaster


thickness is included in the wall thickness calculation,
the wall may require temporary bracing prior to
plastering.
The type of restraint employed should allow for the
movement of the wall due to shrinkage or thermal
changes, together with any deflection of the structure,
without inducing unacceptably high stresses which may
result in cracking and potential instability.

Mortars
The specification and choice of the mortar is a
fundamental determinant of the structural and visual
properties of a blockwork wall.

Table 4: Mix design (by volume) for mortar designation (iii) (M4)

Masonry cement:sand
Cement: sand with plastisizer

1:1:5-6

t
Half length trough lintels (fair faced soffit)
Work size

Width
mm (t)

100

140

190

215 x 215mm

45

45

45

45

30

45

45

45

Higher strength mortars may be necessary in certain


applications as a safeguard for durability or for design
considerations, but they may increase the risk of
cracking. Further information on recommended designs
of mortar for use in various locations and different
conditions of exposure is given in BS 5628: Part 3.

36

215

Other sizes are available, cut from solid units.


b
b

a
t
Full length trough lintels (not suitable for fair faced soffit)
Work size

Width
mm (t) 100

140

190

440 x 215mm

45

45

45

45

30

40

40

45

1:4-5
1:5-6

For all Hanson aggregate blocks used in normal


construction, a mortar designation (iii) (M4) as shown in
Table 4 is suggested.
Cement:lime:sand

215

215

Other sizes are available, cut from solid units.


Void content (%)
440 x 215mm
140mm Cellular

38%

140mm Hollow

26%

150mm Hollow

34%

190mm Hollow

36%

215mm Hollow

40%

464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b:464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b

8/3/07

10:19

Page 37

8.0
Not
recommended

7.0

215
200

Wall height m

6.0

190

5.0

150
140

4.0

125
3.0
100
2.0
1.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

10.0

11.0

12.0

Wall length m

Figure 3: Recommended block width non-loadbearing unplastered walls


restrained at the top only
8.0
Not
recommended

7.0
6.0

215

Wall height m

200
5.0
190
4.0
150
140

3.0
125
2.0
100
1.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

10.0

11.0

12.0

Wall length m

Figure 4: Recommended block width non-loadbearing unplastered walls


restrained at the ends but free at the top
8.0
190
7.0
150

6.0

Wall height m

140
5.0

125

Recommended
block widths

4.0
100

Not recommended
215
200
190
150
140
125
100

3.0
2.0
1.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

10.0

11.0

12.0

Wall length m

Figure 5: Recommended block width non-loadbearing unplastered walls


restrained at the ends and top
37

464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b:464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b

8/3/07

10:19

Page 38

Performance

Structural

Radius walls
Standard blocks can be laid in stretcher bond to form
circular or curved walls. The length and thickness of the
block will determine the width of the perpend on the
outer face and the overhang between successive
courses for a particular radius.

Fig. 6 and Table 6 give guidance on curved walls based


on the size of the unit with a nominal 10mm perpend
joint on the internal face. To limit the size of the external
perpend joint, the joint on the internal face can be
reduced, or the block cut on the splay.

Figure 6: Typical radius wall


Length of block
External
perpend width
(see table)

Thicknes of block

Overhang between
alternative courses
Width of internal
perpend 10mm

38

464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b:464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b

8/3/07

10:19

Page 39

Table 6: Overhang and perpend joint widths for radius walls


Wall
radius

W = 100

Work size: 440 x 215mm


L = 440
W = 140

mm

Overhang

Perpend

Overhang

Perpend
joint

Overhang

600

44

86

46

120

800

32

68

33

93

1000

25

56

26

1200

21

48

1400

18

1600

L = 440

W = 100

Work size: 215 x 215mm


L = 215
W = 140

L = 215

Perpend
joint

Overhang

Perpend
joint

10

50

11

68

40

53

76

34

44

21

65

29

29

43

18

57

27

34

16

39

16

51

24

31

1800

14

36

14

46

23

28

2000

12

33

13

42

22

26

2500

10

28

10

36

19

23

3000

25

31

18

21

3500

23

28

17

19

4000

21

26

16

18

4500

20

24

15

17

5000

19

23

15

16

5500

18

22

14

16

6000

18

21

14

15

W= Width L= Length

39

464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b:464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b

8/3/07

10:19

Page 40

Performance

Thermal Insulation

Introduction
New measures to improve the energy efficiency of
buildings have been introduced by the Government.
The intention is to meet the requirements of The
Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD)
which aims to further combat climate change and
requires buildings to be both better insulated and to
make use of more efficient heating systems.
The changes to Approved Documents (conservation of
fuel and power) of the Building Regulations for
England and Wales came into force on 6th April
2006.

compliance can be assessed using a calculation


procedure known as the Simplified Building Energy
Model (SBEM). Conservatories with a floor area greater
than 30m2 must comply with Approved Document L1.
Part L1A requirements - dwellings
The 2006 amendments to Part L1 seek to achieve
about a 20% reduction in carbon emissions when
compared to dwellings built to the 2002 standards
of thermal insulation. Compliance can only be
demonstrated using a revised Standard Assessment
Procedure (SAP 2005) calculation method.
SAP 2005 & Emission rates

The revised Approved Document will also make air


leakage pressure testing of buildings mandatory,
thereby improving compliance with the regulations.
The use of Robust Details for airtightness of dwellings
may provide an alternative to routine testing, although
at present the required details have not yet been
developed.
Guidance is given below on compliance to satisfy the
requirements of Building Regulation L1 (England and
Wales) 2006, with respect to Hansons aggregate
blocks.
Different requirements apply in Scotland. Please refer
to technical standard J of the Building Standards
(Scotland) Regulations.

The use of SAP 2005 will result in the reporting of CO2


emissions from:
1. Space and water heating, (CH) and
2. The use of internal fixed lighting (CL).
The Target CO2 Emission Rate (TER) will need to be
determined. This is calculated using approved software
based on SAP 2005 and is, in turn, based upon a
notional building which assumes a 20% improvement
on the 2002 regulation design values. The following
formula is used to determine the TER:
TER = (CH x fuel factor + CL) x (1 - improvement
factor).

Approved Documents
The new Part L Approved Documents are in 4 sections
as follows:

The fuel factor is a tabulated value from Approved


Document L1 and is dependent on the fuel type.
The Dwelling CO2 Emission Rate (DER) is calculated
based on the energy features of the proposed dwelling.
It needs to be carried out twice.

Part L1 Housing

First

1. Approved Document L1A New dwellings


2. Approved Document L1B Existing Dwellings

Second

Part L2 Non Dwellings

3. Approved Document L2A New buildings other than


dwellings
4. Approved Document L2B Existing buildings other
than dwellings
A number of other publications are listed in the
Approved Documents and are relevant to assess
compliance.
Part L1A
The guidance in Approved Document L1A is limited
to new dwellings with a total floor area not greater
than 450m2. For dwellings exceeding this size,

40

based on the as designed construction for


submission to Building Control.
On completion taking into account the actual
construction and services, as well as the
actual air permeability found from site tests.
Neither should be worse than the TER for the
dwelling to comply.

Compliance criteria
Once the TER has been calculated, compliance is met
by following five criteria.
Stage 1

Check (by calculation) that the predicted rate of carbon


dioxide emissions from the dwelling (DER) is not
greater than the Target CO2 Emission Rate (TER).

464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b:464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b

Stage 2

The dwelling fabric and the fixed services should have


performance values no worse than the specified
design limits.
Stage 3

The dwelling should include appropriate passive control


measures to limit the effect of solar gains on indoor
temperatures.
Stage 4

The performance of the dwelling, as built, is consistent


with the DER. This requires a check to ensure that any
changes in performance and specification of materials
between design and construction do not affect the TER.
A final calculation of the DER is required to confirm
compliance.
Stage 5

Information concerning the energy efficient operation of


the dwelling should be provided to the occupier. This will
include operating and maintenance instructions
produced in such a way that householders can
understand.
This information is expected to be included as part of
the Home Information Pack.
Limits on design flexibility
For design purposes, the limiting U-Values shown in
Table 7 should not be exceeded. In practice, the
envelope standards would need to be better than the
limiting values.
Table 7: Design limit U-Values
Element

(a) Area - weighted


dwelling average

(b) Worst individual


sub-element

Wall

0.35

0.70

Floor

0.25

0.70

Roof

0.25

0.35

Windows, roof
windows, roof lights
& doors

2.2

3.3

Limiting the effects of solar gains in summer


Designers need to check that the dwelling is not prone
to summertime overheating. High mass structures
perform well in this area by being able to store heat
during the daytime and releasing heat as the dwelling
cools down overnight. Maximum advantage will result
from the use of aggregate blocks in external and
internal walls as well as ground and intermediate beam
and block flooring. Lighter forms of construction do not
possess the potential for high thermal mass.

8/3/07

10:19

Page 41

Other steps could include an appropriate combination of


window size and orientation, solar protection through
shading, ventilation etc. Reference should be made to
CE 129 Reducing Overheating - A Designers Guide,
for more information.
Quality of construction
It is important to note that insulation should be
continuous over the whole dwelling envelope and that
the air permeability is within a reasonable limit.
To ensure that the performance of the dwelling as built
is consistent with the DER, a check is required to
ensure that any changes in performance and
specification of materials between design and
construction do not affect the TER. A final calculation of
the DER is required to confirm compliance. If the
dwelling does not comply, then appropriate remedies will
be required. A checklist is provided in Approved
Document L1A to aid identification of non-conformities.
For details of how to comply with the requirements of
Parts L1B, L2A and L2B, please consult the relevant
Approved Documents. Details of the changes relating to
Part L were reproduced from the technical data sheets
compiled by the Concrete Block Association.
Aggregate block solutions
Although the performance values of the building
envelope will depend on factors such as air permeability
values, fuel type and heating efficiency, it is likely that
wall U-Values of 0.27- 0.35W/m2K will be required.
Examples of aggregate block solutions to meet this
level of performance are detailed on pages 42-47.
The U-Values given in this brochure are correct at the
time of going to press and are based on manufacturers
details available at that time. Details of insulation
products featured in the construction solutions can be
obtained from the companies listed below:
Knauf Insulation Tel. 01744 766 666
www.knaufinsulation.co.uk
British Gypsum-Isover Tel. 0115 945 1143
www.isowool.com
Rockwool Ltd Tel. 01656 862 621
www.rockwool.co.uk
Kingspan Insulation Group Tel. 0870 733 8333
www.insulation.kingspan.com
Xtratherm UK Ltd Tel. 0871 222 1033 www.xtratherm.com
Celotex Ltd Tel. 01473 822 093
www.celotex.co.uk

41

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10:19

Page 42

Performance

Thermal insulation

Full fill construction


Table 8: minimum thickness of insulation to achieve a 0.27 W/m2.K U-Value (actual U-Value in brackets). 100mm inner leaf block width.

