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Application of Nanotechnology in Fabric

Nanotechnology - is considered one of the most promising technologies for the 21st
century. It is an emerging interdisciplinary technology that has been booming in many
areas. It has the potential to improve the effectiveness of a number of existing consumer
and industrial products and is expected to have a substantial impact on the development
of new applications. The wave of nanotechnology has shown a huge potential in the
textile and clothing industry which is normally very traditional. The future success of
nanotechnology in textile applications lies in areas where new functionalities are
combined into durable, multifunctional textile systems without compromising the
inherent favorable textile properties, including process-ability, flexibility, wash-ability
and softness.
The use of nanotechnology - in fabric finishing has increased rapidly due to its unique
properties of applications. The present status of nanotechnology which is using in fabric
finishing is reviewed, with an emphasis on improving the properties of textile materials.
Due to immense economical potentiality and unique properties of nano materials,
nanotechnology has attracted both the economical and scientists concern.
Nanotechnology is increasingly attracting worldwide attention, because it is widely
perceived as offering huge potential in worldwide range of end uses.
1. UV Filtration textiles
2. Lotus effect
3. Flame retardant finishes

Need for UV protection

Direct exposure to UV-C energy attacks the DNA of bacteria and other microorganisms.
This energy starts a photochemical reaction that damages the DNA, destroying the
genetic information contained therein. As a result, the organisms lose their reproductive
capacity and are destroyed.

UV protection
1. To protect against incident UV radiation by absorbing the UV rays
2. Usable nanoparticles are: Tio2,ZnO,SiO2,Al2O3
3. In order to scatter UV radiation be 200nm to 400 nm, the optimum size of the
nanoparticles should be 20-40nm.
4. UV blocking for the cotton fabric developed by Sol-Gel method
5. A thin layer of Tio2 nanoparticles were formed in the treated cotton fabric to
provide excellent UV protection.

By Andrian Wijayono @ Textile Engineering, STTTekstil, Bandung, Indonesia


Photo catalytic activity

1. Titanium dioxide, Zinc oxide are photo catalyst; once they are illuminated by
light with energy higher than its band gaps, the electrons in ZnO,TiO2 will jump
from the valence band to the conduction band, and the electron (e-) and electric
hole (h+) pairs will form on the surface of the photo catalyst.
2. The negative electrons and oxygen will combine into O2-; the positive electric
holes and water will generate hydroxyl radicals.
3. Since both are unstable chemical substances, when the organic compound falls on
the surface of the photo catalyst it will combine with O2 and OH- respectively,
and turn into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O).
4. This cascade reaction is called oxidation-reduction .

By Andrian Wijayono @ Textile Engineering, STTTekstil, Bandung, Indonesia

to catalytic activity

Sunscreen activity
1. UV impact vary between places as it will be absorbed, reflected beck by clouds,
ad filtering activity of ozone layer.
2. UV-C and most of the UV-B are filtered by ozone layer

Evaluation of uv filteration

Untreated fabrics were tested in UV- Vis Spectroscopy- no specific absorbance

Untreated polyester fibres shows absorbance in the range of 200nm to 300nm
Treated fabric samples absorbs the entire spectrum
UPF (UV production factor) were assessed for the fabric samples

Self cleaning

Just imagine washing of our cloths while walking in the rain

No laundry, no dry cleaning
A little water from skies/ spray could be able to remove the stain in the fabric
A close look of lotus leaf provides a clue how it is being hydrophobic

By Andrian Wijayono @ Textile Engineering, STTTekstil, Bandung, Indonesia


Flame retardant finishes

Asbestos fibers has been used by ancient romans

In 1735, Wyld recorded a patent of fire retardant finishing of cellulosic materials
using aluminium, ferrous and borax
Almost a century later, in1821,Lussac published perhaps the first systematic
study of the use of flame retardants (FR).
These ideas laid the foundation for the early theories of flame retardancy of

Mechanisms of flame retardant finishing

Condensed phase removal mechanisms

Through fibre insulation
Removal of heat from the fibre
Crosslinking and dehydration of the polymer to produce Co2, H2o, Char .
Gas phase flame fighting methods
The flame is controlled by slowing down / blocking the pyrolysis
The flame actually consumes less fuel and generates less heat as the amount of
vapor-phase flame retardant is increased.
This decreases the amount of heat returned back to the polymer substrate and
slows or halts pyrolysis.

Role of Nano

Nanoparticle coating of Tio2 investigated for durable finishing of the flame

retardant textiles.
Nanometer-size TiO2 particles may exhibit many special features due to the fact
that the band gap (the distance between the valence band and conduction electron
band) increases with the decrease of their size. Also, small TiO2 particles offer
very large active surface area.
Research has shown that the vast majority of studies of TiO2 antimicrobials are
conducted in solution using suspensions or thin films.
Nanosols of ceramic components shows wear resistance property and applied
abrasion stability
Improved abrasion resistance will result in durability of antyhing coated over the
textile surface.

By Andrian Wijayono @ Textile Engineering, STTTekstil, Bandung, Indonesia

Tio2 Nanoparticle as coating

Nano scale TiO2 can greatly impact the anti aging property of the flame retardant
finish by blocking the UV and absorbing
Also it could form an interpenetrating layer on the surface to enhance the
resitance of coating to moisture .
Adsorption and absorption of the water will harm the flame retardant finishing
Sols of SiO2 and TiO2 can be used to resist the heat upto 300 C.
When the TiO2 is exposed to flame, it can form the ceramic like materials to
protect the substrate during the combustion process.
It can also limit the oxygen diffusion to the coated substrate there by destroying
the fire triangle.

Anti-microbial Nano textiles in fabric finishing:

It is a well-known fact that the growth of bacteria and microorganisms in food or water is
prevented when stored in silver vessels due to its antibacterial properties. The antibacterial properties of silver are now scientifically recognized. Silver ions have broad
spectrum of anti microbial activities. The method of producing durable silver containing
antimicrobial finish is to encapsulate silver compound or nano particle with a fibre
reactive polymer like poly (styrene co-maleic anhydride)

1. Nanofibers and Nanotechnology in Textiles , Edited by P. J. Brown and K.
2. Modern Applications Of Nanotechnology in Textile Finishing, A.P.S. Sawhney, B.
Condon, K.V. Singh, S.S. Pang, G. Li and David Hui
3. http://textilelearner.blogspot.com/2013/04/application-of-nanotechnology-in.html
4. Nano finishing of textiles -09110713065bhpapp02
5. http://www.slideshare.net/sandeepmittal62/nano-finishing-of-textiles
6. Nano technology-application
7. http://www.scribd.com/doc/26045540/Nanotechnology-Applications-in-Textiles
8. Textile Nanotechnology by BALASUBRAMANIAM.N

By Andrian Wijayono @ Textile Engineering, STTTekstil, Bandung, Indonesia