0.27

Brick outer leaf


Full fill insulation
Inner leaf block
Internal finish

Evalast outer leaf


Render
Full fill insulation
Inner leaf block
Internal finish

Render
Fenlite outer leaf
Full fill insulation
Inner leaf block
Internal finish

42

Insulation
conductivity W/m.K

Evalast

Fenlite

Fenlite
1500

Evalite
Standard

Superlite

Ultralite

Internal finish

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

n/a
n/a
125 (0.27)
145 (0.27)

100 (0.27)
n/a
125 (0.26)
140 (0.27)

100 (0.27)
n/a
125 (0.27)
140 (0.27)

100 (0.27)
n/a
125 (0.26)
140 (0.27)

100 (0.27)
n/a
125 (0.26)
135 (0.27)

100 (0.27)
n/a
125 (0.26)
135 (0.26)

Dense plaster

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

n/a
n/a
125 (0.27)
125 (0.27)

100 (0.27)
n/a
125 (0.26)
135 (0.27)

100 (0.27)
n/a
125 (0.26)
135 (0.27)

100 (0.27)
n/a
125 (0.26)
135 (0.27)

100 (0.27)
n/a
125 (0.26)
135 (0.27)

100 (0.26)
n/a
125 (0.26)
135 (0.27)

Lightweight plaster

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

100 (0.27)
n/a
125 (0.26)
140 (0.27)

100 (0.26)
n/a
125 (0.26)
130 (0.27)

100 (0.26)
n/a
125 (0.26)
135 (0.27)

100 (0.26)
n/a
125 (0.26)
135 (0.27)

100 (0.26)
100 (0.27)
125 (0.25)
130 (0.27)

100 (0.26)
100 (0.27)
125 (0.25)
130 (0.27)

Plasterboard on dabs

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

n/a
n/a
125 (0.27)
145 (0.27)

100 (0.27)
n/a
125 (0.27)
140 (0.27)

n/a
n/a
125 (0.27)
140 (0.27)

100 (0.27)
n/a
125 (0.27)
140 (0.27)

100 (0.27)
n/a
125 (0.26)
140 (0.27)

100 (0.27)
n/a
125 (0.26)
135 (0.27)

Dense plaster

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

n/a
n/a
125 (0.27)
140 (0.27)

100 (0.27)
n/a
125 (0.26)
135 (0.27)

100 (0.27)
n/a
125 (0.26)
135 (0.27)

100 (0.27)
n/a
125 (0.26)
135 (0.27)

100 (0.27)
n/a
125 (0.26)
135 (0.27)

100 (0.26)
n/a
125 (0.26)
135 (0.27)

Lightweight plaster

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

100 (0.27)
n/a
125 (0.27)
140 (0.27)

100 (0.26)
n/a
125 (0.26)
135 (0.27)

100 (0.26)
n/a
125 (0.26)
135 (0.27)

100 (0.26)
n/a
125 (0.26)
135 (0.27)

100 (0.26)
n/a
125 (0.26)
130 (0.27)

100 (0.26)
100 (0.27)
125 (0.26)
130 (0.27)

Plasterboard on dabs

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

100 (0.27)
n/a
125 (0.27)
140 (0.27)

100 (0.27)
n/a
125 (0.26)
135 (0.27)

100 (0.27)
n/a
125 (0.26)
135 (0.27)

100 (0.27)
n/a
125 (0.26)
135 (0.27)

100 (0.26)
n/a
125 (0.26)
135 (0.27)

100 (0.26)
100 (0.27)
125 (0.25)
130 (0.27)

Dense plaster

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

100 (0.27)
n/a
125 (0.26)
135 (0.27)

100 (0.27)
n/a
125 (0.26)
130 (0.27)

100 (0.26)
n/a
125 (0.26)
130 (0.27)

100 (0.26)
n/a
125 (0.26)
130 (0.27)

100 (0.26)
100 (0.27)
125 (0.25)
130 (0.27)

100 (0.26)
100 (0.27)
125 (0.25)
130 (0.27)

Lightweight plaster

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

100 (0.26)
n/a
125 (0.26)
135 (0.27)

100 (0.26)
100 (0.27)
125 (0.25)
130 (0.27)

100 (0.26)
100 (0.27)
125 (0.25)
130 (0.27)

100 (0.26)
100 (0.27)
125 (0.25)
130 (0.27)

100 (0.25)
100 (0.27)
125 (0.25)
130 (0.27)

100 (0.25)
100 (0.26)
100 (0.27)
125 (0.27)

Plasterboard on dabs

464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b:464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b

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Page 43

Full fill construction


Table 9: minimum thickness of insulation to achieve a 0.30 W/m2.K U-Value (actual U-Value in brackets). 100mm inner leaf block width.

0.30

Brick outer leaf

Insulation
conductivity W/m.K

Evalast

Fenlite

Fenlite
1500

Evalite
Standard

Superlite

Ultralite

Internal finish

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

100 (0.28)
100 (0.30)
125 (0.27)
125 (0.30)

100 (0.27)
100 (0.29)
100 (0.30)
120 (0.30)

100 (0.27)
100 (0.29)
100 (0.30)
120 (0.30)

100 (0.27)
100 (0.29)
100 (0.30)
120 (0.30)

100 (0.27)
100 (0.29)
100 (0.30)
120 (0.30)

85 (0.30)
100 (0.28)
100 (0.29)
115 (0.30)

Dense plaster

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

100 (0.28)
100 (0.29)
125 (0.27)
125 (0.30)

100 (0.27)
100 (0.28)
100 (0.30)
120 (0.30)

100 (0.27)
100 (0.28)
100 (0.30)
120 (0.30)

100 (0.27)
100 (0.28)
100 (0.30)
120 (0.30)

100 (0.27)
100 (0.28)
100 (0.30)
120 (0.30)

85 (0.30)
100 (0.28)
100 (0.29)
115 (0.30)

Lightweight plaster

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

100 (0.27)
100 (0.29)
100 (0.30)
120 (0.30)

85 (0.30)
100 (0.28)
100 (0.29)
115 (0.30)

85 (0.30)
100 (0.28)
100 (0.29)
115 (0.30)

85 (0.30)
100 (0.28)
100 (0.29)
115 (0.30)

85 (0.30)
100 (0.27)
100 (0.29)
115 (0.30)

85 (0.29)
85 (0.30)
90 (0.30)
110 (0.30)

Plasterboard on dabs

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

100 (0.28)
100 (0.30)
125 (0.27)
130 (0.30)

100 (0.27)
100 (0.29)
100 (0.30)
120 (0.30)

100 (0.28)
100 (0.29)
100 (0.30)
125 (0.30)

100 (0.27)
100 (0.29)
100 (0.30)
125 (0.30)

100 (0.27)
100 (0.29)
100 (0.30)
120 (0.30)

100 (0.27)
100 (0.28)
100 (0.29)
120 (0.30)

Dense plaster

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

100 (0.28)
100 (0.30)
125 (0.27)
125 (0.30)

100 (0.27)
100 (0.29)
100 (0.30)
120 (0.30)

100 (0.27)
100 (0.29)
100 (0.30)
120 (0.30)

100 (0.27)
100 (0.29)
100 (0.30)
120 (0.30)

100 (0.27)
100 (0.28)
100 (0.30)
120 (0.30)

85 (0.30)
100 (0.28)
100 (0.29)
115 (0.30)

Lightweight plaster

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

100 (0.27)
100 (0.29)
100 (0.30)
120 (0.30)

85 (0.30)
100 (0.28)
100 (0.29)
115 (0.30)

85 (0.30)
100 (0.28)
100 (0.29)
115 (0.30)

85 (0.30)
100 (0.28)
100 (0.29)
115 (0.30)

85 (0.30)
100 (0.28)
100 (0.29)
115 (0.30)

85 (0.29)
100 (0.27)
100 (0.28)
115 (0.30)

Plasterboard on dabs

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

100 (0.27)
100 (0.29)
100 (0.30)
125 (0.30)

85 (0.30)
100 (0.28)
100 (0.29)
115 (0.30)

85 (0.30)
100 (0.28)
100 (0.29)
120 (0.30)

85 (0.30)
100 (0.28)
100 (0.29)
120 (0.30)

85 (0.30)
100 (0.28)
100 (0.29)
115 (0.30)

85 (0.29)
100 (0.27)
100 (0.28)
115 (0.30)

Dense plaster

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

100 (0.27)
100 (0.29)
100 (0.30)
120 (0.30)

85 (0.30)
100 (0.28)
100 (0.29)
115 (0.30)

85 (0.30)
100 (0.28)
100 (0.29)
115 (0.30)

85 (0.30)
100 (0.28)
100 (0.29)
115 (0.30)

85 (0.30)
100 (0.27)
100 (0.29)
115 (0.30)

85 (0.30)
85 (0.30)
90 (0.30)
110 (0.30)

Lightweight plaster

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

100 (0.27)
100 (0.28)
100 (0.29)
115 (0.30)

85 (0.30)
85 (0.30)
90 (0.30)
110 (0.30)

85 (0.30)
100 (0.27)
100 (0.28)
110 (0.30)

85 (0.30)
100 (0.27)
100 (0.28)
110 (0.30)

85 (0.30)
85 (0.30)
90 (0.30)
110 (0.30)

85 (0.29)
85 (0.30)
90 (0.30)
110 (0.30)

Plasterboard on dabs

Full fill insulation


Inner leaf block
Internal finish

Evalast outer leaf


Render
Full fill insulation
Inner leaf block
Internal finish

Render
Fenlite outer leaf
Full fill insulation
Inner leaf block
Internal finish

43

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Page 44

Performance

Thermal insulation

Full fill construction


Table 10: minimum thickness of insulation to achieve a 0.35 W/m2.K U-Value (actual U-Value in brackets). 100mm inner leaf block width.

0.35

Brick outer leaf


Full fill insulation
Inner leaf block
Internal finish

Evalast outer leaf


Render
Full fill insulation
Inner leaf block

Insulation
conductivity W/m.K

Evalast

Fenlite

Fenlite
1500

Evalite
Standard

Superlite

Ultralite

Internal finish

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

85 (0.33)
85 (0.34)
90 (0.34)
100 (0.34)

75 (0.35)
85 (0.33)
85 (0.34)
95 (0.34)

75 (0.35)
85 (0.33)
85 (0.35)
95 (0.34)

75 (0.35)
85 (0.33)
85 (0.35)
95 (0.34)

75 (0.34)
85 (0.33)
85 (0.34)
95 (0.34)

75 (0.34)
75 (0.35)
80 (0.35)
95 (0.35)

Dense plaster

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

85 (0.33)
85 (0.34)
90 (0.34)
95 (0.35)

75 (0.34)
85 (0.32)
85 (0.34)
90 (0.35)

75 (0.34)
85 (0.33)
85 (0.34)
90 (0.35)

75 (0.34)
85 (0.32)
85 (0.34)
90 (0.35)

75 (0.34)
75 (0.35)
80 (0.35)
90 (0.35)

75 (0.33)
75 (0.35)
80 (0.34)
90 (0.34)

Lightweight plaster

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

75 (0.35)
85 (0.33)
85 (0.34)
95 (0.34)

75 (0.33)
75 (0.35)
80 (0.34)
90 (0.34)

75 (0.33)
75 (0.35)
80 (0.35)
90 (0.34)

75 (0.33)
75 (0.35)
80 (0.35)
90 (0.34)

75 (0.33)
75 (0.34)
80 (0.34)
85 (0.35)

75 (0.32)
75 (0.33)
75 (0.35)
85 (0.34)

Plasterboard on dabs

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

85 (0.33)
85 (0.35)
90 (0.35)
100 (0.35)

75 (0.35)
85 (0.33)
85 (0.35)
95 (0.35)

75 (0.33)
85 (0.33)
85 (0.35)
95 (0.35)

75 (0.33)
85 (0.33)
85 (0.35)
95 (0.35)

75 (0.33)
85 (0.33)
85 (0.34)
95 (0.34)

75 (0.34)
75 (0.35)
85 (0.35)
90 (0.35)

Dense plaster

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

85 (0.32)
85 (0.34)
90 (0.34)
100 (0.34)

75 (0.34)
85 (0.33)
85 (0.34)
95 (0.34)

75 (0.35)
85 (0.33)
85 (0.34)
95 (0.34)

75 (0.34)
85 (0.33)
85 (0.34)
95 (0.34)

75 (0.34)
85 (0.32)
85 (0.34)
90 (0.35)

75 (0.33)
75 (0.35)
80 (0.35)
95 (0.34)

Lightweight plaster

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

75 (0.35)
75 (0.35)
85 (0.35)
95 (0.35)

75 (0.33)
75 (0.35)
80 (0.35)
90 (0.34)

75 (0.33)
75 (0.35)
80 (0.35)
90 (0.35)

75 (0.33)
75 (0.35)
80 (0.35)
90 (0.34)

75 (0.33)
75 (0.35)
80 (0.34)
90 (0.34)

75 (0.32)
75 (0.34)
75 (0.35)
85 (0.35)

Plasterboard on dabs

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

75 (0.35)
85 (0.33)
85 (0.35)
95 (0.35)

75 (0.33)
75 (0.35)
80 (0.35)
90 (0.35)

75 (0.34)
75 (0.35)
80 (0.35)
90 (0.35)

75 (0.34)
75 (0.35)
80 (0.35)
90 (0.35)

75 (0.33)
75 (0.35)
80 (0.35)
90 (0.34)

75 (0.32)
75 (0.34)
80 (0.34)
85 (0.35)

Dense plaster

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

75 (0.34)
85 (0.33)
85 (0.34)
95 (0.34)

75 (0.33)
75 (0.35)
80 (0.34)
85 (0.35)

75 (0.33)
75 (0.35)
80 (0.34)
90 (0.34)

75 (0.33)
75 (0.35)
80 (0.34)
90 (0.34)

75 (0.33)
75 (0.34)
80 (0.34)
85 (0.35)

65 (0.35)
75 (0.33)
75 (0.35)
85 (0.34)

Lightweight plaster

0.032
0.034
0.036
0.040

75 (0.33)
75 (0.35)
95 (0.35)
90 (0.34)

65 (0.35)
75 (0.33)
75 (0.35)
85 (0.34)

75 (0.32)
75 (0.33)
75 (0.35)
85 (0.34)

75 (0.32)
75 (0.33)
75 (0.35)
85 (0.34)

65 (0.35)
75 (0.33)
75 (0.35)
85 (0.34)

65 (0.34)
75 (0.32)
75 (0.34)
80 (0.35)

Plasterboard on dabs

Internal finish

Render
Fenlite outer leaf
Full fill insulation
Inner leaf block
Internal finish

44

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Page 45

Partial fill construction


Table 11: minimum thickness of insulation to achieve a 0.27 W/m2.K U-Value (actual U-Value in brackets). 100mm inner leaf block width.

0.27

Insulation
conductivity W/m.K

Evalast

Fenlite

Fenlite
1500

Evalite
Standard

Superlite

Ultralite

Internal finish

Foil faced
Cavity insulation
(k=0.023W/m.K)
Cavity (low emissivity)
= 0.644m2K/W

65 (0.27)

65 (0.26)

65 (0.27)

65 (0.27)

65 (0.26)

60 (0.27)

Dense plaster

65 (0.27)

65 (0.26)

65 (0.26)

65 (0.26)

60 (0.27)

60 (0.27)

Lightweight plaster

65 (0.26)

60 (0.27)

60 (0.27)

60 (0.27)

60 (0.27)

60 (0.26)

Plasterboard on dabs

65 (0.27)

65 (0.27)

65 (0.27)

65 (0.27)

65 (0.26)

60 (0.27)

Dense plaster

65 (0.27)

65 (0.26)

65 (0.26)

65 (0.26)

65 (0.26)

60 (0.27)

Lightweight plaster

65 (0.27)

60 (0.27)

60 (0.27)

60 (0.27)

60 (0.27)

60 (0.26)

Plasterboard on dabs

65 (0.27)

60 (0.27)

60 (0.27)

60 (0.27)

60 (0.27)

60 (0.27)

Dense plaster

65 (0.26)

60 (0.27)

60 (0.27)

60 (0.27)

60 (0.27)

65 (0.26)

Lightweight plaster

60 (0.27)

60 (0.26)

60 (0.26)

60 (0.26)

60 (0.26)

55 (0.26)

Plasterboard on dabs

Brick outer leaf


50mm clear cavity
Partial fill insulation
Inner leaf block
Internal finish

Everlast outer leaf

Foil faced
Cavity insulation
Partial fill insulation (k=0.023W/m.K)
Cavity (low emissivity)
Inner leaf block
= 0.644m2K/W
Internal finish
Render

50mm clear cavity

Render
Fenlite outer leaf
50mm clear cavity
Partial fill insulation
Inner leaf block
Internal finish

Foil faced
Cavity insulation
(k=0.023W/m.K)
Cavity (low emissivity)
= 0.644m2K/W

45

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Page 46

Performance

Thermal insulation

Partial fill construction


Table 12: minimum thickness of insulation to achieve a 0.30 W/m2.K U-Value (actual U-Value in brackets). 100mm inner leaf block width.

0.30

Insulation
conductivity W/m.K

Evalast

Fenlite

Fenlite
1500

Evalite
Standard

Superlite

Ultralite

Internal finish

Foil faced
Cavity insulation
(k=0.023W/m.K)
Cavity (low emissivity)
= 0.644m2K/W

60 (0.29)

50 (0.30)

50 (0.30)

50 (0.30)

50 (0.30)

50 (0.29)

Dense plaster

55 (0.30)

50 (0.29)

50 (0.29)

50 (0.29)

50 (0.29)

45 (0.30)

Lightweight plaster

50 (0.30)

45 (0.30)

50 (0.29)

50 (0.29)

45 (0.30)

45 (0.30)

Plasterboard on dabs

60 (0.29)

50 (0.30)

50 (0.30)

50 (0.30)

50 (0.30)

50 (0.29)

Dense plaster

55 (0.30)

50 (0.30)

50 (0.30)

50 (0.30)

50 (0.29)

50 (0.29)

Lightweight plaster

50 (0.30)

50 (0.29)

50 (0.29)

50 (0.29)

45 (0.30)

45 (0.30)

Plasterboard on dabs

50 (0.30)

50 (0.29)

50 (0.29)

50 (0.29)

50 (0.29)

45 (0.30)

Dense plaster

50 (0.30)

45 (0.30)

45 (0.30)

45 (0.30)

45 (0.30)

45 (0.29)

Lightweight plaster

50 (0.29)

45 (0.30)

45 (0.30)

45 (0.30)

45 (0.29)

45 (0.29)

Plasterboard on dabs

Brick outer leaf


50mm clear cavity
Partial fill insulation
Inner leaf block
Internal finish

Everlast outer leaf


Render
50mm clear cavity
Partial fill insulation
Inner leaf block

Foil faced
Cavity insulation
(k=0.023W/m.K)
Cavity (low emissivity)
= 0.644m2K/W

Internal finish

Render
Fenlite outer leaf
50mm clear cavity
Partial fill insulation
Inner leaf block
Internal finish

46

Foil faced
Cavity insulation
(k=0.023W/m.K)
Cavity (low emissivity)
= 0.644m2K/W

464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b:464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b

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10:20

Page 47

Partial fill construction


Table 13: minimum thickness of insulation to achieve a 0.35 W/m2.K U-Value (actual U-Value in brackets). 100mm inner leaf block width.

0.35

Insulation
conductivity W/m.K

Evalast

Fenlite

Fenlite
1500

Evalite
Standard

Superlite

Ultralite

Internal finish

Foil faced
Cavity insulation
(k=0.023W/m.K)
Cavity (low emissivity)
= 0.644m2K/W

45 (0.33)

40 (0.34)

40 (0.34)

40 (0.34)

40 (0.34)

40 (0.33)

Dense plaster

40 (0.35)

40 (0.34)

40 (0.34)

40 (0.34)

40 (0.33)

35 (0.35)

Lightweight plaster

40 (0.34)

35 (0.35)

35 (0.35)

35 (0.35)

35 (0.35)

35 (0.34)

Plasterboard on dabs

45 (0.33)

40 (0.34)

40 (0.35)

40 (0.34)

40 (0.34)

40 (0.33)

Dense plaster

45 (0.33)

40 (0.34)

40 (0.34)

40 (0.34)

40 (0.34)

35 (0.35)

Lightweight plaster

40 (0.34)

35 (0.35)

40 (0.33)

35 (0.35)

35 (0.35)

35 (0.34)

Plasterboard on dabs

40 (0.35)

40 (0.33)

40 (0.33)

40 (0.33)

35 (0.35)

35 (0.34)

Dense plaster

40 (0.34)

35 (0.35)

35 (0.35)

35 (0.35)

35 (0.35)

35 (0.34)

Lightweight plaster

35 (0.35)

35 (0.34)

35 (0.34)

35 (0.34)

35 (0.34)

30 (0.35)

Plasterboard on dabs

Brick outer leaf


50mm clear cavity
Partial fill insulation
Inner leaf block
Internal finish

Everlast outer leaf


Render
50mm clear cavity
Partial fill insulation
Inner leaf block

Foil faced
Cavity insulation
(k=0.023W/m.K)
Cavity (low emissivity)
= 0.644m2K/W

Internal finish

Render

Foil faced
Cavity insulation
50mm clear cavity
(k=0.023W/m.K)
Partial fill insulation Cavity (low emissivity)
= 0.644m2K/W
Inner leaf block
Fenlite outer leaf

Internal finish

47

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Page 48

Performance

Sound insulation

Introduction
Approved Document E (ADE) of the Building
Regulations came into force on 1st July 2003. It was
amended again in July 2004 to enable Robust Details
to be included as a valid method of meeting the
requirements of the regulations.
The aims of the review were to broaden the scope of
Part E, to raise standards of sound insulation, and of
particular importance, to improve compliance with the
performance standards in order to reduce the potential
for complaints regarding noise from neighbours.
ADE Requirements
E1 Protection against sound from other parts of the
building and adjoining buildings

Meeting the regulations


Satisfying E1

One method of satisfying requirement E1 is to build


separating walls, separating floors and stairs that have a
separating function, together with the associated
flanking construction, in such a way that they achieve
the sound insulation values for dwelling-houses and
flats set out in Table 1a of ADE (reproduced as Table
14 below), and the values for rooms for residential
purposes set out in Table 1b, (reproduced as Table15,
below) or by using Robust Details for new dwellinghouses or flats.
Table 14: Dwelling-houses and flats performance standards
for separating walls, separating floors and stairs that have a
separating function.
Airborne sound
insulation
DnT,w + Ctr dB
(Minimum values)

(a) This requirement now includes rooms for residential


purposes as well as dwelling houses and flats.
Room for residential purposes means a room, or suite
of rooms, which is not a dwelling-house or flat and
which is used by one or more persons to live and sleep
in, including rooms in hotels, hostels, boarding houses,
halls of residence and residential homes, but not
including rooms in hospitals, or other similar
establishments, used for patient accommodation.
(b) Performance standards are given for walls, floors
and stairs having a separating function, in new buildings
and buildings formed by change of use.
E2 Protection against sound within a dwelling-house etc

Purpose built dwelling


houses and flats
Walls
45
Floors and stairs
45

(d) This is a new requirement to control reverberation in


the common parts of buildings containing flats or rooms
for residential purposes.
E4 Acoustic conditions in schools

(e) All new school buildings are now controlled under


the Building Regulations, and this requirement covers
the sound insulation, reverberation time and indoor
ambient noise levels. Guidance on meeting the
requirements are given in Building Bulletin 93,
published by DfES.

48

62

Dwelling houses and flats formed


by a material change of use
Walls
Floors and stairs

43
43

64

Table 15: Rooms for residential purposes - performance


standards for separating walls, separating floors and stairs
that have a separating function.

(c) This is a new requirement that sets standards for the


sound insulation of walls and floors in dwelling-houses,
flats and rooms for residential purposes.
E3 Reverberation in the common internal parts of buildings
containing flats or rooms for residential purposes

Impact sound
insulation
LnT,w dB
(Maximum values)

Airborne sound
insulation
DnT,w + Ctr dB
(Minimum values)

Impact sound
insulation
LnT,w dB
(Maximum values)

Purpose built rooms for residential purposes


Walls
Floors and stairs

43
45

62

Rooms for residential purposes formed


by a material change of use
Walls
Floors and stairs

43
43

64

464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b:464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b

Compliance

Compliance with Regulation E1 (party walls) can be


achieved by the following one of methods detailed
below using aggregate concrete blocks-

Sound insulation testing to demonstrate compliance


with requirement E1 should be carried out on site as
part of the construction process. In the Approved
Document it is referred to as Pre-Completion testing.
Under Regulation 20A and Regulation 12A, the duty of
ensuring that appropriate sound insulation testing is
carried out falls on the person carrying out the building
work, who is also responsible for the cost of the testing.

Page 49

Airborne sound insulation


Rw dB
(minimum values)

or alternatively

Pre-Completion Testing

10:20

Table 16: Laboratory values for new internal walls and floors
within dwelling houses, flats and rooms for residential
purposes, whether purpose built or formed by material change
of use.

Build to the prescriptive methods detailed in the


Approved Document.

Build to the designs detailed in the Robust Details


Manual.

8/3/07

Walls

40

Floors and stairs

40

Internal walls (no testing required)


Compliance with regulation E2 (internal walls) can be
achieved by following the method detailed below using
aggregate concrete blocks:
Build to the prescriptive method detailed in the
Approved Document.
Examples of internal wall constructions that meet the
laboratory sound insulation values set out in Table 16,
are detailed below:
Specification

Testing should be carried out for:


a) Purpose built dwelling-houses and flats;
b) Dwelling-houses and flats formed by material change
of use;
c) Purpose built rooms for residential purposes;
d) Rooms for residential purposes formed by material
change of use.
The Pre-Completion Test regime and procedure are
detailed in Section 1 of the Approved Document.
However, as an alternative to Pre-Completion Testing in
new dwelling-houses and flats, separating wall and floor
constructions known as Robust Details (RDs) may be
used, which eliminate the need for Pre-Completion
Testing.
Satisfying E2

To satisfy the requirement for E2, internal walls and


floors should be built in such a way that they achieve
the sound insulation values for dwelling-houses, flats
and rooms for residential purposes set out in Table 16
opposite, or built to the minimum weight criteria as
detailed in Section 5 of the Approved Document.

Concrete block wall, plaster or plasterboard finish on


both sides
Minimum mass per unit area, excluding finish
=120 kg/m2
All joints well sealed
Plaster or plasterboard finish on both room sides
Compliant constructions

75mm Evalast solid


90mm Evalast solid
100mm Evalast solid
100mm Evalast Solo
90mm Fenlite solid
100mm Fenlite solid
100mm Fenlite Solo

All with plasterboard or plaster finish both sides.


Satisfying E3

To satisfy requirement E3 (reverberation) sound


absorption techniques detailed in Section 7 of the
Approved Document should be employed.
Satisfying E4

To satisfy requirement E4 (acoustics in schools),


reference is made to Building Bulletin 93, this
document gives detailed information on performance
requirements and compliance routes.

49

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Page 50

Performance

Sound insulation

Weighted sound reduction index single leaf


masonry (Rw)
It has become the norm for designers to specify noise
control requirements in terms of the Weighted Sound
Reduction Index (Rw) which represents the airborne
sound insulation performance of a building element.
Tables 17 and 18 illustrate a selection of Rw values for
our Evalast and Evalite range of products which have
been established through testing and evaluation.
Table 17: Evalast sound insulation
Blockwork and type

Estimate of weighted sound


reduction index Rw (dB)
fair-faced

dry lined

plaster

75mm solid

37

45

47

90mm solid

39

46

48

100mm solid

42

48

50

125mm solid

46

50

52

140mm solid

51

52

54

150mm solid

52

52

54

190mm solid

53

53

55

200mm solid

54

55

55

215mm solid

55

56

56

100mm cellular

37

45

47

140mm hollow

43

49

51

150mm hollow

42

48

50

190mm hollow

46

50

52

215mm hollow

47

51

52

Table 18: Evalite sound insulation


Blockwork and type

50

Estimate of weighted sound


reduction index Rw (dB)
fair-faced

dry lined

75mm solid

39

44

plaster

43

90mm solid

41

46

44

100mm solid

43

48

46

125mm solid

45

51

49

140mm solid

48

54

52

150mm solid

49

54

52

190mm solid

52

55

53

200mm solid

52

55

53

215mm solid

53

55

54

100mm cellular

39

45

43

140mm hollow

43

48

46

190mm hollow

45

51

49

215mm hollow

46

53

51

Approved Document Method (Pre-Completion


Testing required)
The constructions detailed below, if built correctly,
should achieve the sound insulation values for dwelling
houses and flats set out in Table 14 and the values for
rooms for residential purposes set out in Table 15,
(page 48).
Achieving the required performance level is dependent
upon good workmanship in separating walls and floors
and also in the associated flanking construction.
Guidance is provided in the Approved Document on
suitable designs at these critical junctions.
Wall Type 1.1 Solid wall

Plaster

Masonry

Fig. 7

215mm Evalast solid dense aggregate block (100mm


laid flat), wet plaster on both room faces.
Minimum mass per unit area including plaster
415kg/m2
13mm wet plaster on both room faces.
Use blocks that are laid flat to the full thickness of
the wall.
Note: as an alternative in rooms for residential purposes for Wall
Type 1.1, the wet plaster may be replaced by plasterboard with a
minimum mass of 10kg/m2 on each room face.

464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b:464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b

Wall Type 2.1 Cavity wall

Plaster

Masonry

Fig. 8

Cavity

Two leaves of 100mm Evalast solid dense aggregate


blocks with 50mm minimum cavity, wet plaster on both
room faces.
Minimum mass per unit area including plaster
415kg/m2.
Minimum cavity width of 50mm required in party wall.
13mm wet plaster on both room faces.

Wall Type 2.2 Cavity wall

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Page 51

Robust Details
The HBF (House Builders Federation) have developed
and tested a portfolio of Robust Details (RD) that cover
generic masonry and floor constructions. The DCLG
(formerly ODPM) and HBF agreed the testing regime
and minimum performance standards for RD separating
walls and floors. These minimum standards are far
higher (5dB) than those in the Approved Document.
The testing regime requires that these enhanced
standards be achieved for each RD based on at least
thirty tests, with not more than eight of the tests on
the same site, and involving more than one builder
(to ensure that a range of workmanship and supervision
is covered). The performance standards are in terms of
the mean of the thirty tests.
Robust Details method (no Pre-Completion
Testing required for dwelling-houses and flats)
Achieving the required performance level is dependent
upon good workmanship in separating walls and floors
and also in the associated flanking construction,
guidance is provided in the Robust Details Manual on
suitable designs at these critical junctions, it is a
requirement that these recommendations and
procedures are adhered to as deviation will result in an
invalid construction.
The following details (pages 51-53) show RD
constructions using aggregate blocks.

Plaster

E-WM-1
Plaster 13mm
(minimum)

Masonry

Cavity wall,
block density
(1850-2300kg/m3)

Fig. 9

Cavity

Two leaves of 100mm Fenlite, Fenlite 1500 or Evalite


Standard solid medium dense aggregate blocks with a
75mm minimum cavity, wet plaster on both room faces.

Fig. 10

Minimum mass per unit area including plaster


300kg/m2.
Minimum cavity width of 75mm required in party wall.
13mm wet plaster on both room faces.

Two leaves of 100mm Evalast solid dense aggregate


blocks with 75mm minimum cavity, wet plaster on both
room faces.

75mm
275mm
(minimum)

The external wall (flanking wall) should be


constructed of two leaves of masonry.
Minimum cavity width of 75mm required in party wall.
13mm wet plaster (minimum 10kg/m2) on both
room faces.

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Performance

Sound insulation

E-WM-2

Plaster 13mm
(minimum)

Fig. 11

E-WM-3
12.5mm gypsum based board
nominal 8kg/m2 mounted
on dabs

75mm
275mm
(minimum)

Two leaves of 100mm Fenlite, Fenlite 1500 or Evalite


Standard solid medium dense aggregate blocks with
75mm minimum cavity, wet plaster on both room faces.
The external wall (flanking wall) should be
constructed of two leaves of masonry.
Minimum cavity width of 75mm required in party wall.
13mm wet plaster (minimum 10kg/m2) on both
room faces.

52

Cavity wall,
block density
(1850-2300kg/m3)

Cavity wall,
block density
(1350-1600kg/m3)

Fig. 12

Internal render,
scratch finish nominal
8mm (6mm minimum)
275mm
(minimum)

Two leaves of 100mm Evalast solid dense aggregate


blocks with 75mm minimum cavity, gypsum-based board
(minimum 8kg/m2) on 8mm sand:cement render with
scratch finish on both room faces.
The external wall (flanking wall) should be
constructed of two leaves of masonry.
Minimum cavity width of 75mm required in party wall.
Gypsum-based board nominal 8kg/m2 on 8mm
sand: cement render with scratch finish on both
room faces.

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E-WM-4

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Page 53

E-WM-8
Wall finish gypsum-based
board nominal 9.8kg/m2
mounted on dabs

12.5mm gypsum-based board


nominal 8kg/m2 mounted
on dabs

Block density
1350-1600kg/m3

Cavity wall,
block density
(1350-1600kg/m3)

Wall ties Insulation


retaining wall ties to ADE
(tie type A)
Insulation 35mm Isowool
Hi-therm RD35 foil faced
mineral wool acoustic batt
Cavity width 75mm
minimum (leaf to leaf)

Fig. 13

Internal render,
scratch finish nominal
8mm (6mm minimum)

Fig. 14

External flanking wall


Masonry both leaves with
50mm minimum cavity

275mm
(minimum)

Two leaves of 100mm Fenlite, Fenlite 1500 or Evalite


Standard solid medium dense aggregate blocks with
75mm minimum cavity, drylining board (minimum
8kg/m2) on 8mm sand:cement render with scratch
finish on both room faces.

Two leaves of 100mm Fenlite, Fenlite 1500 or Evalite


Standard solid medium dense aggregate blocks with
75mm minimum cavity incorporating 35mm Isowool,
Hi-therm RD35 foil faced mineral wool acoustic batt,
gypsum board (minimum 9.8kg/m2) on both room faces.

The external wall (flanking wall) should be


constructed of two leaves of masonry.
Minimum cavity width of 75mm required in party wall.
Gypsum-based board nominal 8kg/m2 on 8mm
sand:cement render with scratch finish on both
room faces.

The external wall (flanking wall) should be


constructed of two leaves of masonry.
Minimum cavity width of 75mm required in party wall.
Gypsum-based board nominal 9.8kg/m2
mounted on dabs.

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Page 54

Performance

Fire resistance

Introduction
Fire resistance of masonry walls relates to fitness for
use and is a property of the complete element of a
structure. The period of fire resistance of a masonry wall
is taken to be the time (from 30 minutes to 6 hours)
from the start of the test to failure of stability and
integrity.
All Hansons aggregate blocks have an A1 fire
classification rating and have been tested to relevant
British and European Standards.
Notional periods of fire resistance for masonry walls to
comply with Approved Document B (AD) are given in
Table 14 of BS 5628: Part 3.
Criteria for fire resistance
This table takes cognisance of the relevant factors
affecting the use of masonry units for fire resistance
purposes. These are as follows:
a The form of the units involved i.e. whether solid or
otherwise.
b The thickness of the units involved.
c The aggregates used in the manufacture of the units,
i.e Class 1 or Class 2 aggregates.
Class 1 aggregates comprise limestone, pumice,
sintered pulverised fuel ash, furnace bottom ash,
foamed or expanded slag and various other types of
aggregate.
Class 2 aggregates, comprise all gravels and crushed
natural stone, excluding limestone.
In general tems, all lightweight blocks are made from
Class 1 aggregates.
The Evalast range of products may be produced from
Class 1 or Class 2 aggregates depending on raw
materials available in the manufacturing locality. It is
advisable to check with Hansons Product
Services department.
d The function of the wall, i.e. whether loadbearing or
otherwise.
e The construction of the wall, i.e. whether single leaf or
cavity construction.
f Wall finish, i.e. whether plastered or otherwise and the
type of plaster involved.

54

The fire resistance quoted on the individual product data


sheets are based on:
i
ii
iii
iv

Loadbearing or non-loadbearing
No finish
Made with Class 1 or Class 2 aggregate
Single leaf

For alternative forms of construction, please contact


Hansons Product Services department.
In walls designed to resist fire, any movement control
joints necessary should be filled with a non-combustible
material capable of accepting the anticipated movement
and sealed with an appropriate material to give the
same fire resistance as the blockwork.

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Page 55

Movement control

Positioning of movement joints


Movement joints are used to eliminate or control
cracking within the fabric. The joints are located in
strategic positions and allow slight, predetermined
movement without subsequent cracking to the masonry.
Spacing, design and location of movement joints
depends principally on the dimensions and shape of
the wall in question, detailing techniques and the
complexity of the structure. The joints should be located
at junctions which may be vulnerable to cracking.
The position of movement joints will be strongly
influenced by structural and architectural considerations
but the following may prove useful as an indication of
where control joints may be necessary.
Straight walls
Cracking is most likely to occur in long, straight walls.
Blockwork walls of excessive length should be divided
into a series of rectangular panels with movement joints
between each panel. The effects of end restraint need
to be assessed when deciding on the panel length.
This can add either 25% or 50% to the actual length, if
one or two ends are fully restrained. It is upon this total
length that the empirical rules are then applied. In the
case of lightweight aggregate blocks, the maximum
length between movement joints is 6m and 9m for
dense aggregate blocks. The length of each panel
should not normally be in excess of twice the height of
the panel and areas of blockwork above and below
openings should be treated as individual panels.

Changes of height, thickness and profile


Movement joints should be provided where changes of
height, thickness and profile (either on plan or section)
occur in the wall since these junctions are particularly
vulnerable to cracking (Figs. 15, 16 and 17).

Fig. 15: Movement joints adjacent to openings

Fig. 16: Movement joint at change of height

The following gives general guidance for methods of


controlling movement in blockwork panels.

Table 19: Controlling movement in straight walls


Length to
height ratio of
panel (L:H)

More than
2:1
2.5:1
3:1
4:1

Spacing of control joint

Lightweight
aggregate
reinforcement
blocks

Dense
aggregate
blocks

4.5 to 6m
4.5 to 6m
4.5 to 6m
4.5 to 6m

6 to 9m
6 to 9m
6 to 9m
6 to 9m

Spacing of bed
joint
reinforcement

Fig. 17: Movement joint at change in wall


thickness (plan view)

600/675mm
400/450mm
200/225mm

Notes:
1 For general design purposes only.
2 Consult Hansons Product Services department, or a qualified structural
engineer regarding specific applications where greater spacing of control joints
is envisaged.

55

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Page 56

Performance

Movement control

Movement control joints


Control joints will be required at the junctions of
intersecting walls and junctions with columns, and also
where walls are penetrated by major service pipes and
ducts, or where large chases are incorporated to
accommodate services (Figs. 18, 19 and 20).

Types of movement joints


Continuous vertical joints

Various forms of movement joints are possible. Normally,


these should be 10mm wide as for normal perpends, at
not greater than 6.0m centres for lightweight aggregate
blocks and 9.0m centres for dense aggregate blocks.
The simplest version is to construct a continuous
vertical joint as work proceeds by placing suitable
compressible boards (e.g. bitumen impregnated
fireboard) between the joints. Joints can be filled with a
compatible mastic for external applications and plastic
or metal cover strips are available to conceal internal
joints (Figs. 21, 22, 23 and 24).
Bed joint reinforcement

Fig. 18: Movement joints at wall junctions


(plan view)

Fig. 19: Movement joints at junctions to columns


(plan view)

Internal and external finishes should not be taken


across the movement joint unless suitable provisions are
made. Bed-joint reinforcement (parallel wire type) can
be used to increase joint spacing and help resist high
stresses around openings. In general, bed joint
reinforcement should be located in all concrete masonry
panels where openings occur and where the distance
between movement joints has been extended.
The reinforcement should be placed in two courses
above and below the opening, if possible, and
extended at least 600mm beyond the opening limits.
The reinforcement must be curtailed or made
discontinuous at movement joints (Fig. 25).
Flat bar joints

Fig. 20: Movement joint at large chases or recesses


(plan view)

Where increased stability of panels on either side of a


movement joint is important, non-corroding flat bars,
debonded at one end, can be placed across the joint in
alternate courses. The bars should be located at least
25mm from the face of the wall. Similar ties can be
used at the intersection of two block walls where
separation is required. The vertical spacing of the ties
would depend on the load bearing requirements of the
wall. As a minimum, Hanson recommends ties at
450mm vertical centres.
In cavity walls, wall ties should be placed across the
cavity, within 225mm either side of the movement joint,
in every course.

56

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Fig. 21: Movement joint at steel column (plan view)

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Page 57

Fig. 22: Movement joints at steel column (plan view)

Flexible strip
with sealant

Fig. 23: Movement joint in block cavity walls (plan view)


Fig. 24: Movement joint

600mm

600mm

Bed joint reinforcement


Fig. 25: Re-inforcement of blockwork panels

57

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Page 58

Performance

Moisture penetration

Introduction
The type and method of wall construction will influence
its ability to resist wind-driven rain.
For both single-leaf and cavity walls, total resistance to
rain penetration can only be achieved by cladding.
Whilst rendering can substantially enhance the rain
resistance of the wall, it is essential to select the right
type of mix, thickness and number of coats.
The use of masonry paint systems and other proprietary
external finishes may increase the resistance to rain
penetration, but may also reduce the rate of evaporation
of any water from the wall.
Joint protection
It is essential to fill all the joints to minimise the risk of
rain penetration. Tooled mortar joints are more resistant
to rain penetration than joints which have not been
tooled. Recessed joints increase the risk of water
penetration.

Use of hollow blocks


Where hollow blocks are used in external walls, the use
of shell bedding may reduce rain penetration to the
inner surface and so give some of the advantages of
cavity wall construction. In unfilled cavity walls, a 50mm
air space is considered satisfactory in most situations to
prevent water passing from the outer leaf to the inner
leaf. Partial filling of cavity walls does not affect the
resistance to wind-driven rain of the wall, providing the
width of the remaining air space is not less than 50mm.
When fully filling the cavity with insulation, the
manufacturers of the insulant should be consulted to
obtain the limiting exposure condition for the
particular insulation type. The risk of rain penetration
will be reduced by using a cavity, clear or filled, wider
than 50mm.

Rain resistance
The rain resistance of rendered and un-rendered single
leaf concrete masonry walls is dependent on the
thickness as shown in Table 20.
Table 20: Assessment of resistance to rain penetration of single leaf walls with or without rendering
Exposure
category

Rendered
dense concrete
blocks

Rendered
lightweight
concrete blocks

Unrendered
dense
concrete blocks

Unrendered
lightweight
concrete blocks

Very severe

Not recommended.

Cladding should be used.

Severe

250mm

215mm

not recommended - cladding

Moderate

215mm

190mm

440mm

440mm

Sheltered

90mm

90mm

328mm

328mm

Notes: this table is intended to give guidance on the selection of forms of construction from the point of resistance to rain penetration only but other factors such as
durability, thermal and structural stability should be considered.

58

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Page 59

Lerwick

Figure 26 Exposure to wind-driven rain

Dornoch

Inverness

Exposure zones

Approx wind-driven rain*

Aberdeen

(litres/m2 per spell)

Dundee

Perth

Stirling
Dunbar
Glasgow

Edinburgh

Londonderry

less than 33

Moderate

33 to less than 56.5

Severe

56.5 to less than 100

Very severe

100 or more

Newcastle

Carlisle
Belfast

Sheltered

This map is an extract from Thermal Insulation:


avoiding risks and is reproduced with kind
permission of the BRE.

Ayr

Enniskillen

Alston
Workington

Darlington

Dungannon

Middlesbrough
Whitby

Ripon
York
Hebden Bridge
Hull

Skelmersdale
Colwyn Bay

Doncaster

Manchester

Lincoln

Macclesfield

Chester

Bangor

Grimsby

Sheffield
Skegness

Nottingham

Bala

Stafford
Shrewsbury
Leicester

Llanidloes

Peterborough
Norwich

Birmingham

Llandrindod Wells

Northampton

Cambridge

Hay-on-Wye
Brecon

Gloucester

Colchester

Luton

Welwyn Garden City

Swansea
Swindon
Cardiff

Barnstaple

Bristol
Weston-super-Mare

Sidmouth

LONDON
Staines

Aldershot

Watchet
Taunton

Exeter

Newbury

Southampton

Gatwick

Dover

Brighton

Poole
Eastbourne

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Page 60

Performance

Durability

Introduction
Hansons aggregate blocks are inherently durable and
if used in accordance with the appropriate
British/European Standards, will last the lifetime of the
construction into which they have been built.
They possess good frost resistance and in general,
provided they are selected following the
recommendations of BS 5628: Part 3, clause 5.6 and
Table 12, problems should not occur.
Strength and durability
Durability is governed by the characteristics of the units.
The strength of concrete bricks would determine the
suitability of the units (16.5 or 22.5 N/mm2, depending
on the application and exposure condition). In the case
of aggregate blocks to be used near or below ground
level, the unit should meet one of the following criteria.
a) Block density of at least 1500kg/m3, or
b) Made with dense aggregate to BS EN 12620, or
c) Having a compressive strength of at least 7.3N/mm3
All dense blocks, together with 7.3N/mm2 lightweight
blocks, would be suitable for the above condition. In the
case of contact with foul drainage, Engineering Quality
Concrete Bricks (EQCB) of 48N/mm2 should be used.

Sulphate resistance
Where the masonry remains wet and sulphates are
present, the selection of the unit needs further
consideration. However, aggregate blocks have been
used successfully below ground level for many years,
with a proportion used on sites where sulphates are
present and yet no failures have been reported.
Whilst blocks meeting the general requirements for
use below d.p.c. have been accepted as suitable for
use in sulphate soil classification DS-1, work by the
Concrete Block Association, has shown that the
7.3N/mm2 aggregate blocks tested were able to
withstand conditions equivalent to sulphate soil
classification DS-3.
Carbonation is a major factor in achieving the necessary
durability and results from the open texture and
permeability of the aggregate block by allowing the
surface to dry between the manufacturing and
backfilling operations.
7.3N/mm2 Evalast blocks manufactured using OPC,
OPC-PFA, or SRPC binder would be suitable for up to
and including sulphate soil classification DS-3 as
determined by the method given in BRE Special
Digest 1. Where OPC is the sole binder, backfilling
should not take place for 28 days. (Please consult
Hansons Product Services department for further
information).
Note: The use of 7.3N/mm2 Fenlite blocks is possible in aggressive soil
conditions.. Please consult Hansons Product Services department for further
details.

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Page 61

3 Sitework
Health and Safety

63

CDM Regulations

63

Block laying

64-65

Mortar

66-67

Internal finishes

68-69

External finishes

70-71

Sitework

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62

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Health and safety

Health and safety

Introduction
Hansons aggregate blocks are composed of
cementitious materials and aggregates and usually
admixtures. The finished products as supplied are of an
inert nature and inherently non-hazardous to health.
The surface nature and weight of the products requires
the use of protective gloves and footwear to avoid
injuries. Where lifting points are provided they should all
and always be used. Otherwise good slinging and lifting
practices should be used.

Ensuring that normal protective equipment


appropriate to construction sites is both provided
and used.
The manual handling of loads should not be attempted
without a risk assessment as required by the Manual
Handling of Loads at Work Regulations, 1992. Practical
guidance in meeting the regulation is given in the
Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Construction Sheet
No. 37, Handling Building Blocks which advises that:

When cutting or surface treating products by hand or by


machine, dust and flying fragments may be created.
The dust created may be of respirable size and may
contain quartz. Extended periods of exposure to high
concentrations of such dust, particularly in enclosed
spaces, can constitute a health hazard. In such
circumstances, respiratory protective equipment should
be worn. In addition, suitable eye protection should be
worn to protect against dust and/or flying fragments.

There is a risk of injury in the repetitive manual


handling of units heavier than 20kg by one person.

The products may be delivered secured with steel or


plastic straps under tension, or shrink wrapped in
polythene. When these straps are cut or broken, risk
may occur particularly to the eyes from the strap ends.
Appropriate hand and eye protection should be worn
when cutting or handling strapping. Care should be
taken on the release of the strapping or the removal of
the polythene wrap that items do not fall from the stack.

Units of greater than 20kg may be specified and used


to meet particular design requirements provided that
appropriate handling methods are used.

The product should be stacked within the limitations of


the ground conditions and the security of the products
as bonded to a pallet or itself.
The product and associated strapping and wrapping
material should be disposed of in accordance with local
authority requirements for non-hazardous materials.
CDM Regulations - Safe Handling and Use of
Concrete Blocks
Handling of heavy concrete blocks can give rise to a
wide range of injuries. To reduce the risk of injury, the
blockwork design, site conditions and the way the work
is organised should be planned. Points to be taken into
considerations include:

Units, greater than 20kg, should be handled


mechanically or by the use of a two person team
if repetitively handled.
Small numbers of units greater than 20kg i.e. quoins,
reveals etc., would not fall into this category and would
not be expected to be handled by a two person team.

For users who, for design reasons would otherwise


select units of greater than 20kg but would prefer not
to, a number of options exist. The appropriate choice
from the options available will depend on the unit or wall
properties dictated by the application.
Choices include:
Using smaller units having similar properties e.g.
Evalast Easilift, Party Wall.
Using lighter solid units having sufficiently similar
properties
Using cellular/hollow units instead of solid units
(having almost identical properties to solid units)
Using alternative construction techniques such as:
i) Laying units flat to form a 190 or 215mm width wall
(suitable for finishes such as plastering or drylining)
ii) Collar jointing* units to form a 190 or 215mm wall
(particularly suited to facing applications)

Minimising manual handling by delivering units as


close to the place of use as safety considerations
permit.

Whenever making the choice of units, it is essential to


ensure that the desired performance characteristics of
the finished wall are not compromised.

Moving units in packs and by mechanical means


when ever possible.

*Collar jointing is laying units back to back in normal aspect with a 10-15mm
mortar joint between the adjoining faces of the units. The two leaves may be
tied together. If tied, either normal ties or bed joint reinforcement may be used.
Collar jointed walls are not suitable for sound separating walls in dwellings.

Loading units out to above knee height.

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Sitework

Block laying

Sample panels
In order to establish the general standard of blockwork,
mortar, jointing and workmanship, it is strongly
recommended that sample panels of Paint Grade and
Facing blocks should be erected prior to commencing
with the building works. Regardless of which finish is
selected, such panels are much more effective than
written words or photographs in defining and specifying
the quality of work required.
Storage on site
The blocks should be carefully unloaded and stacked on
their bedding faces on a strong level surface near to the
position where they are to be used. They should be
protected against rain and in a manner which allows air
to circulate between the blocks. Particular attention
should be taken to ensure protection of the block
arrises.
Block laying
It is recommended that block layers should use blocks
from alternative cubes whilst proceeding with
construction. This will maintain the natural appearance
of the finished wall.
Block laying should be discontinued during heavy rain
unless the work is protected. When work stops for more
than an hour or two, especially overnight, the top of the
work should be protected against rain, snow and frost.
The face of the work should also be protected against
splashes from the ground, from scaffolding and from
other construction activities.
No block laying should be carried out when the
temperature is at or below 3C, see note, page 67.
Bond
Blocks should be laid to achieve a good bond not less
than one quarter the length of the block. The precise
bond of the wall is largely at the discretion of the
designer provided it satisfies the recommendations of
BS 5628: Part 3. Other patterns are of course possible
but may require the use of bed joint reinforcement.
Cutting
Whenever possible, the use of standard half-length or
purpose made blocks is recommended. Hanson also
offers a cutting service enabling the majority of specials
to be cut at the works. When site cutting is unavoidable,

64

this should be carried out using a power driven masonry


saw. When wet cutting is used for facing blocks, excess
fines from the cutting process should be removed from
the finished face, using the minimal amount of water
possible and allowed to dry. It should be noted that a
cut face may have a different appearance to a
moulded face and whenever possible, any cut face
should be built into the walls. For non-facing blocks, the
use of a hydraulic block splitter or traditional bolster
may be employed.
Chasing
Where the use of hollow blocks is not possible and
chasing is necessary, a rotary chasing machine or
mechanical disc cutter is recommended. Vertical chases
should not exceed one third of the wall/leaf thickness
and horizontal chases should not exceed one sixth of
the wall/leaf thickness. In loadbearing walls, the effect
of a reduced cross sectional area caused by chasing
should be checked. In no event should chases impair
the strength or stability of the wall.

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Fixings
Hansons range of aggregate blocks provides a good
background for all but the most demanding of fixings.
Joinery fittings and external claddings may
be securely fixed to the blocks. Special fixings will be
required for heavy loads and manufacturers of
proprietary fixings should be consulted. Door and
window frames may be fixed directly to lightweight
blocks. Otherwise, the frame should be fixed by having
metal straps screwed to the frame and bedded in the
mortar joints. Hollow blocks abutting door frames should
be filled with mortar or concrete, and if the doors are
heavy, the infilling concrete should be reinforced with
vertical steel bars.
Cleaning
Ideally, the best method of achieving satisfactory
finished work, free from unsightly staining, mortar
accretions and smearing, is prevention and good
workmanship. On facing work it is also advisable to
keep finished areas of walling covered as the
contract proceeds, to avoid splashing and staining
from other work.

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Jointing and pointing


Tooled joints highlight the clean arrises of the block and
accuracy of the coursing. They enhance the scale and
appearance of the walls. A light bucket handle tooling is
recommended for both internal and external work.
Raked joints should be used with caution and limited to
the highest quality of blocks and workmanship.
Flush joints are not recommended either for facing or
work to be decorated.
For general background work, joints should not be left
proud but struck off as work proceeds.

Weathered

Raked

Vee

Concave

When using proprietary cleaners, especially on facing


units, ensure that these are applied sparingly and
immediately washed off with clean water, otherwise acid
attack on the block surface can occur. Pressure
washing of masonry is not recommended.
Ideally, a higher standard of workmanship is required
when laying the facing masonry range, to ensure a first
class job.
If covering throughout the contract has been adequate,
lime blooming is unlikely to be a major problem and any
small deposits of free lime will weather off naturally.
If the units have become thoroughly wet, then lime
blooming is likely, but fortunately will tend to occur
rapidly and should be accounted for in the general
cleaning down.

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Sitework

Mortar

Introduction
The composition of mortar is very often given
insufficient consideration and in many instances it is
left to site operatives to decide on the specification.
Mortar forms an integral part of the wall, comprising
between 6 and 18% of the total wall volume when
general purpose mortar is being used. It is important,
therefore, that the appropriate specification is
determined at the design stage.
General purpose mortar
The nominal thickness of general purpose mortar, in
both horizontal and vertical joints, is normally taken to
be 10mm, exclusive of any key in the jointing surface of
the masonry units.
Specification of general purpose mortar
When specifying general purpose mortar, the following
details of the project should be taken into account:
the type of masonry unit to be used
the structural requirements
the degree of exposure of the site
the level of workability required
the location of the masonry, i.e. above or below
ground level
When selecting a suitable mortar specification, it is
important to ensure that the composition is compatible
in strength with the blocks selected for the project.
Mortars are defined by designations (i) to (iv) in
accordance with Table 13 of BS 5628: Part 3. Based
on this table the following general use mortars are
recommended for use with Hansons aggregate blocks:

Table 21: Mortar designation (iii) for internal and


external walls above d.p.c. (all proportions by volume)
1:1:6

cement : lime : sand

1:6

cement : sand with a plasticiser

1:5

masonry cement : sand

Table 22: Mortar designation (ii) for use below d.p.c.


(all proportions by volume)

66

1:4

cement : sand

1 : 1/2 : 4

cement : lime : sand

These mortar specifications are suitable for use with all


products in the aggregate block range and may also be
used with other types of masonry. They may be used
throughout the United Kingdom for the construction of
internal and external loadbearing and non-loadbearing
walls.
The use of mortar mixes other than those listed above
may cause difficulties during construction and may lead
to defects after completion.
Application notes for general purpose mortar
Cement-rich mortar specifications are non-resilient and
subject to high shrinkage. They are, therefore, less able
to accommodate movement and may cause cracking in
completed walls.
It is important that the sand should be well graded and
comply with BS EN 13139, and that the water should
come from a clean supply.
The addition of either lime or an air-entraining
plasticiser to a lean mortar mix will improve frost
resistance and greatly improve workability, thereby
increasing productivity. Care should be taken, however,
to avoid misuse of liquid plasticisers, as it is possible to
produce a workable mix with an unacceptably high
sand : cement ratio. Masonry cements are less prone to
misuse than liquid plasticisers.
Cement : lime : sand mortars have better wet adhesion
and early strength with both bricks and blocks than
mixes incorporating plasticisers or masonry cements,
and may have superior bond characteristics. They also
allow small amounts of movement without cracking.
Additionally, lime tends eventually to seal hairline cracks.
Tests carried out on behalf of the Mortar Producers
Association have indicated that walls built with cement :
lime : sand mortars have better resistance to driving rain
than those built without lime.
Reduced adhesion between the masonry units and the
mortar may be caused by inadequate cement content,
excessive air content or the use of unspecified
admixtures. Satisfactory adhesion can only be achieved
by correct mix design and careful raw material selection.

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Pre-mixed and ready-to-use general purpose


mortars
The use of these mortars can be a means of ensuring
consistent quality. Also, where large volumes of mortar
are required, the storage of large quantities of raw
materials and their potential deterioration can be
eliminated.

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Cold weather working


BS 5628: Part 3 states that masonry should not be built
when air temperature is at or below 3C and falling, or
unless it is at least 1C and rising. Conditions should be
regularly monitored and account should be taken of the
wind chill factor. The use of covers will protect materials
when not for immediate use. Frozen materials must not
be used. It is essential to protect newly laid masonry
from incidental conditions and should be insulated
from frost.

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Sitework

Internal finishes

Plastering
The selection and application of plasters should be in
accordance with BS 5492: Code of practice internal
plastering and BS 8000: Part 10: Code of practice for
plastering and rendering.
In general there are five different groups of
plastering mixes:
a) Mixes based on cement, or cement and lime.
b) Lightweight cement plasters.
c) Premixed gypsum plasters.
d) Premixed lightweight gypsum plasters.
e) Mixes based on gypsum plasters gauged with lime.
The mixes and application of lightweight and gypsum
based plasters should be in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions.

Cement, or cement and lime based plasters are normally


limited to the undercoat for general two coat plaster
work as it is often difficult to obtain a very smooth finish
with mixes containing sand. This being the case, the
final coat is normally a gypsum or lightweight plaster
mix compatible with a cement based undercoat.
For general purpose work, the mix for the undercoat is
the same as that given for designation (iii) in table 13
of BS 5628: Part 3 (reproduced as Table 25, overleaf)
for rendering mixes. The overall thickness of two-coats
in cement-based or gypsum plaster on masonry should
be nominally 13mm.
Table 23 below, gives guidance on the compatibility
of background, undercoat and finish for general
purpose work.

Table 23: Plaster mixes for different backgrounds

Before the plaster is applied, the walls should be reasonably dry and free from dirt, dust, grease or any other
contaminates which could affect the bond between the blockwork and plaster. The presence of a limited amount of
efflorescence will not affect the bond characteristics of the wall. However, excessive efflorescence should be
removed and the causes of its appearance eliminated to prevent re-occurrence. Dry lining systems should be fixed
using the manufacturers instructions.
Background

68

Undercoat

Finish coat

Type

Suction

Key or bond

Lightweight

Cement based
(see Table 25)

Facing blocks
Paint Grade blocks
Evalast Background
Party wall blocks

Low

Poor - can be improved by raking


of joints bonding treatment
recommended with cement
based plasters

Bonding

(iii)
(iii)

Gypsum
Lightweight

Fenlite Background
Evalite background
Superlite Background
Ultralite Background

Medium

Generally good, an assessment should


be made prior to plaster application,
with particularly smooth blocks a
bonding treatment may be necessary

Browning

(iii)
(iii)

Gypsum
Lightweight

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Sitework

External finishes

Rendering
Render can be applied to any type of aggregate block
walling in order to provide a specific appearance,
enhance weather protection in exposed situations, and
increase the performance of a wall with respect to
sound transmission.
Choice of mix

The choice of render mix will depend on the appearance


desired, exposure conditions, nature of the background
and the functional requirements. Experience has shown
that a porous render not stronger than that required for
adequate durability and with an open or rough textured
finish is likely to give the best results in the majority of
circumstances. Problems can occur with mixes that are
too strong. Successive render coats should be specified
as being no stronger than the previous coat or
background, and no thicker than the previous coat,
except in the case of a single coat (refer to specialist
manufacturers for guidance and specifications).
Movement joints

If a movement joint exists in the background material a


coincident straight joint should be formed in the render.
This may be formed with proprietary metal stop beads,
with the resulting gap sealed with a suitable joint
sealant. Where render is to be continuous across
dissimilar background material, any differential
movement at the junction should be accommodated by
forming a straight joint in the render, which is
subsequently sealed, or placing metal lathing not less
than 300mm wide, with an isolating membrane
across the junction and embedded in the undercoat of
the render.
Undercoat

Prior to the application of the render, the background


should be sound and assessed for its suitability to
receive direct application of the undercoat.

70

A render normally comprises of at least two layers,


namely, an undercoat and a final coat. Metal lathing,
sometimes used in severe exposure conditions or on
weak backgrounds, should have two undercoats.
Where improved resistance to rain penetration is
desired, two undercoats should be used. Normally
undercoats are between 8-12mm thick with the final
coat approximately 6mm thick. Overall, the rendering
thickness should not be less than 20mm for three coats
work and 16mm for two coat work.
Suction

The suction and key of the background are important


factors in determining the mixes to be used. Standard
lightweight blocks i.e. Fenlite, Superlite, Ultralite and
Evalite are medium suction and generally provide
adequate surface key to allow direct application of the
undercoat. An assessment should be made in case a
pre-treatment is necessary for unusually smooth blocks.
Facing blocks and Evalast blocks have low suctions and
relatively poor keying properties. It is therefore
recommended that the joints are raked backed squarely
10mm to12mm deep and a spatterdash, stipple or
adhesive slurry is then applied to the surface. In the
case of the adhesive slurry it is essential that the
rendering undercoat is applied straightaway whilst the
slurry is wet, otherwise it will form an effective
debonding layer.
Tables 24 and 25 give general information on mixes
suitable for render and specification for various finishes,
in moderate and sheltered exposure.
Further information on external rendering can be
obtained by reference to BS EN 13914: Code of
Practice for External Rendering, together with BS 8000:
Part 10 Workmanship on Building Sites, Code of
Practice for Plastering and Rendering.

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Table 24: Recommended rendering specifications - moderate and sheltered exposure


Background

All block types

Undercoat

Final coat

Designation
(see table 25)

Thickness
(mm)

Finish

Type

Mix proportions by volume


or designation (see table 25)

(iii)

8 to 12

Trowel applied

woodfloat
scraped
patterned
tooled

(iv)

For severe exposure and thrown finishes, please refer to BS EN 13914

Table 25: Mixes suitable for rendering


Mix designation

(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

Mix proportions by volume based on damp sand


Cement:lime:sand1

Cement:sand1
(using plasticiser)

1:1/2:4 to 41/2
1:1:5 to 6
1:2:8 to 9

1:3 to 4
1:5 to 6
1:7 to 8

Masonry
Cement:sand1
1:21/2 to 31/2
1:4 to 5
1:51/2 to 61/2

With fine or poorly graded sands, the lower volume of sand should be used.
For other mixes, please refer to BS EN 13914.

Painting
Hansons Paint Grade blocks provide excellent base for
paint. Paints may be obtained which add variety of
colour and texture to walls, as well as improving the
weathering of external walls. Proper application of paint
is important and attention should be given to the
manufacturers recommendations. Code of practice for
the painting of buildings is given in BS 6150, and
BS 8000 Part 12: Code of Practice for Painting, but
two important points are worth mentioning here:
1. Painting of blockwork surfaces should not commence
until the walls are thoroughly dry and have been
cleaned to remove all dust, dirt and mortar dabs. Where
efflorescence occurs, it should be removed with a stiff
brush prior to application of the paint.
2. Some paints are liable to be chemically attacked by
the alkali present in concrete products. In such cases,
the blockwork should be first treated with primer which
neutralises the alkali on the surface. Paints may be
applied by brush or spray. Application by brush ensures

deep penetration of the paint and good adhesion, but is


is slow and there may be a tendency for brush marks to
show. Spray painting is quickest and is more economical
in paint consumption. Paint for use on blockwork should
be vapour permeable and in all cases comply with the
manufacturers recommendations.
Wall tiling
For bonding tiles directly on to concrete blockwork, an
appropriate adhesive should be used. If a cement/sand
levelling coat is used, the mix proportions should be 1:4.
Before tiling is commenced, all blockwork walls should
be allowed to dry to a level recommended by the tiling
manufacturer. Movement joints in the tiles should be
provided to coincide with the control joints in the
blockwork and at any other locations recommended by
the tiling manufacturer. For more detailed information,
please consult BS 8000: Part 11, Code of Practice for
Wall and Floor Tiling.

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4 Other information
Sales and technical advice

74-75

Quality

76

Customer product advice

77

Other information

73

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Sub head
Other
information

Sales and technical advice

Customer Services
Hanson has a reputation for providing first class
customer care and this is supported by the operation of
a dedicated Customer Sales Centre.

Packaging

As a result of continuous investment, we are able to


ensure that a team of customer service staff are able to
offer a fast response time to enquiries.

Packs can be easily unloaded and moved using normal


block grabs, thereby saving on pallet costs. Pallets can
be supplied on request.

Wherever you are, the Hanson Customer Sales centre


can be reached by simply dialling the numbers shown
below. Your call will be answered by one of our
specialist team members who are able to offer a range
of services:

The blocks are clearly marked with the product


description, leading to improved security and
management of materials.

Product information
Quotations
Orders
Distribution facilities
Stockist information

Packs are banded with strong plastic tape, which


provides protection for the blocks and stability to
the packs.

Site storage

Hanson recommends that the blocks packs are stacked


on firm, level ground.

Deliveries

Orders for our products can be placed with leading


Builders Merchants throughout the United Kingdom for
delivery direct to site by our team of dedicated
professional drivers.

Please contact Customer Sales Centre on:

Our website allows you to access information


on products, applications and performance quickly and

Tel: 08450 762100


Fax: 01235 437391
email: blocks@hanson.biz

74

easily. This includes the latest on Building Regulations and


relevant technical advice.

www.hanson.biz/uk

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Product Services
Hansons Product Services department provides
technical advice and is staffed by a qualified team with
specialist knowledge of all products and their
application. The service provides help with the
interpretation of Building Regulations and methods of
compliance using specially developed software
programmes. These are updated when necessary, to
keep abreast of changes to British and European
Standards, Codes of Practice and Building Regulations.
Thermal calculations

As a result of the continual drive to conserve fuel and


power, Hanson offers cost-effective solutions to enable
compliance with the requirements.
Energy ratings

Specialist advice can be given on the Standard


Assessment Procedure (SAP) only when Hansons
products are used to comply with the Building
Regulations.
Sound insulation assessments

The provision of recommendations on sound insulation


for all buildings when Hansons blocks are used to
comply with the Building Regulations.
Accommodation of movement in masonry

Hanson offers a service to detail the type and location


of movement joints and/or bed joint reinforcement in
concrete block masonry walls to comply with the
Building Regulations.

Please contact Product Services on:

Tel: 08706 097091


Fax: 01773 514044

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Other information

Quality

UKAS accredited laboratory


Hanson has a UKAS accredited laboratory for testing
masonry units to the applicable product standard.
These tests include compressive strength, transverse
strength, moisture movement and dimensional accuracy.
Hanson is also accredited for testing thermal
conductivity of masonry and insulation materials to
BS EN 12664, BS EN 12667 and ISO 8302.
The laboratory continues to work closely with authorised
approving bodies when conducting field sound
transmission tests to BS EN ISO 140-4 and is UKAS
accredited for this test method including impact testing
of floors to BS EN 140-7.

Other testing
Joint work has been conducted with such bodies as
the BBA, BSI, BRE and individual universities.
Other non-accredited tests carried out at the laboratory
include fixing/pull-out strengths, mortar/plaster bond
strength, equilibrium moisture content, freeze/thaw
resistance and water absorption.

0640

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Customer product advice

Continual refinement of Hansons range means that information in this brochure may
become outdated.
Please check with Hansons Customer Sales Centre on 08450 762100 for product availability.
All products are manufactured using the finest quality aggregates, however, we would draw your
attention to certain features that are intrinsic to all concrete products.
Colour:
As natural and pyro-processed materials are used, some colour and shade variations should be expected together
with the effects of weathering. The colours shown in this brochure are produced with the limitations of the
photography and the printing process and are intended as a guide only. It is therefore advisable that several sample
units are examined to verify actual colour and texture required.
Dimensions:
Product sizes shown are nominal.
Efflorescence:
Introduction

The term efflorescence is often used to describe white deposits or stains on building materials. It is a general term
covering a number of different deposits varying significantly in chemical composition and method of formation.
On concrete, efflorescence normally takes the form of either lime bloom, lime weeping or crystallisation of
soluble salts.
Lime bloom

Lime bloom, the most common phenomenon, tends to be spasmodic and unpredictable. It is formed when calcium
hydroxide (a product of the cement setting and hardening process) migrates through damp concrete to the surface
and there reacts with carbon dioxide from the atmosphere producing a surface deposit of calcium carbonate
crystals - the white patches on the blockwork surface.
It often occurs when the concrete masonry becomes wet and remains damp for several days, after which it is then
allowed to dry out. Excessive wetting of the masonry before, during or after construction, together with inadequate
protection and poor design detailing, are prime factors in increasing the risk of lime bloom appearing. Since lime
bloom normally occurs soon after manufacture or construction of the masonry, allowing the units to dry prior to
laying and protecting the finished masonry during and after construction will reduce the risk.
Lime bloom is a temporary effect and given time, usually disappears of its own accord (depending on the conditions
to which the masonry is subjected). If immediate removal is required, it is essential that the masonry is relatively dry,
at which point dry brushing can be attempted. If this proves unsuccessful, washing with diluted acid or an equivalent
proprietary acid based cleaner often gives the desired result.
Use of acids

Acids can be hazardous and appropriate safety precautions must be taken. Over-application of acids can alter the
texture and the concentration should be adjusted to suit the individual circumstance. Prior to application of the acid,
the surface should be dampened to kill the initial suction. After the application it is normal to give the masonry a last
wash with clean water. When carrying out this procedure always start with a trial on an inconspicuous area to
determine the acid concentration and number of applications required to give the desired effect.
Lime bloom (efflorescence) is purely superficial and does not affect the durability or strength of the blocks.
Weathering:
The effect of the elements will have a mellowing effect on most external products, the rates vary dependent upon
the degree of exposure.

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Other information

Other Hanson products


Chimneys, flues, ridge tiles and fittings
Hanson Red Bank produces one of the UKs most comprehensive range of chimney components including
fire-backs, clay and concrete flue liners as well as the largest range of chimney pots and terminals. In addition,
the Company produces a wide range of clay and concrete ridge tiles and fittings. These not only include standard
plain and capped angle ridges but a vast array of decorative ridge tiles and finials as well as the ability to offer a
bespoke service if required.

Thermalite aircrete blocks


Hanson is the UKs leading manufacturer of aircrete blocks under the Thermalite brand, producing over 1 million m3
each year. Thermalite aircrete blocks are number one in the market place and offer outstanding thermal insulation,
high compressive strength, and moisture resistance.

Packed products and landscaping


The Packed Products and Landscaping collection consists of decorative garden products, packed dry mix
concretes and mortars, bagged sands and gravels and block paving.

Bricks
An extensive range of facing bricks in over 300 different colours and textures. Within this diverse range
theres something to suit every building project, from the most innovative architectural concept, to an individual
self-build scheme.

Floors and Precast


With an extended product range, expanded manufacturing facilities and increased design capabilities, Hanson
provides comprehensive engineered solutions for pre-cast concrete flooring at every level in both domestic housing
and commercial premises.

Aggregates
Hanson Aggregates has more than 400 operations from Falmouth to the Shetlands. Core products include crushed
rock, construction sand and gravel, asphalt and Premix concrete and mortar. Special products include rail ballast,
agricultural and burnt lime, graded sands for play pits, golf bunkers and horticulture, industrial sands for glass
making, Redgras sports surfacing, armour stone, granite paving, natural stone from Bath and the Cotswolds and
recycled aggregates. Complemented by an existing ready-to-use wet product, Hanson dry silo mortar (DSM) offers
complete mortar solutions to meet individual customer requirements.

Modern Methods of Construction


With its market-leading position, Hanson has developed a range of prefabricated building products that enable
housebuilders and developers to gain all the advantages of quicker build times and quality of workmanship. By using
traditional building materials, the Hanson product range satisfies the requirements of end users who consistently
favour traditionally built homes.

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Hanson can now provide a single source solution


for many products across a wide variety of
building projects, all backed by the sales support
and technical service that is the strength of this
division.
For further information on any of the other
products within Hansons range
please contact:

Hanson Building Products


Head Office
Stewartby
Bedford
MK43 9LZ
Tel: 08705 258258
Fax: 01234 762040
Email: info@hansonbp.com
Web: www.hanson.biz/uk

Disclaimer
All product and technical information contained in
this brochure is considered correct at the time of
publication.
This brochure is printed on paper containing 75%
recycled waste and 25% virgin fibres from a
sustainable timber source.
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Page 1

Uniclass L32232: P2

Aggregate Blocks

CI/SfB
February 2007

aggregate blocks
technical manual

Customer Services:
T 08450 762100 F 01235 437391
E blocks@hanson.biz
www.hanson.biz/uk
Hanson Building Products
Head Office
Stewartby
Bedford
MK43 9LZ

aggregate blocks
technical manual

Ff2